Taiwan High Speed Rail – Wikipedia

high-speed railroad track in Taiwan

Taiwan High Speed Rail ( THSR ) is the high-speed railroad track of Taiwan consisting of one line that runs approximately 350 km ( 220 mi ) along the west coast, from the capital Taipei to the southerly city of Kaohsiung. With construction and operations managed by a secret company, Taiwan High Speed Rail Corporation ( THSRC ; TWSE : 2633 ), which besides operates the credit line, the full monetary value of the visualize was NT $ 513.3 billion in 1998. [ 2 ] At the time it was built, this was one of the universe ‘s largest privately fund rail construction schemes. The system is based primarily on Japan ‘s Shinkansen.

The railway opened for service on 5 January 2007, with trains running at a top rush of 300 km/h ( 186 miles per hour ), presently running from Nangang to Zuoying in a little as 1 hour and 45 minutes, reaching about 90 % of Taiwan ‘s population. Most intermediate stations on the cable lie down outside the cities served ; however, a diverseness of transfer options, such as exempt shuttle buses, conventional train, and metros have been constructed to facilitate transport connections. Ridership initially fell brusque of forecasts, but grew from fewer than 40,000 passengers per day in the first few months of operation to over 129,000 passengers per day in June 2013. [ 3 ] Daily passenger dealings reached 130,000 in 2014, well below the calculate of 240,000 daily passengers for 2008. [ 4 ] The arrangement carried its beginning 100 million passengers by August 2010 and over 200 million passengers had taken the system by December 2012, [ 5 ] followed by 400 million by December 2016. [ 6 ] In the initial years of process, THSRC accumulated debt due to high depreciation charges and interest, largely due to the fiscal structure set up for the private company. In 2009, THSRC negotiated with the government to change the method acting of depreciation from depending on concessions on rights to ridership. [ 7 ] At the like prison term, the government besides started to help refinance THSRC ‘s loans to assist the company so it could remain operational and profitable. [ 8 ] The politics injected NT $ 30 billion as a fiscal bailout, boosting the government ‘s stake to approximately 64 % from about 37 %. [ 4 ] The government besides extended the rail concession from 35 years to 70 years and terminated the caller ‘s build-operate-transfer business model. [ 9 ]

history [edit ]

Taiwan ‘s rapid economic growth during the latter half of the twentieth century led to congestion of highways, ceremonious rail, and air traffic systems in the westerly transport corridor, which threatened to impede the region ‘s development. [ 10 ] [ 11 ] : 125 The idea of a newly high-speed train line arise in the 1970s, [ 10 ] and informal plan began in 1980. [ 12 ] In 1987 the administrator arm of Taiwan ‘s government, the Executive Yuan, instructed the Ministry of Transportation to launch a feasibility study for a high-speed track note in the western Taiwan corridor, [ 10 ] which was completed in 1990. [ 13 ] The cogitation found that in a comparison of potential solutions to traffic problems in the corridor, a high-speed rail cable would offer the highest theodolite volume, lowest land use, highest department of energy savings, and least pollution. [ 10 ] In July 1990 the Preparation Office of High Speed Rail ( POHSR ) was established [ 10 ] and a road was selected in 1991. [ 12 ] Plans for the THSR were subsequently approved by the Executive Yuan in June 1992 [ 10 ] and by Taiwan ‘s legislature, the Legislative Yuan, in 1993. [ 13 ]
In November 1994, Taiwan passed a law regarding the function of private finance in infrastructure projects, which besides applied to the up-to-then state-run THSR visualize. [ 10 ] Consequently, in 1995, POHSR was transformed into the Bureau of High Speed Rail ( BOHSR ), which started to tender THSR as a build-operate-transfer ( BOT ) scheme in October 1996. [ 10 ] [ 13 ] The command action pitted Taiwan High Speed Rail Consortium ( THSRC ) against the Chunghwa High Speed Rail Consortium ( CHSRC ). THSRC ‘s invite was based on the high-speed engineering platform of Eurotrain, a joint speculation between GEC-Alsthom, the main godhead of the french TGV, and Siemens, the main godhead of the german ICE, while CHSRC ‘s bid was based on japanese Shinkansen engineering supplied by Taiwan Shinkansen Consortium ( TSC ), a joint guess of japanese companies. [ 14 ] THSRC, which submitted the lower bid and promised to build the line with zero net monetary value from the government, was chosen as prefer bidder in September 1997. [ 14 ] The group was renamed and formally established as the Taiwan High Speed Rail Corporation ( THSRC ) in May 1998. [ 15 ] [ 16 ] [ 17 ] THSRC and the politics signed the BOT agreement on 23 July 1998. [ 18 ] however, controversy arose during rolling-stock choice. In May 1999, as THSRC faced difficulties in raising das kapital, the government of Japan promised soft loans if THSRC switched to TSC. [ 19 ] Although Eurotrain promised to match TSC ‘s fiscal proposal, the Eschede train catastrophe in combination with TSC offering the newer 700 Series Shinkansen, convinced THSRC to reopen its congress of racial equality system bid, ultimately resulting in TSC selected as the preferable rolling-stock supplier in December 1999. Although Eurotrain finally conceded in the bid, in February 2001 it filed for a US $ 800 million damage claim against THSRC at the Singapore International Arbitration Centre. After a drawn-out arbitration serve, the court ruled in March 2004 that THSRC should pay a compensation for the US $ 32.4 million Eurotrain exhausted on development and US $ 35.7 million for unjust enrichment. [ 20 ] THSRC agreed to pay US $ 65 million ( US $ 89 million with matter to ) to Eurotrain in November 2004. [ 21 ]

opening and expansion [edit ]

Taiwan ‘s 345 kilometer High-Speed Rail wrinkle as of 2020 The railway opened in 2007 between Taipei and Zuoying. Four extra stations were added in 2014 and 2015. On 10 September 2019, the Executive Yuan announced that the railway would be expanded to Pingtung. Out of four proposed route options, it was confirmed on 27 September that the expansion would bypass central Kaohsiung, branching from Zuoying east towards western Pingtung City, near Liukuaicuo, with an estimate monetary value of NT $ 55.4 billion. Although lowest in cost, the option was met with criticism regarding its economic benefits. [ 22 ] [ 23 ] On 25 October 2019, the Railway Bureau published an appraisal report to extend the tune from Taipei to Yilan, cutting travel time to 13 minutes. [ 24 ] The annex route was approved in October 2020. [ 25 ]

trail and operation [edit ]

train [edit ]

Nose visibility of the 700T train Taiwan High Speed Rail started operation with 30 THSR 700T trainsets supplied by a consortium led by Kawasaki Heavy Industries. [ 26 ] In response to increasing ridership and raw stations that would begin operation in 2015, THSRC signed the shrink for four modern 700T trainsets with the Kawasaki consortium in May 2012 in Tokyo, Japan. [ 27 ] [ 28 ] The first gear ( TR 31 ) trainset was delivered to Taiwan on 23 December 2012 ; the second gear ( TR 32 ) on 21 January 2013 ; the third base ( TR33 ) on 25 January 2014 ; the one-fourth ( TR34 ) on 12 August 2015. [ 29 ] [ 30 ] The THSR 700T trainset is based on the 700 Series Shinkansen trainset used by JR Central and JR West in Japan. [ 31 ] This marked the beginning time Shinkansen technology was exported to a foreign country. [ 32 ] Customization was focused on adapting to Taiwan ‘s climate and geography, and the nose form was optimized for tunnels wider than those in Japan. [ 26 ] [ 31 ] [ 33 ] The maximal serve speed of the trains was raised from the 700 Series Shinkansen ‘s 285 to 300 km/h ( 177 to 186 miles per hour ). [ 33 ] The 12 cars of a 700T train are grouped in three grip units with three power cars and one preview each, [ 31 ] providing 10.26 MW of world power ; [ 34 ] both end cars are trailers to avoid slip on powered bogies. [ 31 ] The educate is 304 thousand ( 997 foot ) long and has a batch of 503 deoxythymidine monophosphate ( 554 short circuit tons ) when empty. [ 34 ] The trains have a passenger capacity of 989 seats in two classes : 66 seats in 2+2 shape in the single Business Car and 923 seats in 2+3 shape in the eleven Standard Cars. [ 26 ] The per caput energy consumption of a fully loaded 700T gearing is 16 % of that of secret cars and half that of buses ; carbon dioxide emissions are 11 % of secret cars and a draw that of buses. [ 13 ]

Engineering trains [edit ]

The DD16 locomotive as used by THSRC The former 0 series end car used for clearance check THSRC uses viewgraph line inspection trains from Windhoff, Harsco railgrinders, Plasser & Theurer track tampers, and respective ex- JR rolling stock to maintain its agate line. [ 35 ] Among the latter include the JNR Class DD14 and JNR Class DD16 diesel-hydraulic locomotive locomotives, which were in the first place used for snowploughing by JR. The two ex-JR locomotives with THSRC are equipped with Shinkansen-style traffic circle couplers and standard-gauge bogies rather of the original 1067mm gauge bogies and knuckle couplers and are used for shunting the 700T trainsets within the storehouse. THSRC besides uses a former 0 Series Shinkansen end cable car as a structure gauge test car .

operation [edit ]

As the first high accelerate railway system in Taiwan, THSRC started operation in 2007 with many foreign employees, including french and german prepare drivers and operation controllers in the Operation Control Center ( OCC ). [ 36 ] At the lapp clock, THSRC besides started to train local drivers and controllers. Since May 2008, all controllers working in the OCC have been min, and since October 2008, all train drivers have been Taiwanese. [ 37 ] The OCC ‘s main province is to maintain safe caravan operations. THSRC has 132 controllers ( July 2012 ), of which about one quarter are female, working 24 hours per day and 365 days per year in the OCC. Requirements for becoming a foreman Controller ( 主任控制員 ) include experience in all nine OCC positions, 300-hours of on-the-job discipline and acquiring reservation. [ 38 ] THSRC has 144 drivers ( July 2012 ), of which about 10 % are female. All driver candidates must spend 8 months completing 1,326 hours of professional education and pass the National Certification before they can drive the caravan. In summation, after becoming a certified high-speed train driver, they undergo far on-the-job train at least three times each year in ordain to guarantee they can drive the trail safely. [ 38 ]

natural disasters [edit ]

Taiwan frequently faces multiple types of natural disasters, including typhoons, earthquakes, heavy rain, floods, and landslides. For this reason, a elementary focus of THSRC ‘s infrastructure design was how to respond to lifelike disasters such as earthquakes [ 39 ] and how to ensure guard for all passengers and trains in any emergency site. [ 40 ] THSRC has established a system to respond to natural disasters and unexpected intrusion onto the right-of-way, called DWS ( Disaster Warning Systems ). [ 40 ] This system consists of a network of sensors installed along the rail route to detect unexpected situations such as earthquakes, strong winds, grave rain, floods, landslides, and intrusions. In event of an unexpected site, the DWS will send signals to the OCC ( Operation Control Center ) immediately ; it will besides activate contingency measures to ensure the safety of the passengers and trains, including decelerating or stopping trains in the moved area. [ 39 ] The DWS has functioned successfully since its initial operation in 2007. The most powerful earthquake that THSRC has experienced measured 6.4 on the Richter Scale with an epicenter 17 kilometer from Jiaxian, Kaohsiung that shook southern Taiwan on 4 March 2010 ( 甲仙地震 ). One manoeuver discipline was slightly derailed in Sinshih, Tainan, and six trains were stopped on the track. In cattiness of the temp suspension of operations, there was no damage or casualties. All 2,500 affected passengers were evacuated in two hours without wound. Service resumed the adjacent day. [ 8 ] such a phonograph record was well noted, and provided valuable know in operational safety to the global railway industry. [ 8 ] In April 2010, it was reported that remission had been observed during construction on a 6 kilometer ( 3.7 mi ) viaduct part in Yunlin County. [ 41 ] The settling continued, reaching up to 55 centimeter ( 22 in ) over seven years. [ 42 ] By 2010 cave in had slowed, which was ascribed to the blockage of some deep groundwater wells operating in the region. Although the situation was deemed safe with differential gear liquidation between adjacent piers along the viaduct at entirely a sixth of the permissible level, the BOHSR urged the closure of more wells. [ 42 ] [ 43 ] On 25 July 2011, the government announced plans to close about 1,000 wells in Changhua and Yunlin counties, reducing the come of water pumped from trench wells by 210,000,000 tonnes ( 2.1×1011 kilogram ) by 2021. [ 44 ]

Service [edit ]

Standard Car interior standard Car riders on a northbound string According to THSR ‘s July 2018 timetable, [ 45 ] there are 989 train services per week of operation, with operation times between 05:50 to 24:00 every sidereal day. Most southbound trains originate from Nangang post and most northbound trains originate from Zuoying ; however, a few trains operate barely between Nangang and Taichung or between Taichung and Zuoying. Southbound trains are designated by odd aim numbers, and northbound trains by even coach numbers. [ 46 ] Each string consists of 1 business car ( car 6 ) and 11 standard cars ( including reserved seats and non-reserved seats ). Since July 2010, non-reserved seats are available in cars 10 through 12 ( some trains available in cars 9 through 12 or available in cars 8 through 12 ). Car 7 of each train is fitted with 4 wheelchair accessible chairs and a disabled-friendly public toilet. Passengers can call THSR ‘s Customer Service Hot Line at ( Taiwan ) 4066-3000 or visit any THSR place slate window to reserve these seats. [ 46 ] By August 2012, implementation of 4G WiMAX on-board trains is expected to provide fluent wireless broadband services, making THSR the inaugural high-speed ground transportation system organization equipped with this service. [ 47 ] In 2012, THSRC rated highly in the CommonWealth Magazine ( 天下雜誌 ) “ Golden Service Award review ” ( 金牌服務大賞 ), not only far outpacing all rivals in the “ long-distance estate transport ” class, but besides taking the top spot in the overall rankings of 300 industries. [ 48 ]

local connections [edit ]

To improve local anesthetic populace transit connections to THSR stations, the TRA built two newly branch line lines branching off from West Coast Line .

Stop Patterns [edit ]

With a few exceptions, the services follow the under form .

Code[b] Number[c] Category Nangang Taipei Banqiao Taoyuan Hsinchu Miaoli Taichung Changhua Yunlin Chiayi Tainan Zuoying Service proportion
D 6xx, 16xx Semi-Direct Train(Frog Mode) ▲[d] 36.0%
F 8xx, 88xx All Stop Train ▲[e] 22.7%
B 1xx Direct Train 20.5%
B’ 2xx, 12xx Direct Train(Call at Tainan Mode) ▲[f] ▲[g] ○[h] ○[i] 9.2%
E 5xx, 15xx All Stop Train(Local Mode)  N/A 8.7%
 N/A
C 3xx, 13xx Semi-Direct Train
(Half-Express Mode)
▲[j] 2.9%
as of July 2019; ●: Trains stop at station; ○: Section Trains stop at station;▲: Section Trains skip station; -: Trains skip station

Ticket fare and discount [edit ]

THSRC Early Bird Ticket Promotion Event, 2011. As of January 2018, a one-way Taipei–Zuoying tripper, a THSR criterion car adult ticket is NT $ 1490, and a business cable car ticket fare is NT $ 1950. [ 46 ] The cost of a non-reserved seat is approximately 3 % less than the regular price. Business and standard cable car reserved ticket reservations are available 28 days prior to the date of deviation ( including the passing day ). [ 46 ] senior citizens ( Taiwan citizens above 65 years of senesce ), registered disabled persons plus one play along passenger ( Taiwan citizens only ), and children ( passengers under 12 years of age ) are eligible for concession ( half price ) tickets. [ 46 ] A group rebate is offered for groups of 11 or more. A group deduction can not be used in combination with other deduction offers and does not include non-reserved seats. Passengers eligible for multiple discounts can only choose one discount offer. [ 46 ] [ 53 ] [ 54 ] Since 1 July 2010, a bright poster system has provided frequent travelers with multi-ride ( eight trips ) or periodic tickets. THSR ‘s contact-less smart cards allow the cardholder to travel between specific stations within a given prison term menstruation for a certain count of rides. The batting order is sold in either register ( name-bearing ) or non-registered mannequin. only adult tickets are available in this format, and can not be used for rides between Banqiao and Taipei. After purchasing or adding value to a multi-ride card, the card balance is valid for 45 days counted from the sidereal day of first use. The ticket is dependable for 8 rides. The multi-ride card provides a discount of about 21 % off the fully fare of a allow Standard Seat. Non-registered and registered multi-ride tickets can be purchased at the ticket windows of all THSRC stations. Upon first purchase of a multi-ride ticket, a card down payment fee of NT $ 100 is required ( refundable if the poster is returned ). The registered multi-ride ticket is limited to personal use by the register cardholder. [ 55 ] [ 56 ] Since November 2012, an early Bird deduction of 35 % has been offered for a circumscribed phone number of tickets sold no later than 8 days before the passing date. If the 35 % off tickets sell out before the deadline, tickets with a dismiss of 20 % off are offered. If these tickets sell out before the deadline, tickets with a deduction of 10 % off are offered. If all early dame tickets are sold out, then wide menu tickets are offered. [ 57 ]

string frequency [edit ]

THSRC train frequencies daily, weekly frequency of normal scheduled THSRC string services. excess trains during holidays and cancellations due to extraordinary events not shown .

Train frequencies
in timetable valid from 8 October 2018[45][58]
Direction Trains per day Trains per week
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun
Southbound 63 64 82 75 76 488
Northbound 69 68 80 70 86 509
Both directions 132 162 145 162 997

THSRC operates extra caravan services during home holidays. [ 59 ] On 29 June 2011, a marriage proposal by THSRC to increase the maximum count of train services to 210 per day ( compared to the existing 175 per day ) passed an environmental shock assessment, increasing the issue of possible services on “ high-load days ”. [ 60 ]

Ridership [edit ]

THSRC ridership evolution monthly averages of daily THSRC ridership, with indication of months affected by chinese New Year ( grey frame ) and overhaul cancellations due to typhoons or earthquakes ( gloomy frame ) master estimates predicted a daily ridership of 180,000 after launch, growing to 400,000 by 2036. [ 61 ] In opinion of a 50 % drop in airline passengers in the wake of the 1997 asian fiscal crisis, forecasts were revised downwards. [ 13 ] The final initial ridership estimate was 140,000 passengers per day. [ 62 ] Actual initial ridership did not match these projections. In September 2007, six months after opening, THSRC carried 1.5 million passengers monthly, [ 63 ] translate to about 50,000 passengers daily. In the second year, passenger numbers about doubled. [ 64 ] In the third base year, average day by day ridership continued to grow to 88,000 passengers per day, jumping to over 120,000 passengers per day in 2012. ( update to September 2012 ) [ 65 ] [ 66 ] Seat occupation was about 45 % in the first three years, with a humble improvement achieved in 2009, and reached 53.91 % in 2012. ( update to September 2012 ) [ 67 ] Punctuality is stable above 99 %. [ 68 ]

Annual traffic figures[69][70]
Year Ridership[69][70] Seat-km:A[71] passenger-km:B[69][70] Seat occupancy(%):
B/A[72][70]
Train×-km Passenger Car×km
(Train×-km×12)
Punctuality
(less than 5 mins)[72][70]
2007 15,558,356 7,838,644,289 3,520,173,426 44.91 7,925,828 95,109,936 99.47%
2008 30,581,261 15,089,499,008 6,566,119,575 43.51 15,257,330 183,087,960 99.19%
2009 32,349,260 14,821,653,184 6,863,960,208 46.31 14,986,505 179,838,060 99.25%
2010 36,939,596 15,296,119,539 7,491,019,590 48.97 15,466,248 185,594,976 99.21%
2011 41,629,303 15,781,051,602 8,147,869,493 51.63 15,956,574 191,478,888 99.87%
2012 44,525,754 15,829,068,364 8,641,573,257 54.59 16,005,125 192,061,500 99.40%
2013 47,486,229 15,858,327,738 9,118,060,276 57.50 16,034,710 192,416,520 99.38%
2014 48,024,758 16,167,495,855 9,235,162,292 57.12 16,347,317 196,167,804 99.61%
2015 50,561,954 16,186,948,588 9,654,960,687 59.65 16,366,984 196,403,808 99.66%
2016 56,586,210 16,512,526,628 10,488,339,832 63.52 16,696,185 200,354,220 99.43%
2017 60,571,057 17,040,173,121 11,103,358,620 65.16 17,229,700 206,756,400 99.72%
2018 63,963,199 17,249,709,128 11,558,787,218 67.01 17,441,565 209,298,780 99.43%
2019 67,411,248 17,629,990,176 11,994,452,919 68.03 17,826,078 213,912,936 99.88%

The 10-millionth passenger was carried after 265 days of operation on 26 September 2007, [ 63 ] while the 100-millionth passenger was carried after 1,307 days on 3 August 2010, [ 73 ] and 200-millionth by December 2012. [ 74 ] On 10 October 2011, the Double Ten Day vacation, THSRC transported a single-day record of 189,386 passengers. On 5 February 2011, the one-third day of Chinese New Year ’ second celebration, a modern record of 190,596 passengers was achieved. The next single-day commemorate was reached on 25 January 2012, besides the third day of Chinese New Year ‘s celebration, at 191,989 passengers. The most holocene record is 212,000 passengers transported on 1 January 2013. [ 74 ] The high-speed trains have successfully out-competed planes : by August 2008, half of the air travel routes between Taipei and the nation ‘s westerly cities had been discontinued, including all connections between cities with THSR stations except for a single daily connection between Taipei and Kaohsiung. [ 75 ] [ 76 ] Total domestic vent traffic was expected to be halved from 2006 to 2008, [ 75 ] and actually fell from 8.6 to 4.9 million. [ 77 ] In June 2012, officials announced the discontinuance of the stopping point persist commercial escape between Taipei and Kaohsiung. [ 78 ] The share for conventional rail between Taipei and Kaohsiung fell from 9.71 % in 2006 to 2.5 % in 2008, while high-speed rail became the most common modality of conveyance at 50 % of all trips by 2008. [ 79 ] The afford of THSR led to a 10 % reduction of traffic on the analogue expressway in 2007. [ 80 ] Despite cheaper ticket prices, long-distance bus companies reported that passenger volumes had fallen by 20 to 30 percentage by 2008. [ 81 ]

infrastructure [edit ]

About 70 per penny of the pipeline is on viaducts. track is about entirely ballastless on concrete, with components that limit noise emission. construction of the system took more than 2,000 professional engineers from 20 countries and over 20,000 extraneous and domestic workers six years to complete. [ 82 ] Construction make was broken into respective specialize lots that were contracted individually. [ 83 ] One group of contracts was for civil works, covering the construction of the superstructure of open line sections. [ 83 ] Stations and depots were the subject of disjoined groups of construction contracts. [ 83 ] A one-fourth group of contracts was for track work. [ 83 ] [ 84 ] The Taiwan North-South High Speed Rail Project was awarded the first gear respect for the Outstanding Civil Engineering Project Award by the Asian Civil Engineering Coordination Council ( ACECC ) in Sydney in 2010. [ 85 ] In 2011, the Public Construction Commission ( 公共工程委員會 ) organized an on-line vote campaign that garnered over 330,000 votes, to select the 100 best infrastructure projects ( 百大建設 ) in Taiwan to celebrate the centennial of the Republic ; Taiwan High Speed Rail topped the list. [ 86 ]

path [edit ]

THSR train on test run 2 (970 sq ft) tunnel cross-section, as seen here, reduces sudden changes in air pressure experienced by passengers. THSR gearing on a test run in June 2006. About 61 km ( 18 per penny of the route ) is in tunnels ; a large 90 m ( 970 sq foot ) tunnel cross-section, as seen here, reduces sudden changes in vent pressure experienced by passengers.

Reflecting a design amphetamine of 350 km/h ( 217 miles per hour ), [ 87 ] cut layout was designed with a minimum curve radius of 6,250 molarity ( 20,505 foot ), track-centre distance of 4,500 millimeter ( 177.2 in ), [ 13 ] right-of-way width of 18 megabyte ( 59 foot ), and a maximal gradient of 2.5 %, except for 3.5 % at one localization. [ 88 ] All but 3 kilometer ( 1.9 security service ) of chase is ballastless, [ 33 ] combining slab track of japanese fabrication on open credit line sections with switches from a german supplier. [ 89 ] [ 90 ] Track laying began in July 2003. [ 91 ] The line was electrified with the 25 kV/60 Hz AC system. [ 87 ] The sign and train control system was laid out for bi-directional operation according to european specifications. [ 89 ] Each cut section has a checkpoint, and an automatic pistol control system ensures that trains are spaced at least 1 kilometer ( 0.62 nautical mile ) apart to prevent collisions. [ 92 ] Most of the credit line is elevated. [ 87 ] [ 93 ] About 251 km ( 156 nautical mile ) or 73 % of the occupation runs on viaducts, [ 87 ] largely precast pre-stressed concrete box girder spans, [ 93 ] the first of which was put in rate in October 2001. [ 94 ] The Changhua-Kaohsiung Viaduct is a 157,317 thousand ( 97.752 michigan ) continuous part from Baguashan ( 八卦山 ) in Changhua County to Zuoying in Kaohsiung. It was the second longest bridge in the world as of 2017. [ 82 ] [ 95 ] Viaducts were designed to be earthquake resistant to allow for trains to stop safely during a seismic event and for repairable damage following a maximum invention earthquake. [ 96 ] Bridges built over known fault lines were designed to survive defect movements without catastrophic damage. [ 97 ] About 61 km ( 38 security service ) [ 98 ] or 18 % of the line is in tunnels, including 14 kilometer ( 8.7 nautical mile ) of the TRUPO section in Taipei, [ 88 ] deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as 48 tunnels with a full distance of 46,257 m ( 28.743 secret intelligence service ) on the other sections, [ 99 ] the longest of which is Paghuashan Tunnel, at a finished duration of 7,364 molarity ( 24,160 foot ). [ 100 ] Forty-two of the tunnels included a total of 39,050 megabyte ( 24.265 michigan ) of mined sections, all of which were bored with the consecutive dig and support construction method acting, with excavate burrow faces of 135–155 m2 ( 1,450–1,670 sq foot ), between November 2000 and July 2003. [ 93 ] The finished interior cross-section area of 90 m2 ( 970 sq foot ), [ 88 ] set according to wider european standards, [ 89 ] provides space for two tracks with safety walkways. [ 87 ] After four months of delays, trial runs using the first THSR 700T trains began on 27 January 2005, on the Tainan–Kaohsiung incision. [ 101 ] On 30 October 2005, a day after a test run passed the planned exceed avail rush of 300 km/h ( 186 miles per hour ), [ 102 ] the target maximum test accelerate of 315 km/h ( 196 miles per hour ) was achieved. [ 103 ] The section between Banqiao ( Taipei ) and Zuoying ( Kaohsiung ) opened to the public on 5 January 2007. [ 104 ] The HSR platforms at Taipei Station opened on 2 March 2007, bringing the entire pipeline into operation. [ 105 ]

Stations [edit ]

A distinctive feature of the system ‘s place placement is that many are located at the periphery of urban areas, quite than within city centers. The decisiveness was made with the expectation that the stations would act as centers for plan communities and therefore increase the property values of the surrounding area. A analyze in 2010 showed that this is n’t the case, [ 11 ] : 126–127 but later analyses show that place prices around certain stations have indeed risen. [ 106 ] [ 107 ] Since the THSR ‘s opening, cities have gradually expanded their mass transit systems to connect with these stations .

environmental issues [edit ]

THSRC drafted the Hsinchu Old Camphor Tree Medical Plan, which called for the repair of disintegrate branches deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as measures designed to maintain the long-run growth and the health of the tree. environmental extenuation measures in the line ‘s construction phase included the construction of animal bridges over the line, the planting and re-planting of trees along the track as noise screens, [ 33 ] and the buy of farmland to create a preservation area for jacana birds aside from the line. [ 108 ] For more than 10 years, THSRC has been devoted to the preservation of the pheasant-tailed Jacana, a type of bird that is considered endangered in Taiwan. With NT $ 50 million invested, the first artificial habitat convalescence project was completed in collaboration with the local government, state development organizations and non-profit organizations. The pheasant-tailed Jacana population in Tainan, Taiwan, which at one point numbered less than 50, has increased to over 300. In 2007, the recovery habitat was officially renamed “ Pheasant-tailed Jacana Eco-Educational Nature Park ” and since then, it has opened to the public. To educate students in matters concerning environmental auspices, every year THSRC arranges for elementary and junior eminent school students to visit Pheasant-tailed Jacana Eco-Educational Nature Park ( 台南官田—水雉生態教育園區 ), where they are able to learn about the smasher of Taiwan ‘s natural habitats. [ 109 ] The early history about the remainder between THSR construction and the environment is the protection plan of “ 300-year-old camphor tree and the synagogue ” ( 保護金山面老樹及伯公廟 ) in Hsinchu City for more than 10 years. [ 110 ] The corner and the synagogue are located on the main route of the THSR, and both of them faced removal because of railway construction. The temple established beside the erstwhile tree is the belief center of the people there. In 1998, THSRC adjusted the line and design to keep the tree and temple in their master position and cooperated with local government and people to protect the erstwhile corner and the synagogue until today. Afterwards, together with the local government, the Environment and the Resources Protection Committee, and cultural and historic authorities, THSRC drafted the Hsinchu Old Camphor Tree Medical Plan, which called for the repair of decay branches american samoa well as measures designed to maintain the long-run growth and the health of the tree. [ 111 ]

fiscal [edit ]

tax income and price [edit ]

Most of THSRC ‘s gross comes from slate sales ; supplementary income comes from other activities such as advertise and rent spaces for standing shops and spots in plaza. Advertising spots on trains and station platforms have besides been sold. [ 122 ] Revenues grew along with ridership over the first three years, but ridership remained below expectations. In 2008 the second year of operation, revenues fell scantily short of THSRC ‘s expectations a year earlier of a double of freshman results. [ 64 ] [ 123 ] The price of running the trains and infrastructure, or cash operate costs, was initially over NT $ 1 billion a month, [ 124 ] but was reduced to around NT $ 850––900 million in 2008. [ 125 ] Revenues first exceeded this horizontal surface, frankincense generating a cocksure operating cash flow, in the fourth month of operation ( April 2007 ). [ 126 ] For THSRC, the over big account of the situate cost of specify assets like rolling stock and infrastructure ( depreciation ) is a significant non-cash element of sum operate costs. In its foremost two years of operation, THSRC applied straight-line depreciation, distributing costs evenly over a menstruation of 26.5 years. [ 127 ] As a result, the balance of operate revenues and costs ( operating income ) showed a high loss in the first year of mathematical process, which was merely reduced as revenues grew in the moment year. The disparagement period set for THSRC reflected the length of the B.O.T. concession rather than the a lot longer life of the infrastructure, [ 127 ] and it is the factor for the function loss. [ 128 ] After adopting an activity depreciation method acting which is variable in time, [ 129 ] THSRC posted its first manoeuver net income for 2009, the third year of operation. [ 130 ] The company reported its first annual profit of NT $ 5.78 billion after five years of operation. [ 131 ] For the first meter in its five-year mathematical process, the Company reported a net income of NT $ 5.78 billion, with earnings per share of NT $ 0.59. [ 84 ] Revenues increased by 16.65 % from NT $ 27.64 billion to NT $ 32.24 billion, with engage costs and expenses ( excluding depreciation and amortization ) rising by only 4.98 %. Over the same period of time, arrant profit totaled NT $ 12.98 billion ( an increase of 30.32 % ), income from operations totaled NT $ 12.06 billion ( an addition of 32.93 % ) and EBITDA totaled NT $ 22.73 billion ( an increase of 22.34 % ). 2011 arrant profit, income from operation and EBITDA were all record highs. [ 84 ] Since commencing operations in 2007, THSRC has had a meaning influence on Taiwan ‘s economy and on the lives of its people. In 2011, the Company continued to pursue sustainable emergence aligned with the interests of shareholders and club, achieving record profits even amid a challenge economic environment. [ 84 ] The interest cost is another major item of this company ‘s finance. In the first few years of operation, sake rates were well above grocery store rates. [ 132 ] [ 133 ] Interest expense per month stood at around NT $ 1.3 billion in 2008, when THSRC first achieved break-even cash hang, with gross and cash expenses ( which exclude disparagement ) both around NT $ 2.1 billion in 2008. [ 125 ] Interest rates fell in the first half of 2009, reducing interest expenses [ 129 ] and contributing to a reduce net loss. [ 130 ] In 2010, THSRC obtained a new syndicate loanword to alleviate its at hand fiscal charge. The company signed a NT $ 382 billion refinancing contract with a consortium of eight domestic banks led by the Bank of Taiwan, and used the newfangled loan to pay off the former syndicate loanword, which had higher interest. [ 8 ] As of 2011, the long-run debts totalling NT $ 385 billion included NT $ 26 billion in bodied bonds and NT $ 359 billion in deposit loans. In comparison with the terms and conditions of previous loans, the refinance debts carried lower interest rates and longer tenors, astir to 22 years. [ 8 ]

Financial and loan [edit ]

In accumulative figures, until July 2008, depreciation and pastime were peer to 95 % of THSRC ‘s roll up debt. [ 133 ] Both THSRC [ 128 ] and a September 2009 government report [ 132 ] identified an unreasonable fiscal structure and the result high interest rates and high depreciation charges as the independent causes of negative fiscal operation, while the government assessed THSRC to have performed well in its effect commercial enterprise, as measured by earnings before concern, taxes, disparagement and amortization ( EBITDA ). [ 127 ] To reduce its concern load, THSRC sought to revise its loanword social organization in 2008 [ 134 ] and again in 2009. [ 135 ] [ 136 ] To reduce depreciation costs by increasing the amortization time, THSRC requested an extension of its 35-year concession period. [ 127 ] By the summer of 2009, THSRC ‘s accumulative losses were equivalent to two-thirds of its equity capital. In response to global fiscal crisis and domestic economic recession, THSRC proposed to increase income and reduce expenditures in several aspects in the hope of raising operation performances. In February 2009, THSRC announced to adjust train frequency, cut down wage payment by 10~20 % among management level, and measured to expand menu forwarding to stimulate ridership. While the media questioned whether the design construction of three more average stations and the reference to Nangang would be postponed, THSRC published weight-lift release on 28 September 2009, stating that the company will comply with “ Taiwan High Speed. Rail Construction and Operation Contract ”, and the structure undertaking of 3 average stations, namely Miaoli, Changhua and Yunlin will be initiated in July 2012, and is scheduled to start its operation from 2015. By the fourth dimension of completion, there will be a sum of 12 stations along the THSRC mathematical process route. [ 137 ] The company was put under newfangled management in September 2009 with the purpose of turning around the company ‘s finances with government avail in arranging refinance of the loans. [ 138 ] The government took majority command of the ship’s company after the election of its new circuit board on 10 November 2009. [ 139 ] In January 2010, when accrued losses already exceeded NT $ 70 billion, THSRC signed a government-guaranteed refinance deal in which eight government-dominated banks provided NT $ 382 billion at lower interest rates and longer maturity. [ 140 ] The politics besides approved the company ‘s newly varying disparagement charge. [ 130 ]

Incidents [edit ]

On 12 April 2013, leery baggage items were found inside the North adhere train No. 616 gutter when it was heading towards THSR Hsinchu Station. The caravan was stopped at THSR Taoyuan Station and all of the passengers were evacuated. late, it was determined the baggage contained an unidentified liquid in cans, alarm clock and white particulate matter. The items were dismantled by the bomb calorimeter squad and taken for further investigation. Two KMT legislators, Hsu Hsin-ying and Lu Shiow-yen, were on board. [ 141 ] [ 142 ] On 12 April 2013, the train master on no. 616 received complaints from passengers at about 9:10 am that the women ‘s toilet in cabin No. 11 contained two pieces of baggage which emitted a foreign smell. THSRC informed the High Speed Rail Police Division, which late boarded the train when it stopped at Hsinchu station. The dealings operate center decided to evacuate passengers after the train stopped at Taoyuan station at 9:45 am. More than 600 people were asked to disembark and continue their travel on another train. [ 143 ] Two bomber suspects were arrested in a hotel in Zhongshan, Guangdong Province, mainland China on 15 April and repatriated to Taiwan on 17 April 2013. [ 144 ] depart of the tracks near Tainan were badly damaged during the earthquake on 6 February 2016. All high-speed rail services south of Chiayi Station were suspended until 7 February 2016. On 10 May 2017, a non-passenger behave train headed the opposition guidance of the track from Zuoying to Tainan for 1 km due to human negligence. [ 145 ] due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the THSR, along with Taiwan Railway Administration and bus services countrywide, began to require all passengers to wear surgical masks as of 1 April. In addition, infrared sensors were set up at twelve stations to detect fevers, feed and drink was prohibited on circuit board the trains, trains and stations were disinfected more frequently, and the THSR cancelled all non-reserved seat tickets, which allowed for crowd of passengers to stand if no seats were available. It was reported that the switch to reserved seats lone aimed to reduce crowding. [ 146 ] [ 147 ]

public relations activities [edit ]

Children from distant communities at a Christmas event organized by the Taiwan High Speed Rail Corporation in 2011 THSRC conducts community battle activities to raise its profile. Since 2009, the caller has organized an annual “ Ride THSR and Join the Book Exhibition for Free ” consequence to promote a national reading culture ; school-age passengers from outback villages are given spare entrance fee to the Taipei International Book Exhibition and go there on a theme high-speed “ read train ”, which features a celebrity reading a record over the train ‘s public address system. [ 84 ] Since 2010, along with World Vision Taiwan, THSRC has run a tutelage tip aid program for thousands of underprivileged children, to which passengers contribute. [ 84 ] other events have been a capella singers at stations ; gift-giving to couples taking wedding photograph at major stations ; place tours for the public and experience-sharing with its fellow railway transportation system operators ; and in collaboration with non-profit organizations, thousands of free rides to underprivileged groups and families. [ 84 ] Students at primary, secondary and third floor learn about high-speed rail and THSRC at “ THSR Camps ”, held in partnership with the Railway Cultural Society of Taiwan, the National Chiao Tung University Railway Research Society, and the China Youth Corps. [ 84 ]

In democratic culture [edit ]

The first film to feature THSR prominently was the 2007 taiwanese movie Summer’s Tail, directed by Cheng Wen-tang ( 鄭文堂 ). [ 148 ] Railfan: Taiwan High Speed Rail, a 2007 educate simulator television game developed jointly by taiwanese company Actainment and japanese company Ongakukan on the basis of the latter ‘s Train Simulator series, featured substantial video and was the first base taiwanese crippled for Sony Computer Entertainment ‘s PlayStation 3 system. [ 149 ] The “ National Geographic ” web site chose travel by Taiwan ‘s high speed aim as the “ Best winter slip ” in 2013. [ 150 ]

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

  1. ^[1] under a BOT concession until 2067
  2. ^ These codes are used for statistical purposes .
  3. ^ 3-digit numbers indicate day by day services, while 4-digit numbers indicate services on particular days of a workweek .
  4. ^ Service 696 does not call at Nangang, terminating at Taipei .
  5. ^ department Northbound Service 88xx skips Zuoying, departing from Tainan .
  6. ^ Service 203 skips Nangang, departing from Taipei .
  7. ^ Services 295 and 1202 omission Banqiao .
  8. ^ Service 295 calls at Taoyuan .
  9. ^ Services 203, 295, 1293 and 1202 call at Chiayi .
  10. ^ Service 1334 does not call at Nangang, terminating at Taipei .

References [edit ]

far read [edit ]

  • Hood, Christopher P. (2006). Shinkansen – From Bullet Train to Symbol of Modern Japan. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-44409-8.

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