The Soviet Air Forces ( russian : Военно-воздушные силы, tr. Voyenno-Vozdushnyye Sily ( VVS ), literally “ Military Air Forces “ ) were one of the air forces of the Soviet Union. The other was the Soviet Air Defence Forces. The Air Forces were formed from components of the Imperial Russian Air Service in 1917, and faced their greatest test during World War II. The groups were besides involved in the Korean War, and dissolved along with the Soviet Union itself in 1991–92. Former Soviet Air Forces ‘ assets were subsequently divided into several air travel forces of former soviet republics, including the new Russian Air Force. “ March of the Pilots “ was its song.
Reading: Soviet Air Forces – Wikipedia
Origins [edit ]
The All-Russia Collegium for Direction of the Air Forces of the Old Army ( translation is changeable ) was formed on 20 December 1917. This was a Bolshevik aeriform headquarters initially led by Konstantin Akashev. Along with a general postwar military reorganization, the collegium was reconstituted as the “ Workers ‘ and Peasants ‘ Red Air Fleet ” ( Glavvozduhflot ), established on 24 May 1918 and given the top-level departmental status of “ Main Directorate ”. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] It became the Directorate of the USSR Air Forces on 28 March 1924, and then the Directorate of the Workers-Peasants Red Army Air Forces on 1 January 1925. Gradually its influence on aircraft design became greater. From its earliest days, the coerce mimicked ground forces ‘ organization particularly in the 1930s, by which time it was made up of air armies, aviation corps, aviation divisions, and aviation regiments ( composed of air squadrons, flights, and fireteams, respectively ). [ citation needed ]
After the creation of the Soviet country many efforts were made in decree to modernize and expand aircraft production, led by its charismatic and energetic commander, General Yakov Alksnis, an eventual victim of Joseph Stalin ‘s Great Purge. [ 3 ] Domestic aircraft production increased significantly in the early 1930s and towards the end of the ten, the Soviet Air Force was able to introduce Polikarpov I-15 and I-16 fighters and Tupolev SB and SB-bis and DB-3 bombers. [ 4 ] [ citation needed ]
spanish civil war [edit ]
One of the first major tests for the VVS came in 1936 with the spanish Civil War, in which the latest soviet and german aircraft designs were employed against each early in fierce air-to-air battle. At first, the I-16 proved lake superior to any Luftwaffe fighters, and managed to achieve local atmosphere superiority wherever they were employed. however, the Soviets refused to supply the airplane in adequate numbers, and their forward pass victories were soon squandered because of their specify manipulation. Later, Bf 109s delivered to Franco ‘s spanish Nationalist air forces secured publicize transcendence for the Nationalists, one they would never relinquish. The defeats in Spain coincided with the arrival of Stalin ‘s Great Purge of the ranks of the policeman corps and senior military leadership, which sternly affected the fight capabilities of the quickly expanding Soviet Air Forces. newly promoted officers lacked flying and instruction have, while older commanders, witnessing the destine of General Alksnis and others, lacked first step, frequently referring minor decisions to Moscow for approval, and insisting that their pilots strictly comply with standardize and predictable procedures for both aeriform assail and defense. [ citation needed ] On 19 November 1939, VVS headquarters was again titled the Main Directorate of the Red Army Air Forces under the WPRA HQ .
1930s aviation and propaganda [edit ]
between 1933 and 1938, the soviet government planned and funded missions to break numerous earth aviation records. not entirely did aviation records and achievements become demonstrations of the USSR ‘s technical progress, they besides served as legitimization of the socialistic system. With each new success, soviet compress trumpeted victories for Socialism, popularizing the mythology of air travel culture with the masses. furthermore, soviet media idolized record-breaking pilots, exalting them not merely as character models for soviet club, but besides as symbols of progress towards the socialist-utopian future .
cocksure heroism [edit ]
The early 1930s saw a shift in ideological focus away from collectivist propaganda and towards “ positive heroism. ” [ 5 ] rather of glorifying socialist collectivism as a means of social progress, the Soviet Communist Party began uplift individuals who committed heroic actions that advanced the causal agent of socialism. [ 6 ] In the sheath of air travel, the government began glorifying people who utilize air travel engineering as opposed to glorifying the engineering itself. Pilots such as Valery Chkalov, Georgy Baydukov, Alexander Belyakov, and Mikhail Gromov —as well as many others—were raised to the condition of heroes for their navigate skills and achievements .
transpolar flights of 1937 [edit ]
In May 1937, Stalin charged pilots Chkalov, Baydukov, and Belyakov with the mission to navigate the beginning transpolar escape in history [ ruthenium ]. [ 7 ] On 20 June 1937, the aviators landed their ANT-25 in Vancouver, Washington. A calendar month belated, Stalin ordered the deviation of a second crowd to push the boundaries of modern aviation technology even further. In July 1937 Mikhail Gromov, along with his gang Sergei Danilin and Andrei Yumashev, completed the same travel over the North Pole and continuing on to Southern California [ ruthenium ], creating a raw record for the longest nonstop flight flight. [ 8 ] The public reaction to the transpolar flights was euphoric. The media called the pilots “ Bolshevik knights of acculturation and progress. ” [ 9 ] soviet citizens celebrated Aviation Day on 18 August with american samoa much zeal as they celebrated the October Revolution anniversary. [ 10 ] Literature including poems, short stories, and novels emerged celebrating the feats of the aviator-celebrities. [ 11 ] Feature films like Victory, Tales of Heroic Aviators, and Valery Chkalov reinforced the “ positive hero ” imagination, celebrating the aviators ‘ individuality within the context of a socialistic government. [ 8 ] [ 12 ]
Folkloric themes in aviation propaganda [edit ]
soviet propaganda, newspaper articles, and other forms of media sought to connect soviet citizens to relevant themes from daily life. For aviation, Stalin ‘s propagandists drew on russian folklore. Examples increased dramatically following the successes of the transpolar flights by Chkalov and Gromov in 1937. Aviators were referred to symbolically as sokoly ( falcons ), orly ( eagles ), [ 13 ] or bogatyr ( warriors ). [ 14 ] Newspapers told traditional russian narratives ( skazki ) of fliers conquering meter and space ( prostranstvo ), overcoming barriers and completing their missions in prevail. [ 15 ] even the floor of each aviator suggests roots in old russian storytelling and narratives—virtuous heroes striving to reach an end goal, encountering and conquering any obstacles in their path. By using folklore rhetoric, Stalin and soviet propagandists connected aviation achievements to russian heritage, making air travel seem more accessible to the soviet population. furthermore, the narratives emphasize the aviators ‘ altruism and devotion to a higher socialistic ideal, pointing to soviet leaders as inspirers and character models. [ 15 ] paternalism was besides a root that soviet propagandists exploited in aviation culture. The media presented Stalin as an example and inspiration, a beget figure and role model to the most outstanding soviet pilots of the period. [ 16 ] When recounting stories of meetings between Stalin and Chkalov, for case, soviet newspapers spoke of Stalin ‘s paternalism towards the young navigate. The agnate metaphor was completed with the addition of a maternal figure—Russia, the fatherland, who had produced “ father ” Stalin ‘s heroic sons such as Chkalov. [ 15 ] The practice of familial metaphors not only suggest traditional ancestral pride and historic russian patriotism, they boosted Stalin ‘s picture as a benevolent leader. Most importantly, paternalism served to promote the message of individual subordination to agency. [ 17 ] Through his paternal relationships with soviet pilots, Stalin developed an “ ethos of deference and obedience ” [ 16 ] for soviet company to emulate .
aviation and the purges [edit ]
The successful achievements in soviet aviation besides came during the worst days of the Great Purge. The transpolar flights in summer 1937 occurred following the collar and murder of a big consistency of the Red Army officer corps. [ 18 ] Fifteen of sixteen total army commanders were executed ; more than three-fourths of the VVS senior officers were arrested, executed, or relieved of duty. [ 19 ] News coverage of the arrests was relatively little compared to treatment of aviation exploits, deflecting attention away from the arrests. [ 20 ]
early combat [edit ]
Some virtual fight know had been gained in participating in the spanish Civil War, and against Japan in the Far Eastern margin conflicts. soon before the start of war with Germany a Soviet Volunteer Group was sent to China to train the pilots from the Republic of China Air Force for the continuing war with the Japanese. however, these experiences proved of little use in the Winter War against Finland in 1939, where scores of inexperienced soviet bomber and combatant pilots were shot down by a relatively little total of Finnish Air Force ( FAF ) pilots. The VVS soon learned established Soviet air defense procedures derived from the spanish Civil War, such as forming defensive circles when attacked, did not work well against the Finns, who employed dive-and-zoom tactics to shoot down their soviet opponents in capital numbers. The effects of the Great Purge undoubtedly played a character in the slow reaction of the VVS and its instruction to the newfangled realities of air travel fight. The Soviet Air Force vitamin a well as the Soviet aircraft diligence would finally learn from these combat experiences, though not before the german invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. [ citation needed ] On 1 January 1941, six months anterior to Operation Barbarossa, the Air Forces of the Soviet Red Army had 363,900 serve personnel, accounting for 8.65 % of all military force personnel of the Soviet Union. [ 21 ] The foremost three Air Armies, designated Air Armies of Special Purpose, were created between 1936 and 1938. [ 22 ] On 5 November 1940 these were reformed as the Long Range Bombardment Aviation of the High Command of the Red Army ( until February 1942 ) due to lack of fight performance during the conflict with Finland. [ 23 ] The Air Force was hit hard by the Red Army purges in 1941. [ citation needed ]
early World War II air travel failures [edit ]
1930s soviet aviation besides had a particular impingement on the USSR ‘s military failures in the beginning of World War II. By 1938, the Soviet Union had the largest air military unit in the world, but soviet aeronautical design distinctly lagged behind western technological advances. [ 24 ] rather of focusing on developing tactical aircraft, the Soviets engineers developed heavy bomber planes only good for long distance—in other words, planes that would be used for record-breaking flights like those of Chkalov ‘s. [ 25 ] The soviet politics ‘s focus on flamboyant stunts and phenomenal record-breaking missions drained resources needed for soviet defense. When Nazi Germany attacked the Soviet Union in June 1941, it cursorily became apparent that the Soviet Air Force was not organize for war. [ 26 ] Poor planning and miss of administration left planes sitting on the tarmacadam at airbases, allowing the Luftwaffe to destroy 4,000 soviet planes within the beginning week. [ 27 ] The disorganized soviet defenses and technologically insufficient aircraft were no match for the Luftwaffe. [ citation needed ]
World War II [edit ]
At the outbreak of World War II, the soviet military was not so far at a flush of readiness suitable for winning a war : Joseph Stalin had said in 1931 soviet diligence was “ 50 to 100 years behind ” [ 28 ] the western powers. By the end of the war, soviet annual aircraft production had risen sharply, reaching 40,241 in 1944. Some 157,261 machines were produced during the Great Patriotic War, 125,655 being of fight types. [ 29 ]
original ace roundel in World War II One of the chief reasons for the large aircraft losses in the initial period of war with Germany was not the lack of modern tactics, but the lack of know pilots and ground documentation crews, the destruction of many aircraft on the runways ascribable to command failure to disperse them, and the rapid gain of Heer troops, forcing the soviet pilots on the defensive during Operation Barbarossa, while being confronted with more modern german designs. [ 30 ] In the first few days of the invasion of the Soviet Union, the Luftwaffe destroyed some 2,000 soviet aircraft, most on the land, at a passing of only 35 ( of which 15 were non-combat-related ). [ 31 ] The principal VVS aircraft during World War II were the Ilyushin Il-2 Shturmovik armored labor attack monoplane and the serial of AS Yakovlev OKB -115 designed single-engined fighters, beginning with the Yak-1 and its successors. [ 30 ] The Il-2 became ( at 36,183 build ) the most produce military aircraft of all time, with the four chief versions of Yak fighters ( the Yak-1, −3, −7 and −9 ) being slenderly more numerous, at a sum of 36,716 among them. These two chief types together accounted for about half the force of the VVS for most of the Great Patriotic War. The Yak-1 was a modern 1940 purpose and had room for development, unlike the mature 1935-origin Messerschmitt Bf 109. The Yak-9 brought the VVS to parity with the Luftwaffe and finally allowed it to gain the amphetamine hand, until in 1944, many Luftwaffe pilots measuredly avoided combat with the last and best form, the out-of-sequence numbered Yak-3. The other main VVS types were Lavochkin fighters ( chiefly the La-5 ), the Petlyakov Pe-2 twin engined attack-bombers, and a basic but functional and versatile metier bomber, the Ilyushin Il-4. The 31st Bomber Aviation Regiment, equipped with Pe-2s and commanded by Colonel Fyodor Ivanovich Dobysh, was one of the foremost Guards bomber units in the Air Forces – the 4th Guards Bomber Aviation Regiment ( ru:4-й гвардейский пикирующий бомбардировочный авиационный полк ). [ 32 ] The title was conferred on the regiment for its actions on the Leningrad Front in November–December 1941 during defensive operations and the soviet counterattack near Tikhvin .
Women [edit ]
entirely among World War II combatants, the Soviet Air Force initiated a program to bring women with existing flying training into battle air out groups. Marina Raskova, one of very few women in the VVS anterior to the war, used her determine with Stalin to form three all-female air regiments : the 586th Fighter Aviation Regiment, the 587th Bomber Aviation Regiment, and the 588th Night Bomber Aviation Regiment ( a.k.a. the Night Witches. ) Women flew aircraft therefore heavy that sometimes two of them were required to haul back on the stick on takeoff. [ 33 ] ascribable to their achievements in battle, the latter two air force units were honored by being renamed Guards units. Beyond the three official regiments, individual soviet women sometimes served aboard airmen in differently all-male groups. [ 34 ] Women pilots, navigators, gunners, mechanics, armament specialists and other female ground personnel made up more than 3,000 fighting members of the VVS. Women pilots flew 24,000 sorties. From this campaign came the world ‘s only two female combatant aces : Lydia Litvyak and Katya Budanova .
invention and lend-lease [edit ]
While there were scores of Red Army divisions on the anchor formed from specific soviet republics, there appears to have been very few aviation regiments formed from nationalities, among them being the 1st latvian Night Aviation Regiment. [ 35 ]
soviet WWII airmen reenactors on parade in 2020. foreman Marshal of Aviation Alexander Novikov led the VVS from 1942 to the end of the war, and was credited with introducing respective innovations and weapons systems. For the survive year of the war german military and civilians retreating towards Berlin were hounded by the presence of “ low fly aircraft ” strafe and bombing them, an activity in which even the ancient Polikarpov Po-2, a much produced flight train (uchebnyy) biplane of 1920s invention, took separate. however, this was but a little measure of the experience the Wehrmacht were receiving due to the sophistication and transcendence of the Red Air Force. In one strategic process alone, the Yassy-Kishinev Strategic Offensive, the 5th and 17th Air Armys and the Black Sea Fleet Naval Aviation aircraft achieved a 3.3 to 1 superiority in aircraft over Luftflotte 4 and the Royal Romanian Air Force, allowing about dispatch freedom from air harassment for the establish troops of the 2nd and 3rd ukrainian Fronts. [ 36 ] As with many Allied countries in World War II, the Soviet Union received western aircraft through Lend-Lease, by and large Bell P-39 Airacobras, Bell P-63 Kingcobras, Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawks, Douglas A-20 Havocs, Hawker Hurricanes, and north american B-25 Mitchells. Some of these aircraft arrived in the Soviet Union in time to participate in the Battle of Moscow, and in particular with the PVO or Soviet Air Defence Forces. [ 37 ] soviet fliers in P-39s scored the highest individual kill totals of any ever to fly a U.S. aircraft. Two air travel regiments were equipped with Spitfire Mk.Vbs in early 1943 but immediately experienced grim losses due to friendly open fire as the british aircraft looked excessively much like the german Bf 109. [ 38 ] Lend-Lease aircraft from the U.S. and UK accounted for about 12 % of sum Soviet air power. [ 39 ] The greatest soviet fighter breeze through of World War II was Ivan Nikitovich Kozhedub, who scored 62 victories from 6 July 1943 to 16 April 1945, [ 40 ] the exceed sexual conquest for any Allied fighter pilot program of World War II .
Cold War [edit ]
An air-to-air right bottom rear view of a soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 aircraft carrying four AA-6 Acrid missiles
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In 1945–46, the WPKA Army Air Forces became the Soviet Air Forces once again. Its capabilities increased. The force became one of the best services of the Soviet Armed Forces due to the diverse types of aircraft being flown and their capabilities and the force and train of its pilots, and its air defensive structure branch became an autonomous component of the arm forces in 1949, reaching full-fledged storm condition in 1954. [ citation needed ] The 64th Fighter Aviation Corps ( ru:64-й истребительный авиационный корпус ) fight in the Korean War. [ citation needed ] During the Cold War, the Soviet Air Force was rearmed, strengthened and mod breeze doctrines were introduced. At its point in 1980, it could deploy approximately 10,000 aircraft, making it the world ‘s largest air impel of the time. [ 41 ] The Soviet Air Force covertly participated in the Korean War, with twelve combatant divisions of 26,000 pilots participating in air-to-air battle with the United States Air Force, inflicting significant casualties. In order to keep their participation a secret, Joseph Stalin ordered the Soviet Air Force MiG-15s participating in the conflict to fly with korean People ‘s Air Force and PLA Air Force markings, wear chinese uniforms, and speak merely taiwanese phrases over radio in the tune. [ 42 ] In 1977 the VVS and the Soviet Air Defense Forces ( PVO ) were re-organised in the Baltic states and the Leningrad Oblast, as a trial run for the larger re-organisation in 1980 covering the solid country. [ 43 ] All fighter units in the PVO were transferred to the VVS, the Air Defence Forces entirely retaining the anti-aircraft projectile units and radar units. The 6th independent Air Defense Army was disbanded, and the 15th Air Army became the VVS Baltic Military District. [ citation needed ] Though the experiment was then applied countrywide in 1980, it was reversed in 1986, but then most of the Air Defense Forces ‘s command and control condition duties and assets became separate of the Air Force, vitamin a well as several educational and train institutions. [ citation needed ] According to a 1980 Time Magazine article citing analysts from RAND Corporation, allegedly soviet non-Slavs, including Jews, Armenians, and Asians were generally barred from elder ranks and from joining elite or strategic positions in the Air Force, Strategic Rocket Forces, and the soviet Navy because of doubts regarding the loyalty of cultural minorities. RAND analyst S. Enders Wimbush said, “ Soldiers are intelligibly recruited in a way that reflects the worries of club. The average russian citizen and soviet decisiveness manufacturer have questions about the commitment of the non-Slav, particularly the Central Asian. ” [ 44 ] [ 45 ] [ 46 ] [ 47 ] [ 48 ] During the Cold War the VVS was divided into three main branches ( equivalent to commands in western air out forces ) : long Range Aviation ( Dal’naya Aviatsiya – DA ), focused on long-range bombers ; Frontal Aviation ( Frontovaya Aviatsiya – FA ), focused on battlefield publicize refutation, close air support, and interdiction ; and Military Transport Aviation ( Voenno-Transportnaya Aviatsiya – VTA ), which controlled all transmit aircraft. The Soviet Air Defence Forces ( Voyska protivovozdushnoy oborony or Voyska PVO ), which focused on air defense and interceptor aircraft, was then a separate and clear-cut service within the soviet military constitution. [ citation needed ]
yet another mugwump service was the Soviet Navy ‘s air branch, the Soviet Naval Aviation ( Aviatsiya Voenno Morskogo Flota – “ AV-MF ” ), under the Navy Headquarters. [ citation needed ] The official day of VVS was the Soviet Air Fleet Day, that often featured noteworthy air shows meant to display Soviet air office advancements through the years, held in Moscow ‘s Tushino airfield. [ citation needed ]
1980s combatant programs [edit ]
In the 1980s the Soviet Union acknowledged the development of the Advanced Tactical Fighter in the US and began the development of an equivalent combatant. [ citation needed ] Two programs were initiated, one of which was proposed to directly confront the United States ‘ then-projected Advanced Tactical Fighter ( that was to lead to the development of the Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor and the Northrop YF-23 ). This future combatant was designated as Mnogofounksionalni Frontovoi Istrebitel ( MFI ) ( Multifunctional Frontline Fighter ) and designed as a heavy multirole aircraft, with air-supremacy utmost in the minds of the designers. [ citation needed ] In reception to the american Boeing X-32 / Joint Strike Fighter ( F-35 ) projects, Russia began the LFI platform, which would develop a fighter evocative of the X-32/F-35 with a one engine, without the capabilities of a true multirole aircraft. [ citation needed ] The LFI ( Lyogkiy Frontovoy Istrebitel, Light Frontline Fighter ) project was intended to develop a lightweight fighter with goodly air-to-surface capabilities. Yakovlev proposed the Yak-43, an upgrade Yakolev Yak-41 with a stealthier design and more herculean engines. After neglecting the MFI contest, Sukhoi decided to submit a plan for the LFI called the S-37 ( unrelated to the heavyweight forward-swept wing fighter ). This S-37 resembled the Gripen in that it had canard foreplanes, a delta wing and one engine. Mikoyan entered the MiG 4.12. MiG could not afford to develop both the MFI and LFI, so their LFI submission was finally withdrawn. Developed into Mikoyan LMFS. Russia would later change the appellation of the LFI project to LFS, making it a multirole aircraft with stress on reason attack capability. During the 1990s the russian military cancelled the LFS projects and continued with the MFI project, with minimal fund, believing that it was more important than the production of a light combatant aircraft. No advance fighter successor to the Su-27 and MiG-29 family has entered service. Sukhoi won the latest PAK FA rival in 2002 ; the aircraft ‘s first escape took place on 29 January 2010. [ 49 ] [ 50 ]
dissolution of the Soviet Union [edit ]
Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991 the aircraft and personnel of the soviet VVS were divided among the newly independent states. Russia received the plurality of these forces, approximately 40 % of the aircraft and 65 % of the work force, with these forming the basis for the fresh Russian Air Force .
Forces in the late 1980s [edit ]
The Soviet Air Force ‘s aviation assets were organised into four types of forces ( sing. вид авиации ) – retentive Range Aviation, Frontal Aviation, Military Transport Aviation and Army Aviation ( which would transfer to the ground Forces in case of war ). Pilot training establishments were integrated into the Air Armies of the Frontal Aviation .
|Type of aviation||Aviation arm||Higher command echelons||Notes|
|Long Range Aviation (дальная авиация)||a single arm||Air Armies of the Supreme Military Command Reserve (Strategic Purpose) (ВА РГК (СН)) under the Air Force Main Staff.||Included:
|Frontal Aviation (фронтовая авиация)||Fighter aviation (истребительная авиация)||
||Provided air cover of the ground forces and escort to own aviation assets. Secondary tasks included ground attack with unguided ordnance, air reconnaissance and tactical nuclear strike. In the late 1980s its types of aircraft included the Su-27S, the MiG-29 and the MiG-23MLD.|
|Bomber aviation (бомбардировочная авиация)||Main mission was penetration of enemy air defences and precision strikes against enemy targets in operational depth. Secondary tasks included close air support, aerial reconnaissance and tactical nuclear strike. In the late 1980s its air regiments flew the Su-24 and the upgraded Su-24M with a handful (no more than 20) of the Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses-specialised Su-24MP variant.|
|Fighter-bomber aviation (истребительно-бомбардировочная авиация)||Main mission was penetration of enemy air defences and precision strikes against enemy targets in tactical depth. Secondary tasks included close air support, aerial reconnaissance and tactical nuclear strike. In the late 1980s its air regiments flew the MiG-27 and (in limited numbers) the Su-17M.|
|Ground attack aviation (штурмовая авиация)||Main mission was battlefield close air support and destruction of armored targets from low and extra low altitude. Its air regiments flew the Su-25.|
|Reconnaissance aviation (разведывательная авиация)||The reconnaissance aviation included two types of units:
|Transport aviation (транспортная авиация)||The Military Transport Aviation provided strategic airlift and airborne dropping capabilities to the Soviet military. The transport aviation provided tactical airlift capabilities, liaison and medevac assets. It included Composite Air Regiments and Composite air Squadrons flying mostly An-26 aircraft and Mi-8 helicopters.|
|Special Aviation (специальная авиация)||Main units in this category included electronic warfare and intelligence aircraft, based on modified airliners, EW and ELINT helicopters and aerial command posts, based mostly on the Mi-8 and UAV reconnaissance squadrons.|
|Military transport aviation (Военно-транспортная авиация)||a single arm||Military Transport Aviation HQ under the Air Force Main Staff.|
|Army aviation (армейская авиация)||a single arm||Attached to the Air Armies in peace time. To transfer to the Ground Forces in case of war. At the end of 1990 right before the collapse of the USSR the Army Aviation was transferred to the Ground Forces and became one of their branches.|
Higher command echelons of the Air Forces [edit ]
In addition, the 34th Mixed Aviation Corps ( ru:34-й смешанный авиационный корпус ), late re-designated to the Air Forces of the fortieth Army, supported the fortieth Army in Afghanistan during the Soviet–Afghan War. Its HQ was in Kabul, Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, co-located with the HQ of the fortieth Army itself .
immediately subordinated to the AF Main Staff [edit ]
several formations and flying units were immediately subordinated to the Air Forces Main Staff ( Главный штаб ВВС ). [ 53 ] They provided publicize tape drive for high-level government and military officials, flight test or hold to early research and growth fields. Units directly subordinated to the Main Staff :
military Transport Aviation [edit ]
The soviet military transportation Aviation had the following structure in the end of the 1980s : [ 54 ] Military Transport Aviation Command, Moscow, RSFSR
soviet Air Defence Forces [edit ]
Independent publicize defense part of the Soviet Armed Forces under Headquarters, Voyska PVO ( Soviet Air Defence Forces ) .
Training schools of the VVS and PVO [edit ]
A Krasnaya Zvezda military schools list of 17 January 1980 included 24 Air Forces schools. [ 56 ] Nine Higher Aviation Schools of Pilots were reported ( including the Borisoglebsk Higher Military Aviation School of Pilots at Borisoglebsk ), two navigator schools ( including the Chelyabinsk Higher Military Aviation School of Navigators/50th Anniversary of the Komsomols ), the Khar’kov Higher Military Aviation Command School of Signals, five three-year technical secondary schools, six Air Force engineering schools ( including the Kiev Higher Military Aviation Engineering School ), and the Kurgan Higher Military-Political Aviation School. In 1988, schools included : [ 57 ]
There is besides a tilt of Soviet Air Force bases listing the diverse air bases of the force .
Soviet Air Force inventory in 1990 [edit ]
See besides [edit ]
References [edit ]
bibliography [edit ]
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