Punjabi language – Wikipedia

indic terminology spoken in India and Pakistan

Punjabi ( ; [ 8 ] Shahmukhi : پن٘جابی, Gurmukhi : ਪੰਜਾਬੀ, Punjabi pronunciation : [ pənˈdʒaːbːi ] ), sometimes spelled Panjabi, is an indic language that is natively spoken by the Punjabi people in the Punjab area of Pakistan and India. It is the most speak terminology in Pakistan and the 11th most address linguistic process in India. Punjabi is spoken by 80.5 million people in Pakistan ( as of 2017 ). It is the most speak lyric in Pakistan.

Punjabi is spoken by 31.1 million people ( as of 2011 ) and has official status in the indian state of Punjab. It is the 11th most talk lyric in India. The language is spoken among a significant overseas diaspora, particularly in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Punjabi terminology has approximately 113 million native speakers. In Pakistan, Punjabi is written using the Shahmukhi alphabet, based on the Perso-Arabic script ; in India, it is written using the Gurmukhi alphabet, based on the Indic scripts. Punjabi is strange among the indic languages and the broader aryan lyric syndicate in its usage of lexical tone .

history [edit ]

etymology [edit ]

The news Punjabi ( sometimes spelled Panjabi ) has been derived from the word Panj-āb, Persian for ‘Five Waters ‘, referring to the five major eastern tributaries of the Indus River. The name of the region was introduced by the Turko-Persian conquerors [ 9 ] of South Asia and was a translation of the Sanskrit name for the region, Panchanada, which means ‘Land of the Five Rivers ‘. [ 10 ] [ 11 ] Panj is cognate with Sanskrit pañca ( पञ्च ), greek pénte ( πέντε ), and lithuanian Penki, all of which meaning ‘five ‘ ; āb is cognate with Sanskrit áp ( अप् ) and with the Av- of Avon. The historical Punjab region, immediately divided between India and Pakistan, is defined physiographically by the Indus River and these five tributaries. One of the five, the Beas River, is a tributary of another, the Sutlej .

origin [edit ]

Tilla Jogian, district Jehlum, Punjab, Pakistan a hilltop associated with many Nath jogis (considered among compilers of earlier Punjabi works) Punjabi developed from Prakrit languages and late Apabhraṃśa ( Sanskrit : अपभ्रंश, ‘deviated ‘ or ‘non-grammatical language ‘ ) [ 12 ] From 600 BCE, Sanskrit was advocated as official lyric and Prakrit gave birth to many regional languages in different parts of India. All these languages are called Prakrit ( Sanskrit : प्राकृत, prākṛta ) jointly. Paishachi Prakrit was one of these Prakrit languages, which was spoken in union and north-western India and Punjabi developed from this Prakrit. Later in northern India Paishachi Prakrit gave upgrade to Paishachi Aparbhsha, a descendant of Prakrit. [ 13 ] Punjabi emerged as an Apabhramsha, a devolve shape of Prakrit, in the seventh hundred CE and became static by the tenth hundred. The earliest writings in Punjabi belong to Nath Yogi earned run average from 9th to 14th century CE. [ 14 ] The speech of these compositions is morphologically closer to Shauraseni Apbhramsa, though vocabulary and rhythm method of birth control is surcharged with extreme point colloquialism and folklore. [ 14 ]

Arabic and Persian influences [edit ]

The Arabic and advanced iranian charm in the historical Punjab region began with the former first millennium Muslim conquests on the indian subcontinent. [ 15 ] many Persian and Arabic words were incorporated in Punjabi. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] So Punjabi relies heavily on irani and Arabic words which are used with a big approach to lyric. many significant words like ਅਰਦਾਸ, ਰਹਿਰਾਸ, ਨਹਿਰ, ਜ਼ਮੀਨ, ਗਜ਼ਲ, etc. are derived from irani and Arabic. After the fall of the Sikh empire, Urdu was made the official lyric of Punjab ( in Pakistani Punjab, it is inactive the chief official speech ), and influenced the language equally well. [ 18 ] In fact, the sounds of ਜ਼, ਖ਼, ਸ਼, and ਫ਼ have been borrowed from Persian. subsequently, it was lexically influenced by Portuguese ( words like ਅਲਮਾਰੀ/الماری ), Greek ( words like ਦਾਮ/دام ), Chagatai ( words like ਕ਼ੈੰਚੀ, ਸੁਗ਼ਾਤ/قینچی،سوغات ), japanese ( words like ਰਿਕਸ਼ਾ/رکشا ), Chinese ( words like ਚਾਹ, ਲੀਚੀ, ਲੁਕਾਠ/چاہ، لیچی، لکاٹھ ) and English ( words like ਜੱਜ, ਅਪੀਲ, ਮਾਸਟਰ/جج، اپیل، ماسٹر ), though these influences have been minor in comparison to Persian and Arabic. [ 19 ]

English Gurmukhi-based (Punjab, India) Shahmukhi-based (Punjab, Pakistan)
President

ਰਾਸ਼ਟਰਪਤੀ

( rāshtarpatī)

صدرمملکت

( sadar-e mumlikat)

Article

ਲੇਖ

( lēkh)

مضمون

( mazmūn)

Prime Minister

ਪਰਧਾਨ ਮੰਤਰੀ

( pardhān mantarī)*

وزیراعظم

( vazīr-e aʿzam)

Family

ਪਰਿਵਾਰ

( parivār)*

ਟੱਬਰ

( ṭabbar)

ਲਾਣਾ

( lāṇā)

خاندان

( kḥāndān)

ٹبّر

( ṭabbar)

Philosophy

ਫ਼ਲਸਫ਼ਾ

( falsafā)

ਦਰਸ਼ਨ

( darshan)

فلسفہ

( falsafah)

Capital city

ਰਾਜਧਾਨੀ

( rājdhānī)

دارالحکومت

( dār-al ḥakūmat)

Viewer

ਦਰਸ਼ਕ

( darshak)

ناظرین

( nāzarīn)

Listener

ਸਰੋਤਾ

( sarotā)

سامع

( sāmaʿ)

note : In more formal context, hypercorrect Sanskritized versions of these words ( ਪ੍ਰਧਾਨ pradhān for ਪਰਧਾਨ pardhān and ਪਰਿਵਾਰ parivār for ਪਰਵਾਰ parvār ) may be used .

Modern times [edit ]

Punjabi is spoken in many dialects in an sphere from Delhi to Islamabad. The Majhi dialect has been adopted as standard Punjabi in India and Pakistan for education, media etc. The Majhi dialect originated in the Majha region of the Punjab. The Majha region consists of respective eastern districts of Pakistani Punjab and in India around Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Pathankot and Tarn Taran districts. The two most authoritative cities in this area are Lahore and Amritsar. In India, Punjabi is written in the Gurmukhī script in offices, schools, and media. Gurmukhi is the official standard script for Punjabi, though it is often unofficially written in the Latin scripts due to influence from English, India ‘s two basal official languages at the Union -level. In Pakistan, Punjabi is broadly written using the Shahmukhī script, which in literary standards, is identical to the Urdu alphabet, however assorted attempts have been made to create sealed, distinct characters from a modification of the Persian Nastaʿlīq characters to represent Punjabi phonology, not already found in the Urdu rudiment. In Pakistan, Punjabi loans technical words from iranian and Arabic languages, good like Urdu does .

geographic distribution [edit ]

Punjabi is the most widely speak language in Pakistan, the eleventh-most wide spoken in India, and besides present in the Punjabi diaspora in assorted countries .

pakistan [edit ]

Punjabi is the most widely talk terminology in Pakistan, being the native speech of 80.5 million people, or approximately 39 % of the area ‘s population .

Census history of Punjabi speakers in Pakistan[20][21]
Year Population of Pakistan Percentage Punjabi speakers
1951 33,740,167 57.08% 22,632,905
1961 42,880,378 56.39% 28,468,282
1972 65,309,340 56.11% 43,176,004
1981 84,253,644 48.17% 40,584,980
1998 132,352,279 44.15% 58,433,431
2017 207,685,000 38.78% 80,540,000

Beginning with the 1981 census, speakers of Saraiki and Hindko were no longer included in the total numbers for Punjabi, which explains the apparent decrease .

India [edit ]

Punjabi is the official terminology of the indian state of Punjab, and has the status of an extra official language in Haryana and Delhi. Some of its major urban centres in northern India are Amritsar, Ludhiana, Chandigarh, Jalandhar, Ambala, Patiala, Bathinda, Hoshiarpur and Delhi .
Punjabi in india In the 2011 census of India, 31.14 million reported their linguistic process as Punjabi. The census publications group this with speakers of relate “ mother tongues ” like Bagri and Bhateali to arrive at the name of 33.12 million. [ 22 ]

Census history of Punjabi speakers in India[23]
Year Population of India Punjabi speakers in India Percentage
1971 548,159,652 14,108,443 2.57%
1981 665,287,849 19,611,199 2.95%
1991 838,583,988 23,378,744 2.79%
2001 1,028,610,328 29,102,477 2.83%
2011 1,210,193,422 33,124,726 2.74%

Punjabi diaspora [edit ]

Punjabi is besides spoken as a minority terminology in several early countries where Punjabi people have emigrated in large numbers, such as the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, and Canada. [ 24 ] There were 0.5 million native Punjabi speakers in Canada in 2016, [ 25 ] 0.3 million in the United Kingdom in 2011, [ 26 ] 0.28 million in the United States [ 27 ] and smaller numbers in other countries .

major dialects [edit ]

All Punjabi Dialects

Standard Punjabi [edit ]

Standard Punjabi sometimes referred to as Majhi in India or just Punjabi, is the most far-flung and largest dialect of Punjabi. It first developed in the twelfth century and gained prominence when Sufi poets such as Shah Hussain, Bulleh Shah among others began to use the Lahore/Amritsar spoken dialect with inculcate persian vocabulary in their works in the Shahmukhi script. [ 28 ] Later the Gurmukhi script was developed based on Standard Punjabi by the Sikh Gurus. [ 29 ] Standard Punjabi is spoken by the majority of the people in Faisalabad, Lahore, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Kasur, Sialkot, Narowal, Gujrat, Okara, Pakpattan, Sahiwal, Hafizabad, Nankana Sahib and Mandi Bahauddin districts of Pakistan ‘s Punjab Province. It besides has a large presence in every zone in the perch of Pakistani Punjab, and in all large cities in Pakistan ‘s other provinces. In India it is spoken in Amritsar, Tarn Taran Sahib, Pathankot and Gurdaspur Districts of the State of Punjab and ample population besides in major cities of the States of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi and Mumbai India. In Pakistan, the Standard Punjabi dialect is not referred to as the ‘ Majhi dialect ‘, which may be considered as ‘Indian terminology ‘, rather merely as ‘ Standard Punjabi ‘. This dialect is widely used in the television and entertainment diligence, which is chiefly produced in Lahore .

phonology [edit ]

While a vowel length distinction between curtly and long vowels exists, reflected in modern Gurmukhi orthographical conventions, it is secondary to the vowel quality contrast between centralised vowels /ɪ ə ʊ/ and peripheral vowels /iː eː ɛː aː ɔː oː uː/ in terms of phonetic significance .

Vowels
Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close

اِی

اُو

Near-close ɪ

اِ

ʊ

اُ

Close-mid

اے

او

Mid ə

اَ

Open-mid ɛː

اَے

ɔː

اَو

Open

آ

The peripheral vowels have nasal analogues .

Consonants
Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Retroflex Post-alv./
Palatal
Velar Glottal
Nasal m

م

n

ن

ɳ

ݨ

(ɲ

ن

(ŋ

ن٘

Stop/
Affricate
tenuis p

پ

t

ت

ʈ

ٹ

t͡ʃ

چ

k

ک

aspirated

پھ

تھ

ʈʰ

ٹھ

t͡ʃʰ

Read more: Ryobi Reels History

چھ

کھ

voiced b

ب

d

د

ɖ

ڈ

d͡ʒ

ج

ɡ

گ

tonic

بھ

دھ

ڈھ

جھ

گھ

Fricative unvoiced (f

ਫ਼

ف)

s

س

ʃ

ਸ਼

ش

(x

ਖ਼

خ)

voiced (z

ਜ਼

ز)

(ɣ

ਗ਼

غ)

ɦ

ہ

Rhotic ɾr

ر

ɽ

ڑ

Approximant ʋ

و

l

ل

ɭ

ਲ਼

لؕ[32]

j

ی

note : for the tonal stops, refer to the future section about Tone. The three cacuminal consonants /ɳ, ɽ, ɭ/ do not occur initially, and the nasals /ŋ, ɲ/ occur only as allophones of /n/ in clusters with velars and palatals. The well-established phoneme /ʃ/ may be realised allophonically as the aphonic retroflex fricative /ʂ/ in learn clusters with retroflexes. The phonemic condition of the fricatives /f, z, x, ɣ/ varies with familiarity with Hindustani norms, more so with the Gurmukhi script, with the pairs /f, pʰ/, /z, d͡ʒ/, /x, kʰ/, and /ɣ, g/ systematically distinguished in educate manner of speaking. The retroflex lateral pass is most normally analysed as an approximant as opposed to a flap. [ 35 ] [ 36 ]

tone [edit ]

unusually for an indic terminology, Punjabi distinguishes lexical tones. [ 37 ] In many words there is a choice of up to three tones, high-falling, low-rising, and level ( neutral ) : [ 38 ] [ 39 ] [ 40 ]

Gurmukhi Shahmukhi Transliteration Tone Meaning

ਘਰ

گھر

kàr high-falling house

ਕਰ੍ਹ

کرھ

kár low-rising dandruff

ਕਰ

کر

kar level do

ਘੋੜਾ

گھوڑا

kòṛā high-falling horse

ਕੋੜ੍ਹਾ

کوڑھا

kóṛā low-rising leper

ਕੋੜਾ

کوڑا

kōṛā level whip

Level tone is found in about 75 % of words and is described by some as absence of tone. [ 38 ] There are besides some words which are said to have rising tone in the first syllable and falling in the second. ( Some writers describe this as a fourth note. ) [ 38 ] however, a recent acoustic study of six Punjabi speakers in the United States found no evidence of a offprint falling tone following a medial consonant. [ 41 ]

  • ਮੋਢਾ

    /

    موڈھا

    , móḍà (rising-falling), “shoulder”

Some Punjabi discrete tones for gh, jh, ḍh, dh, bohrium It is considered that these tones arose when voiced aspirated consonants ( gh, jh, ḍh, dh, bh ) lost their aspiration. At the begin of a discussion they became breathed unaspirated consonants ( k, c, ṭ, t, p ) followed by a high-falling tone ; medially or ultimately they became voiced unaspirated consonants ( g, j, ḍ, d, b ), preceded by a low-rising tone. ( The development of a high-falling spirit apparently did not take place in every give voice, but only in those which historically had a long vowel. ) [ 40 ] The bearing of an [ hydrogen ] ( although the [ heat content ] is now mum or very decrepit pronounced except word-initially ) word-finally ( and sometimes medially ) besides much causes a rising tone before it, for model cá(h) “ tea ”. [ 42 ] The Gurmukhi handwriting which was developed in the sixteenth century has separate letters for voiced aspirate sounds, so it is thought that the change in pronunciation of the consonants and development of tones may have taken place since that time. [ 40 ] Some other languages in Pakistan have besides been found to have tonal distinctions, including Burushaski, Gujari, Hindko, Kalami, Shina, and Torwali. [ 43 ]

grammar [edit ]

The 35 traditional characters of the Gurmukhi script Punjabi has a canonic give voice decree of SOV ( subject–object–verb ). [ 44 ] It has postpositions rather than prepositions. [ 45 ] Punjabi distinguishes two genders, two numbers, and five cases of steer, oblique, vocative, ablative, and locative role / implemental. The ablative occurs lone in the remarkable, in release version with oblique case plus ablative postposition, and the locative/instrumental is normally confined to set adverbial expressions. [ 46 ] Adjectives, when declinable, are marked for the gender, act, and case of the nouns they qualify. [ 47 ] There is besides a T-V distinction. Upon the inflectional character is built a system of particles known as postpositions, which parallel English ‘s prepositions. It is their use with a noun or verb that is what necessitates the noun or verb taking the external oblique muscle case, and it is with them that the locus of grammatical affair or “ case-marking ” then lies. The Punjabi verbal system is largely structured around a combination of aspect and tense / mood. Like the nominal system, the Punjabi verb takes a unmarried inflectional suffix, and is frequently followed by consecutive layers of elements like aide verbs and postpositions to the right of the lexical al-qaeda. [ 48 ]

vocabulary [edit ]

Being an indic terminology, the core vocabulary of Punjabi consists of tadbhav words inherited from Sanskrit. [ 49 ] [ 50 ] It contains many loanwords from irani and Arabic. [ 49 ]

Writing systems [edit ]

Gurmukhi writing system on a sample logo The Punjabi terminology is written in multiple scripts ( a phenomenon known as synchronous digraphia ). Each of the major scripts presently in function is typically associated with a particular religious group, although the association is not absolute or exclusive. In India, Punjabi Sikhs use Gurmukhi, a handwriting of the Brahmic family, which has official condition in the state of Punjab. In Pakistan, Punjabi Muslims use Shahmukhi, a form of the Perso-Arabic script and close related to the Urdu rudiment. The Punjabi Hindus in India had a predilection for Devanagari, another Brahmic handwriting besides used for Hindi, and in the first decades since independence raised objections to the undifferentiated adoption of Gurmukhi in the state of Punjab, but most have immediately switched to Gurmukhi and so the use of Devanagari is rare. Often in literature, Pakistani Punjabi ( written in Shahmukhi ) is referred as Western-Punjabi ( or West-Punjabi ) and indian Punjabi ( written in Gurmukhi ) is referred as Eastern-Punjabi ( or East-Punjabi ), although the underlie language is the lapp with a very slight shift in vocabulary towards Islamic and Sikh words respectively. [ 57 ] historically, versatile local Brahmic scripts including Laṇḍā and its descendants were besides in habit. The Punjabi Braille is used by the visually impaired .

Sample text [edit ]

This sample text was taken from the Punjabi Wikipedia article on Lahore. Gurmukhi ਲਹੌਰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨੀ ਪੰਜਾਬ ਦੀ ਰਾਜਧਾਨੀ [ … ] ਹੈ। ਲੋਕ ਗਿਣਤੀ ਦੇ ਨਾਲ ਕਰਾਚੀ ਤੋਂ ਬਾਅਦ ਲਹੌਰ ਦੂਜਾ ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਵੱਡਾ ਸ਼ਹਿਰ ਹੈ। ਲਹੌਰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਦਾ ਸਿਆਸੀ, ਰਹਤਲੀ ਅਤੇ ਪੜ੍ਹਾਈ ਦਾ ਗੜ੍ਹ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਇਸੇ ਲਈ ਇਹਨੂੰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਦਾ ਦਿਲ ਵੀ ਕਿਹਾ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ। ਲਹੌਰ ਰਾਵੀ ਦਰਿਆ ਦੇ ਕੰਢੇ ‘ਤੇ ਵਸਦਾ ਹੈ। ਇਸਦੀ ਲੋਕ ਗਿਣਤੀ ਇੱਕ ਕਰੋੜ ਦੇ ਨੇੜੇ ਹੈ| Shahmukhi لہور پاکستانی پن٘جاب دا دارالحکومت ہے۔ لوک گݨتی دے نال کراچی توں بعد لہور دوجا سبھ توں وڈا شہر ہے۔ لہور پاکستان دا سیاسی، رہتلی اتے پڑھائی دا گڑھ ہے اتے، اسے لئی ایہہ نوں پاکستان دا دل وی کہا جاندا اے۔ لہور راوی دریا دے کنڈھے تے وسدا اے۔ ایسدی لوک گݨتی اک کروڑ دے نیڑے اے۔ Transliteration Lahaur Pākistānī Panjāb dī rājtā̀ni/dā dārul hakūmat ài. Lok giṇtī de nāḷ Karācī tõ bāad Lahaur dūjā sáb tõ vaḍḍā šáir ài. Lahaur Pākistān dā siāsī, rátalī ate paṛā̀ī dā gáṛ ài te ise laī ínū̃ Pākistān dā dil vī kihā jāndā ài. Lahaur Rāvī dariā de káṇḍè te vasdā ài. Isdī lok giṇtī ikk karoṛ de neṛe ài. IPA [ ləɔːɾᵊ paːkɪstaːniː pənd͡ʒaːbᵊ diː ɾaːd͡ʒᵊtàːni : /daː daːɾəl hʊkuːmət ɦɛ̀ː ‖ lo : kᵊ ɡɪɳᵊtiː de naːlᵊ kəɾaːt͡ʃiː tõ : baːədᵊ ləɦɔːɾᵊ duːd͡ʒaː sə́bᵊ tõ : ʋəɖːaː ʃəɦɪɾ ɦɛ̀ː ‖ ləɔːɾᵊ paːkɪstaːnᵊ daː sɪaːsiː | ɾə́ɦtəliː əte : pəɽàːiː daː ɡə́ɽ ɦɛ̀ː əte : ɪse : ləiː ɪ́ɦnū̃ paːkɪstaːnᵊ daː dɪlᵊ ʋiː kɪɦaː d͡ʒa : ndaː ɛ̀ː ‖ ləɔːɾᵊ ɾaːʋiː dəɾɪa : delaware : kə́ɳɖe : tellurium : ʋəsᵊdaː ɛ̀ː ‖ ɪsᵊdiː lo : kᵊ ɡɪɳᵊtiː ɪkːᵊ kəɾo : ɽᵊ de : neon : ɽe : ɛ̀ː ‖ ] Translation lahore is the capital city of Pakistani Punjab. After Karachi, Lahore is the second largest city. Lahore is Pakistan ‘s political, cultural, and educational hub, and so it is besides said to be the heart of Pakistan. Lahore lies on the savings bank of the Ravi River. Its population is close to ten million people .

literature development [edit ]

Medieval era, Mughal and Sikh menstruation [edit ]

The Janamsakhis, stories on the life and caption of Guru Nanak ( 1469–1539 ), are early examples of Punjabi prose literature .

  • The Punjabi language is famous for its rich literature of qisse, most of which are about love, passion, betrayal, sacrifice, social values and a common man’s revolt against a larger system. The qissa of Heer Ranjha by Waris Shah (1706–1798) is among the most popular of Punjabi qissas. Other popular stories include Sohni Mahiwal by Fazal Shah, Mirza Sahiban by Hafiz Barkhudar (1658–1707), Sassui Punnhun by Hashim Shah (c. 1735–c. 1843), and Qissa Puran Bhagat by Qadaryar (1802–1892).[ citation needed]
  • Heroic ballads known as Vaar enjoy a rich oral tradition in Punjabi. Famous Vaars are Chandi di Var (1666–1708), Nadir Shah Di Vaar by Najabat and the Jangnama of Shah Mohammad (1780–1862).[61]

british Raj earned run average and post-independence period [edit ]

The priggish novel, Elizabethan drama, barren poetry and Modernism entered Punjabi literature through the introduction of british education during the Raj. Nanak Singh ( 1897–1971 ), Vir Singh, Ishwar Nanda, Amrita Pritam ( 1919–2005 ), Puran Singh ( 1881–1931 ), Dhani Ram Chatrik ( 1876–1957 ), Diwan Singh ( 1897–1944 ) and Ustad Daman ( 1911–1984 ), Mohan Singh ( 1905–78 ) and Shareef Kunjahi are some legendary Punjabi writers of this period. After independence of Pakistan and India Najm Hossein Syed, Fakhar Zaman and Afzal Ahsan Randhawa, Shafqat Tanvir Mirza, Ahmad Salim, and Najm Hosain Syed, Munir Niazi, Ali Arshad Mir, Pir Hadi Abdul Mannan enriched Punjabi literature in Pakistan, whereas Jaswant Singh Kanwal ( 1919–2020 ), Amrita Pritam ( 1919–2005 ), Jaswant Singh Rahi ( 1930–1996 ), Shiv Kumar Batalvi ( 1936–1973 ), Surjit Patar ( 1944– ) and Pash ( 1950–1988 ) are some of the more outstanding poets and writers from India .

status [edit ]

Despite Punjabi ‘s ample literary history, it was not until 1947 that it would be recognised as an official language. former governments in the area of the Punjab had favoured Persian, Hindustani, or even earlier standardize versions of local registers as the language of the court or government. After the annexation of the Sikh Empire by the british East India Company following the irregular Anglo-Sikh War in 1849, the british policy of establishing a uniform linguistic process for administration was expanded into the Punjab. The british Empire employed Urdu in its government of North-Central and Northwestern India, while in the North-East of India, Bengali terminology was used as the language of administration. Despite its miss of official authority, the Punjabi linguistic process continued to flourish as an instrument of cultural production, with rich literary traditions continuing until mod times. The Sikh religion, with its Gurmukhi script, played a special character in standardising and providing education in the lyric via Gurdwaras, while writers of all religions continued to produce poetry, prose, and literature in the lyric. In India, Punjabi is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. It is the first official terminology of the amerind State of Punjab. Punjabi besides has second language official condition in Delhi along with Urdu, and in Haryana. In Pakistan, no regional heathen linguistic process has been granted official status at the national flat, and as such Punjabi is not an official speech at the national level, even though it is the most spoken speech in Pakistan. It is, however, the official provincial linguistic process of Punjab, Pakistan, the second gear largest and the most populous province of Pakistan adenine well as in Islamabad Capital Territory. The lone two official languages in Pakistan are Urdu and English. [ 62 ]

In Pakistan [edit ]

A presentation by Punjabis at Lahore, Pakistan, demanding to make Punjabi as official speech of instruction in schools in Punjab When Pakistan was created in 1947, despite Punjabi being the majority language in West Pakistan and Bengali the majority in East Pakistan and Pakistan as whole, english and Urdu were chosen as the home languages. The selection of Urdu was due to its association with South asian Muslim nationalism and because the leaders of the new nation wanted a unite national language alternatively of promoting one cultural group ‘s language over another. air in Punjabi speech by Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation decreased on television receiver and radio after 1947. Article 251 of the Constitution of Pakistan declares that these two languages would be the only official languages at the national level, while provincial governments would be allowed to make provisions for the function of early languages. [ 63 ] however, in the 1950s the constitution was amended to include the Bengali language. finally, Punjabi was granted condition as a provincial speech in Punjab Province, while the Sindhi lyric was given official status in 1972 after 1972 Language violence in Sindh .
Despite gaining official recognition at the provincial flat, Punjabi is not a language of direction for primary or secondary school students in Punjab Province ( unlike Sindhi and Pashto in other provinces ). [ 64 ] Pupils in secondary schools can choose the linguistic process as an elective, while Punjabi education or study remains rare in higher education. One luminary example is the teach of Punjabi language and literature by the University of the Punjab in Lahore which began in 1970 with the constitution of its Punjabi Department. [ 65 ] [ 66 ] In the cultural sphere, there are many books, plays, and songs being written or produced in the Punjabi-language in Pakistan. Until the 1970s, there were a large number of Punjabi-language films being produced by the Lollywood film diligence, however since then Urdu has become a much more dominant allele language in film production. additionally, television channels in Punjab Province ( centred on the Lahore area ) are broadcast in Urdu. The eminence of Urdu in both circulate and the Lollywood film industry is seen by critics as being damaging to the health of the terminology. [ 67 ] [ 68 ] The use of Urdu and English as the about exclusive languages of broadcast medium, the populace sector, and formal education have led some to fear that Punjabi in Pakistan is being relegated to a low-status language and that it is being denied an environment where it can flourish. respective big educational leaders, researchers, and social commentators have echoed the opinion that the intentional forwarding of Urdu and the continued defense of any official authority or recognition of the Punjabi language amounts to a serve of “ Urdu-isation ” that is damaging to the health of the Punjabi language [ 69 ] [ 70 ] [ 71 ] In August 2015, the Pakistan Academy of Letters, International Writer ‘s Council ( IWC ) and World Punjabi Congress ( WPC ) organised the Khawaja Farid Conference and demanded that a Punjabi-language university should be established in Lahore and that Punjabi language should be declared as the medium of education at the primary level. [ 72 ] [ 73 ] In September 2015, a character was filed in Supreme Court of Pakistan against Government of Punjab, Pakistan as it did not take any step to implement the Punjabi speech in the state. [ 74 ] [ 75 ] Additionally, several thousand Punjabis assemble in Lahore every class on International Mother Language Day. Thinktanks, political organisations, cultural projects, and individuals besides demand authorities at the home and provincial charge to promote the function of the lyric in the populace and official spheres. [ 76 ] [ 77 ] [ 78 ]

In India [edit ]

At the union level, Punjabi has official condition via the Eighth Schedule to the indian Constitution, [ 79 ] earned after the Punjabi Suba movement of the 1950s. [ 80 ] At the state tied, Punjabi is the sole official lyric of the department of state of Punjab, while it has junior-grade official status in the states of Haryana and Delhi. [ 81 ] In 2012, it was besides made extra official language of West Bengal in areas where the population exceeds 10 % of a particular pulley, sub-division or district. [ 6 ] Both union and state laws specify the use of Punjabi in the battlefield of education. The express of Punjab uses the Three Language Formula, and Punjabi is required to be either the culture medium of education, or one of the three languages learnt in all schools in Punjab. [ 82 ] Punjabi is besides a compulsory speech in Haryana, [ 83 ] and other states with a meaning Punjabi public speaking minority are required to offer Punjabi medium department of education. [ dubious – discuss ] There are vibrant Punjabi terminology movie and newsworthiness industries in India, however Punjabi serials have had a much smaller presence within the survive few decades in television receiver due to market forces. [ 84 ] Despite Punjabi having far greater official recognition in India, where the Punjabi linguistic process is formally admitted in all necessary sociable functions, while in Pakistan it is used only in a few radio and television programs, attitudes of the English-educated elite towards the language are ambivalent as they are in neighbouring Pakistan. [ 79 ] : 37 There are besides claims of express apathy towards the terminology in non-Punjabi majority areas like Haryana and Delhi. [ 85 ] [ 86 ] [ 87 ]

advocacy [edit ]

  • Punjabi University was established on 30 April 1962, and is only the second university in the world to be named after a language, after Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The Research Centre for Punjabi Language Technology, Punjabi University, Patiala[88] is working for development of core technologies for Punjabi, Digitisation of basic materials, online Punjabi teaching, developing software for office use in Punjabi, providing common platform to Punjabi cyber community.[89] Punjabipedia, an online encyclopaedia was also launched by Patiala university in 2014.[90][91]
  • The Dhahan Prize was created to award literary works produced in Punjabi around the world. The Prize encourages new writing by awarding $25,000 CDN annually to one “best book of fiction” published in either of the two Punjabi scripts, Gurmukhi or Shahmukhi. Two second prizes of $5,000 CDN are also awarded, with the provision that both scripts are represented among the three winners. The Dhahan Prize is awarded by Canada India Education Society (CIES).[92]

governmental academies and institutes [edit ]

The Punjabi Sahit academy, Ludhiana, established in 1954 [ 93 ] [ 94 ] is supported by the Punjab submit politics and works entirely for promotion of the Punjabi language, as does the Punjabi academy in Delhi. [ 95 ] The Jammu and Kashmir academy of art, culture and literature [ 96 ] in Jammu and Kashmir UT, India works for Punjabi and early regional languages like Urdu, Dogri, Gojri etc. Institutions in neighbouring states [ 97 ] vitamin a well as in Lahore, Pakistan [ 98 ] besides advocate for the language .

software [edit ]

gallery [edit ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

Citations [edit ]

Sources [edit ]

far reading [edit ]

  • Bhatia, Tej. 1993 and 2010. Punjabi : a cognitive-descriptive grammar. London: Routledge. Series: Descriptive grammars.
  • Gill H.S. [Harjit Singh] and Gleason, H.A. 1969. A reference grammar of Punjabi. Revised edition. Patiala, Punjab, India: Languages Department, Punjab University.
  • Chopra, R. M., Perso-Arabic Words in Punjabi, in: Indo-Iranica Vol.53 (1–4).
  • Chopra, R. M.., The Legacy of The Punjab, 1997, Punjabee Bradree, Calcutta.
  • Singh, Chander Shekhar (2004). Punjabi Prosody: The Old Tradition and The New Paradigm. Sri Lanka: Polgasowita: Sikuru Prakasakayo.
  • Singh, Chander Shekhar (2014). Punjabi Intonation: An Experimental Study. Muenchen: LINCOM EUROPA.

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