state in Southeast Asia
“ thailand ” redirects here. For other uses, see Siam ( disambiguation ) Coordinates :

Thailand [ a ] ( TY-land, TY-lənd ), historically known as Siam [ b ] [ 10 ] [ 11 ] ( ) and officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a state in Southeast Asia, located at the center of the Mainland Southeast Asia, spanning 513,120 square kilometres ( 198,120 sq mi ), with a population of about 70 million. [ 5 ] The area is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the extremity of Myanmar. Thailand besides shares maritime borders with Vietnam to the southeast, and Indonesia and India to the southwest. Thailand has experienced multiple coups and military dictatorships. Since 2019, it has been nominally a parliamentary constitutional monarchy ; in commit, however, structural advantages in the constitution have ensured the military ‘s hold on exponent. [ 12 ] Bangkok is the nation ‘s capital and largest city.

Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the eleventh century. Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as the Kingdoms of Ngoenyang, Sukhothai, Lan Na and Ayutthaya, which besides rivalled each other. european contact began in 1511 with a portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, which became a regional power by the conclusion of the fifteenth century. Ayutthaya reached its acme during cosmopolitan Narai ‘s reign, gradually declining thereafter until being ultimately destroyed in the Burmese–Siamese War. Taksin quickly reunified the disconnected territory and established the ephemeral Thonburi Kingdom. He was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first sovereign of the current Chakri dynasty. Throughout the era of western imperialism in Asia, Siam remained the entirely nation in the area to avoid colonization by foreign powers, although it was much forced to cede both territory, trade and legal concessions in unequal treaties. [ 13 ] The thai system of government was centralised and transformed into a modern unitary absolute monarchy in the reign of Chulalongkorn. In World War I, Siam sided with the Allies, a political decision made in decree to amend the inadequate treaties. Following a ashen rotation in 1932, it became a constituent monarchy and changed its official mention to Thailand, becoming an ally of Japan in World War II. In the recently 1950s, a military coup d’etat under Field Marshal Sarit Thanarat revived the monarchy ‘s historically influential function in politics. Thailand became a major ally of the United States, and played an anti-communist role in the region as a penis of the fail SEATO, but from 1975 search to improve relations with Communist China and Thailand ‘s neighbours. apart from a brief period of parliamentary majority rule in the mid-1970s, Thailand has sporadically alternated between democracy and military rule. Since the 2000s the area has been caught in continual bitter political dispute between supporters and opponents of Thaksin Shinawatra, which resulted in two coups ( in 2006 and 2014 ), along with the institution of its current constitution, a nominally democratic politics after the 2019 Thai general election, and ongoing pro-democracy protests that began in 2020. Thailand is a middle office in ball-shaped affairs and a initiation member of ASEAN, and ranks high in the Human Development Index. It has the second-largest economy in Southeast Asia and the 22nd-largest in the populace by PPP. Thailand is classified as a newly industrialised economy, with fabrication, agriculture, and tourism as ahead sectors. [ 14 ] [ 15 ]


Thailand, [ c ] formally the Kingdom of Thailand, [ d ] was once known as the exonym Siam [ einsteinium ] by outsiders anterior to 1949. According to George Cœdès, the son Thai ( ไทย ) means ‘free man ‘ in the Thai language, “ differentiating the thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serf ”. [ 17 ] : 197 According to Chit Phumisak, Thai ( ไท ) simply means ‘people ‘ or ‘human being ‘, his investigation shows that some rural areas used the parole “ Thai ” rather of the common Thai parole khon ( คน ) for people. [ 18 ] According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai-Tai ( or Thay-Tay ) would have evolved from the etymon *k(ə)ri: ‘human being ‘. [ degree fahrenheit ] [ 20 ] Thais often refer to their nation using the civilized kind prathet Thai ( Thai : ประเทศไทย ), they besides use the more colloquial condition mueang Thai ( Thai : เมืองไทย ) or plainly Thai; the word mueang, archaically referring to a city state, is normally used to refer to a city or town as the center of a region. Ratcha Anachak Thai ( Thai : ราชอาณาจักรไทย ) means ‘kingdom of Thailand ‘ or ‘kingdom of Thai ‘. Etymologically, its components are : ratcha ( Sanskrit : राजन्, rājan, ‘king, royal, kingdom ‘ ) ; -ana- ( Pali āṇā ‘authority, command, power ‘, itself from the Sanskrit आज्ञा, ājñā, of the like mean ) -chak ( from Sanskrit चक्र cakra- ‘wheel ‘, a symbol of baron and rule ). The Thai National Anthem ( Thai : เพลงชาติ ), written by Luang Saranupraphan during the patriotic 1930s, refers to the Thai nation as prathet Thai ( Thai : ประเทศไทย ). The beginning course of the national hymn is : prathet thai ruam lueat nuea chat chuea thai ( Thai : ประเทศไทยรวมเลือดเนื้อชาติเชื้อไทย ), ‘Thailand is the integrity of Thai flesh and lineage ‘. The erstwhile name Siam may have originated from Sanskrit श्याम ( śyāma, ‘dark ‘ ) [ 18 ] or Mon ရာမည ( rhmañña, ‘stranger ‘ ). [ citation needed ] The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same password. The give voice Śyâma is possibly not its beginning, but a teach and artificial distortion. [ clarification needed ] [ 21 ] Another theory is the name derives from the taiwanese calling this region ‘Xian ‘ [ gigabyte ] [ 22 ] : 8 A far possibility is that Mon -speaking peoples migrating south called themselves syem as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer -speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula. [ citation needed ] The signature of King Mongkut ( r. 1851–1868 ) reads SPPM ( Somdet Phra Poramenthra Maha ) Mongkut Rex Siamensium ( Mongkut, King of the Siamese ), and the custom of the name in the first international Bowring Treaty giving the name Siam official condition until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to “ Thailand ”. [ 23 ] Thailand was renamed Siam from 1946 to 1948, after which it again reverted to “ Thailand ” .



There is evidence of continuous human dwelling in contemporary Thailand from 20,000 years ago to the present day. [ 25 ] : 4 The earliest evidence of rice grow is dated at 2,000 BCE. [ 24 ] : 4 Bronze appeared circa 1,250–1,000 BCE. [ 24 ] : 4 The locate of Ban Chiang in northeast Thailand presently ranks as the earliest know center of copper and bronze production in Southeast Asia. [ 26 ] Iron appeared around 500 BCE. [ 24 ] : 5 The Kingdom of Funan was the foremost and most brawny southeast asian kingdom at the time ( second hundred BCE ). [ 25 ] : 5 The Mon people established the principalities of Dvaravati and Kingdom of Hariphunchai in the sixth hundred. The Khmer people established the Khmer empire, centred in Angkor, in the ninth century. [ 25 ] : 7 Tambralinga, a Malay state of matter controlling trade through the Malacca Strait, rose in the tenth century. [ 25 ] : 5 The Indochina peninsula was heavily influenced by the culture and religions of India from the time of the Kingdom of Funan to that of the Khmer Empire. [ 27 ] The Thai people are of the Tai ethnic group, characterised by common linguistic roots. [ 28 ] : 2 chinese chronicles beginning note the Tai peoples in the sixth hundred BCE. While there are many assumptions regarding the origin of Tai peoples, David K. Wyatt, a historian of Thailand, argued that their ancestors which at the introduce dwell Laos, Thailand, Myanmar, India, and China came from the Điện Biên Phủ area between the 5th and the eighth century. [ 28 ] : 6 Thai people began migrating into contemporary Thailand around the eleventh century, which Mon and Khmer people occupied at the clock. [ 29 ] Thus Thai culture was influenced by indian, Mon, and Khmer cultures. [ 30 ] According to french historian George Cœdès, “ The Thai beginning insert history of Farther India in the eleventh hundred with the mention of Syam slaves or prisoners of war in Champa epigraphy ”, and “ in the twelfth hundred, the bas-reliefs of Angkor Wat “ where “ a group of warriors ” are described as Syam. [ 17 ] : 190–191, 194–195

early on states and Sukhothai Kingdom

After the descent of the Khmer Empire and Kingdom of Pagan in the early-13th century, versatile states thrived in their station. The domains of Tai people existed from the northeast of contemporary India to the north of contemporary Laos and to the Malay peninsula. [ 28 ] : 38–9 During the thirteenth hundred, Tai people had already settled in the core estate of Dvaravati and Lavo Kingdom to Nakhon Si Thammarat in the south. There are, however, no records detailing the arrival of the Tais. [ 28 ] : 50–1 Around 1240, Pho Khun Bang Klang Hao, a local Tai ruler, rallied the people to rebel against the Khmer. He late crowned himself the beginning king of Sukhothai Kingdom in 1238. [ 28 ] : 52–3 Mainstream Thai historians count Sukhothai as the first kingdom of Thai people. Sukhothai expanded furthest during the reign of Ram Khamhaeng ( r. 1279–1298 ). however, it was by and large a network of local anesthetic lords who swore allegiance to Sukhothai, not directly controlled by it. [ 28 ] : 55–6 He is believed have invented Thai script and Thai ceramics were an significant export in his earned run average. Sukhothai embraced Theravada Buddhism in the reign of Maha Thammaracha I ( 1347–1368 ). To the north, Mangrai, who descended from a local rule linage of Ngoenyang, founded the kingdom of Lan Na in 1292, centered in Chiang Mai. He unified the surrounding area and his dynasty would rule the kingdom continuously for the following two centuries. He besides created a network of states through political alliances to the east and north of the Mekong. [ 22 ] : 8 While in the port in Lower Chao Phraya Basin, a confederation around Phetchaburi, Suphan Buri, Lopburi, and the Ayutthaya area was created in the eleventh hundred. [ 22 ] : 8

Ayutthaya Kingdom

According to the most widely bear version of its origin, the Ayutthaya Kingdom rose from the earlier, nearby Lavo Kingdom and Suvarnabhumi with Uthong as its first king. Ayutthaya was a patchwork of autonomous principalities and feeder provinces owing commitment to the King of Ayutthaya under the mandala system. [ 31 ] : 355 Its initial expansion was through conquest and political marriage. Before the end of the fifteenth century, Ayutthaya invaded the Khmer Empire three times and sacked its capital Angkor. [ 32 ] : 26 Ayutthaya then became a regional baron in place of the Khmer. changeless interference of Sukhothai efficaciously made it a vassal express of Ayutthaya and it was last incorporated into the kingdom. Borommatrailokkanat brought about bureaucratic reforms which lasted into the twentieth hundred and created a organization of social hierarchy called sakdina, where male commoners were conscripted as corvée labourers for six months a year. [ 33 ] : 107 Ayutthaya was interested in the Malay peninsula, but failed to conquer the Malacca Sultanate which was supported by the taiwanese Ming Dynasty. [ 25 ] : 11, 13 european liaison and trade wind started in the early-16th century, with the envoy of Portuguese duke Afonso de Albuquerque in 1511, Portugal became an allied and ceded some soldiers to King Rama Thibodi II. [ 34 ] The Portuguese were followed in the seventeenth century by the french, Dutch, and English. Rivalry for domination over Chiang Mai and the Mon people pitted Ayutthaya against the burmese Kingdom. respective wars with its rule dynasty Taungoo Dynasty starting in the 1540s in the reign of Tabinshwehti and Bayinnaung were ultimately ended with the capture of the capital in 1570. [ 33 ] : 146–7 then was a brief period of serfdom to Burma until Naresuan proclaimed independence in 1584. [ 22 ] : 11 Ayutthaya then sought to improve relations with european powers for many consecutive reigns. The kingdom particularly prospered during cosmopolitan Narai ‘s reign ( 1656–1688 ) when some european travelers regarded Ayutthaya as an asian big power, alongside China and India. [ 24 ] : nine however, growing french influence later in his reign was met with nationalist opinion and led finally to the siamese cat rotation of 1688. [ 33 ] : 185–6 however, overall relations remained static, with french missionaries still active in preaching Christianity. [ 33 ] : 186 After a bally menstruation of dynastic conflict, Ayutthaya entered into what has been called the Siamese “ golden old age “, a relatively passive episode in the second one-fourth of the eighteenth century when art, literature, and learning flourished. There were rarely foreign wars, apart from conflict with the Nguyễn Lords for control of Cambodia starting around 1715. The last fifty dollar bill years of the kingdom witnessed bloody succession crises, where there were purges of court officials and able generals for many consecutive reigns. In 1765, a unite 40,000-strong force of burmese armies invaded it from the north and west. [ 35 ] : 250 The Burmese under the new Alaungpaya dynasty quickly rose to become a raw local world power by 1759. After a 14-month siege, the capital city ‘s walls fell and the city was burned in April 1767. [ 36 ] : 218

Thonburi Kingdom

The capital and much territories lied in chaos after the war. The former capital was occupied by the Burmese garrison united states army and five local leaders declared themselves overlords, including the lords of Sakwangburi, Phitsanulok, Pimai, Chanthaburi, and Nakhon Si Thammarat. Chao Tak, a capable military leader, proceeded to make himself a godhead by right of conquest, beginning with the legendary sack of Chanthaburi. Based at Chanthaburi, Chao Tak raised troops and resources, and sent a fleet up the Chao Phraya to take the fortify of Thonburi. In the lapp year, Chao Tak was able to retake Ayutthaya from the Burmese alone seven months after the twilight of the city. [ 37 ] Chao Tak then crowned himself as Taksin and proclaimed Thonburi as irregular capital in the same year. He besides cursorily subdued the other warlords. His forces engaged in wars with Burma, Laos, and Cambodia, which successfully drove the Burmese out of Lan Na in 1775, [ 33 ] : 225 captured Vientiane in 1778 [ 33 ] : 227–8 and tried to install a pro-Thai king in Cambodia in the 1770s. In his concluding years there was a coup d’etat, caused purportedly by his “ insanity ”, and finally Taksin and his sons were executed by his longtime companion General Chao Phraya Chakri ( the future Rama I ). He was the first king of the predominate Chakri Dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom on 6 April 1782 .

modernization and centralization

Under Rama I ( 1782–1809 ), Rattanakosin successfully defended against burmese attacks and put an end to burmese incursions. He besides created suzerainty over big portions of Laos and Cambodia. [ 38 ] In 1821, Briton John Crawfurd was sent to negotiate a new trade agreement with Siam – the first bless of an exit which was to dominate nineteenth hundred thai politics. [ 39 ] Bangkok signed the Burney Treaty in 1826, after the british victory in the first Anglo-Burmese War. [ 33 ] : 281 Anouvong of Vientiane, who mistakenly held the belief that Britain was about to launch an invasion of Bangkok, started the Lao rebellion in 1826 which was suppressed. [ 33 ] : 283–5 Vientiane was destroyed and a big number of Lao people were relocated to Khorat Plateau as a solution. [ 33 ] : 285–6 Bangkok besides waged respective wars with Vietnam, where Siam successfully regained hegemony over Cambodia. [ 33 ] : 290–2 From the late-19th century, Siam tried to rule the ethnic groups in the kingdom as colonies. [ 33 ] : 308 In the reign of Mongkut ( 1851–1868 ), who recognised the potential menace western powers posed to Siam, his court contacted the british government immediately to defuse tensions. [ 33 ] : 311 A british deputation led by Sir John Bowring, Governor of Hong Kong, led to the bless of the Bowring Treaty, the first of many unequal treaties with western countries. This, however, brought trade and economic development to Siam. [ 40 ] The unexpected death of Mongkut from malaria led to the reign of underage Prince Chulalongkorn, with Somdet Chaophraya Sri Suriwongse ( Chuang Bunnag ) acting as regent. [ 33 ] : 327 Chulalongkorn ( r. 1868–1910 ) initiated centralization, set up a toilet council, and abolished slavery and the corvée organization. The Front Palace crisis of 1874 stalled attempts at far reforms. [ 33 ] : 331–3 In the 1870s and 1880s, he incorporated the protectorates up north into the kingdom proper, which late expanded to the protectorates in the northeast and the south. [ 33 ] : 334–5 He established twelve krom in 1888, which were equivalent to contemporary ministries. [ 33 ] : 347 The crisis of 1893 erupted, caused by french demands for lao territory east of Mekong. [ 33 ] : 350–3 Thailand is the only Southeast asian nation never to have been colonised by a western baron, [ 41 ] in separate because Britain and France agreed in 1896 to make the Chao Phraya valley a fender state. [ 42 ] not until the twentieth hundred could Siam renegotiate every unequal treaty dating from the Bowring Treaty, including extraterritoriality. The advent of the monthon system marked the creation of the mod Thai nation-state. [ 33 ] : 362–3 In 1905, there were unsuccessful rebellions in the ancient Patani area, Ubon Ratchathani, and Phrae in enemy to an try to blunt the ability of local anesthetic lords. [ 33 ] : 371–3 The Palace Revolt of 1912 was a fail attack by Western-educated military officers to overthrow the siamese monarchy. [ 33 ] : 397 Vajiravudh ( r. 1910–1925 ) responded by propaganda for the entirety of his reign, [ 33 ] : 402 which promoted the idea of the Thai state. [ 33 ] : 404 In 1917, Siam joined the First World War on the side of the Allies. [ 33 ] : 407 In the aftermath Siam had a seat at the Paris Peace Conference, and gained freedom of tax income and the revocation of extraterritoriality. [ 33 ] : 408

Constitutional monarchy, World War II and Cold War

Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram, the longest serve Prime Minister of Thailand A bloodless revolution took place in 1932, in which Prajadhipok was forced to grant the nation ‘s beginning united states constitution, thereby ending centuries of feudal and absolute monarchy. The aggregate results of economic hardships brought on by the Great Depression, aggressively falling rice prices, and a significant decrease in public outgo caused discontentment among aristocrats. [ 25 ] : 25 In 1933, a counter-revolutionary rebellion occurred which aimed to reinstate absolute monarchy, but failed. [ 33 ] : 446–8 Prajadhipok ‘s conflict with the politics finally led to abdication. The politics selected Ananda Mahidol, who was studying in Switzerland, to be the new baron. [ 33 ] : 448–9 former that ten, the army fender of Khana Ratsadon came to dominate thai politics. Plaek Phibunsongkhram who became premier in 1938, started political oppression and took an openly anti-royalist position. [ 33 ] : 457 His politics adopted nationalism and Westernisation, anti-Chinese and anti-French policies. [ 25 ] : 28 In 1939, there was a decree changing the name of the nation from “ Siam ” to “ Thailand ”. In 1941, Thailand was in a brief conflict with Vichy France resulting in Thailand gaining some Lao and cambodian territories. [ 33 ] : 462 On 8 December 1941, the Empire of Japan launched an invasion of Thailand, and fighting broke out shortly before Phibun ordered an armistice. Japan was granted free passage, and on 21 December Thailand and Japan signed a military confederation with a privy protocol, wherein the japanese government agreed to help Thailand regain lose territories. [ 43 ] The Thai government declared war on the United States and the United Kingdom. [ 33 ] : 465 The Free Thai Movement was launched both in Thailand and abroad to oppose the government and japanese occupation. [ 33 ] : 465–6 After the war ended in 1945, Thailand signed formal agreements to end the express of war with the Allies. The main Allied powers had ignored Thailand ‘s contract of war .
In June 1946, young King Ananda was found dead under cryptic circumstances. His younger brother Bhumibol Adulyadej ascended to the throne. Thailand joined the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization ( SEATO ) to become an active ally of the United States in 1954. [ 33 ] : 493 Field Marshal Sarit Thanarat launched a coup in 1957, which removed Khana Ratsadon from politics. His rule ( premiership 1959–1963 ) was authoritarian ; he built his authenticity around the god-like condition of the monarch and by channelling the politics ‘s loyalty to the king. [ 33 ] : 511 His government improved the area ‘s infrastructure and education. [ 33 ] : 514 After the United States joined the Vietnam War in 1961, there was a secret agreement wherein the U.S. promised to protect Thailand. [ 33 ] : 523 The period brought about increasing modernization and Westernisation of Thai society. rapid urbanization occurred when the rural populace sought workplace in growing cities. rural farmers gained class awareness and were sympathetic to the Communist Party of Thailand. [ 33 ] : 528 Economic development and education enabled the originate of a middle class in Bangkok and other cities. [ 33 ] : 534 In October 1971, there was a large demonstration against the dictatorship of Thanom Kittikachorn ( premiership 1963–1973 ), which led to civilian casualties. [ 33 ] : 541–3 Bhumibol installed Sanya Dharmasakti ( premiership 1973–1975 ) to replace him, marking the first prison term that the king had intervened in Thai politics directly since 1932. [ 44 ] The consequence of the event marked a ephemeral parliamentary democracy, [ 44 ] frequently called the “ era when democracy blossomed ” ( ยุคประชาธิปไตยเบ่งบาน ) .

contemporary history

changeless unrest and instability, ampere well as fear of a communist coup d’etat after the fall of Saigon, made some ultra-right groups brand leftist students as communists. [ 33 ] : 548 This culminated in the Thammasat University massacre in October 1976. [ 33 ] : 548–9 A coup d’etat d’état on that day brought Thailand a raw ultra-right government, which cracked down on media outlets, officials, and intellectuals, and fuelled the communist insurgency. Another coup d’etat the succeed year installed a more control politics, which offered amnesty to communist fighters in 1978. Fuelled by Indochina refugee crisis, vietnamese molding raids and economic hardships, Prem Tinsulanonda became the Prime Minister from 1980 to 1988. The communists abandoned the insurgency by 1983. Prem ‘s premiership was dubbed “ semi-democracy ” because the Parliament was composed of all elected House and all appointed Senate. The 1980s besides saw increasing intervention in politics by the sovereign, who rendered two coups in 1981 and 1985 attempts against Prem failed. Thailand had its first elected prime minister in 1988. [ 45 ] Suchinda Kraprayoon, who was the coup drawing card in 1991 and said he would not seek to become prime minister, was nominated as one by the majority alliance government after the 1992 general election. This caused a popular demonstration in Bangkok, which ended with a bloody military crackdown. Bhumibol intervened in the consequence and signed an amnesty jurisprudence, Suchinda then resigned .
The 1997 asian fiscal crisis originated in Thailand and ended the country ‘s 40 years of continuous economic growth. [ 46 ] : 3 Chuan Leekpai ‘s government took an IMF loan with unpopular provisions. [ 33 ] [ failed verification ] : 576 The democrat Thai Rak Thai party, led by prime curate Thaksin Shinawatra, governed from 2001 until 2006. His policies were successful in reducing rural poverty [ 47 ] and initiated universal joint healthcare in the area. [ 48 ] A South Thailand insurgency escalated starting from 2004. The 2004 indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami hit the country, largely in the south. massive protests against Thaksin led by the People ‘s Alliance for Democracy ( PAD ) started in his second term as prime minister and his tenure ended with a coup d’etat d’état in 2006. The military junta installed a military government which lasted a year. In 2007, a civilian government led by the Thaksin-allied People ‘s Power Party ( PPP ) was elected. Another protest led by PAD ended with the dissolution of PPP, and the Democrat Party led a coalition government in its place. The pro-Thaksin United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship ( UDD ) protested both in 2009 and in 2010, the latter of which ended with a violent military crackdown causing more than 70 civilian deaths. [ 49 ] After the general election of 2011, the democrat Pheu Thai Party won a majority and Yingluck Shinawatra, Thaksin ‘s younger baby, became flower minister. The People ‘s democratic Reform Committee organised another anti-Shinawatra protest [ heat content ] [ unreliable source? ] after the ruling party proposed an amnesty beak which would benefit Thaksin. [ 50 ] Yingluck dissolved fantan and a general election was scheduled, but was invalidated by the Constitutional Court. The crisis ended with another coup d’état in 2014. The ensuing National Council for Peace and Order, a military military junta led by General Prayut Chan-o-cha, led the state until 2019. Civil and political rights were restricted, and the country saw a surge in lèse-majesté cases. political opponents and dissenters were sent to “ attitude adaptation ” camps ; [ 51 ] this was described by academics as showing the rise of fascism. [ 52 ] Bhumibol, the longest-reigning Thai king, died in 2016, and his son Vajiralongkorn ascended to the throne. The referendum and borrowing of Thailand ‘s stream constitution happened under the military junta ‘s rule. [ one ] The military junta besides bound future governments to a 20-year home strategy ‘road function ‘ it laid depressed, effectively locking the area into military-guided majority rule. [ 54 ] In 2019, the military junta agreed to schedule a general election in March. [ 51 ] Prayut continued his premiership with the patronize of Palang Pracharath Party -coalition in the House and junta-appointed Senate, amid allegations of election fraud. [ 55 ] The ongoing pro-democracy protests were triggered by increasing royal prerogative, democratic and economic regression from the Military supported by the Monarchy in the wake of the 2014 Thai coup d’etat d’état, dissolving of the pro-democracy Future Forward Party, distrust in the 2019 general election and the current political system, forced disappearance and deaths of political activists including Wanchalearm Satsaksit, and political corruption scandals, [ 56 ] [ 57 ] which brought forth unprecedented demands to reform the monarchy [ 58 ] and the highest sense of republicanism in the area. [ 59 ]


Totalling 513,120 square kilometres ( 198,120 sq myocardial infarction ), Thailand is the 50th-largest country by sum area. It is slenderly smaller than Yemen and slightly larger than Spain. [ 1 ] Thailand comprises respective clear-cut geographic regions, partially corresponding to the peasant groups. The north of the nation is the cragged area of the Thai highlands, with the highest point being Doi Inthanon in the Thanon Thong Chai Range at 2,565 metres ( 8,415 foot ) above sea level. The northeastern, Isan, consists of the Khorat Plateau, bordered to the east by the Mekong River. The center of the country is dominated by the predominantly flat Chao Phraya river valley, which runs into the Gulf of Thailand. southerly Thailand consists of the narrow Kra Isthmus that widens into the Malay Peninsula. politically, there are six geographic regions which differ from the others in population, basic resources, natural features, and charge of social and economic exploitation. The diverseness of the regions is the most marked assign of Thailand ‘s physical fix. The Chao Phraya and the Mekong River are the indispensable water courses of rural Thailand. Industrial scale production of crops use both rivers and their tributaries. The Gulf of Thailand covers 320,000 square kilometres ( 124,000 sq security service ) and is fed by the Chao Phraya, Mae Klong, Bang Pakong, and Tapi Rivers. It contributes to the tourism sector owing to its absolved shallow waters along the coasts in the southerly region and the Kra Isthmus. The easterly shore of the Gulf of Thailand is an industrial center of Thailand with the kingdom ‘s premier deepwater port in Sattahip and its busiest commercial interface, Laem Chabang. The Andaman Sea is a valued lifelike resource as it hosts popular and deluxe resorts. Phuket, Krabi, Ranong, Phang Nga and Trang, and their islands, all lay along the coasts of the Andaman Sea and, despite the 2004 tsunami, they remain a tourist attraction .


Thailand map of Köppen climate classification. Thailand ‘s climate is influenced by monsoon winds that have a seasonal worker character ( the southwest and northeastern monsoon ). [ 60 ] : 2 Most of the nation is classified as Köppen ‘s tropical savanna climate. [ 61 ] The majority of the south a well as the eastern point of the east have a tropical monsoon climate. Parts of the south besides have a tropical rain forest climate. Thailand is divided into three seasons. [ 60 ] : 2 The first is the showery or southwest monsoon season ( mid–May to mid–October ), which is caused by southwest wind instrument from indian Ocean. [ 60 ] : 2 Rainfall is besides contributed by Intertropical Convergence Zone ( ITCZ ) and tropical cyclones. [ 60 ] : 2 August and September being the wettest period of the year. [ 60 ] : 2 The state receives a mean annual rain of 1,200 to 1,600 millimeter ( 47 to 63 in ). [ 60 ] : 4 winter or the northeast monsoon occurs from mid–October until mid–February. [ 60 ] : 2 Most of Thailand experiences dry weather with meek temperatures. [ 60 ] : 2, 4 summer or the pre–monsoon season runs from mid–February until mid–May. [ 60 ] : 3 Due to their inland position and latitude, the union, northeastern, central and easterly parts of Thailand experience a hanker period of warm weather, where temperatures can reach up to 40 °C ( 104 °F ) during March to May, [ 60 ] : 3 in line to close to or below 0 °C ( 32 °F ) in some areas in winter. [ 60 ] : 3 Southern Thailand is characterised by balmy weather year-round with less diurnal and seasonal variations in temperatures due to maritime influences. [ 60 ] : 3 It receives abundant rain, particularly during October to November. [ 60 ] : 2 Thailand is among the populace ‘s ten-spot countries that are most unwrap to climate switch. In particular, it is highly vulnerable to rising ocean levels and extreme weather events. [ 62 ] [ 63 ]

Biodiversity and conservation

[64] The population of asian elephants in Thailand ‘s wild has dropped to an estimated 2,000–3,000. National parks in Thailand are defined as an area that contains natural resources of ecological importance or unique beauty, or flora and fauna of special importance. Thailand ‘s protect areas include 156 national parks, 58 wildlife sanctuaries, 67 non-hunting areas, and 120 forest parks. They cover about 31 percentage of the kingdom ‘s territory. The parks are administered by the National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department ( DNP ), of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment ( MNRE ). Thailand has a average but improving performance in the ball-shaped Environmental Performance Index ( EPI ) with an overall ranking of 91 out of 180 countries in 2016. The environmental areas where Thailand performs worst ( i, highest-ranking ) are air quality ( 167 ), environmental effects of the agricultural industry ( 106 ), and the climate and energy sector ( 93 ), the by and by chiefly because of a high CO2 discharge per KWh produced. Thailand performs best ( i, lowest-ranking ) in water resource management ( 66 ), with some major improvements expected for the future, and sanitation ( 68 ). [ 65 ] [ 66 ] The country had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 6.00/10, ranking it 88th globally out of 172 countries. [ 67 ] The population of elephants, the area ‘s national symbol, has fallen from 100,000 in 1850 to an estimated 2,000. [ 64 ] Poachers have long hunted elephants for bone and hides, and now increasingly for kernel. [ 68 ] Young elephants are often captured for habit in tourist attractions or as work animals, where there have been claims of mistreatment. [ 69 ] however, their function has declined since the government banned logging in 1989. Poaching of protect species remains a major trouble. Tigers, leopards, and other big cats are hunted for their pelts. many are farmed or hunted for their meat, which purportedly has medicative properties. Although such craft is illegal, the well-known Bangkok grocery store Chatuchak is inactive known for the sale of endanger species. [ 70 ] The practice of keeping crazy animals as pets affects species such as asian black bear, Malayan sun bear, white-handed lar, pileated gibbon, and binturong. [ 71 ]


anterior to 1932, Thai kings were feudal or absolute sovereign. During Sukhothai Kingdom, the king was seen as a Dharmaraja or ‘king who rules in accord with Dharma ‘. The system of politics was a network of tributaries ruled by local lords. Modern absolute monarchy and statehood was established by Chulalongkorn when he transformed the decentralized protectorate system into a unitary express. On 24 June 1932, Khana Ratsadon ( People ‘s Party ) carried out a bloodless revolution which marked the beginning of constitutional monarchy. Thailand has had 20 constitutions and charters since 1932, including the latest and current 2017 united states constitution. All constitutions state that the politics is conducted within the framework of a constitutional monarchy, but the de facto form of government has ranged from military dictatorship to electoral democracy. [ 72 ] [ 73 ] Thailand has had the fourth-most coups in the world. [ 74 ] “ Uniformed or ex-military men have led Thailand for 55 of the 83 years ” between 1932 and 2009. [ 75 ] Most recently, the military military junta self-titled as the National Council for Peace and Order ruled the country between 2014 and 2019. Since the 2019 Thai general election, Thailand ‘s nominally democratic government has been led by Prayut Chan-o-cha, a monarchist who was the former commander-in-chief of the Royal Thai Army that initiated the 2014 Thai coup d’état. [ 76 ] Thailand ‘s current shape of government is character democracy and part dictatorship ; many terms are used in an attack to describe it. [ k ] A ancestral sovereign serves as Thailand ‘s head of state. The stream King of Thailand is Vajiralongkorn ( or Rama X ), who has reigned since October 2016. The powers of the king are limited by the fundamental law and he is primarily a emblematic front man. however, the sovereign still occasionally intervenes in Thai politics, as all constitutions pave the means for customary royal rulings. Some academics outside Thailand, including Duncan McCargo and Federico Ferrara, noted extraconstitutional role of the monarch through a “ network monarchy “ behind the political scenes. [ 82 ] The monarchy is protected by the severe lèse majesté law, even though the people ‘s position towards the initiation varies from one predominate to another. [ 83 ] [ 84 ] Sappaya-Sapasathan, the current Parliament House of Thailand government is separated into three branches :
military and bureaucratic aristocrats in full controlled political parties between 1946 and 1980s. [ 86 ] : 16 Most parties in Thailand are ephemeral. [ 87 ] : 246 Between 1992 and 2006, Thailand had a bipartisan system. [ 87 ] : 245 Since 2000, two political parties dominated Thai general elections : one was the Pheu Thai Party ( which was a successor of People ‘s Power Party and the Thai Rak Thai Party ), and the other was the Democrat Party. The political parties which support Thaksin Shinawatra won the most representatives every general election since 2001. Later constitutions created a multi-party system where a single party can not gain a majority in the house. The kings are protected by lèse-majesté laws which allow critics to be jailed for three to fifteen years. [ 88 ] After the 2014 Thai coup d’état, Thailand had the highest count of lèse-majesté prisoners in the nation ‘s history. [ 89 ] [ 90 ] In 2017, the military court in Thailand sentenced a man to 35 years in prison for violating the country ‘s lèse-majesté law. [ 90 ] Human rights in Thailand has been rated not free on the Freedom House Index since 2014. [ 91 ]

administrative divisions

Thailand is a unitary submit ; the administrative services of the executive arm are divided into three levels by National Government Organisation Act, BE 2534 ( 1991 ) : central, provincial and local. Thailand is composed of 76 provinces ( จังหวัด, changwat ), [ 92 ] which are first-level administrative divisions. There are besides two particularly govern districts : the capital Bangkok and Pattaya. Bangkok is at provincial level and therefore often counted as a state. Each state is divided into districts ( อำเภอ, amphoe ) and the districts are far divided into sub-districts ( ตำบล, tambons ). The appoint of each province ‘s capital city ( เมือง, mueang ) is the same as that of the province. For example, the capital of Chiang Mai Province ( Changwat Chiang Mai ) is Mueang Chiang Mai or Chiang Mai. All provincial governors and zone chiefs, which are administrators of provinces and districts respectively, are appointed by the central politics. [ 93 ] Thailand ‘s provinces are sometimes grouped into four to six regions, depending on the source .
A clickable map of Thailand exhibiting its provinces

extraneous relations

Siam ‘s and Thailand ‘s way of behave extraneous relations has long been described as “ bamboo bending with the wind ”, which means adaptable and hardheaded. In order to secure independence, it sought to pit one bang-up power against the others so that it would be dominated by none. [ 94 ] Siam and Thailand is besides known for making concessions, such as signing inadequate treaties since the Bowring Treaty and giving up its protectorates in Malaya, Laos and Cambodia to this end. In some occasions Siam and Thailand could drop neutrality and took a slope in conflicts for its benefits, such as joining the Allies in World War I and Japan in World War II. During the Cold War, Thailand sought to prevent the spread of communism so it joined the United States, including participating in SEATO alliance, sending expeditions to Korea and Vietnam, and offering the US to use its base. Thailand is one of the five founding members of Association of Southeast asian Nations ( ASEAN ), initially to safeguard against communism. The end of Vietnam War was a turn compass point in Thai alien policy and afterwards it sought to improve relations with Communist China and its now-Communist neighbours. Thailand remains an active member of ASEAN and seek to project its charm in it. Thailand has developed increasingly close ties with other members, with progressing regional co-operation in economic, trade, banking, political, and cultural matters. In 2000s period, Thailand had taken an active character on the international phase and participated in full in international and regional organisations. It is a major non-NATO ally and Priority Watch List Special 301 Report of the United States. When East Timor gained independence from Indonesia, contributed troops to the external peacekeeping campaign. As separate of its attempt to increase international ties, Thailand had reached out to such regional organisations as the Organization of American States ( OAS ) and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe ( OSCE ). During Thaksin Shinawatra ‘s premiership, negotiations for respective free barter agreements with China, Australia, Bahrain, India, and the US were initiated. Thaksin sought to position Thailand as a regional drawing card, initiating diverse development projects in poor neighbor countries. More controversially, he established finale, friendly ties with the burmese dictatorship. [ 95 ] Thailand joined the US-led invasion of Iraq, sending a humanist contingent until September 2004. [ 96 ] Thailand besides had contributed troops to reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan. In April 2009, the Cambodian–Thai border quarrel brought troops on district immediately adjacent to the 900-year-old ruins of Cambodia ‘s Preah Vihear Hindu temple near the frame. [ 97 ] [ 98 ] After the 2014 coup d’etat, Thailand leaned more towards China. [ 99 ] Growing chinese influence and capital inflow caused some members of parliament to raise the concern about “ economic colony ” under China after many concessions. [ 100 ]

Armed forces

The Royal Thai Armed Forces ( กองทัพไทย ; RTGS : Kong Thap Thai ) constitute the military of the Kingdom of Thailand. It consists of the Royal Thai Army ( กองทัพบกไทย ), the Royal Thai Navy ( กองทัพเรือไทย ), and the Royal Thai Air Force ( กองทัพอากาศไทย ). It besides incorporates diverse paramilitary forces. The Thai Armed Forces have a combined work force of 306,000 active voice duty personnel and another 245,000 active reserve personnel. [ 101 ] The head of the Thai Armed Forces ( จอมทัพไทย, Chom Thap Thai ) is the king, [ 102 ] although this position is entirely nominal. The armed forces are managed by the Ministry of Defence of Thailand, which is headed by the Minister of Defence ( a penis of the cabinet of Thailand ) and commanded by the Royal Thai Armed Forces Headquarters, which in change by reversal is headed by the Chief of Defence Forces of Thailand. [ 103 ] Thai annual defensive structure budget about tripled from 78 billion baht in 2005 to 207 billion baht in 2016, accounting for approximately 1.5 % of 2019 Thai GDP. [ 104 ] Thailand ranked 16th global in the Military Strength Index based on the Credit Suisse report in September 2015 .
The military is besides tasked with humanist missions, such as escorting Rohingya to Malaysia or Indonesia, [ 105 ] ensuring security system and social welfare for refugees during Indochina refugee crisis. [ 106 ] According to the constitution, serving in the arm forces is a duty of all Thai citizens. [ 107 ] Thailand placid use active draft system for males over the senesce of 21. They are subjected to varying lengths of active service depending on the duration of reserve trail as territorial Defence Student and their charge of education. Those who have completed three years or more of military reserve prepare will be exempted wholly. The practice has long been criticized, as some media question its efficacy and value. [ 108 ] [ 109 ] It is alleged that conscripts end up as servants to senior officers [ 110 ] or clerks in military cooperative shops. [ 111 ] [ 112 ] In a report issued in March 2020, Amnesty International charged that Thai military conscripts face institutionalised abuse systematically hushed up by military authorities. [ 113 ] Critics observed that Thai military ‘s main objective is to deal with inner preferably than external threats. [ 114 ] Internal Security Operations Command is called the political sleeve of the Thai military, which has overlapping social and political functions with civilian bureaucracy. It besides has anti-democracy mission. [ 114 ] The military is besides ill-famed for numerous corruption incidents, such as accusation of homo traffic, [ 115 ] and nepotism in promotion of high-level officers. [ 116 ] The military is deeply entrenched in politics. Most recently, the appointed senators include more than 100 active and put out military. [ 117 ] In 2017, Thailand signed and ratified the UN Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. [ 118 ]


Economic indicators
Nominal GDP ฿14.53 trillion ( 2016 ) [119]
GDP growth 3.9% ( 2017 ) [120]
• Headline
• core
0.7% ( 2017 )
0.6% ( 2017 )
Employment-to-population ratio 68.0% ( 2017 ) [121] : 29
Unemployment 1.2% ( 2017 ) [120]
Total public debt ฿6.37 trillion (


2017 )

Poverty 8.61% ( 2016 ) [121] : 36
Net household worth ฿20.34 trillion ( 2010 ) [123] : 2

A proportional representation of Thailand exports, 2019 The economy of Thailand is heavily export-dependent, with exports accounting for more than two-thirds of gross domestic merchandise ( GDP ). Thailand exports over US $ 105 billion deserving of goods and services per annum. [ 1 ] major exports include cars, computers, electrical appliances, rice, textiles and footwear, fishery products, rubberize, and jewelry. [ 1 ] Thailand is an emerging economy and is considered a newly industrialised area. Thailand had a 2017 GDP of US $ 1.236 trillion ( on a purchasing office parity footing ). [ 124 ] Thailand is the second largest economy in Southeast Asia after Indonesia. Thailand ranks midway in the wealth outspread in Southeast Asia as it is the fourthly richest nation according to GDP per head, after Singapore, Brunei, and Malaysia. Thailand functions as an anchor economy for the neighbor developing economies of Laos, Myanmar, and Cambodia. In the third gear quarter of 2014, the unemployment rate in Thailand stood at 0.84 % according to Thailand ‘s National Economic and Social Development Board ( NESDB ). [ 125 ]

holocene economic history

Sathorn in Bangkok is a skyscraper-studded business district that is home to major hotels and embassies. Thailand experienced the worldly concern ‘s highest economic growth rate from 1985 to 1996 – averaging 12.4 % per annum. In 1997 increased pressure on the baht, a class in which the economy contracted by 1.9 %, led to a crisis that uncovered fiscal sector weaknesses and forced the Chavalit Yongchaiyudh administration to float the currentness. Prime Minister Chavalit Yongchaiyudh was forced to resign after his cabinet came under fuel for its dense response to the economic crisis. The baht was pegged at 25 to the US dollar from 1978 to 1997. The baht reached its lowest point of 56 to the US dollar in January 1998 and the economy contracted by 10.8 % that class, triggering the asian fiscal crisis. Thailand ‘s economy started to recover in 1999, expanding 4.2–4.4 % in 2000, thanks largely to strong exports. Growth ( 2.2 % ) was dampened by the soften of the global economy in 2001, but picked up in the subsequent years owing to solid growth in Asia, a relatively weak baht encouraging exports, and increased domestic spend as a solution of several mega projects and incentives of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, known as Thaksinomics. Growth in 2002, 2003, and 2004 was 5–7 % per annum. growth in 2005, 2006, and 2007 hovered around 4–5 %. Due both to the weaken of the US dollar and an increasingly strong Thai currentness, by March 2008 the dollar was hovering around the 33 baht marker. While Thaksinomics has received criticism, official economic data reveals that between 2001 and 2011, Isan ‘s GDP per caput more than doubled to US $ 1,475, while, over the same period, GDP in the Bangkok area increased from US $ 7,900 to about US $ 13,000. [ 126 ] With the instability surrounding major 2010 protests, the GDP emergence of Thailand settled at around 4–5 %, from highs of 5–7 % under the previous civilian administration. political uncertainty was identified as the primary lawsuit of a decline in investor and consumer confidence. The IMF predicted that the Thai economy would rebound strongly from the low 0.1 % GDP growth in 2011, to 5.5 % in 2012 and then 7.5 % in 2013, ascribable to the monetary policy of the Bank of Thailand, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as a software of fiscal stimulation measures introduced by the erstwhile Yingluck Shinawatra government. [ 127 ] Following the Thai military coup of 22 May 2014. In 2017, Concluded with information on the Thai economy ‘s grew an inflation-adjusted 3.9 %, up from 3.3 % in 2016, marking its fastest expansion since 2012. [ 128 ]

Income, poverty and wealth

Development of substantial GDP per caput, 1890 to 2018 Thais have median wealth per one adult person of $ 1,469 in 2016, [ 129 ] : 98 increasing from $ 605 in 2010. [ 129 ] : 34 In 2016, Thailand was ranked 87th in Human Development Index, and 70th in the inequality-adjusted HDI. [ 130 ] In 2017, Thailand ‘s median family income was ฿26,946 per month. [ 131 ] : 1 Top quintile households had a 45.0 % share of all income, while penetrate quintile households had 7.1 %. [ 131 ] : 4 There were 26.9 million persons who had the bottom 40 % of income earning less than ฿5,344 per person per calendar month. [ 132 ] : 5 During 2013–2014 Thai political crisis, a survey found that anti-government PDRC largely ( 32 % ) had a monthly income of more than ฿50,000, while pro-government UDD largely ( 27 % ) had between ฿10,000 and ฿20,000. [ 133 ] : 7 In 2014, Credit Suisse reported that Thailand was the world ‘s third base most inadequate country, behind Russia and India. [ 134 ] The top 10 % rich held 79 % of the state ‘s assets. [ 134 ] The top 1 % full-bodied held 58 % of the assets. [ 134 ] Thai 50 richest families had a total net worth accounting to 30 % of GDP. [ 134 ] In 2016, 5.81 million people lived in poverty, or 11.6 million people ( 17.2 % of population ) if “ near poor people ” is included. [ 132 ] : 1 proportion of the poor proportional to sum population in each area was 12.96 % in the Northeast, 12.35 % in the South, and 9.83 % in the North. [ 132 ] : 2 In 2017, there were 14 million people who applied for social benefit ( annual income of less than ฿100,000 was required ). [ 134 ] At the end of 2017, Thailand ‘s full family debt was ฿11.76 trillion. [ 121 ] : 5 In 2010, 3 % of all family were bankrupt. [ 123 ] : 5 In 2016, there were estimated 30,000 dispossessed persons in the country. [ 135 ]

Exports and manufacture

A proportional representation of Thailand ‘s exports

The economy of Thailand is heavily export-dependent, with exports accounting for more than two-thirds of crying domestic product ( GDP ). Thailand exports over US $ 105 billion worth of goods and services per annum. [ 1 ] major exports include cars, computers, electrical appliances, rice, textiles and footwear, fishery products, rubber, and jewelry. [ 1 ] solid industries include electric appliances, components, calculator components, and vehicles. Thailand ‘s recovery from the 1997–1998 asian fiscal crisis depended chiefly on exports, among respective other factors. As of 2012, the Thai automotive industry was the largest in Southeast Asia and the 9th largest in the world. [ 136 ] [ 137 ] [ 138 ] The Thailand industry has an annual output of near 1.5 million vehicles, by and large commercial vehicles. [ 138 ] Most of the vehicles built in Thailand are developed and licensed by alien producers, chiefly japanese and american. The Thai car industry takes advantage of the ASEAN Free Trade Area ( AFTA ) to find a marketplace for many of its products. Eight manufacturers, five japanese, two US, and Tata of India, produce pick-up trucks in Thailand. [ 139 ] As of 2012, Due to its favorable tax for 2-door pick-ups at alone 3-12 % against 17-50 % for passenger cars, Thailand was the second largest consumer of pick-up trucks in the world, after the US. [ 140 ] In 2014, pick-ups accounted for 42 % of all new vehicle sales in Thailand. [ 139 ]


tourism makes up about 6 % of the nation ‘s economy. Thailand was the most visit area in Southeast Asia in 2013, according to the World Tourism Organisation. Estimates of tourism receipts directly contributing to the Thai GDP of 12 trillion baht range from 9 percentage ( 1 trillion baht ) ( 2013 ) to 16 percentage. [ 141 ] When including the indirect effects of tourism, it is said to account for 20.2 percentage ( 2.4 trillion baht ) of Thailand ‘s GDP. [ 142 ] : 1 asian tourists primarily visit Thailand for Bangkok and the historic, natural, and cultural sights in its vicinity. westerly tourists not only visit Bangkok and surroundings, but in summation many locomotion to the southerly beaches and islands. The north is the chief address for trekking and venture travel with its divers ethnic minority groups and forested mountains. The region hosting the fewest tourists is Isan. To accommodate extraneous visitors, a separate tourism patrol with offices were set up in the major tourist areas and an hand brake call count. [ 143 ] Thailand ranks fifth biggest medical tourism address of inbound aesculapian tourism spending, according to World Travel and Tourism Council, attracting over 2.5 million visitors in 2018. [ 144 ] The state is besides Asia ‘s number one. [ 145 ] The nation is popular for the growing drill of sex reassignment surgery ( SRS ) and cosmetic surgery. In 2010–2012, more than 90 % of aesculapian tourists travelled to Thailand for SRS. [ 146 ] prostitution in Thailand and sex tourism besides form a de facto part of the economy. Campaigns promote Thailand as alien to attract tourists. [ 147 ] One estimate published in 2003 placed the trade at US $ 4.3 billion per year or about 3 % of the Thai economy. [ 148 ] It is believed that at least 10 % of tourist dollars are spent on the sex trade. [ 149 ]

farming and natural resources

forty-nine per penny of Thailand ‘s labor force is employed in agriculture. [ 150 ] This is devour from 70 % in 1980. [ 150 ] Rice is the most authoritative crop in the nation and Thailand had hanker been the world ‘s leadership exporter of rice, until recently falling behind both India and Vietnam. [ 151 ] Thailand has the highest percentage of arable land, 27.25 %, of any nation in the Greater Mekong Subregion. [ 152 ] About 55 % of the arable down area is used for rice production. [ 153 ] farming has been experiencing a transition from labor-intensive and transitional methods to a more industrialize and competitive sector. [ 150 ] Between 1962 and 1983, the agricultural sector grew by 4.1 % per year on average and continued to grow at 2.2 % between 1983 and 2007. [ 150 ] The relative contribution of agriculture to GDP has declined while exports of goods and services have increased. furthermore, access to biocapacity in Thailand is lower than world average. In 2016, Thailand had 1.2 global hectares [ 154 ] of biocapacity per person within its territory, a little less than populace average of 1.6 global hectares per person. [ 155 ] In contrast, in 2016, they used 2.5 ball-shaped hectares of biocapacity – their ecological footprint of consumption. This means they use about twice ampere much biocapacity as Thailand contains. As a solution, Thailand is running a biocapacity deficit. [ 154 ]

informal economy

Thailand has a divers and robust informal tug sector—in 2012, it was estimated that cozy workers comprised 62.6 % of the Thai work force. The Ministry of Labour defines cozy workers to be individuals who work in informal economies and do not have employee condition under a given area ‘s Labour Protection Act ( LPA ). The informal sector in Thailand has grown significantly over the past 60 years over the course of Thailand ‘s gradual passage from an agriculture-based economy to becoming more industrialize and service-oriented. [ 156 ] Between 1993 and 1995, ten percentage of the Thai labor storm moved from the agricultural sector to urban and industrial jobs, specially in the manufacture sector. It is estimated that between 1988 and 1995, the number of factory workers in the state doubled from two to four million, as Thailand ‘s GDP tripled. [ 157 ] While the asian Financial Crisis that followed in 1997 hit the Thai economy hard, the industrial sector continued to expand under widespread deregulation, as Thailand was mandated to adopt a range of structural adjustment reforms upon receiving fund from the IMF and World Bank. These reforms implemented an agenda of increase denationalization and trade liberalization in the country, and decreased federal grant of public goods and utilities, agricultural price supports, and regulations on fairly wages and british labour party conditions. [ 158 ] These changes put farther press on the agricultural sector, and prompted continued migration from the rural countryside to the growing cities. many migrant farmers found work in Thailand ‘s growing manufacture diligence, and took jobs in sweatshops and factories with few tug regulations and often exploitative conditions. [ 159 ] Those that could not find formal factory work, including illegal migrants and the families of rural Thai migrants that followed their relatives to the urban centres, turned to the informal sector to provide the extra accompaniment needed for survival—under the far-flung regulation imposed by the structural adjustment programs, one family member working in a factory or sweatshop made identical fiddling. Scholars argue that the economic consequences and social costs of Thailand ‘s labor reforms in the wake of the 1997 asian Financial Crisis fell on individuals and families rather than the department of state. This can be described as the “ externalization of market risk ”, meaning that as the country ‘s labor market became increasingly deregulated, the charge and duty of providing an adequate support shifted from employers and the state to the workers themselves, whose families had to find jobs in the cozy sector to make up for the losses and subsidise the wages being made by their relatives in the dinner dress sector. The system of weights of these economic changes hit migrants and the urban poor particularly unvoiced, and the informal sector expanded quickly as a result. [ 158 ] nowadays, informal labor in Thailand is typically unwrap down into three independent groups : subcontracted/self employed/home-based workers, service workers ( including those that are employed in restaurants, as street vendors, masseuses, cab drivers, and as domestic workers ), and agricultural workers. not included in these categories are those that work in entertainment, nightlife, and the sex industry. Individuals employed in these facets of the cozy labor sector face extra vulnerabilities, including recruitment into circles of sexual exploitation and homo traffic. [ 156 ] In general, education levels are first gear in the informal sector. A 2012 sketch found that 64 % of informal workers had not completed education beyond primary coil school. many informal workers are besides migrants, only some of which have legal condition in the area. education and citizenship are two main barriers to entrance for those looking to work in formal industries, and enjoy the labor protections and social security benefits that come along with dinner dress employment. Because the cozy tug sector is not recognised under the Labour Protection Act ( LPA ), informal workers are much more vulnerable labor to exploitation and insecure working conditions than those employed in more ball and federally recognize industries. While some Thai labour laws provide minimal protections to domestic and agrarian workers, they are much weak and unmanageable to enforce. Furthermore, Thai social security policies fail to protect against the risks many informal workers face, including workplace accidents and compensation deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as unemployment and retirement insurance. many informal workers are not legally contracted for their employment, and many do not make a living wage. [ 156 ] Tens of thousands of migrants from neighboring countries face exploitation in a few industries, [ 160 ] specially in fishing where slave-like conditions have been reported. [ 161 ]

skill and technology

Scientists are working in the lab numerous Thai scientists have made significant contributions in versatile fields of skill and engineering. Examples include Krisana Kraisintu, who is known as the “ Gypsy pharmacist ” for her development of the first generic HIV “ cocktail ” drug known as GPO-VIR. [ 162 ] [ 163 ] Her efforts have importantly reduced discussion costs, and GPO-VIR was endorsed by the World Health Organization as the first regimen discussion for HIV/AIDS patients in poor people countries. [ 164 ] In Thailand, GPO-VIR is used in the national HIV/AIDS treatment plan, making it unblock of charge for 100,000 patients. [ 165 ] Another case is Pongrama Ramasoota, who developed the production of curative human monoclonal antibodies against dengue virus and the global ‘s foremost Dengue fever medication, which besides includes DNA vaccine development for dengue and Canine parvovirus. [ 166 ] Thailand has besides made significant advances engineering in the development of Medical Robotics. Medical robots have been used and promoted in Thailand in many areas, including operating room, diagnosis, rehabilitation and services. [ 167 ] In operating room, in 2021, Mahidol University ‘s “ BART LAB ” team successfully researched the invention of the robot-assisted surgery ( Minimal Invasive Surgery ). [ 168 ] back in 2019, The Medical Services Department has unveiled Thailand ‘s automaton created to help surgeons in mind surgery on patients afflicted with epilepsy. [ 169 ] back in 2017, Ramathibodi Hospital, a leading government hospital in Bangkok and a reputable aesculapian school, successfully performed the beginning robot-assisted genius surgery in Asia. [ 170 ] For reclamation and therapy robots, were developed to help patients with arm and stage injuries perform practice movements aided by the robots is the first trophy winner of the i-MEDBOT Innovation Contest 2018 reserve by Thailand Center of Excellence for Life Sciences ( TCELS ). [ 171 ] According to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Thailand devoted 1 % of its GDP to science research and development in 2017. [ 172 ] Between 2014 and 2016, Research and development work force in Thailand increased from 84,216 people to 112,386 people. [ 173 ] Thailand was ranked 43rd in the Global Innovation Index in 2021 [ 174 ] [ 175 ] [ 176 ] [ 177 ] The Thai politics is developing new growth hub by starting with the easterly Economic Corridor of Innovation ( EECi ) to accelerating human resource and research exploitation. [ 178 ] The National Science and Technology Development Agency is an agency of the politics of Thailand which supports research in science and engineering and its application in the Thai economy. [ 179 ] By December 2020 with 308.35 Mbit/s Thailand had become world leader in terms of Internet fixed broadband internet accelerate, with Switzerland and France in Europe in positions 5 and 8 respectively, with the US at place 10 with 173.67 Mbit/s. [ 180 ]


transportation system

The BTS Skytrain is an elevated railway rapid transit system in Bangkok The State Railway of Thailand ( SRT ) operates all of Thailand ‘s national rail lines. Bangkok Railway Station ( Hua Lamphong Station ) is the independent terminal of all routes. Phahonyothin and ICD Lat Krabang are the chief freight terminals. As of 2017 SRT had 4,507 km ( 2,801 mi ) of track, all of it meter gauge except the Airport Link. about all is single-track ( 4,097 kilometer ), although some important sections around Bangkok are double ( 303 kilometer or 188 mile ) or triple-tracked ( 107 kilometer or 66 mi ) and there are plans to extend this. [ 181 ] Rail conveyance in Bangkok includes long-distance services, and some casual commuter trains running from and to the outskirts of the city during the rush hour, but passenger numbers have remained low. There are besides three rapid theodolite railing systems in the capital. Thailand has 390,000 kilometres ( 240,000 miles ) of highways. [ 182 ] As of 2017, Thailand has over 462,133 roads and 37 million registered vehicles, 20 million of them motorbikes. [ 183 ] A number of undivided two-lane highways have been converted into divided four-lane highways. There are 4,125 public vans operating on 114 routes from Bangkok alone. [ 184 ] other forms of road transportation includes tuk-tuks, taxis—with over 80,647 file taxis countrywide as of 2018 [ 185 ] —vans ( minibus ), minibike cab and songthaews. As of 2012, Thailand has 103 airports with 63 pave runways, in addition to 6 heliports. The busiest airport in the county is Bangkok ‘s Suvarnabhumi Airport .


75 % of Thailand ‘s electric generation is powered by natural gas in 2014. [ 186 ] coal-fired power plants produce an extra 20 % of electricity, with the remainder coming from biomass, hydro, and biogas. [ 186 ] Thailand produces roughly one-third of the oil it consumes. It is the second largest importer of oil in SE Asia. Thailand is a large producer of natural boast, with reserves of at least 10 trillion cubic feet. After Indonesia, it is the largest coal manufacturer in SE Asia, but must import extra coal to meet domestic demand .


population pyramid 2016 Thailand had a population of 69,799,978 as of 2020. [ citation needed ] Thailand ‘s population is largely rural, concentrated in the rice-growing areas of the central, northeastern and northerly regions. About 45.7 % of Thailand ‘s population lived in urban areas as of 2010, concentrated by and large in and around the Bangkok Metropolitan Area. Thailand ‘s government-sponsored family planning program resulted in a dramatic decline in population growth from 3.1 % in 1960 to around 0.4 % today. In 1970, an average of 5.7 people lived in a Thai family. At the time of the 2010 census, the average Thai family size was 3.2 people .

ethnic groups

Hill tribes girls in the Northeast of Thailand thai nationals make up the majority of Thailand ‘s population, 95.9 % in 2010. The remaining 4.1 % of the population are Burmese ( 2.0 % ), others 1.3 %, and unspecified 0.9 %. [ 1 ] According to the Royal Thai Government ‘s 2011 Country Report to the UN Committee creditworthy for the International Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, available from the Department of Rights and Liberties Promotion of the Thai Ministry of Justice, : 3 62 ethnic communities are formally recognised in Thailand. Twenty million Central Thai ( together with approximately 650,000 Khorat Thai ) make up approximately 20,650,000 ( 34.1 percentage ) of the nation ‘s population of 60,544,937 [ 187 ] at the time of completion of the Mahidol University Ethnolinguistic Maps of Thailand data ( 1997 ). [ 188 ] The 2011 Thailand Country Report provides population numbers for batch peoples ( ‘hill tribes ‘ ) and ethnic communities in the Northeast and is explicit about its independent reliance on the Mahidol University Ethnolinguistic Maps of Thailand data. [ 188 ] Thus, though over 3.288 million people in the Northeast alone could not be categorised, the population and percentages of other ethnic communities circa 1997 are known for all of Thailand and constitute minimum populations. In descending order, the largest ( equal to or greater than 400,000 ) are a ) 15,080,000 Lao ( 24.9 percentage ) consist of the Thai Lao ( 14 million ) and other smaller Lao groups, namely the Thai Loei ( 400–500,000 ), Lao Lom ( 350,000 ), Lao Wiang/Klang ( 200,000 ), Lao Khrang ( 90,000 ), Lao Ngaew ( 30,000 ), and Lao Ti ( 10,000 ; b-complex vitamin ) six million Khon Muang ( 9.9 percentage, besides called Northern Thais ) ; c ) 4.5 million Pak Tai ( 7.5 percentage, besides called Southern Thais ) ; vitamin d ) 1.4 million Khmer Leu ( 2.3 percentage, besides called Northern Khmer ) ; e ) 900,000 Malay ( 1.5 % ) ; f ) 500,000 Nyaw ( 0.8 percentage ) ; thousand ) 470,000 Phu Thai ( 0.8 percentage ) ; h ) 400,000 Kuy/Kuay ( besides known as Suay ) ( 0.7 percentage ), and one ) 350,000 Karen ( 0.6 percentage ). : 7–13 Thai Chinese, those of meaning taiwanese inheritance, are 14 % of the population, while Thais with fond chinese ancestry comprise up to 40 % of the population. [ 189 ] Thai Malays represent 3 % of the population, with the remainder dwell of Mons, Khmers and versatile “ mound tribes “. The country ‘s official language is Thai and the primary religion is Theravada Buddhism, which is practised by around 95 % of the population. Increasing numbers of migrants from neighbouring Myanmar, Laos, and Cambodia, angstrom well as from Nepal and India, have pushed the entire number of non-national residents to around 3.5 million as of 2009, up from an estimated 2 million in 2008, and about 1.3 million in 2000. [ 190 ] Some 41,000 Britons and 20,000 Australians live in Thailand. [ 191 ] [ 192 ]

population centres


An ethnolinguistic function of Thailand . The Silajaruek of Sukhothai Kingdom are hundreds of stone inscriptions that form a historic record of the period. The official linguistic process of Thailand is Thai, a Kra–Dai terminology closely related to Lao, Shan in Myanmar, and numerous smaller languages spoken in an bow from Hainan and Yunnan south to the chinese surround. It is the principal lyric of education and government and spoken throughout the country. The standard is based on the dialect of the central Thai people, and it is written in the Thai alphabet, an abugida script that evolved from the Khmer rudiment. sixty-two languages were recognised by the Royal Thai Government. For the purposes of the national census, four dialects of Thai exist ; these partially coincide with regional designations, such as Southern Thai and Northern Thai. The largest of Thailand ‘s minority languages is the Lao dialect of Isan spoken in the northeastern provinces. Although sometimes considered a Thai dialect, it is a Lao dialect, and the region where it is traditionally spoken was historically part of the Lao kingdom of Lan Xang. [ citation needed ] In the far confederacy, Kelantan-Pattani Malay is the primary speech of Malay Muslims. Varieties of Chinese are besides spoken by the big Thai Chinese population, with the Teochew dialect best-represented. numerous tribal languages are besides spoken, including many Austroasiatic languages such as Mon, Khmer, Viet, Mlabri and Orang Asli ; austronesian languages such as Cham and Moken ; sino-tibetan languages like Lawa, Akha, and Karen ; and early Tai languages such as Tai Yo, Phu Thai, and Saek. Hmong is a member of the Hmong–Mien languages, which is now regarded as a terminology kin of its own .


Religion in Thailand (2018)[193]
Religion Percent
Buddhism 93.46%
Islam 5.37%
Christianity 1.13%
Hinduism 0.018%
Unaffiliated/others 0.003%

The country ‘s most prevailing religion is Theravada Buddhism, which is an integral part of Thai identity and culture. active engagement in Buddhism is among the highest in the global. Thailand has the second-largest number of Buddhists in the worldly concern after China. [ 194 ] According to the 2000 census, 94.6 % and 93.58 % in 2010 of the country ‘s population self-identified as Buddhists of the Theravada tradition .
Muslims constitute the second largest religious group in Thailand, comprising 5.4 % of the population in 2018. [ 195 ] Islam is concentrated largely in the nation ‘s southernmost provinces : Pattani, Yala, Satun, Narathiwat, and share of Songkhla Chumphon, which are predominantly Malay, most of whom are Sunni Muslims. Christians represented 1.13 % ( 2018 ) of the population in 2018, with the remaining population consisting of Hindus and Sikhs, who live largely in the area ‘s cities. There is besides a small but historically meaning Jewish community in Thailand dating back to the seventeenth century. The constitution does not name official submit religion, and provides for freedom of religion. even the authority formally does not register newfangled religious groups that have not been accepted and limit the number of missionaries, unregistered religious organisations equally well as missionaries who are allowed to operate freely. There have been no widespread reports of social abuses or discrimination based on religious belief or exercise. [ 196 ] Thai law officially recognizes five religious groups : Buddhists, Muslims, Brahmin-Hindus, Sikhs, and Christians. [ 197 ] however, some laws are inspired from Buddhist practices, such as banning alcohol sales on religious holidays. [ 198 ]


Thailand ‘s youth literacy rate was 98.1 % in 2015. [ 199 ] department of education is provided by a well-organised school system of kindergartens, chief, lower secondary and upper secondary schools, numerous vocational colleges, and universities. education is compulsory up to and including senesce 14, with the government is mandated to provide free education through to old age 17. The establishment of authentic and coherent course of study for its primary coil and secondary schools is subjugate to rapid changes. Issues concerning university entrance has been in constant convulsion for a number of years. The country is besides one of the few that still mandates uniform up to the university years, which is hush a discipline of ongoing consider. The timbre of providing department of education in the state is much questioned. In 2013, the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology announced that 27,231 schools would receive classroom-level access to high-speed internet. [ 200 ] however, the nation ‘s educational infrastructure was still underprepared for on-line teaching, as smaller and more distant schools were peculiarly hindered by COVID-19 restrictions. [ 201 ] The number of higher education institutions in Thailand has grown strongly over the past decades to 156 formally. The two top-ranking universities in Thailand are Chulalongkorn University and Mahidol University. [ 202 ] Thai universities research output still relatively low, even though the country ‘s daybook publications increased by 20 % between 2011 and 2016. [ 203 ] Recent initiatives, such as the National Research University [ 204 ] and Graduate research intensive university: VISTEC, are designed to strengthen Thailand ‘s national research universities. The secret sector of education is well train and significantly contributes to the overall provision of education. Thailand has the second highest count of English-medium private international schools in Southeast asian Nations. [ 205 ] Cram schools are specially popular for university capture examination .
Students in cultural minority areas score systematically lower in standardized national and international tests. [ 206 ] [ 207 ] [ 208 ] This is probably due to unequal allotment of educational resources, unaccented teacher train, poverty, and abject Thai language skill, the speech of the tests. [ 206 ] [ 209 ] [ 210 ] As of 2020, Thailand was ranked 89th out of 100 countries globally for English proficiency. [ 211 ] across-the-board nationally IQ tests were administered to 72,780 Thai students from December 2010 to January 2011. The average IQ was found to be 98.59, which is higher than former studies have found. intelligence quotient levels were found to be inconsistent throughout the country, with the lowest average of 88.07 recover in Narathiwat Province and the highest average of 108.91 reported in Nonthaburi Province. The Ministry of Public Health blamed the discrepancies on tincture of iodine insufficiency, and required that iodine be added to postpone salt. [ 212 ] Thailand is the third base most popular discipline destination in ASEAN. The phone number of international academic degree students in Thailand increased by 9.7 times between 1999 and 2012, from 1,882 to 20,309 students. Most of international students come from neighbor countries [ 205 ] from China, Myanmar, Cambodia and Vietnam. [ 213 ]


Thailand ranks worldly concern ‘s sixth, and Asia ‘s first gear in the 2019 Global Health Security Index of ball-shaped health security capabilities in 195 countries, [ 214 ] making it the only developing area on the world ‘s crown ten-spot. Thailand had 62 hospitals accredited by Joint Commission International. [ 215 ] In 2002, Bumrungrad became the first base hospital in Asia to meet the standard. Health and medical caution is overseen by the Ministry of Public Health ( MOPH ), along with several early non-ministerial government agencies, with full national expenditures on health amounting to 4.3 percentage of GDP in 2009. Non-communicable diseases form the major burden of morbidity and mortality, while infectious diseases including malaria and tuberculosis, equally well as traffic accidents, are besides important public health issues. The stream Minister for Public Health is Anutin Charnvirakul. In December 2018 the interim fantan voted to legalise the habit of cannabis for checkup reasons, making Thailand the first Southeast asian state to allow the use of aesculapian cannabis. [ 216 ]


thai culture and traditions incorporate a big deal of influence from India, China, Cambodia, and the rest of Southeast Asia. Thailand ‘s national religion, Theravada Buddhism, is central to modern Thai identity. Thai Buddhism has evolved over prison term to include many regional beliefs originating from Hinduism, animism, american samoa well as ancestor idolize. The official calendar in Thailand is based on the easterly version of the Buddhist Era ( BE ). Thai identity nowadays is a social construct of Phibun regimen in 1940s. respective ethnic groups mediated variety between their traditional local anesthetic culture, national Thai, and ball-shaped cultural influences. Overseas Chinese besides form a significant separate of Thai company, particularly in and around Bangkok. Their successful integration into Thai society has allowed them to hold positions of economic and political power. Thai chinese businesses prosper as character of the larger bamboo network. [ 217 ] People floating krathong rafts during the Loi Krathong festival in Chiang Mai, Thailand Respects for aged and superiors ( by age, position, monks, or certain professions ) is thai mores. As with early asian cultures, respect towards ancestors is an substantive part of Thai apparitional practice. Thais have potent common sense of social hierarchy, reflecting in many classes of honorifics. Elders have by custom ruled in class decisions or ceremonies. Wai is a traditional Thai greet, and is by and large offered first by person who is younger or lower in social condition and position. Older siblings have duties to younger ones. Thais have a strong sense of cordial reception and generosity. [ citation needed ] Taboos in Thai culture include touching person ‘s head or pointing with the feet, as the head is considered the most hallowed and the metrical foot the lowest part of the consistency .


The origins of Thai art were very much influenced by Buddhist artwork and by scenes from the indian epics. traditional Thai sculpture about entirely depicts images of the Buddha, being very similar with the other styles from Southeast Asia. Traditional Thai paintings normally consist of script illustrations, and motley decoration of buildings such as palaces and temples. Thai art was influenced by autochthonal civilisations of the Mon and other civilisations. By the Sukothai and Ayutthaya period, thai had developed into its own unique style and was later far influenced by the other asian styles, by and large by Sri Lankan and Chinese. Thai sculpt and paint, and the royal courts provided patronize, erecting temples and other religious shrines as acts of merit or to commemorate significant events. [ 218 ] traditional Thai paintings showed subjects in two dimensions without perspective. The size of each element in the picture reflected its academic degree of importance. The basal proficiency of musical composition is that of apportioning areas : the main elements are isolated from each other by outer space transformers. This eliminated the average ground, which would otherwise incriminate perspective. position was introduced only as a result of western influence in the mid-19th hundred. Monk artist Khrua In Khong is well known as the first gear artist to introduce linear perspective to Thai traditional art. [ 219 ] The most patronize narrative subjects for paintings were or are : the Jataka stories, episodes from the life of the Buddha, the Buddhist heavens and hells, themes derived from the Thai versions of the Ramayana and Mahabharata, not to mention scenes of daily liveliness. Some of the scenes are influenced by Thai folklore alternatively of following rigorous Buddhist iconography. [ 218 ]


Two sculptures guarding the easterly gate to the chief chapel of Wat Arun computer architecture is the leading medium of the state ‘s cultural bequest and reflects both the challenges of surviving in Thailand ‘s sometimes extreme climate angstrom good as, historically, the importance of architecture to the Thai people ‘s sense of residential district and religious beliefs. Influenced by the architectural traditions of many of Thailand ‘s neighbours, it has besides developed significant regional variation within its slang and religious buildings. The Ayutthaya Kingdom movement, which went from approximately 1350 to 1767, was one of the most fruitful and creative periods in Thai architecture The identity of architecture in Ayutthaya period is designed to display might and riches so it has bang-up size and appearance. The temples in Ayutthaya rarely built eaves stretching from the masterhead. The dominant feature of this dash is sunlight shining into buildings. During the latter function of the Ayutthaya period, computer architecture was regarded as a peak accomplishment that responded to the requirements of people and expressed the gracefulness of Thainess. [ 220 ] buddhist temples in Thailand are known as “ wats “, from the Pāḷi vāṭa, meaning an enclosure. A temple has an enclosing wall that divides it from the profane populace. Wat architecture has seen many changes in Thailand in the course of history. Although there are many differences in layout and stylus, they all adhere to the lapp principles. [ 221 ]


Thai literature has had a long history. tied before the establishment of the Sukhothai Kingdom there existed oral and written works. During the Sukhothai Kingdom, Most literary works were written in simple prose with certain alliteration schemes. major works include King Ram Khamhaeng Inscription describing biography at the time, which is considered the first literary work in Thai handwriting, but some historians questioned its authenticity. [ 222 ] Trai Phum Phra Ruang, written in 1345 by King Maha Thammaracha I, expounds Buddhist philosophy based on a profound and extensive study with character to over 30 sacred texts and could be considered the nation ‘s beginning slice of research dissertation. [ 223 ] During the Ayutthaya Kingdom, modern poetic forms were created, with different rhyme schemes and metres. It is common to find a combination of different poetic forms in one poetic work. Lilit Yuan Phai is a narrative poem describing the war between King Borommatrailokkanat of Ayutthaya and Prince Tilokkarat of Lan Na. One of the most beautiful literary work is Kap He Ruea composed by Prince Thammathibet in the nirat custom. traditionally, the poetry is sung during the colorful royal barge emanation and has been the model for subsequent poets to emulate. The like prince besides composed the greatly admire Kap Ho Khlong on the Visit to Than Thongdaeng and Kap Ho Khlong Nirat Phrabat. [ 224 ] Despite its short menstruation of 15 years, Thon Buri Period produced Ramakian, a poetry drama contributed by King Taksin the Great. The era marked the revival of literature after the drop of Ayutthaya. During the eighteenth hundred Rattanakosin menstruation, which hush fought with the Burmese, many of the early Rattanakosin works conduct with war and military strategy. Some examples are Nirat Rop Phama Thi Tha Din Daeng, Phleng Yao Rop Phama Thi Nakhon Si Thammarat. In the perform arts, possibly the most important dramatic accomplishment is the complete work of Ramakian by King Rama I. In accession, There were besides verse recitals with musical accompaniment, such as Mahori telling the report of Kaki, Sepha relating the history of Khun Chang Khun Phaen. other recitals include Sri Thanonchai. The most crucial Thai poet in this period was Sunthorn Phu ( สุนทรภู่ ) ( 1786–1855 ), wide known as “ the bard of Rattanakosin ” ( Thai : กวีเอกแห่งกรุงรัตนโกสินทร์ ). Sunthorn Phu is best known for his epic poem poem Phra Aphai Mani ( Thai : พระอภัยมณี ), written during 1822 and 1844. Phra Aphai Mani is a verse fantasy-adventure novel, a music genre of siamese cat literature known as nithan kham klon ( Thai : นิทานคำกลอน ). [ 224 ] Some of the most long-familiar modern Thai writers include Kukrit Pramoj, Kulap Saipradit, ( penname Siburapha ), Suweeriya Sirisingh ( penname Botan ), Chart Korbjitti, Prabda Yoon and Duanwad Pimwana. [ 225 ] The works tended to be light fabrication .

Music and dance

Khon show is the most stylised form of Thai performance. apart from tribe and regional dances ( southern Thailand ‘s Menora ( dancing ) and Ramwong, for example ), the two major forms of Thai classical dance drama are Khon and Lakhon nai. In the begin, both were entirely motor hotel entertainments and it was not until much later that a democratic style of dance theater, likay, evolved as a diversion for common family who had no access to royal performances. [ 226 ] Folk dance forms include dancing field forms like likay, numerous regional dances ( ram ), the ritual dance force muay, and court to the teacher, wai khru. Both jam muay and wai khru take place before all traditional muay Thai matches. The wai is besides an annual ceremony performed by Thai classical dance groups to honor their artistic ancestors. Thai classical music music is synonymous with those stylized court ensembles and repertoires that emerged in their salute shape within the royal centers of Central Thailand some 800 years ago. These ensembles, while being influenced by older practices are today uniquely Thai expressions. While the three primary classical ensembles, the Piphat, Khrueang sai and Mahori differ in significant ways, they all parcel a basic instrumentality and theoretical set about. Each employs belittled ching hand cymbals and krap wooden sticks to mark the primary beat reference. Thai classical music has had a wide influence on the musical traditions of neighboring countries. The traditional music of Myanmar was powerfully influenced by the Thai music repertory, called Yodaya ( ယိုးဒယား ), which was brought over from the Ayutthaya Kingdom. As Siam expanded its political and cultural influence to Laos and Cambodia during the early Rattanakosin period, its music was promptly absorbed by the Cambodia and Lao courts .


Thai films are exported and exhibited in Southeast Asia. [ 227 ] Thai cinema has developed its own unique identity and now being internationally recognized for their culture-driven. [ 228 ] Films such as Ong-Bak: Muay Thai Warrior ( 2003 ) and Tom-Yum-Goong ( 2005 ), starred Tony Jaa, sport distinctive aspects of Thai martial arts “ Muay Thai “. Thai horror has constantly had a significant cult following, unique take on tales from beyond the grave. More recently, horror films such as Shutter ( 2004 ), was one of the best-known Thai horror movies and recognized cosmopolitan. [ 229 ] other examples include The Unseeable ( 2006 ), Alone ( 2007 ), Body ( 2007 ), Coming Soon ( 2008 ), 4bia ( 2008 ), Phobia 2 ( 2009 ), Ladda Land ( 2011 ), Pee Mak ( 2013 ), The Promise ( 2017 ), and The Medium ( 2021 ). Thai heist thriller film Bad Genius ( 2017 ), was one of the most internationally successful Thai movie, It broke Thai film earning records in respective asian countries, [ 230 ] Bad Genius won in 12 categories at the 27th Suphannahong National Film Awards, and besides won the Jury Award at the 16th New York Asian Film Festival with a cosmopolitan solicitation of more than $ 42 million. [ 231 ] Thailand television receiver drama, known as Lakorn, Lakorn have become popular in Thailand and its neighbours. [ 232 ] Many dramas tend to have a quixotic focus, such as Khluen Chiwit, U-Prince, Ugly Duckling, The Crown Princess and adolescent drama television series, such as 2gether: The Series, The Gifted, Girl From Nowhere, Hormones: The Series. The Entertainment industries ( film and television receiver ) are estimated to have immediately contributed $ 2.1 billion in crude domestic merchandise ( GDP ) to the Thai economy in 2011. They besides directly supported 86,600 jobs. [ 233 ] Amongst respective Dance-pop artists who have made internationally successful can be mentioned “ Lisa ” Lalisa Manoban [ 234 ] and Tata Young .


Thai cuisine is one of the most democratic in the populace. [ 235 ] [ 236 ] Thai food blends five cardinal tastes : fresh, piquant, dark, biting, and salty. The herb and spices most used in Thai cooking themselves have medicative qualities such as garlic, lemongrass, great millet birdlime, galangal, turmeric, coriander, coconut milk. [ 237 ] Each region of Thailand has its specialities : kaeng khiao wan ( green dress ) in the cardinal region, som tam ( green papaya salad ) in the northeast, khao soi in the union, and massaman curry in the south. In 2017, seven Thai dishes appeared on a list of the “ World ‘s 50 Best Foods ” — an on-line global poll by CNN Travel. Thailand had more dishes on the tilt than any early state. They were : tom yam goong ( 4th ), pad Thai ( 5th ), som tam ( 6th ), massaman curry ( 10th ), green curry ( 19th ), Thai fried rice ( 24th ) and mu nam tok ( 36th ). [ 238 ] Two desserts were besides listed in CNN ’ s 50 Best Desserts Around The World : mango muggy rice and tub tim krob. [ 239 ] The basic food in Thailand is rice, particularly jasmine rice ( besides known as hom Mali ) which forms contribution of about every meal. Thailand is a leading exporter of rice, and Thais consume over 100 kg of mill rice per person per year. [ 240 ]

Units of measurement

Thailand by and large uses the system of measurement system, but traditional units of measurement for land area are used, and imperial units of measurement are occasionally used for build up materials, such as wood and plumbing fixtures. Years are numbered as B.E. ( Buddhist Era ) in educational settings, civil service, politics, contracts, and newspaper datelines. however, in bank, and increasingly in industry and department of commerce, criterion western year ( christian or Common Era ) count is the standard exercise. [ 241 ]


Muay Thai ( Thai : มวยไทย, RTGS : Muai Thai, [ muaj tʰaj ], unhorse. “ Thai box ” ) is a fight sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with diverse clinching techniques. Muay Thai became widespread internationally in the late-20th to twenty-first century, when Westernized practitioners from Thailand began competing in kickboxing and assorted rules matches a well as matches under muay Thai rules around the world, celebrated practitioners such as Buakaw Banchamek, Samart Payakaroon, Dieselnoi Chor Thanasukarn and Apidej Sit-Hirun. Buakaw Banchamek has credibly brought more external interest in Muay Thai than any other Muay Thai fighters always had. [ 242 ] Association football has overtaken muay Thai as the most widely followed sport in contemporaneous Thai society. Thailand national football team has played the AFC asian Cup six times and reached the semifinals in 1972. The country has hosted the asian Cup twice, in 1972 and in 2007. The 2007 edition was co-hosted together with Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam. It is not rare to see Thais cheering their favorite english Premier League teams on television and walking about in replica kit. Another wide enjoyed pastime, and once a competitive sport, is kite flying. Volleyball is quickly growing as one of the most popular sports. The women ‘s team has often participated in the World Championship, World Cup, and World Grand Prix Asian Championship. They have won the asian Championship doubly and asian Cup once. By the success of the women ‘s team, the men team has been growing adenine well. Takraw ( Thai : ตะกร้อ ) is a sport native to Thailand, in which the players hit a rattan testis and are only allowed to use their feet, knees, chest of drawers, and head to touch the ball. Sepak takraw is a form of this sport which is alike to volleyball. The players must volley a ball over a net income and impel it to hit the grind on the opponent ‘s side. It is besides a popular sport in early countries in Southeast Asia. A quite similar game but played only with the feet is buka ball. Snooker has enjoyed increasing popularity in Thailand in recent years, with concern in the game being stimulated by the success of Thai snooker actor James Wattana in the 1990s. [ 243 ] other celebrated players produced by the state include Ratchayothin Yotharuck, Noppon Saengkham and Dechawat Poomjaeng. [ 244 ] Rugby is besides a growing frolic in Thailand with the Thailand national rugby coupling team rising to be ranked 61st in the world. [ 245 ] Thailand became the beginning state in the worldly concern to host an external 80 welterweight rugby tournament in 2005. [ 246 ] The national domestic Thailand Rugby Union ( TRU ) contest includes respective universities and services teams such as Chulalongkorn University, Mahasarakham University, Kasetsart University, Prince of Songkla University, Thammasat University, Rangsit University, the Thai Police, the Thai Army, the Thai Navy and the Royal Thai Air Force. local sports clubs which besides compete in the TRU include the british Club of Bangkok, the Southerners Sports Club ( Bangkok ) and the Royal Bangkok Sports Club. Thailand has been called the golf capital of Asia [ 247 ] as it is a popular destination for golf. The state attracts a big phone number of golfers from Japan, Korea, Singapore, South Africa, and western countries who come to play golf in Thailand every class. [ 248 ] The growing popularity of golf, particularly among the in-between classes and immigrants, is discernible as there are more than 200 first golf courses nationally, [ 249 ] and some of them are chosen to host PGA and LPGA tournaments, such as Amata Spring Country Club, Alpine Golf and Sports Club, Thai Country Club, and Black Mountain Golf Club. basketball is a growing sport in Thailand, specially on the professional sports clubhouse degree. The Chang Thailand Slammers won the 2011 ASEAN Basketball League Championship. [ 250 ] The Thailand national basketball team had its most successful year at the 1966 asian Games where it won the silver decoration. [ 251 ] early sports in Thailand are lento growing as the state develops its frolic infrastructure. The achiever in sports like weightlifting and tae kwon do at the last two summer Olympic Games has demonstrated that packing is no longer the only decoration option for Thailand .
The long-familiar Lumpinee Boxing Stadium in the first place sited at Rama IV Road near Lumphini Park hosted its final Muay Thai boxing matches on 8 February 2014 after the venue first opened in December 1956. Managed by the Royal Thai Army, the stadium was officially selected for the function of muay Thai bouts following a contest that was staged on 15 March 1956. From 11 February 2014, the stadium will relocate to Ram Intra Road, ascribable to the new venue ‘s capacity to accommodate audiences of up to 3,500. Foreigners typically pay between 1,000 and 2,000 baht to view a match, with prices depending on the location of the induct. [ 252 ] Thammasat Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Bangkok. It is presently used by and large for football matches. The stadium holds 25,000. It is on Thammasat University ‘s Rangsit campus. It was built for the 1998 asian Games by construction firm Christiani and Nielsen, the same caller that constructed the Democracy Monument in Bangkok. Rajamangala National Stadium is the biggest sporting sphere in Thailand. It presently has a capacity of 65,000. It is in Bang Kapi, Bangkok. The stadium was built in 1998 for the 1998 asian Games and is the home stadium of the Thailand national football team .

See besides



further reading

  • Chachavalpongpun, Pavin, ed. Routledge Handbook Of Contemporary Thailand (2020)
  • Cooper, Robert. Culture Shock! Thailand: A Survival Guide to Customs and Etiquette (2008)
  • London, Ellen. Thailand Condensed: 2000 Years of History & Culture (2008)
  • Lonely Planet’s Best of Thailand (2020)
  • Mishra, Patit Paban. The History of Thailand (Greenwood, 2010)
  • Moore, Frank J. ed. Thailand: Its People, Its Society, Its Culture (HRAF Press, 1974).
  • Wyatt, David K. Thailand: A Short History (Yale University Press, 2003)
  • Zawacki, Benjamin. Thailand: Shifting ground between the US and a rising China (2nd ed.. Bloomsbury, 2021).

General information
  • Tourism Authority of Thailand – official tourism website