18th sovereign of Ayutthaya Kingdom
This article is about the thai king. For other uses, see Naresuan ( disambiguation )
King Naresuan the Great ( ( Thai : สมเด็จพระนเรศวรมหาราช, RTGS : Somdet Phra Naresuan Maharat, pronounced [ sǒmdèt pʰráʔ nārēːsǔa̯n māhǎːrâːt ] ( help · information ) ) or Sanphet II ( Thai : สรรเพชญ์ที่ ๒ ), ( burmese : နရဲစွမ် ( သို့ ) ဗြနရာဇ် ) ; 1555/1556 – 25 April 1605 ) was the eighteenth sovereign of Ayutthaya Kingdom and 2nd sovereign of the Sukhothai dynasty. He was the king of the Ayutthaya Kingdom from 1590 and overlord of Lan Na from 1602 until his end in 1605. Naresuan is one of Thailand ‘s most reverence monarch as he is known for his campaigns to free Ayutthaya from the serfdom of the Taungoo Empire. During his reign, numerous wars were fought against Taungoo Burma. Naresuan besides welcomed the Dutch. [ 2 ] : 242

early animation [edit ]

Prince Naret ( Thai : พระนเรศ ) was born in Phitsanulok in 1555–56. [ bill 1 ] He was the son of King Mahathammarachathirat of Phitsanulok and his queen choir, Wisutkasat. His mother was a daughter of Maha Chakkraphat and queen consort Suriyothai. His church father was a Sukhothai lord who had defeated Worawongsathirat in 1548 and put Maha Chakkraphat on the toilet. Prince Naret, besides known as the “ Black Prince ” ( Thai : พระองค์ดำ ), had a younger brother Ekathotsarot, known as the “ White prince ”, and an elder baby, Suphankanlaya. [ 2 ] : 67 During the siege of Ayutthaya during the Burmese–Siamese War ( 1563–64 ), King Bayinnaung of the Toungoo dynasty of Bago, Burma ( once known in Burmese as Hanthawaddy ( burmese : ဟံသာဝတီ and in Thai as RTGS : Hongsawadi หงสาวดี ) led a massive army, invading the country and laying siege to Phitsanulok. Maha Thammarachathirat came to believe that the city would not be able to withstand a long siege due to a scarcity of food and a smallpox outbreak, so he surrendered the city. King Bayinnaung took Phitsanulok and Ayutthaya, and made Thailand a burmese tributary department of state. [ 3 ] He required Maha Thammarachathirat to send his son—the Black Prince—to Bago as a imperial hostage to ensure the king ‘s fidelity. [ 2 ] : 36, 67

At Bago [edit ]

The Burmese–Siamese War ( 1568–69 ) was ended by Bayinnaung, who installed Maha Thammaracha as a vassal king of Ayutthaya. [ 4 ] After six years in Pegu, c. 1570, Prince Naret and his brother the White Prince returned to Ayutthaya. [ 2 ] : 63, 67, 75 While in Burma, “ he followed the best of burmese military train, ” studying alongside the “ elite of Burmese youth, sons of princes and nobles. ” “ Besides being gifted in military art, Naresuan who was highly intelligent, gained a capital softwood of general cognition of the times. ” [ 5 ] : 43

viceroy [edit ]

Maha Thammaracha made Naret the Uparaja ( “ crown prince ” ) of Phitsanulok as Naresuan at the old age of 15. [ 2 ] : 67–68, 75 [ note 2 ] Naresuan joined his don and the King of Bago in an dispatch to conquer Vientiane, the capital of the restore Lan Xang, but he contracted smallpox and had to return. He built Chankasem Palace in Ayutthaya as a residence when he visited his parents. [ 2 ] : 77

cambodian attacks on Ayutthaya [edit ]

In 1570, after seeing the fall of Ayutthaya to the Burmese, Baraminreachea, the Khmer King, took an opportunity to retake the lands lost to the Siamese. He amassed an army of 20,000 men and captured Nakhon Nayok. He continued to march to Ayutthaya and set up clique at Ban Krathum sub-district. After setting up camp, he besides planned to attack the city. The cambodian dark blue of 50 ships soon arrived at Bangkok and besieged it. [ 6 ] King Maha Thammarachathirat issued a command to defend Ayutthaya. The cambodian besieged Ayutthaya for 3 days, but the city stood strong. The cambodian army was forced to retreat back to Cambodia and took a boastfully number of prisoners with them. [ 7 ] In 1574, when the Ayutthayan Army under the command of King Maha Thammarachathirat and King Naresuan was assisting Bayinnaung in his campaign to attack Lanxang, Baraminreachea took the opportunity to attack Ayutthaya again. fortunately, King Naresuan contracted smallpox and was forced to return to Ayutthaya to recover. When he got back to Ayutthaya, the cambodian Navy was present and besieging Nai Kai fortress. The fortress fell to the cambodian forces. King Naresuan lured the cambodian dark blue up the river where they met the thai artillery. After arduous barrage, the cambodian navy was forced to retreat. In 1578, Phraya Chin Chantu, a chinese noble serving under Cambodia attacked the city of Phetchaburi. The attack failed and Phraya Chin Chantu was besides afraid to go back to Cambodia. He was allowed to take recourse in Ayutthaya by Maha Thammaracha. concisely thereafter, he boarded a debris and fled. At that fourth dimension, King Naresuan was 24 years old and was aware that Phraya Chin Chantu was a cambodian agent who took recourse in Ayutthaya under false pretenses to gather information on the thai court. He ordered siamese boats to chase Phraya Chin Chantu ‘s junk. Since chinese junks are much bigger than siamese cat junks and were more befit for sailing out to sea, Phraya Chin Chantu was able to escape. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] In 1580, Baraminreachea still believed Siam was weak and ordered Thotsa Racha and Surin Racha to invade Siam with a force of 5,000 men. The force consisted with elephants and cavalry. The plan was to raid cities around Ayutthaya such as Saraburi and capture loot and people. [ 10 ] Naresuan led a force of 3,000 men out of Ayutthaya to engage the Khmer united states army. The Khmer united states army was destroyed and forced to retreat back to Cambodia. This conflict made King Naresuan revered among the Siamese and Burmese courts. As a result of this, the Khmers did not dare to attack Thailand again. [ 11 ]

Wars with the Taungoo Dynasty [edit ]

King Naresuan shot his artillery across the river of Satong, killing Surakamma, chief of the burmese army. In 1581, Bayinnaung died, and was succeeded by his son Nanda Bayin. Nanda ‘s uncle Viceroy Thado Minsaw of Ava then rebelled in 1583, forcing Nanda Bayin to call upon the viceroy of Prome, Taungoo, Chiang Mai, Vientiane, and Ayutthaya for aid in suppressing the rebellion. On 2 February 1584, Naresuan left with his troops to Bago as ordered, and arrived at the boundary line only in April. [ note 3 ] According to Damrong, this raised Nanda ‘s suspicions, who ordered his son, the Maha Uparaja Mingyi Swa, to remain in the capital and kill Naresuan. [ 2 ] : 79, 83–84 The burmese chronicles say that Nanda made the decision to have Mingyi Swa guard Pegu anterior to his march to Ava on 25 March 1584. [ note 4 ] According to Damrong, Naresuan reached Kraeng the edge township, where he learned that Phraya Ram and Phraya Kiet had been sent by the Maha Uparat to attack Naresuan from the rise while Maha Uparat attacked from the front. Naresuan called a council, which included priests, Phraya Kiat, Phraya Ram, and other Mons. Naresuan then “ pour water on the ground from a gold goblet to proclaim to the devatas in the presence of the persons assembled, that from that day forth Siam had severed friendship with Hongsawadi and was no longer in amity as of yore. ” [ 2 ] : 85–86 According to Damrong, Naresuan then levied the Mons to join his political campaign and marched onto Bago, intending to free the thai families held captive there. however, Nanda Bayin had already defeated the viceroy of Inwa and was returning to his das kapital. Naresuan then retreated after freeing about 10,000 families. Mingyi Swa pursued with Surakamma in the promote element. The Burmese caught up with the Siamese at the Satong River. There Surakamma was killed by “ the royal gunman used by Somdet Phra Naresuan while crossing the Satong river ”. This sent the Maha Uparat ‘s troops into a panicky retirement, prompting him to return to the das kapital. [ 2 ] : 87–88 Naresuan then held the “ ceremony of swearing allegiance ” with the people of Sukhothai, drinking water from the hallowed pond of Puay Si. His forces then took Sawankhalok. In 1584 Naresuan brought down all of the men from the northern provinces to the thai capital of Ayutthaya in training for the attack of the Bago united states army. [ 2 ] : 92–93 In the same year Nanda Bayin sent two separate armies, one under his uncle the viceroy of Pathein, and another from Chiang Mai under his younger brother Noratra Mangsosri. Both were defeated in separate engagements before they could unite, and were driven back in retirement. [ 2 ] : 94–98 then in 1586, [ note 5 ] Naresuan defeated the Viceroy of Chiang Mai near Pa Mok and Bang Kaeo, capturing his camp at Ban Saket with 10,000 soldiers, 120 elephants, 100 horses, 400 boats plus arms, ammunition, and provisions. [ 2 ] : 99–107 In October 1586, [ note 6 ] Nanda Bayin himself led the Burmese armies to Ayutthaya and begin the third gear invasion of Ayutthaya. Nanda Bayin armies laid siege to the city for five months, but failed to take the city due to an aggressive defense by Naresuan. He retreated. [ 2 ] : 108–115 In 1590, Maha Thammarachathirat died. In July 1590, [ note 7 ] Naresuan was crowned King of Ayutthaya as Sanphet II. The burmese army led by Phra Maha Uparat attacked Siam again, but Naresuan defeated it near Ban Khoi. The burmese united states army retreated back to Bago, losing many men, elephants, horses, arms, and ammunition. [ 2 ] : 116–119

Reign as King of Ayutthaya [edit ]

The elephant battle [edit ]

King Naresuan is known in Thailand for his 1593 elephant duel with Crown Prince Mingyi Swa. however, most other accounts of the era mention an elephant struggle but not a formal duel .

Ayutthaya history narrative [edit ]

In November 1592, [ note 8 ] Nanda Bayin ordered his son to attack Ayutthaya again. Mingyi Swa, Natshinnaung the son of the viceroy of Taungoo, and the viceroy of Prome formed three divisions. Mingyi Swa went through Three Pagodas Pass while the early two divisions came via Mae Lamao. The foreman of Chiang Mai sent a boat pull. Naresuan had been planning to attack Cambodia because of its edge incursions, but then adjusted to the burmese threat. Naresuan marched towards Suphan Buri and encamped his armies at Nong Sarai near the Thakhoi River. Naresuan formed a conflict plan which involved a retreat, allowing the Burmese to follow, and then attack the perturb progress with his main army. [ 2 ] : 12–130 During the battle, in January 1593, the war elephants of Naresuan, Chaophraya Chaiyanuphap, and Ekathotsarot, Chaophraya Prap Traichak, were “ in musth “ and charged into the midst of the Burmese, with only a handful to thai being able to follow them in. According to Damrong ‘s reconstruction, Naresuan, seeing Mingyi Swa on an elephant under a tree, shouted, “ My brother, why do you stay on your elephant under the shade of a tree ? Why not come out and engage in single fight to be an honor to us ? There will be no kings in future who will engage in single battle like us. ” [ 2 ] : 130–131 [ 12 ] The personal battle between Naresuan and Mingyi Swa was a highly romanticize historic scene known as the “ elephant Battle ” ( สงครามยุทธหัตถี Songkram Yuddhahatthi. [ 13 ] ) After a drawn-out duel and narrowly miss Naresuan but cutting his helmet, Naresuan was able to cut Mingyi Swa with his ngao ( glaive ). [ disputed – discuss ] Prince Somdet Phra Ekathotsarot was besides able to kill the governor of Muang Chacharo. The main thai army then arrived and the Burmese were routed and scattered. The King of Bago then ordered the other two divisions to retreat. [ 2 ] : 131–133 Naresuan ‘s ngao, Chao Phraya Prap Hongsawadi or “ Chao Phraya which defeated Bago ”, and helmet, Chao Phraya Sen Phonlaphai or “ Chao Phraya which defeated a hundred thousand soldiers ”, placid exist today. [ disputed – discuss ] Naresuan built a pagoda on the site of the elephant battle as a victory memorial. [ 2 ] : 134 Naresuan brought before a council of judges those commanders he thought had disobeyed him or were negligent in their duties ; they had been unable to follow him into the middle of the Burmese. The punishment was death. however, Somdet Phra Phanarat, a bhikkhu from Wat Yai Chai Mongkhon, calmed Naresuan enough to have the punishment rescinded. alternatively, the guilty commanders were ordered to take Dawei and Tanintharyi for redemption. [ 2 ] : 136–138

early accounts [edit ]

The Burmese chronicles, however, do not mention a duel at all. They say that the two armies engage in a battle on 8 January [ O.S. 29 December 1592 ] 1593, and Swa was felled by a shoot from a thai firearm. [ 14 ] [ 15 ] According to Terwiel, there are ten different accounts of the battle by autochthonal, european and irani authors : ( four Siamese, one Burmese, four late 16th and early seventeenth century european accounts and belated seventeenth century one Persian score ). [ 16 ] alone one Siamese history says there was a formal elephant duel between Naresuan and Swa. [ 17 ] however, Jeremias van Vliet ‘s explanation of Siam in early 1630s includes interviews with thai subjects who were contemporaries of King Naresuan and who insisted that the elephant combat, which resulted in the death of the Burmese crown prince at the hands of Naresuan ( whom the Siamese called “ the black prince ” ), did indeed happen. According to Van Vliet ‘s Description of the thai Kingdom :

[ W ] hen the Pegu prince and the young thai prince ( both seated on elephants and dressed in royal attire ) lost all self control, left both armies and attacked each other furiously. The thai prince ran his adversary with his spear through the body and took the other ‘s elephant .Jeremian van Vliet’s Description of the Kingdom of Siam (translated from Old Dutch by L. F. van Ravenswaay, 1910)[18]

In Terwiel ‘s analysis of the other accounts, however, the Burmese crown prince and Naresuan both fought on their war elephant in the conflict, although no courtly duel probably ever took place. Per Terwiel, it is highly improbable that Swa would have agreed to a formal duel since agreeing to do sol would have “ jeopardized the costly invasion that had frankincense far progressed without a limp. ” [ 19 ] During the battle, Naresuan ‘s elephant got surrounded by the burmese forces. During that all-important moment, a Burmese war elephant went musth, and attacked Swa ‘s elephant. Seeing that Swa was in difficulty, Naresuan “ closed in, and he ( or one of the warriors riding with him, possibly a portuguese ) fired a gun which mortally wounded the crown prince ” Swa. [ 20 ] Naresuan was “ golden to escape from a very dangerous site ” but besides immediate to take advantage of it. [ 21 ] According to Terwiel, the “ burmese and european accounts stayed closer to what actually may have happened ”, and “ Naresuan ‘s much repeated challenge to hold a duel, even though it looms boastfully in many Thai history books, should be relegated to a legendary fib. ” [ 20 ]

Don Chedi Monument at Suphan Buri, the royal repository of King Naresuan and the pagoda were built to commemorate the victory over the burmese troops .

Dawei and Tanintharyi [edit ]

In 1593, Naresuan sent Chao Phraya Chakri and Phraya Phra Khlang to attack Tanintharyi and Dawei, a Mon city, which fell after 15- and 20-day sieges respectfully. Nanda Bayin launched a burmese fleet to defend those cities, but arrived besides belated and was defeated by a combined Thai fleet. additionally, a domain storm marching from Mottama was ambushed by the combine Chakri and Khlang force, resulting in the capture of 11 burmese commanders, many elephants, horses, men, arms, and ammunition. [ 2 ] : 138–143

capture of Longvek [edit ]

In 1593, Naresuan then launched a successful crusade to subjugate Cambodia. He was said to have executed its king Nakphra Sattha, but this account is improbable to be true since there are no evidences that support this claim, and root on diachronic accounts in Cambodia equally well as from spanish and portuguese explorers, Nakphra Sattha was said to have escaped to Vientiane where he remained until he died. Naresuan then brought Khmer families to populate his northern provinces. [ 2 ] : 143–144

capture of Mottama [edit ]

As burmese see over the tributaries had weakened, the Mons took this opportunity to free themselves. The Mon governor of Mawlamyine rebelled against Bago and requested siamese support. Naresuan sent troops to help and the Burmese abandoned their garrison at Martaban. Nanda Bayin then sent the viceroy of Taungoo to suppress the arise, but his force was defeated. The Mon provinces then became subject to the thai Kingdom. [ 2 ] : 145–147 [ 22 ]

invasion of Bago [edit ]

King Naresuan entered Bago near Shwemawdaw Pagoda, mural from Wat Suwan Dararam, Ayutthaya, Thailand. Naresuan then decided to attack Bago in 1595. He laid siege on the city for three months before retreating when the viceroy of Prome, Taungoo, and Ava sent relief forces. Naresuan did take back many prisoners of war, lessening the fighting strength of the Burmese. [ 2 ] : 148–150 The Lord of Prome staged a rebellion against Nanda Bayin in 1595, followed by Taungoo, Rakhine, Lan Na, and Lan Xang. King Nokeo Koumane of Lan Xang prepared to march through Lan Na to Bago to rescue the people of Lan Xang held prisoner. The Viceroy of Lan Na Chiang Mai then submitted his territory to Siamese control and Naresuan sent thai forces to prevent lao forces from entering Lan Na. [ 2 ] : 151–155 After these series of upheavals in the Burmese Empire, Naresuan decided to attack Bago again in 1599, using Arakan and Taungoo as allies. however, before Naresuan arrived at the city, the forces of Arakan and Taungoo had already invested the city. The Viceroy of Taungoo ended up taking the populace back to Taungoo, abandoning the city to the forces of Arakan to loot what property was left behind, and then setting flames to the palace and monasteries. [ 2 ] : 156–162

invasion of Taungoo and Lan Na [edit ]

Naresuan occupied Bago while Minye Thihathu II, Viceroy of Taungoo, had already taken Nanda Bayin to Taungoo. Naresuan requested Minye Thihathu send Nanda Bayin back to him but Minye Thihathu refused, stating he was ailing. After that Naresuan laid siege to Taungoo for two months but retreated due to lack of food. [ 2 ] : 162–166

death [edit ]

Royal funeral ceremony of King Naresuan, mural from Wat Suwan Dararam, Ayutthaya, Thailand. Natshinnaung killed Nanda Bayin while he was held captive in Toungoo. Nyaungyan Min then crowned himself as the King of Ava to counter the Viceroys of Toungoo and Prome. Siam was then free of a burmese threat for four years until the King of Ava went on a campaign to subjugate the Shans. When he advanced angstrom army for the liberation of rwanda as Theinni, Naresuan raised an united states army of 200,000 men to counter the menace to his kingdom. He advanced equally far as the Fang District of Chiang Mai Province before falling ailment and then died after three days on 25 April 1605. [ bill 9 ] His buddy King Ekathotsarot became his successor as king. [ 2 ] : 173–180 recent studies of burmese records by historians of Silpakorn University showed that he returned to Wiang Haeng, where he died of disease, probably smallpox. [ citation needed ] many Shan believe King Naresuan was cremated and his ashes interred in a stupa in Mongton, in the Daen Lao Range, in the southerly region of the Shan State. [ 23 ]

bequest [edit ]

According to Damrong Rajanubhab, “ Naresuan was recorded as a brave and brilliant king. Therefore his glory is apparent improving to the present day. The kingdom of Siam at that period was widest in extent, deluxe and redound in glory. ” [ 2 ] : 178

  • Thai baht banknotes
    • 100 baht note of series 12, issued with the intention of glorifying Thai monarchs in history who have been revered and honored with the title The Great.[24]
    • 50 baht note of series 16, issued to glorify Thai kings of different periods from past to present.[1]

In Media [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

  1. ^ Naresuan was probable bear erstwhile between 18 July 1555 and 27 April 1556. ( Damrong 2001 : 116 ) : He became king on the 13th decline of the one-eighth thai month of 952 CS at senesce 34 ( in 35th class ), meaning he was born between 14th wan of Ashadha 917 CS ( 18 July 1555 ) and 13th waning of Ashadha 918 CS ( 5 July 1556 ). ( Damrong 2001 : 177 ) says that he died in his 50th year on Monday, 8th wax of the one-sixth thai month ( Vaisakha ) of 967 CS ( 25 April 1605 ), meaning he was born sometime between 9th wax of Vaisakha 917 CS ( 29 April 1555 ) and 8th waxing of Vaisakha 918 CS ( 17 April 1556 ).
    furthermore, ( Damrong 2001 : 67 ) besides says that Naresuan was already 8 ( in his 9th class ) when he was taken to Pegu after Bayinnaung took Phitsanulok—per ( Damrong 2001 : 36 ) on Sunday, 5th wane of the second thai calendar month in the year of the pig : i.e. Sunday, 5th decline of Pausha 925 CS ( Sunday, 2 January 1564 ). Although ( Damrong 2001 ) does not precisely state when the prince was sent to Pegu, he may have been sent there shortly after 2 January 1564 or shortly after Bayinnaung took Ayutthaya on 18 February 1564 per ( Hmannan Vol. 2 2003 : 355 ). If so, he may have been born sometime between July 1555 and Jan/February 1556 .
  2. ^ ( Damrong 2001 : 75 ) : He was 8 ( in his 9th year ) when he went to Pegu in 1564. Six years later, he became viceroy of Phitsanulok at long time 15 ( 16th class ) .
  3. ^Hmannan Yazawin chronicle (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 77–79), Naresuan’s troops arrived near the environs of Pegu prior to Nanda having defeated the Ava rebellion on Tuesday, 1st waning of Kason 946 ME (Tuesday, 24 April [ ( Damrong 2001 : 85 ) : Naresuan began his master of architecture on the 6th waning moon of the third gear thai month, class of the horse, BE 2126, and arrived at Muang Khraeng, the bound in the sixth calendar month. Editors of ( Damrong 2001 ) translated the dates as March 1583 and June 1583 respectively. But the given dates are lunisolar calendar dates, and should follow then prevailing Chula Sakarat calendar. The Thai calendar ( and the calendar month name ) did not get realigned to the Gregorian calendar until 1941. According to ( Eade 1989 : 133 ), 6th wan of the 3rd siamese cat calendar month ( Magha, assuming Sukhothia manner month naming adopted at Ayutthaya ), 945 CS translates to 2 February [ O.S. 23 January ] 1584, and the sixth month translates to 10 April 1584 to 9 May 1584 ( N.S. ) According to the Burmesechronicle ( Hmannan Vol. 3 2003 : 77–79 ), Naresuan ‘s troops arrived near the environs of Pegu anterior to Nanda having defeated the Ava rebellion on Tuesday, 1st wane of Kason 946 ME ( Tuesday, 24 April [ O.S. 14 April ] 1584 ) .
  4. ^ ( Hmannan Vol. 3 2003 : 76 ) : Nanda appointed Swa to guard Pegu, and marched to Ava on full moon of Late Tagu 945 ME ( 25 March [ O.S. 15 March ] 1584 ), and Swa asked Naresuan to continue on to Ava when Naresuan ‘s troops arrived near Pegu .
  5. ^ ( Damrong 2001 : 99, 103 ) : The invasion began on the 2nd wane of the fifth Siamese calendar month of the year of the tittup, which editor program translated as May 1585. The CS date would have been the 2nd wan of Caitra 947 CS ( 5 April 1586 ). It is in line with the burmese chronicle invasion date of late Tagu of 947 ME ( 19 March to 9 April 1586 ) .
  6. ^ ( Damrong 2001 : 108 ) says the invasion led by Nanda came in the 12th thai calendar month of the year of the frump ( BE 2129 ), which the editors translated as December 1586. The thai calendar at the prison term would have been Chula Sakarat ( CS ) ; 12th thai calendar month ( Karttika ) of 948 CS per ( Eade 1989 : 133 ) would have been 13 October to 10 November 1586. It is in cable with the burmese history ( Hmannan Vol. 3 2003 : 84 ) date as to when Nanda began the political campaign : Sunday, 9th wax of Tazaungmon of 948 ME ( 19 October [ O.S. 9 October ] 1586 ). notice that the Burmese and Chula Sakarat calendars were away by two days in Tazaungmon/Karttika 948 ME/CS .
  7. ^ He became king on 1 July 1590 or less credibly on 29 July 1590. ( Damrong 2001 : 116 ) : Naresuan became king on Sunday, the 13th decline of the eighth thai calendar month [ Ashadha ] of the year of the tiger, 952 CS. But per ( Eade 1989 : 134 ), 952 CS was a jump year, and had an extra leap month ( 2nd Ashadha. Per ( Eade 1989 : 134 ), 13th decline of 1st Ashadha 952 CS translates to Saturday, 30 June 1590 whereas 13th waning of 2nd Ashadha 952 CS to Monday, 30 July 1590. Neither date correctly lines up with Sunday. If the coronation did take place on a Sunday, it probably took locate on Sunday, 1 July 1590 or 29 July 1590.
    ( Damrong 2001 : 116 ) continues that Naresuan fought a war with Burma eight months after his accession, and ( Damrong 2001 : 119 ) says that Mingyi Swa ‘s consume invasion army got back to Pegu in the fifth thai calendar month in the class of the rabbit ( March/April 1591 ), which agrees with the burmese chronicle account ( Hmannan Vol. 3 2003 : 90 ) of Tagu 952 ME ( March/April 1591 ). It suggests that the Burmese had been driven back from Siam at least a calendar month earlier. Therefore it is more likely that Naresuan came to power in early July. bill that editors of ( Damrong 2001 : 116 ) translate his accession date of 13th decline of eighth siamese cat calendar month as August 1590, which could not be truthful as the prevail calendar at the time was Chula Sakarat .
  8. ^Thursday, 10 December [ ( Damrong 2001 : 122 ) says Swa left Pegu to begin the invasion on Wednesday, the 7th wax of the inaugural thai month of the year of the major dragon, which editor program translated as January 1592. It should be Wednesday, 7th wax of the first siamese cat calendar month ( Margasirsha ) of 954 CS (, 10 December [ O.S. 30 November ] 1592 ) per ( Eade 1989 : 134 ). According to the burmese chronicles ( Hmannan Vol. 3 2003 : 93 ), the invasion began on Wednesday, 2nd waxing of Nadaw 954 ME ( 4 November [ O.S. 25 October ] 1592 ) when Swa left Pegu with the invasion army. The siamese cat date may have been the first time Siamese sighted the burmese troops .
  9. ^ ( Damrong 2001 : 177 ) says Naresuan died on Monday, the 8th waxing of the sixth thai calendar month in the year of minor dragon, which editor program translated as June 1604. It should be Monday, 8th wax of the sixth thai month ( Vaisakha ) of 967 CS, which per ( Eade 1989 : 135 ) translates to Monday, 25 April 1605 .

References [edit ]

far understand [edit ]