This article is about the fragrant meaning. For other uses, see Perfume ( disambiguation ) mix of fragrant substances to produce a pleasant smack
A bottle of perfume by Yves Saint Laurent Perfume (, ; french : parfum ) is a mix of fragrant necessity oils or aroma compounds ( fragrances ), fixatives and solvents, normally in liquid shape, used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living-spaces an agreeable odorize. [ 1 ] The 1939 Nobel Laureate for Chemistry, Leopold Ružička stated in 1945 that “ correct from the earliest days of scientific chemistry up to the present time, perfumes have well contributed to the development of organic chemistry as regards methods, systematic categorization, and theory. ” [ 2 ]

Ancient textbook and archaeological excavations show the use of perfumes in some of the earliest human civilizations. modern perfumery began in the late nineteenth hundred with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds such as vanillin or coumarin, which allowed for the constitution of perfumes with smells previously unachievable entirely from natural aromatics .

history [edit ]

egyptian picture depicting the preparation of lily perfume, fourth hundred BC The give voice perfume derives from the Latin perfumare, meaning “ to smoke through ”. [ 3 ] Perfumery, as the artwork of making perfumes, began in ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus Valley Civilization and possibly Ancient China. [ 4 ] It was further refined by the Romans and the Muslims. The world ‘s first-recorded chemist is considered to be a charwoman named Tapputi, a aroma manufacturer mentioned in a wedge-shaped pad from the 2nd millennium BC in Mesopotamia. [ 5 ] She distilled flowers, oil, and calamus with early aromatics, then filtered and put them back in the still respective times. [ 6 ] On the indian subcontinent, perfume and perfumery existed in the Indus civilization ( 3300 BC – 1300 BC ). [ 7 ] A Byzantine alembic used to distill perfumes In 2003, [ 8 ] archaeologists uncovered what are believed [ by whom? ] to be the earth ‘s oldest surviving perfumes in Pyrgos, Cyprus. The perfumes date back more than 4,000 years. They were discovered in an ancient perfumery, a 300-square-meter ( 3,230 sq foot ) factory [ 8 ] housing at least 60 stills, mixing bowl, funnels, and perfume bottles. In ancient times people used herbs and spices, such as almond, coriander, myrtle, conifer resin, and bergamot, american samoa well as flowers. [ 9 ] In May 2018, an ancient perfume “ Rodo ” ( Rose ) was recreated for the Greek National Archaeological Museum ‘s anniversary show “ countless Aspects of Beauty ”, allowing visitors to approach ancientness through their smell receptors. [ 10 ] In the ninth hundred the arabian pharmacist Al-Kindi ( Alkindus ) wrote the Book of the Chemistry of Perfume and Distillations, which contained more than a hundred recipes for fragrant oils, salves, aromatic waters, and substitutes or imitations of costly drugs. The book besides described 107 methods and recipes for perfume-making and perfume-making equipment, such as the alembic ( which still bears its Arabic name. [ 11 ] [ 12 ] [ from Greek ἄμβιξ, “ cup ”, “ beaker ” ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ] described by Synesius in the fourth hundred [ 15 ] ). The persian pharmacist Ibn Sina ( besides known as Avicenna ) introduced the procedure of extracting oils from flowers by means of distillation, the procedure most normally used nowadays. He first gear experimented with the rose. Until his discovery, liquid perfumes consisted of mixtures of petroleum and crushed herbs or petals, which made a impregnable blend. rebel water was more finespun, and immediately became popular. Both the natural ingredients and the distillate technology significantly influenced western perfumery and scientific developments, particularly chemistry. There is controversy on whether perfumery was completely lost in Western Europe after the decrease of the Western Roman Empire. That said, the art of perfumery in Western Europe was reinvigorated after the Islamic invasion of Spain and Southern Italy in 711 and 827. The Islamic controlled cities of Spain ( Al-Andalus ) became major producers of perfumes that were traded throughout the Old World. Like in the ancient world, Andalusians used aroma in devotion to God. Perfumes added a level of cleanliness that was needed for their idolatry. andalusian women were besides offered greater freedoms than women in early Muslim controlled regions and were allowed to leave their homes and socialize outside. This exemption allowed courtship to occur outside of the home. As a solution, andalusian women used perfumes for courtship. [ 16 ] Recipes of perfumes from the monks ‘ of Santa Maria Delle Vigne or Santa Maria Novella of Florence, Italy, were recorded from 1221. [ 17 ] In the east, the Hungarians produced around 1370 a perfume made of perfume oils blended in an alcohol solution – good known as Hungary Water – at the behest of Queen Elizabeth of Hungary. [ 18 ] [ 19 ] [ 20 ] The art of perfumery prospered in Renaissance Italy, and in the sixteenth century the personal perfumer to Catherine de ‘ Medici ( 1519–1589 ), René the Florentine ( Renato il fiorentino ), took italian refinements to France. His lab was connected with her apartments by a mysterious passageway, so that no formula could be stolen en path. Thanks to Rene, France promptly became one of the european centers of perfume and cosmetics fabricate. cultivation of flowers for their aroma essence, which had begun in the fourteenth century, grew into a major diligence in the south of France. Between the 16th and 17th centuries, perfumes were used chiefly by the affluent to mask body odors resulting from infrequent bathe. [ 21 ] In 1693, italian barber Giovanni Paolo Feminis created a perfume water called Aqua Admirabilis, [ 22 ] today dependable known as eau de cologne ; his nephew Johann Maria Farina ( Giovanni Maria Farina ) took over the occupation in 1732. [ 23 ] [ 24 ] By the eighteenth hundred the Grasse region of France, Sicily, and Calabria ( in Italy ) were growing aromatic plants to provide the growing perfume industry with raw materials. even today, Italy and France remain the center of european perfume design and trade .

dilution classes [edit ]

Vintage atomizer perfume bottle Perfume types reflect the concentration of aromatic compounds in a solvent, which in fine bouquet is typically ethyl alcohol or a desegregate of water system and ethyl alcohol. versatile sources differ well in the definitions of perfume types. The saturation and longevity of a aroma is based on the concentration, saturation, and longevity of the aromatic compounds, or perfume oils, used. As the share of aromatic compounds increases, so does the intensity and longevity of the perfume. specific terms are used to describe a aroma ‘s approximate concentration by the percentage of perfume oil in the volume of the final product. The most widespread terms [ 25 ] are :

  • parfum or extrait, in English known as perfume extract, pure perfume, or simply perfume: 15–40% aromatic compounds (IFRA: typically ~20%);
  • esprit de parfum (ESdP): 15–30% aromatic compounds, a seldom used strength concentration in between EdP and perfume;
  • eau de parfum (EdP) or parfum de toilette (PdT): 10–20% aromatic compounds (typically ~15%); sometimes called “eau de perfume” or “millésime.” Parfum de toilette is a less common term, most popular in the 1980s, that is generally analogous to eau de parfum.
  • eau de toilette (EdT): 5–15% aromatic compounds (typically ~10%); This is the staple for most masculine perfumes.
  • eau de Cologne (EdC): 3–8% aromatic compounds (typically ~5%). This concentration is often simply called cologne; see below for more information on the confusing nature of the term.
  • eau fraîche: products sold as “splashes”, “mists”, “veils” and other imprecise terms. Generally these products contain 3% or less aromatic compounds and are diluted with water rather than oil or alcohol.[25]

There is much confusion over the term “ cologne ”, which has three meanings. The first and oldest definition refers to a family of newly, citrus-based fragrances distilled using extracts from citrus, floral, and woody ingredients. purportedly these were first developed in the early eighteenth century in Cologne, Germany, hence the name. This type of “ classical music cologne ” describes unisex compositions “ which are basically citrus blends and do not have a perfume parent. ” [ 26 ] Examples include Mäurer & Wirtz ‘s 4711 ( created in 1799 ), and Guerlain ‘s Eau de Cologne impériale ( 1853 ). In the twentieth century, the term took on a second meaning. bouquet companies began to offer lighter, less concentrate interpretations of their existing perfumes, making their products available to a wide image of customers. Guerlain, for example, offered an eau de Cologne translation of its flagship perfume Shalimar. In contrast to classical colognes, this character of modern cologne is a light, diluted, less concentrated interpretation of a more concentrated merchandise, typically a arrant parfum. The cologne translation is frequently the lightest concentration from a channel of aroma products. [ 26 ] finally, the terminus “ cologne ” has entered the english lyric as a generic, overarching terminus to denote a bouquet typically worn by a man as opposed to a woman, regardless of its concentration. The actual product worn by a man may technically be an eau de toilet, but he may however say that he “ wears cologne ”. A exchangeable problem surrounds the condition “ perfume ”, which is sometimes used in a generic feel to refer to fragrances marketed to women, whether or not the bouquet is actually an extrait. classical music colognes first appeared in Europe in the seventeenth hundred. The first aroma labeled a “ parfum ” extract with a high assiduity of aromatic compounds was Guerlain ‘s Jicky in 1889. Eau de toilet appeared aboard parfum around the turning of the century. The EdP assiduity and terminology is the most late, being in the first place developed to offer the radiance of an EdT with the longevity of an extrait. Parfum de toilet and EdP began to appear in the 1970s and gained popularity in the 1980s. EdP is pobably the most widespread military capability concentration, much the beginning concentration offered, and normally referred to generically as “ perfume. ” [ 25 ]

Imprecise terminology [edit ]

[27] J.B. Filz in Vienna. Perfumeries with long traditions, such as J.B. Filz, created their own scents. The wide-eyed range in the percentages of aromatic compounds that may be present in each concentration means that the terminology of extrait, EdP, EdT, and EdC is quite imprecise. Although an EdP will much be more digest than an EdT and in turn an EdC, this is not constantly the encase. different perfumeries or aroma houses assign different amounts of oils to each of their perfumes. consequently, although the oil concentration of a aroma in EdP dilution will necessarily be higher than the same perfume in EdT from within a company ‘s lapp range, the actual amounts vary among perfume houses. An EdT from one house may have a higher concentration of aromatic compounds than an EdP from another. furthermore, some fragrances with the same product name but having a different concentration may not only differ in their dilutions, but actually use different aroma oil mixtures wholly. For exemplify, in rate to make the EdT adaptation of a bouquet bright and fresher than its EdP, the EdT oil may be “ tweaked ” to contain slenderly more crown notes or fewer basis notes. Chanel No. 5 is a good exercise : its parfum, EdP, EdT, and now-discontinued EdC concentrations are in fact different compositions ( the parfum dates to 1921, whereas the EdP was not developed until the 1980s ). In some cases, words such as extrême, intense, or concentrée that might indicate a higher aromatic concentration are actually wholly different fragrances, related merely because of a like aroma accord. An exercise of this is Chanel ‘s Pour Monsieur and Pour Monsieur concentrée. historically, women ‘s fragrances tended to have higher levels of aromatic compounds than men ‘s fragrances. Fragrances marketed to men were typically sold as EdT or EdC, rarely as EdP or perfume extracts. This is changing in the advanced aroma populace, particularly as fragrances are becoming more unisex. Women ‘s fragrances used to be common in all levels of concentration, but today are chiefly seen in parfum, EdP and EdT concentrations. [ citation needed ] [ 28 ]

solution types [edit ]

Perfume oils are much diluted with a solvent, though this is not constantly the case, and its necessity is disputed. By far the most common solution for perfume-oil dilution is alcohol, typically a mixture of ethyl alcohol and water or a rectify spirit. Perfume vegetable oil can besides be diluted by means of neutral-smelling oils such as fractionate coconut oil, or liquid waxes such as jojoba anoint .

Applying fragrances [edit ]

The conventional application of pure perfume ( parfum extrait ) in western cultures is behind the ears, at the nape of the neck, under the armpits and at the insides of wrists, elbows and knees, so that the pulse point will warm the aroma and release aroma endlessly. According to perfumer Sophia Grojsman behind the knees is the ideal point to apply perfume in holy order that the odorize may rise. [ 29 ] The mod perfume diligence encourages the practice of layering bouquet so that it is released in different intensities depending upon the meter of the day. lightly scented products such as bath oil, shower mousse, and body lotion are recommended for the dawn ; eau de toilet is suggested for the afternoon ; and perfume applied to the pulse points for evening. [ 30 ] [ self-published source ] Cologne aroma is released quickly, lasting about 2 hours. Eau de toilet lasts from 2 to 4 hours, while perfume may last up to six hours. [ 31 ] A kind of factors can influence how aroma interacts with the wearer ‘s own physiology and affect the perception of the aroma. Diet is one factor, as consume blue and fatty foods can increase the volume of a aroma. [ 32 ] The use of medications can besides impact the character of a aroma. [ 32 ] The proportional dispassion of the wearer ‘s skin is authoritative, since dry skin will not hold bouquet arsenic long as bark with more anoint. [ 31 ]

Describing a perfume [edit ]

Fougère Royale by An master bottle ofby Houbigant. Created by Paul Parquet in 1884, it is one of the most significant modern perfumes and inspired the eponymous Fougère classify of fragrances . bouquet pyramid The accurate formula of commercial perfumes are kept clandestine. even if they were widely published, they would be dominated by such complex ingredients and odorants that they would be of little use in providing a guide to the general consumer in description of the experience of a scent. Nonetheless, connoisseur of perfume can become highly nice at identifying components and origins of scents in the like manner as wine experts. [ 33 ] The most virtual room to start describing a aroma is according to the elements of the fragrance notes of the scent or the “ family ” it belongs to, all of which affect the overall impression of a aroma from first application to the last linger touch of olfactory property. [ 34 ] [ 35 ] The trail of aroma left behind by a person wearing aroma is called its sillage, after the french password for “ aftermath “, as in the trail left by a boat in water .

bouquet notes [edit ]

Perfume is described in a musical metaphor as having three sets of notes, making the harmonious olfactory property accord. The notes unfold over time, with the immediate impression of the top note leading to the deeper middle notes, and the base notes gradually appearing as the final stage. These notes are created carefully with cognition of the vaporization work of the perfume .

  • Top notes: Also called the head notes. The scents that are perceived immediately on application of a perfume. Top notes consist of small, light molecules that evaporate quickly. They form a person’s initial impression of a perfume and thus are very important in the selling of a perfume. Examples of top notes include mint, lavender and coriander.
  • Middle notes: Also referred to as heart notes. The scent of a perfume that emerges just prior to the dissipation of the top note. The middle note compounds form the “heart” or main body of a perfume and act to mask the often unpleasant initial impression of base notes, which become more pleasant with time. Examples of middle notes include seawater, sandalwood and jasmine.
  • Base notes: The scent of a perfume that appears close to the departure of the middle notes. The base and middle notes together are the main theme of a perfume. Base notes bring depth and solidity to a perfume. Compounds of this class of scents are typically rich and “deep” and are usually not perceived until 30 minutes after application. Examples of base notes include tobacco, amber and musk.

The scents in the top and center notes are influenced by the base notes ; conversely, the scents of the base notes will be altered by the types of bouquet materials used as middle notes. Manufacturers who publish perfume notes typically do so with the aroma components presented as a fragrance pyramid, [ 36 ] using imaginative and pilfer terms for the components listed .

olfactory families [edit ]

The grouping of perfumes can never be wholly objective or definitive. many fragrances contain aspects of different families. even a perfume designated as “ one flower ” will have insidious undertones of early aromatics. There are hardly any true unitary-scent perfumes consisting of a one aromatic corporeal. The syndicate classification is a starting bespeak to describe a perfume, but does not in full characterize it .

traditional categories [edit ]

opium by YSL, of amber or oriental aroma class The traditional categories which emerged around 1900 :

modern [edit ]

Since 1945, new categories have emerged to describe modern scents, due to bang-up advances in the technology of compound design and synthesis, equally well as the natural development of styles and tastes :

  • Bright Floral: Combining Single Floral & Floral Bouquet traditional categories. Example: Estée Lauder Beautiful.
  • Green: Lighter, more modern interpretation of the Chypre type, with pronounced cut grass, crushed green leaf and cucumber-like scents. Examples: Estée Lauder Aliage, Sisley Eau de Campagne, Calvin Klein Eternity.
  • Aquatic, Oceanic, Ozonic: The newest category, first appearing in 1988 Davidoff Cool Water (1988), Christian Dior Dune (1991). A clean smell reminiscent of the ocean, leading to many androgynous perfumes. Generally contains calone, a synthetic discovered in 1966, or more recent synthetics. Also used to accent floral, oriental, and woody fragrances.
  • Citrus: An old fragrance family that until recently consisted mainly of “freshening” eau de colognes, due to the volatility of citrus scents. Development of newer fragrance compounds has allowed for the creation of more tenacious citrus fragrances. Example: Penhaligon’s Quercus.
  • Fruity: Featuring fruits other than citrus, such as peach, cassis (black currant), mango, passion fruit, and others. Example: Ginestet Botrytis.
  • Gourmand (French: [ɡuʁmɑ̃]tonka bean, and coumarin, as well as synthetic components designed to resemble food flavors. A sweet Example: Thierry Mugler’s Angel (sweet).

bouquet wheel [edit ]

This newer classification method is widely used in retail and the aroma industry, created in 1983 by the perfume adviser Michael Edwards. The new scheme simplifies classification and appoint, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as showing the relationships among the classes. [ 38 ] The five independent families are Floral, Oriental, Woody, Aromatic Fougère, and Fresh, the first four from the authoritative terminology and the last from the modern oceanic category. Each of these are divided into subgroups and arranged around a bicycle. In this scheme, Chanel No.5, traditionally classified as an aldehydic floral, is placed under the soft Floral sub-group, while amber scents are within the Oriental group. Chypre perfumes are more ambiguous, having affinities with both the Oriental and Woody families. For case, Guerlain Mitsouko is under Mossy Woods, but Hermès Rouge, a more floral chypre, is under Floral Oriental .

Aromatics sources [edit ]

plant sources [edit ]

Citrus corner flower Resins in perfumery include myrrh frankincense Plants have long been used in perfumery as a reservoir of essential oils and olfactory property compounds. These aromatics are normally secondary metabolites produced by plants as protective covering against herbivores, infections, deoxyadenosine monophosphate good as to attract pollinators. Plants are by far the largest source of fragrant compounds used in perfumery. The sources of these compounds may be derived from versatile parts of a establish. A plant can offer more than one source of aromatics, for example the forward pass portions and seeds of coriander have unusually different odors from each other. Orange leaves, blossoms, and fruit gusto are the respective sources of petitgrain, neroli, and orange oils .

animal sources [edit ]

musk pod. Extensive hunting of male musk deer for their pods in recent history has resulted in the detriment of the species.

  • Ambergris: Lumps of oxidized fatty compounds, whose precursors were secreted and expelled by the sperm whale. Ambergris should not be confused with yellow amber, which is used in jewelry. Because the harvesting of ambergris involves no harm to its animal source, it remains one of the few animalic fragrancing agents around which little controversy now exists.
  • Castoreum: Obtained from the odorous sacs of the North American beaver.
  • Civet: Also called civet musk, this is obtained from the odorous sacs of the civets, animals in the family Viverridae, related to the mongoose. World Animal Protection investigated African civets caught for this purpose.[40]
  • Hyraceum: Commonly known as “Africa stone”, is the petrified excrement of the rock hyrax.[41]
  • Honeycomb: From the honeycomb of the honeybee. Both beeswax and honey can be solvent extracted to produce an absolute. Beeswax is extracted with ethanol and the ethanol evaporated to produce beeswax absolute.
  • Musk: Originally derived from a gland (sac or pod) located between the genitals and the umbilicus of the Himalayan male musk deer Moschus moschiferus, it has now mainly been replaced by the use of synthetic musks sometimes known as “white musk”.

other natural sources [edit ]

  • Lichens: Commonly used lichens include oakmoss and treemoss thalli.
  • “Seaweed”: Distillates are sometimes used as essential oil in perfumes. An example of a commonly used seaweed is Fucus vesiculosus, which is commonly referred to as bladder wrack. Natural seaweed fragrances are rarely used due to their higher cost and lower potency than synthetics.

synthetic sources [edit ]

many mod perfumes contain synthesize odorants. Synthetics can provide fragrances which are not found in nature. For exemplify, Calone, a intensify of synthetic origin, imparts a fresh ozonous metallic marine aroma that is widely used in contemporary perfumes. synthetic aromatics are much used as an understudy source of compounds that are not easily obtained from lifelike sources. For exemplar, linalool and coumarin are both naturally occurring compounds that can be cheaply synthesized from terpenes. Orchid scents ( typically salicylates ) are normally not obtained immediately from the plant itself but are rather synthetically created to match the fragrant compounds found in versatile orchids. One of the most normally secondhand classes of man-made aromatics by far are the white musks. These materials are found in all forms of commercial perfumes as a neutral background to the middle notes. These musks are added in big quantities to laundry detergents in order to give washed clothes a survive “ clean ” olfactory property. The majority of the global ‘s synthetic aromatics are created by relatively few companies. They include :
Each of these companies patents respective processes for the production of aromatic synthetics annually .

Characteristics [edit ]

Natural and synthetics are used for their different smell characteristics in perfumery

Naturals Synthetics
Variance Natural scents will vary from each supplier based on when and where they are harvested, how they are processed, and the extraction method itself. This means that a certain flower grown in Morocco and in France will smell different, even if the same method is used to grow, harvest, and extract the scent. As such, each perfumer will prefer flowers grown in one country over another, or one extraction method to the next. However, due to a natural scent’s mixed composition, it is easy for unscrupulous suppliers to adulterate the actual raw materials by changing its source (adding Indian jasmine into Grasse jasmine) or the contents (adding linalool to rosewood) to increase their profit margin. Much more consistent than natural aromatics. However, differences in organic synthesis may result in minute differences in concentration of impurities. If these impurities have low smell (detection) thresholds, the differences in the scent of the synthetic aromatic will be significant.
Components Contains many different organic compounds, each adding a different note to the overall scent. Certain naturally derived substances have a long history of use, but this cannot always be used as an indicator of whether they are safe or not. Possible allergenic or carcinogenic compounds. Depending on purity, consists primarily of one chemical compound. Sometimes chiral mixtures of isomers, such as in the case of Iso E Super.[42] Due to the almost pure composition of one chemical compound, the same molecules found diluted in nature will have a different scent and effect on the body, if used undiluted.
Scent uniqueness Reminiscent of its originating material, although extraction may capture a different “layer” of the scent, depending on how the extraction method denatures the odoriferous compounds. Similar to natural scents yet different at the same time. Some synthetics attempt to mimic natural notes, while others explore the entire spectrum of scent. Novel scent compounds not found in nature will often be unique in their scent.
Scent complexity Deep and complex fragrance notes. Soft, with subtle scent nuances. Highly valued for ideal composition. Pure and pronounced fragrance notes. Often monotonous in nature, yet reminiscent of other natural scents.
Price Dependent on extraction method. More expensive, but not always, as prices are determined by the labor and difficulty of properly extracting each unit of the natural materials, as well as its quality. Typically the relationship between, longevity of a perfume, cost and the concentration of essential oils follows the graph below:
This chart shows the typical relationship between price of aroma, its longevity and the concentration of all-important oils .[43]
Dependent on synthesis method. Generally cheaper, but not necessarily. Synthetic aromatics are not necessarily cheaper than naturals, with some synthetics being more costly than most natural ingredients due to various factors such as the long synthesis routes, low availability of precursor chemicals, and low overall yield. However, due to their low odor threshold, they should be diluted when making a perfume.

Obtaining natural odorants [edit ]

Itar ( herb tea aroma ) seller on the street of Hyderabad, India, who can compose an original perfume for the customer

Before perfumes can be composed, the odorants used in respective perfume compositions must foremost be obtained. synthetic odorants are produced through organic synthesis and purified. Odorants from natural sources require the use of assorted methods to extract the aromatics from the raw materials. The results of the extraction are either essential oils, absolutes, concretes, or butters, depending on the total of waxes in the distill intersection. [ 44 ] All these techniques will, to a certain extent, distort the olfactory property of the aromatic compounds obtained from the crude materials. This is due to the function of heating system, harsh solvents, or through exposure to oxygen in the extraction procedure which will denature the aromatic compounds, which either change their smell character or renders them odorless .

  • Maceration/Solvent extraction: The most used and economically important technique for extracting aromatics in the modern perfume industry. Raw materials are submerged in a solvent that can dissolve the desired aromatic compounds. Maceration lasts anywhere from hours to months. Fragrant compounds for woody and fibrous plant materials are often obtained in this manner as are all aromatics from animal sources. The technique can also be used to extract odorants that are too volatile for distillation or easily denatured by heat. Commonly used solvents for maceration/solvent extraction include ethane, hexane, and dimethyl ether. The product of this process is called a “concrete.”
    • Supercritical fluid extraction: A relatively new technique for extracting fragrant compounds from a raw material, which often employs Supercritical CO2. Due to the low heat of process and the relatively nonreactive solvent used in the extraction, the fragrant compounds derived often closely resemble the original odor of the raw material.
    • Ethanol extraction: A type of solvent extraction used to extract fragrant compounds directly from dry raw materials, as well as the impure oily compounds materials resulting from solvent extraction or enfleurage. Ethanol extraction from fresh plant materials contain large quantities of water, which will also be extracted into the ethanol.
  • Distillation: A common technique for obtaining aromatic compounds from plants, such as orange blossoms and roses. The raw material is heated and the fragrant compounds are re-collected through condensation of the distilled vapor.

An honest-to-god perfume even on display at Fragonard

    • Steam distillation: Steam from boiling water is passed through the raw material, which drives out their volatile fragrant compounds. The condensate from distillation are settled in a Florentine flask. This allows for the easy separation of the fragrant oils from the water. The water collected from the condensate, which retains some of the fragrant compounds and oils from the raw material is called hydrosol and sometimes sold. This is most commonly used for fresh plant materials such as flowers, leaves, and stems.
    • Dry/destructive distillation: The raw materials are directly heated in a still without a carrier solvent such as water. Fragrant compounds that are released from the raw material by the high heat often undergo anhydrous pyrolysis, which results in the formation of different fragrant compounds, and thus different fragrant notes. This method is used to obtain fragrant compounds from fossil amber and fragrant woods where an intentional “burned” or “toasted” odor is desired.
    • Fractionation: Through the use of a fractionation column, different fractions distilled from a material can be selectively excluded to modify the scent of the final product. Although the product is more expensive, this is sometimes performed to remove unpleasant or undesirable scents of a material and affords the perfumer more control over their composition process.
  • Expression: Raw material is squeezed or compressed and the essential oils are collected. Of all raw materials, only the fragrant oils from the peels of fruits in the citrus family are extracted in this manner since the oil is present in large enough quantities as to make this extraction method economically feasible.
  • Enfleurage: Absorption of aroma materials into solid fat or wax and then extraction of odorous oils with ethyl alcohol. Extraction by enfleurage was commonly used when distillation was not possible because some fragrant compounds denature through high heat. This technique is not commonly used in the modern industry due to prohibitive costs and the existence of more efficient and effective extraction methods.[34]

fragrant extracts [edit ]

amerind Patchouli – tincture Although fragrant extracts are known to the general public as the generic term “ essential oils “, a more specific lyric is used in the bouquet industry to describe the source, honor, and technique used to obtain a particular fragrant educe. Of these extracts, only absolutes, essential oils, and tinctures are directly used to formulate perfumes .

  • Absolute: Fragrant materials that are purified from a pommade or concrete by soaking them in ethanol. By using a slightly hydrophilic compound such as ethanol, most of the fragrant compounds from the waxy source materials can be extracted without dissolving any of the fragrantless waxy molecules. Absolutes are usually found in the form of an oily liquid.
  • Concrete: Fragrant materials that have been extracted from raw materials through solvent extraction using volatile hydrocarbons. Concretes usually contain a large amount of wax due to the ease in which the solvents dissolve various hydrophobic compounds. As such concretes are usually further purified through distillation or ethanol based solvent extraction. Concretes are typically either waxy or resinous solids or thick oily liquids.
  • Essential oil: Fragrant materials that have been extracted from a source material directly through distillation or expression and obtained in the form of an oily liquid. Oils extracted through expression are sometimes called expression oils.
  • Pomade: A fragrant mass of solid fat created from the enfleurage process, in which odorous compounds in raw materials are adsorbed into animal fats. Pommades are found in the form of an oily and sticky solid.
  • Tincture: Fragrant materials produced by directly soaking and infusing raw materials in ethanol. Tinctures are typically thin liquids.[34]

Products from different origin methods are known under different names even though their get down materials are the same. For case, orange blossoms from Citrus aurantium that have undergo solution origin produces “ orange flower absolute ” but that which have been steam distilled is known as “ neroli oil ” .

Composing perfumes [edit ]

Perfume formula Perfume compositions are an significant part of many industries ranging from the luxury goods sectors, food services industries, to manufacturers of respective family chemicals. The purpose of using perfume or aroma compositions in these industries is to feign customers through their feel of smell and entice them into purchasing the perfume or perfumed merchandise. As such there is meaning interest in producing a perfume formulation that people will find aesthetically pleasing .

The perfumer [edit ]

The job of composing perfumes that will be sold is left up to an technical on perfume constitution or known in the bouquet diligence as the perfumer. They are besides sometimes referred to dearly as a “ Nez “ ( french for nose ) due to their very well sense of smell and skill in olfactory property composing. The composition of a perfume typically begins with a brief by the perfumer ‘s employer or an outside customer. The customers to the perfumer or their employers, are typically manner houses or large corporations of versatile industries. [ 45 ] The perfumer will then go through the process of blending multiple perfume mixtures and sell the formulation to the customer, often with modifications of the writing of the perfume. The perfume composition will then be either used to enhance another product as a functional fragrance ( shampoo, makeup, detergents, car interiors, etc. ), or marketed and sold directly to the public as a fine fragrance. [ 33 ]

proficiency [edit ]

mouillettes) are commonly used by perfumers to sample and smell perfumes and odorants. paper blotters ( francium : ) are normally used by perfumers to sample and smell perfumes and odorants. Although there is no single “ right ” technique for the formulation of a perfume, there are general guidelines as to how a perfume can be constructed from a concept. Although many ingredients do not contribute to the spirit of a perfume, many perfumes include colorants and anti-oxidants to improve the marketability and ledge life of the aroma, respectively .

basic framework [edit ]

Perfume oils normally contain tens to hundreds of ingredients and these are typically organized in a aroma for the specific function they will play. These ingredients can be approximately grouped into four groups :

  • Primary scents (Heart): Can consist of one or a few main ingredients for a certain concept, such as “rose”. Alternatively, multiple ingredients can be used together to create an “abstract” primary scent that does not bear a resemblance to a natural ingredient. For instance, jasmine and rose scents are commonly blends for abstract floral fragrances. Cola flavourant is a good example of an abstract primary scent.
  • Modifiers: These ingredients alter the primary scent to give the perfume a certain desired character: for instance, fruit esters may be included in a floral primary to create a fruity floral; calone and citrus scents can be added to create a “fresher” floral. The cherry scent in cherry cola can be considered a modifier.
  • Blenders: A large group of ingredients that smooth out the transitions of a perfume between different “layers” or bases. These themselves can be used as a major component of the primary scent. Common blending ingredients include linalool and hydroxycitronellal.
  • Fixatives: Used to support the primary scent by bolstering it. Many resins, wood scents, and amber bases are used as fixatives.

The top, middle, and base notes of a aroma may have break elementary scents and supporting ingredients. The aroma ‘s aroma oils are then blended with ethyl alcohol and water, aged in tanks for several weeks and filtered through process equipment to, respectively, allow the aroma ingredients in the mix to stabilize and to remove any sediment and particles before the solution can be filled into the aroma bottles. [ 46 ]

bouquet bases [edit ]

A “ perfume organ ”, where perfumers play around with hundreds of essences, in Grasse alternatively of building a perfume from “ ground up ”, many mod perfumes and colognes are made using fragrance bases or merely bases. Each base is basically modular perfume that is blended from essential oils and aromatic chemicals, and formulated with a elementary concept such as “ fresh cut grass ” or “ fat sour apple ”. Many of Guerlain ‘s Aqua Allegoria line, with their simple aroma concepts, are adept examples of what perfume aroma bases are like. The effort used in developing bases by bouquet companies or individual perfumers may equal that of a market perfume, since they are utilitarian in that they are reclaimable. On clear of its reusability, the benefit in using bases for construction are quite numerous :

  1. Ingredients with “difficult” or “overpowering” scents that are tailored into a blended base may be more easily incorporated into a work of perfume
  2. A base may be better scent approximations of a certain thing than the extract of the thing itself. For example, a base made to embody the scent for “fresh dewy rose” might be a better approximation for the scent concept of a rose after rain than plain rose oil. Flowers whose scents cannot be extracted, such as gardenia or hyacinth, are composed as bases from data derived from headspace technology.
  3. A perfumer can quickly rough out a concept from a brief by combining multiple bases, then present it for feedback. Smoothing out the “edges” of the perfume can be done after a positive response.

Reverse technology [edit ]

Creating perfumes through reverse mastermind with analytic techniques such as Gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy ( GC/MS ) can reveal the “ general ” formula for any particular perfume. The difficulty of GC/MS analysis arises due to the complexity of a perfume ‘s ingredients. This is particularly due to the presence of natural necessity oils and other ingredients consisting of building complex chemical mixtures. however, “ anyone armed with good GC/MS equipment and experienced in using this equipment can nowadays, within days, find out a great deal about the conceptualization of any perfume … customers and competitors can analyze most perfumes more or less precisely. ” [ 47 ] Antique or badly preserved perfume undergoing this analysis can besides be unmanageable due to the numerous degradation by-products and impurities that may have resulted from dislocation of the odoriferous compounds. Ingredients and compounds can normally be ruled out or identified using flatulence chromatograph ( GC ) smellers, which allow individual chemical components to be identified both through their physical properties and their odorize. Reverse technology of best-selling perfumes in the market is a very common practice in the bouquet industry due to the relative simplicity of operate GC equipment, the atmospheric pressure to produce marketable fragrances, and the highly lucrative nature of the aroma market. [ 46 ]

copyright [edit ]

An assorti of forge perfumes ( in a “ booth ” shop ) It is doubtful whether perfumes qualify as appropriate copyright subject matter under the US Copyright Act. The emergence has not even been addressed by any US motor hotel. A perfume ‘s scent is not eligible for hallmark protection : the scent serves as the functional purpose of the intersection. [ 48 ] In 2006 the Dutch Supreme Court granted copyright protection to Lancôme ‘s perfume Tresor ( Lancôme v. Kecofa ). The french Supreme Court has twice taken the side that perfumes lack the creativity to constitute copyrightable expressions ( Bsiri-Barbir v. Haarman & Reimer, 2006 ; Beaute Prestige International v. Senteur Mazal, 2008 ). [ 48 ] sometimes, a knock-off perfume would use an alter name of the original perfume ( for example, now-discontinued Freya by Oriflame perfume has a similar-designed transcript produced as “ Freyya “ ). It is still questionable if aroma ‘s “ functional purpose ” can be protected with technical patent ( one which lasts 15 years ). apparently, [ according to whom? ] Russian “ Novaya Zarya ” labels their colognes as “ hygienic lotions ” for a exchangeable reason. A counterexample : NovZar ‘s more-than-century-old Shipr chypre and Troinoi cologne are being produced by other companies in Russia in like bottles .

Numbered perfumery, “ analogs ” [edit ]

A different kind of copying perfumes is known in ex-USSR countries as “ номерная парфюмерия “ ( literally “ number perfumery ” ) : A “ number-making ” company with perfumery equipment would use their own, one-style-for-all cheap bottle ; de jure labeling a knock-off perfume as an “ olfactory property in the commission of [ the well-known aroma ] ” or a “ version ” of certain brand perfume. This way, the production costs of initially cheap scents are reduced, since the bottle is used neither for plain forge nor for insidious re-designing. The questionable separate of number perfumery appoint is the mind to openly mark perfume # thirty ( say, # 105 ) as either “ type ” or “ adaptation ”, or “ аромат направления “ ( literally “ olfactory property in the direction of ” ) of a long-familiar perfum. [ 49 ]

  • Resellers in offline stores (in malls, airport shops) can offer “fillable” perfumery, sometimes using weasel wording to justify the price.
  • Such perfumes usually get three-digit numbers as an officially registered name, which is stickered to the bottles.
  • When it comes to propellant, a “number” usually has an alcohol base [almost] without stabilization (which may give strong “alcohol base stench”, altering perfume’s scent into the “smell of cheapness” phenomenon).
    • To avoid this, many “numbers” can be made with (di)propylenglicol base and come as “perfume oil(s)”. PG or DPG based numbered perfumery comes in 50ml plastic bottles and is purposed for tiny rollers; (D)PG is not usable in spray bottles (while not affected by the “smell of cheapness” issue nonetheless). Some companies offer all of their own “numbers” in both alcohol based and (D)PG based variants.

In small on-line “ bulge ”, however ( in purchases over 5000RUB ), a whole 100ml bottle of such perfume ( or 50ml bottle of “ scent oil ” of same “ direction ” ) costs merely around 4 EUR ( or up to 5 EUR ( ~450 RUB ) for a “ selective ” perfume made to resemble a “ recess ” rare expensive olfactory property rather of a popular deluxe ) .

Health and environmental issues [edit ]

Perfume ingredients, careless of natural or synthetic origins, may all cause health or environmental problems when used. Although the areas are under active inquiry, much remains to be learned about the effects of bouquet on human health and the environment .

Immunological ; asthma and allergy [edit ]

evidence in peer-reviewed journals shows that some fragrances can cause asthmatic reactions in some individuals, specially those with severe or atopic asthma. [ 50 ] many aroma ingredients can besides cause headaches, allergic peel reactions [ 51 ] or nausea. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] [ 54 ] In some cases, an excessive use of perfumes may cause allergic reactions of the skin. For exemplify, acetophenone, ethyl acetate rayon [ citation needed ] and acetone [ 46 ] while present in many perfumes, are besides known or potential respiratory allergens. however, this may be misleading, since the injury presented by many of these chemicals ( either natural or celluloid ) is dependent on environmental conditions and their concentrations in a perfume. For example, linalool, which is listed as an irritant, causes peel aggravation when it degrades to peroxides, however the use of antioxidants in perfumes or reduction in concentrations can prevent this. As well, the furanocoumarin present in natural extracts of grapefruit or celery can cause severe allergic reactions and increase sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation. [ 55 ] Some research on natural aromatics have shown that many contain compounds that cause skin excitation. [ 56 ] however some studies, such as IFRA ‘s research claim that opoponax is excessively dangerous to be used in perfumery, silent lack scientific consensus. [ 57 ] It is besides true that sometimes inhalation alone can cause skin irritation. [ citation needed ] A numeral of home and external surveys have identified balsam of Peru, much used in perfumes, as being in the “ clear five ” allergens most normally causing bandage test reactions in people referred to dermatology clinics. [ 58 ] [ 59 ] [ 60 ] A study in 2001 found that 3.8 % of the general population eyepatch tested was allergic to it. [ 61 ] Many perfumes contain components identical to balsam of Peru. [ 62 ] Balsam of Peru is used as a marker for perfume allergy. Its bearing in a cosmetic is denoted by the INCI term Myroxylon pereirae. [ 63 ] Balsam of Peru has been banned by the International Fragrance Association since 1982 from use as a aroma compound, but may be salute as an excerpt or distillate in other products, where compulsory label is not required for use of 0.4 % or less. [ 62 ]

Carcinogenicity [edit ]

There is scientific evidence that nitro-musks such as musk xylene could cause cancer in some specific animal tests. These reports were evaluated by the EU Scientific Committee for Consumer Safety ( SCCS, once the SCCNFP [ 64 ] ) and musk xylene was found to be safe for cover function in cosmetic products. [ 65 ] It is in fact share of the procedures of the Cosmetic Regulation in Europe that materials classified as carcinogens require such a safety evaluation by the authorities to be allowed in cosmetic consumer products. Although other ingredients such as polycyclic synthetic musks, have been reported to be convinced in some in-vitro hormone assays, [ 66 ] [ 67 ] these reports have been reviewed by diverse authorities. For case, for one of the chief polycyclic musks Galaxolide ( HHCB ) these reviews include those of the EU Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety, [ 68 ] the EU ‘s Priority Substances Review, [ 69 ] the EU Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risk, [ 70 ] and more recently besides the US EPA. [ 71 ] The consequence of all of these reviews over the past ten or so is that there are no safety concerns for homo health. Reviews with similar positive outcomes besides exist for another independent polycyclic musk ( AHTN ) —for example, on its safe use in cosmetics by the EU. [ 72 ] many natural aromatics, such as oakmoss absolutes, [ 56 ] [ 73 ] basil oil, rose oil and many others contain allergens or carcinogenic compounds, the safety of which is either governed by regulations ( e.g. allowed methyl eugenol levels in the EU Cosmetics Regulation ( Entry 102, Annex III of the EU Cosmetics Regulation. [ 74 ] ) or through versatile limitations set by the International Fragrance Association. [ 75 ]

environmental [edit ]

pollution [edit ]

celluloid musks are pleasant in olfactory property and relatively cheap, as such they are often employed in big quantities to cover the unpleasant olfactory property of laundry detergents and many personal houseclean products. Due to their large-scale use, several types of synthetic musks have been found in human fat and milk, [ 76 ] equally well as in the sediments and waters of the Great Lakes. [ 77 ] These pollutants may pose extra health and environmental problems when they enter homo and animal diets .

Species endangerment [edit ]

The demands for aromatic materials such as sandalwood, agarwood, and musk have led to the hazard of these species, vitamin a well as illegal traffic and reap .

safety regulations [edit ]

The perfume diligence in the US is not immediately regulated by the FDA, rather the FDA controls the safety of perfumes through their ingredients and requires that they be tested to the extent that they are Generally recognized as safe ( GRAS ). due to the need for auspices of trade wind secrets, companies rarely give the entire list of ingredients regardless of their effects on health. In Europe, as from 11 March 2005, the mandate list of a plant of 26 recognized aroma allergens was enforced. [ 78 ] The prerequisite to list these materials is dependent on the intended function of the final examination intersection. The limits above which the allergens are required to be declared are 0.001 % for products intended to remain on the skin, and 0.01 % for those intended to be rinsed off. This has resulted in many honest-to-god perfumes like chypres and fougère classes, which require the use of oakmoss extract, being reformulated .

Preserving aroma [edit ]

Perfumes in a museum Fragrance compounds in perfumes will degrade or break down if improperly stored in the presence of heat, faint, oxygen, and external constituent materials. Proper preservation of perfumes involves keeping them away from sources of heating system and storing them where they will not be exposed to unhorse. An open bottle will keep its olfactory property intact for several years, equally retentive as it is well stored. [ 33 ] however, the presence of oxygen in the pass space of the bottle and environmental factors will in the retentive run alter the smell of the aroma. Perfumes are best preserved when kept in lightproof aluminum bottles or in their original box when not in use, and refrigerated to relatively abject temperatures : between 3–7 °C ( 37–45 °F ). Although it is unmanageable to completely remove oxygen from the headspace of a store flask of aroma, opting for spray dispensers alternatively of rollers and “ open ” bottles will minimize oxygen exposure. Sprays besides have the advantage of isolating bouquet inside a bottle and preventing it from mixing with debris, skin, and debris, which would degrade and alter the timbre of a perfume. There exist several archives and museums devoted to the preservation of historical perfumes, namely the Osmothèque, which stocks over 3,000 perfumes from the past two millennium in their original formulations. All scents in their collection are preserved in non- actinic glass flasks flushed with argon accelerator, stored in thermally isolate compartments maintained at 12 °C ( 53.6 °F ) in a big vault. [ 79 ]

Lists of perfumes [edit ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

far read [edit ]

  • Burr, Chandler (2004). “The Emperor of Scent: A True Story of Perfume and Obsession” Random House Publishing. ISBN 978-0-375-75981-9
  • Edwards, Michael (1997). “Perfume Legends: French Feminine Fragrances”. Crescent House Publishing. ISBN 0-646-27794-4.
  • Klymentiev, Maksym. “Creating Spices for the Mind: The Origins of Modern Western Perfumery”. The Senses and Society. Vol. 9, 2014, issue 2.
  • Moran, Jan (2000). “Fabulous Fragrances II: A Guide to Prestige Perfumes for Women and Men”. Crescent House Publishing. ISBN 0-9639065-4-2.
  • Turin, Luca (2006). “The Secret of Scent”. Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-571-21537-8.
  • Stamelman, Richard: “Perfume – Joy, Obsession, Scandal, Sin”. Rizzoli. ISBN 978-0-8478-2832-6. A cultural history of fragrance from 1750 to the present day.
  • Süskind, Patrick (2006). “Perfume: The Story of a Murderer”. Vintage Publishing (English edition). ISBN 978-0-307-27776-3. A novel of perfume, obsession and serial murder. Also released as a movie with same name in 2006.

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