Nagano City Hall Nagano ( 長野市, Nagano-shi, marked [ nagaꜜno ɕi ] ) is the capital and largest city of Nagano Prefecture, located in the Nagano Basin ( Zenkoji Daira ) in the cardinal Chūbu area of Japan. Nagano is categorized as a core city of Japan. Nagano City is the highest prefectural capital in Japan, with an altitude of 371.4 meters ( 1,219 foot ). [ 2 ] The city is surrounded by mountains, near the confluence of the Chikuma River – the longest and widest river in Japan – and the Sai River. As of 1 June 2019, the city had an estimated population of 370,632 in 160,625 households, and a population concentration of 444 persons per km2. [ 3 ] The full area of the city is 834.81 squarely kilometres ( 322.32 sq michigan ). Nagano City, located in the former Shinano Province, developed from the Nara period ( AD 710 to 794 ) as a synagogue town ( monzen machi ). The city of Nagano is home to Zenkō-ji, a 7th-century Buddhist temple that is listed as a japanese national treasure. Zenkō-ji was established in its current location in 642 AD. The placement of Zenkō-ji is approximately 2 kilometers from the contemporary central Nagano Station. During the Sengoku Period, the Age of Warring States, Nagano was the site of a series of battles, the Battles of Kawanakajima, between 1553 and 1564. During the Edo time period ( 1603 and 1868 ), as the city developed, Nagano became an important post station ( shukuba ) on the Hokkoku Kaidō highway which connected Edo ( introduce day Tokyo ) with the Sea of Japan coast. Following the Meiji restoration, Nagano became the beginning established modern township in Nagano prefecture on April 1, 1897.
Reading: Nagano (city) – Wikipedia
The city of Nagano and respective surrounding communities hosted the 1998 Winter Olympics and the 1998 Winter Paralympics. Nagano City is an authoritative historic localization, an industrial center, a well as a travel destination and a center for accessing surrounding sightseeing spots, including Japan ‘s onsen -bathing snow monkeys in Yamanouchi and first ski resorts of Hakuba, Shiga Kogen and Nozawaonsen – throughout the year .
history [edit ]
Nagano is located in erstwhile Shinano Province and developed from the Nara period as a temple town at the gate of the celebrated Zenkō-ji, a 7th-century Buddhist temple which was relocated to this localization in 642 AD, and as a post station on the Hokkoku Kaidō highway connecting Edo with the Sea of Japan coast. In the southern incision of Nagano City are a series of over 500 burial mounds at Ōmuro Kofun – a National historic locate – date from the 5th-8th centuries. During the Sengoku period ( c. 1467 – c. 1600 ), the sphere was heatedly contested between the forces of the Uesugi kin based in Echigo Province and the Takeda kin based in Kai Province. The several Battles of Kawanakajima between Uesugi Kenshin and Takeda Shingen were fought near here. During the Edo period ( 1603 and 1868 ), much of the area came under the control of the Sanada kin based at Matsushiro Domain. The area suffered from flooding in 1742, and from a destructive earthquake in 1847. Following the Meiji restoration and the creation of the municipalities arrangement on April 1, 1889, the modern town of Nagano was established. Nagano was elevated to city condition on April 1, 1897. During World War II, construction of the Matsushiro Underground Imperial Headquarters as the last redoubt for the japanese politics following the project american invasion of Japan was started in 1944, but was aborted in 1945 due to the end of war. It was the first city founded in Nagano Prefecture and the 43rd city in Japan. Nagano hosted the 1998 Winter Olympics, 1998 Winter Paralympics, and the 2005 Special Olympics World Winter Games .
growth of the city [edit ]
The city borders expanded on July 1, 1923, with the annexation of the neighbouring town of Yoshida and villages of Sarita, Miwa and Komaki. The city again expanded on April 1, 1954, by annexing neighbor villages of Asahi, Furusato, Yanagihara, Wakatsuki, Asakawa, Naganuma, Amori, Odagiri, Imoi and Mamejima. In 1959, due to the deluge of Chikuma River, 71 people died or were missing and 20,000 homes were flooded. On October 16, 1966, the city again expanded by annexing the neighbor towns of Kawanakajima, Matsushiro and Wakaho, and villages of Shinonoi, Kohoku, Shinko, and Naniai. During the 1985 Matsushiro earthquake, 27 people died and 60 homes were destroyed or badly damaged ascribable to landslides. In 1999, Nagano was designated as a core city ( 中核市, Chūkakushi ), a class of japanese city. Nagano continued to expand on January 1, 2005, by absorbing the municipalities of Toyono, and the village of Togakushi, and Kinasa ( from Kamiminochi District ), and the village of Ōoka ( from Sarashina District ). On January 1, 2010, Nagano absorbed the town of Shinshūshinmachi and the greenwich village of Nakajō from Kamiminochi District. [ 4 ]
1998 Winter Olympics and Paralympics [edit ]
conventionalized manhole cover displaying the Nagano Olympics emblem, with haptic paving Nagano, along with the adjacent communities of Hakuba greenwich village, Nozawaonsen, Yamanouchi, Iizuna, and Karuizawa hosted the 1998 Winter Olympics from February 7 to February 22 and the Paralympics from March 5 to March 14. This was the third base Olympic Games and second Winter Olympic Games to be held in Japan, after the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, and the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo ( the foremost Winter Games ever held in Asia ). As of 2019, Nagano was the southernmost server of the Winter Olympic Games. The Nagano Olympic Commemorative Marathon is held annually to commemorate the occasion. One authoritative bequest of the Games was an improved fare network. In order to improve access to Nagano in overture of the Games, Nagano was linked to the high-speed shinkansen prepare network. The Nagano Shinkansen, nowadays the Hokuriku Shinkansen was inaugurated five months before the starting signal of the Games, and during the Winter Olympics carried 655,000 passengers [ 5 ] In addition, both Nagano Station and Shinonoi Station were expanded, and Imai Station in the Kawanakajima sphere was built to access the Athletes greenwich village. ultimately, the Nagano Expressway and the Jōshin-etsu Expressway were built in the Nagano region, [ 6 ] and another 114.9 kilometers of roads within Nagano Prefecture were improved. [ 7 ] In addition to a transportation bequest, several first venues of the 1998 Winter Olympics were built, including M-Wave, Japan ‘s foremost International Skating Union ( ISU ) standard indoor 400m double-track, [ 8 ] and which happens to be one of the largest hanging wooden roof structures in the worldly concern. [ 9 ] Finally, the Athletes Village beside the newly constructed Imai Station was built in boost of the Games by the city of Nagano as future populace residential caparison, and loaned to the Nagano Olympic Organizing Committee during the Games. [ 10 ] A Media Village, composed of a four-block 10-12 floor apartment complex named Asahi Danchi, was built in the Asahi district of Nagano, across the street from the M-Wave. [ 11 ] [ 12 ] Asahi Danchi now includes secret sector caparison ampere well as house for government employees. [ 13 ]
geography [edit ]
Nagano is located in north-central Nagano Prefecture, in the Nagano Basin ( Zenkoji Daira ), surrounding by mountains, near the confluence of the Chikuma River and the Sai River. The Sai River in Nagano should not be confused with the Sai River ( Gifu ) even though both rivers have the same kanji and reading, 犀川 ( Saigawa ). other authoritative rivers include the Susobana River, which originates in the Togakushi highland area ; and the Torii River, which besides originates in the Togakushi upland area. The Chikuma River is 367.0 kilometer, with 29.5 km within the Nagano city limits ; the Sai River is 157.7 kilometer, with 44.2 km in Nagano ; all 40.1 km of Susobana River are in Nagano City, and 10.4 kilometer of the 34.8 km-long Torii River are in Nagano [ 14 ] Myōkō-Togakushi Renzan National Park, Jōshin’etsu-kōgen National Park and Chūbu-Sangaku National Park are each partially located within Nagano City. The contemporary core city of Nagano includes the districts and former towns of Nagano, Shinonoi, Matsushiro, Wakaho, Kawanakajima, Kohoku, Naniai, Shinkomachi, Toyono, Togakushi, Kinasa, Ooka, Shinshushincho, Nakajo .
Surrounding mountains [edit ]
Along the road on Mt. Togakushi, Nagano, to Oku Shrine Mount Minakami Iizuna Highlands
- Mount Takatsuma, 2,353 m, straddles Myōkō, Niigata and Nagano City. It is the highest peak of Togakushi mountain range. It is one of the hundred famous mountains of Japan and is also known as Togakushi Fuji. Takatsuma is the highest point in Nagano City. The lowest point is located in the Asano area of Toyono, 327.4 meters above sea level.
- Mount Iizuna, 1,917 meters, is a popular area for skiing and is where the Spiral, bobsleigh and luge track for the 1998 Winter Olympics, is located.
- Mount Togakushi, 1,904 m, is located in Nagano City.
- Mount Hijiri, 1,447 m. is located along the border between Nagano City, and Omi in Higashichikuma District, Nagano.
- Daibou Pass, 1,055 m, is located in Nagano City, on the border of Togakushi and Kinasa, Nagano.
- Iizuna Kogen, 1,000 m, is a highland area that extends to the south base of Mount Iizuna in Nagano City.
- Mount Mododori, 744 m, spans northern Nagano City, and Iizuna town. It is a monogenetic volcano that was active approximately 200,000 years ago.
- Mount Dizuki, 733 m, is located on the northwest side of Nagano City.
- Mount Minakami, 659 m, is a lava dome in Matsushiro in Nagano City. Its relative height to the surrounding landscape is 280 m.
Surrounding municipalities [edit ]
- Nagano Prefecture
- Shinano, located approximately 20 kilometers north of Nagano. Lake Nojiri is found in Shinano. Lake Nojiri was home to Kokusaimura (International Village), a landownership association, made up principally of Christian missionaries who had cottages there from the early 20th Century.
When we first went to Lake Nojiri, the International Village was like an island of affluence in a sea of poverty. But, as the Japanese economy recovered from the war, the scales tipped until we became an island of poverty in a sea of affluence. [ 15 ] — Alden Matthews, My Three Worlds ( 2007 )
climate [edit ]
Nagano has a hot-summer humid continental climate ( Köppen climate classification Dfa ) that borders on a humid subtropical climate ( Köppen climate classification Cfa ). Its location in a shelter inland valley means it receives less precipitation than any depart of Japan except Hokkaidō. The city receives heavy winter snow totaling 2.57 metres ( 101 in ) from December to March, but it is less glooming during these cold months than the seashore from Hagi to Wakkanai .
|Climate data for Nagano (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1889−present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||18.1
|Average high °C (°F)||3.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−0.4
|Average low °C (°F)||−3.9
|Record low °C (°F)||−17.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||54.6
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||63
|Average precipitation days ( ≥ 0.5 millimeter )||12.7||11.0||11.3||9.8||9.6||11.6||13.5||10.8||10.6||9.2||8.6||11.2||130.0|
|Average relative humidity (%)||79||74||68||61||63||71||75||73||74||75||76||79||72|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||128.4||140.2||173.3||199.4||214.8||167.4||168.8||201.1||151.2||152.1||142.3||131.1||1,969.9|
|Source: Japan Meteorological Agency|
|Climate data for Shinshūshinmachi, Nagano (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1978−present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||15.3
|Average high °C (°F)||3.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−1.4
|Average low °C (°F)||−5.5
|Record low °C (°F)||−15.3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||56.2
|Average precipitation days ( ≥ 1.0 millimeter )||10.4||8.8||10.8||9.4||9.5||11.0||13.4||9.9||10.4||9.1||7.6||10.3||120.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||123.2||139.5||171.6||200.4||209.3||158.7||158.1||192.1||137.1||145.0||139.5||124.8||1,899.1|
|Source: Japan Meteorological Agency|
Politics [edit ]
Nagano has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city legislature of 39 members. The city and adjacent towns of Shinano, Iizuna, and Ogawa contribute 11 members to the 57-member Nagano Prefectural Assembly. In terms of national politics, parts of Nagano can be found in one of two national districts, Nagano 1st District, which consists of Iiyama, Nagano ( except for the recently annex areas in District 2 ), Nakano, and Suzaka, vitamin a well as the Kamitakai, Shimominochi, and Shimotakai, and Nagano 2nd District, which consists of Matsumoto and Ōmachi, a well as the Higashichikuma, Kamiminochi, Kitaazumi, Minamiazumi, and several areas annexed into Nagano city, specifically the Sarashina ampere well as the erstwhile towns of Kinasa, Togakushi, and Toyono, in the lower house of the National Diet .
Mayors : Non-direct election [edit ]
- Hachirouemon Sato, 1897-1899 (assumed office as City Hall clerk)
- Kouemon Suzuki, 1899-1911 (two terms)
- Hajime Makino, 1911-1921 (two terms)
- Koji Mita, 1921
- Bensaburou Maruyama, 1922-1934 (three terms)
- Nanasawa, 1934
- Iuemon Fujii, 1934-1937
- Takano, 1937-1941
- Kuraji Ishigaki, 1941-1942 (died in office)
- Takano, 1942-1946
Mayors : directly election [edit ]
Demographics [edit ]
The population of Nagano City has declined by 10,000 since the mid-1990s. As of April 1, 2019, the city had a entire population of 376,080 people, made up of 193,982 women and 182,098 men in 160,625 households. [ 21 ]
historic populations [edit ]
population of districts of the current Core City of Nagano [edit ]
The growth and decline of the population within the diverse districts of Nagano City has been odd over the by 70 years [ 22 ]
Foreign and non-Japanese residents [edit ]
The following table shows the population of foreigners and non-Japanese residents since 2014 [ 23 ]
education [edit ]
Universities and colleges [edit ]
Nagano is home to several individual and public universities. Four of the ten-spot universities recognized as major universities in the prefecture have campuses in the city, including the newest prefectural university, The University of Nagano. [ 24 ]
public [edit ]
- Shinshu University, Shindai is a Japanese national university with campuses also in Matsumoto, Ueda, and Minamiminowa, Nagano.
- The University of Nagano, a 4-year university, replaced the 2-year Nagano Prefectural College in 2018. The university has two campuses, named for their location in Nagano, Miwa Campus and Gocho Campus. The university has an affiliated Center for Social Innovation Initiatives. The university is unique in Japan in that all first-year students live in a dormitory and all second-year students take part in overseas study programs.
- Nagano Prefectural College, is a 2-year prefectural college in the Miwa area of Nagano City. The predecessor of the school was founded in 1929. It became the 4-year university, The University of Nagano, in April 2018. Nagano Prefectural College will close when its final students graduate in March 2020.
- National Institute of Technology, Nagano College, is a national engineering college located in the Tokuma area of Nagano City. The national college has 5 departments: Mechanical Engineering, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Electronics and Control Engineering, Electronic and Computer Science, and Civil Engineering.
- Nagano Prefectural Agricultural College is a two-year practical, comprehensive agricultural college located in the Matsushiro area of Nagano.
individual [edit ]
early schools [edit ]
- Nagano College of Economics was a junior college in Nagano from 1967 to 2009.
Primary and secondary education [edit ]
Nagano has 55 public elementary schools and 24 public middle schools operated by the city government, along with one public middle school operated by the national government and four private middle schools. The city has 12 public high schools operated by the Nagano Prefectural Board of Education, of which three are vocational, one public high school operated by the city politics, and five secret high schools. In addition, the city has four special education schools .
prefectural eminent schools [edit ]
- Nagano Prefectural Nagano Senior High School
- Nagano Prefectural Nagano Yoshida High School
- Nagano Prefectural Yoshida Senior High School Fixed Part-time School
- Nagano Prefectural Nagano West Senior High School
- Nagano Senior Nagano West Senior High School Chujo School
- Nagano Prefectural Nagano East Senior High School
- Nagano Prefectural Nagano High School of Technology
- Nagano Prefectural Nagano Commercial Senior High School
- Nagano Prefectural Nagano South Senior High School
- Nagano Prefectural Sarashina Agriculture High School
- Nagano Prefectural Shinonoi High School
- Nagano Prefectural Shinonoi High School Saikyou Branch
- Nagano Prefectural Matsushiro High School
municipal high schools [edit ]
- Nagano City Nagano Junior and Senior High School
secret high schools
Read more: ประสบการณ์การปีนเขา – เดินป่ากับเด็ก ๆ
Read more: ประสบการณ์การปีนเขา – เดินป่ากับเด็ก ๆ
- Nagano Seisen Jogakuin Junior and Senior High School
- Nagano Women’s High School
- Nagano Shunei Senior High School
- Nagano Nihon University Junior and Senior High School
- Bunka Gakuen Nagano Junior and Senior High School
- Tsukuba Kaisei High School, Nagano Learning Center
Public facilities [edit ]
Nagano City Library
- Nagano City Library, located approximately 1.5 kilometers north of Nagano Station, near the Shinano Educational Museum
- Nagano City Nambu Library, located 400 meters south of Shinonoi Station
- Nagano Prefectural Library, located 800 meters south of Nagano Station
- The University of Nagano public library, located 700 meters north of Hongō Station
- Nagano City Lifelong Learning Center, located 350 meters west of Shiyakushomae Station
department of transportation [edit ]
railroad track [edit ]
The city ‘s main railway hub is Nagano Station. The coming of the 1998 Winter Olympics saw important changes to the department of transportation systems. Nagano Station and the smaller Shinonoi Station were expanded, and with the construction of the Athletes greenwich village for the Games in the Kawanakajima area, Imai Station was opened. last, the Hokuriku Shinkansen, initially named the Nagano Shinkansen, connecting Nagano to Takasaki, Gunma where it merges with the Jōetsu Shinkansen and continues to Ōmiya Station and Tokyo Station, opened in 1997 to accommodate the expect increase in travelers to Nagano. This reduced by half the travel time between Tokyo and Nagano, to 79 minutes for 221 kilometers. [ 28 ] As the chief railway hub of the region, Nagano Station connects JR East, Shinano Railway, and Nagano Electric Railway in the city center. The JR trains carry 36,612 passengers per sidereal day with individual rail carrying another 15,082 ( and buses carry 20,229 passengers ). [ 29 ]
bus [edit ]
Buses for the Kawanakajima Bus and the Nagano Dentetsu Bus Co. service the city and surrounding areas, departing both Nagano Station and the Nagano Bus Terminal merely west of the place. local bus provider, Alpico Kōtsū, departs from a dedicate office across the street from the Zenkō-ji passing of Nagano Station. Long-distance highway bus services depart from the East passing of Nagano Station. There is besides a day by day bus to Narita Airport. Gururin-go is a central district bus that runs in a round loop from Nagano Station to Zennoji, passing Zenkō-ji, the Nagano Prefectural Office, and the Nagano Bus Terminal. Regardless of where you dining table or disembark, the menu is 150 hankering. [ 30 ]
airport [edit ]
The nearest airport is Matsumoto Airport, connected via a 70-minute express bus topology from Nagano City .
Highways [edit ]
government [edit ]
Nagano National Government Building No.1
National [edit ]
prefectural [edit ]
- Nagano Prefectural Government Building
economy [edit ]
The crying respect of goods and services of the economy in the city of Nagano in 2016 was estimated to be 4,438,580,046,000 yen, approximately US $ 40.5 billion. [ 31 ] The largest share of this, 41.8 %, was related to wholesale and retail, followed by healthcare and wellbeing, 25.9 %, manufacture, was 13.7 %. [ 32 ] In 2016, Nagano City had 183,710 people in employment, with 21.1 % of workers in wholesale or retail, 14. % % in healthcare and wellbeing, and 11.6 % are in fabricate. [ 33 ] other major employers include hotels and restaurants, 9 % of employees, and construction industry, 7.9 % ; farming and forestry workers comprised 1.1 % of the working population. [ 34 ]
major companies with headquarters in Nagano City [edit ]
- Densan (information processing)
- Hachijunin (82) Bank (financial)
- Heiando (bookstore)
- Hokto (agriculture)
- Hokushinrika (physical and chemical equipment sales)
- Kakuto (construction)
- Kawanakajima Bus (transportation)
- Kitano Construction (construction) who established the Kitano Museum of Art
- Kyowa (service)
- Maeda Seisakusho (machinery)
- Maruchi (food wholesaler)
- Marukome (food)
- Moriki (pharmaceuticals)
- Moriya (construction)
- Nagaden Bus (transportation)
- Nagano Electric Railway (transportation)
- Nagano Japan Radio (electronics)
- Nagano Tokyu Department Store
- Nagano Toshi Gas (gas supplier)
- Ogasaka Ski (ski manufacturer)
- Shinko Electric Industries (electronics)
- Sunny Health (health food)
- Takachiho (souvenir wholesaler)
- Takamisawa (glass, concrete, …)
- Takasawa (steel, construction materials)
- Tokyo Horei (publishing)
- Tosys (construction)
- Yawataya Isogoro (spices)
other major companies in Nagano City [edit ]
- Fujitsu has a magnetic storage device and circuit board factory in Nagano
- Japan Post has one of its 10 national Postal College (
) training centers located in Nagano City, 1.5 km east of Nagano Station.
- Nishina, a manufacturer of hydraulic equipment for construction machinery and industrial vehicles, including forklifts, was established in 1939. It’s HQ and one of its factories are in the Toyono area of Nagano City. Another of its factories is in neighboring Suzaka. In 2001, Nishina joined the Toyota Industries group.
Mass Media [edit ]
regional newspapers [edit ]
- Shinano Mainichi Newspaper
- Nagano Shinmin Newspaper
television receiver [edit ]
NHK Studio in the Wakasato District of Nagano
Relations [edit ]
International [edit ]
- Clearwater, Florida, United States, sister city since March 1959
- Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China, friendship city since April 1981
- Ciudad Azteca, Ecatepec, Republic of Ecatepec since March 2004
domestic [edit ]
- Jōetsu, Niigata since 2005
- Kanazawa, Ishikawa since 2007
- Kōfu, Yamanashi since 2007
- Shizuoka, Shizuoka since 2010
- Toyama, Toyama since 2012
- Fukui, Fukui since 2013
local attractions [edit ]
Nagano is surrounded by mountains which boast excellent hike, camp, and cycle. In summation, the city includes 46 national-designated cultural assets, 55 prefectural-designated cultural assets, 298 municipal-designated cultural assets, and finally 59 national-registered structures and 7 monuments in Nagano city. [ 36 ]
Temples and Shrines [edit ]
- Zenkō-ji Buddhist temple and pilgrimage destination, that was established in its current location in the middle of the 7th century.
- Togakushi Shrine, a complex of five Shinto shrines, in the mountains above Nagano, whose uppermost shrine is approached via a path of more than 300 Cryptomeria trees.
- Saikou-ji, a Jōdo-shū (Jōdo Buddhism) temple, approximately 1 kilometer west of Zenkō-ji.
- Miwa Shrine, likely started in the 9th century, is located near Hongō Station.
- Yushimatenmangu Shrine in Wakaho is a branch of Yushima Tenman-gū which is located in Bunkyō, Tokyo.
diachronic Sites [edit ]
The Taishō era the Fujiya Gohonjin Hotel and Restaurant ( built in 1925 ) in Daimon-cho . Matsushiro Castle moats and reconstructed gate The Battle of Kawanakajima – Takeda Shingen on the leftover and Uesugi Kenshin on the properly
early sites [edit ]
Events [edit ]
- Nagano Tomyo Festival is a light and lantern festival held every February to commemorate the 1998 Winter Olympics.
- Nagano Olympic Commemorative Marathon, an IAAF Bronze Label Road Race, takes place in mid-April.
- Hanami – cherry blossom viewing – in Joyama Park behind Zenkō-ji is possible from mid-to-late April.
- Nagano Floral Festa Zenkoji Temple – flowers and flower art at Nagano Station and Omotesando – held in early May to welcome spring.
- Buckwheat blossom viewing, mid-July to mid-September, Togakushi
- Kijo (“Ogress”) Momoji Festival held in mid-October in Iizuna, celebrates this woman and the beauty of nature.
- Togakushi Soba Festival, early November
- Yoi Ebisu and Ebisuko Fireworks display, dedicated to the god of fortune, Ebisu held in late November.
Sports [edit ]
noteworthy people from Nagano [edit ]
drift [edit ]
References [edit ]
Hanazawa, Nahomi ( 1999 ). The Shinano Mainichi Shimbun ( ed. ). Official Report of the 1998 Winter Olympic Games, Vol. 2: Sixteen Days of Glory ( PDF ). Translated by Norman Kong. Nagano ( Japan ) : NAOC. p. 319. ISBN 4784098267 .