Malaysia – Wikipedia

area in Southeast Asia
not to be confused with Malesia
Malaysia ( mə-LAY-zee-ə, -⁠zhə ; Malay : [ məlejsiə ] ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of thirteen states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two regions, Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo ‘s East Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a domain and nautical boundary line with Thailand and nautical borders with Singapore, Vietnam, and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime margin with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital, largest city and the seat of the legislative branch of the union government. The nearby plan capital of Putrajaya is the administrative capital, which represents the seat of both the executive branch ( Cabinet, federal ministries and agencies ) and the judicial arm of the federal politics. With a population of over 32 million, Malaysia is the earth ‘s 44th-most populous nation. The southernmost point of continental Eurasia is in Tanjung Piai. In the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries, home to numerous endemic species.

Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms which, from the eighteenth century, became subject to the british Empire, along with the british Straits Settlements protectorate. peninsular Malaysia was unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948 and achieved independence on 31 August 1957. The independent Malaya united with the then british crown colonies of North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia. In August 1965, Singapore was expelled from the confederation and became a branch mugwump country. [ 14 ] The country is multiethnic and multicultural, which has a meaning impression on its politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with minorities of Chinese, Indians, and autochthonal peoples. The country ‘s official linguistic process is malaysian, a standard human body of the Malay language. english remains an active second lyric. While recognising Islam as the state ‘s established religion, the constitution grants freedom of religion to non-Muslims. The government is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on common law. The oral sex of state is an elect monarch, chosen from among the nine submit sultans every five years. The head of government is the Prime Minister. After independence, the Malaysian GDP grew at an average of 6.5 % per annum for about 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its natural resources but is expanding in the sectors of skill, tourism, commerce and checkup tourism. Malaysia has a newly industrialised grocery store economy, ranked third-largest in Southeast Asia and 33rd-largest in the world. [ 15 ] It is a establish member of ASEAN, EAS, OIC and a member of APEC, the Commonwealth and the Non-Aligned Movement .


English Map of Southeast Asia, "MALAYSIA" typeset horizontally so that the letters run across the northernmost corner of Borneo and pass just south of the Philippines. “ malaysia ” used as a pronounce for the Malay Archipelago on a 1914 map from a United States atlas The name “ Malaysia “ is a combination of the give voice “ Malays “ and the Latin-Greek suffix “ -ia “ / ” -ία “ [ 16 ] which can be translated as “ land of the Malays ”. [ 17 ] The origin of the news ‘Melayu ‘ is subject to respective theories. It may derive from the Sanskrit “ Himalaya ”, referring to areas high in the mountains, or “ Malaiyur-pura ”, meaning batch township. [ 18 ] Another like theory claims its origin lies in the Tamil words “ malai “ and “ ur “ meaning “ mountain ” and “ city, land ”, respectively. [ 19 ] [ 20 ] [ 21 ] Another suggestion is that it derives from the Pamalayu campaign. A final suggestion is that it comes from a javanese bible think of “ to run ”, from which a river, the Sungai Melayu ( ‘Melayu river ‘ ), was named due to its strong current. [ 18 ] Similar-sounding variants have besides appeared in accounts older than the eleventh century, as place name for areas in Sumatra or referring to a larger region around the Strait of Malacca. [ 22 ] The Sanskrit text Vayu Purana, thought to have been in universe since the first millennium CE, mentioned a land named ‘Malayadvipa ‘ which was identified by certain scholars as the mod Malay peninsula. [ 23 ] [ 24 ] [ 25 ] [ 26 ] [ 27 ] other luminary accounts are by the second century Ptolemy ‘s Geographia that used the name Malayu Kulon for the west coast of Golden Chersonese, and the seventh century Yijing ‘s explanation of Malayu. [ 22 ] At some charge, the Melayu Kingdom took its name from the Sungai Melayu. [ 18 ] [ 28 ] ‘Melayu ‘ then became associated with Srivijaya, [ 22 ] and remained associated with versatile parts of Sumatra, particularly Palembang, where the founder of the Malacca Sultanate is thought to have come from. [ 29 ] It is alone thought to have developed into an ethnonym as Malacca became a regional ability in the fifteenth hundred. Islamisation established an ethnoreligious identity in Malacca, with the term ‘Melayu ‘ beginning to appear as interchangeable with ‘Melakans ‘. It may have specifically referred to local Malays speakers thought loyal to the Malaccan Sultan. The initial Portuguese habit of Malayos reflected this, referring only to the ruling people of Malacca. The prominence of traders from Malacca led ‘Melayu ‘ to be associated with Muslim traders, and from there became associated with the wide cultural and linguistic group. [ 22 ] Malacca and former Johor claimed they were the center of Malay culture, a side supported by the british which led to the terminus ‘Malay ‘ becoming more normally linked to the Malay peninsula quite than Sumatra. [ 29 ] Before the onset of european colonization, the Malay Peninsula was known natively as “ Tanah Melayu “ ( “ Malay Land ” ). [ 30 ] [ 31 ] Under a racial categorization created by a german scholar Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, the natives of maritime Southeast Asia were grouped into a single category, the Malay race. [ 32 ] [ 33 ] Following the excursion of french sailing master Jules Dumont d’Urville to Oceania in 1826, he later proposed the terms of “ Malaysia ”, “ Micronesia “ and “ Melanesia “ to the Société de Géographie in 1831, distinguishing these Pacific cultures and island groups from the existing term “ Polynesia “. Dumont d’Urville described Malaysia as “ an area normally known as the East Indies ”. [ 34 ] In 1850, the English ethnologist George Samuel Windsor Earl, writing in the Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, proposed naming the islands of Southeast Asia as “ Melayunesia ” or “ Indunesia ”, favouring the former. [ 35 ] The name Malaysia gained some use to label what is now the Malay Archipelago. [ 36 ] In modern terminology, “ Malay ” remains the identify of an ethnoreligious group of austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula and portions of the adjacent islands of Southeast Asia, including the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, and smaller islands that lie between these areas. [ 37 ] The state that gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1957 took the name the “ Federation of Malaya “, chosen in preference to other electric potential names such as “ Langkasuka “, after the historic kingdom located at the upper section of the Malay Peninsula in the beginning millennium CE. [ 38 ] [ 39 ] The name “ Malaysia ” was adopted in 1963 when the existing states of the Federation of Malaya, plus Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak formed a new federation. [ 40 ] [ five hundred ] One hypothesis posits the name was chosen therefore that “ systeme international d’unites ” represented the inclusion of Singapore, North Borneo, and Sarawak to Malaya in 1963. [ 40 ] Politicians in the Philippines contemplated renaming their submit “ Malaysia ” before the modern area took the mention. [ 42 ]


Map showing the extent of the Malacca Sultanate, covering much of the Malay Peninsula and some of Sumatra The Malacca Sultanate played a major character in spreading Islam throughout the Malay Archipelago. evidence of advanced human dwelling in Malaysia dates back 40,000 years. [ 43 ] In the Malay Peninsula, the first inhabitants are thought to be Negritos. [ 44 ] Traders and settlers from India and China arrived deoxyadenosine monophosphate early as the first hundred AD, establishing trading ports and coastal towns in the second and one-third centuries. Their presence resulted in impregnable indian and chinese influences on the local anesthetic cultures, and the people of the Malay Peninsula adopted the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism. Sanskrit inscriptions appear a early as the fourth or one-fifth hundred. [ 45 ] The Kingdom of Langkasuka arose around the second century in the northerly sphere of the Malay Peninsula, lasting until about the fifteenth century. [ 38 ] Between the 7th and 13th centuries, much of the southerly Malay Peninsula was region of the nautical Srivijayan empire. By the 13th and the fourteenth hundred, the Majapahit empire had successfully wrested control over most of the peninsula and the Malay Archipelago from Srivijaya. [ 46 ] In the early fifteenth hundred, Parameswara, a runaway king of the early Kingdom of Singapura linked to the old Srivijayan woo, founded the Malacca Sultanate. [ citation needed ] The outspread of Islam increased following Parameswara ‘s conversion to that religion. Malacca was an important commercial kernel during this time, attracting trade from around the region. [ 47 ]
Dutch fleet vs Portuguese armada The Dutch fleet battling with the Portuguese armada as part of the Dutch–Portuguese War in 1606 to gain control of Malacca In 1511, Malacca was conquered by Portugal, [ 47 ] after which it was taken by the dutch in 1641. In 1786, the british Empire established a presence in Malaya, when the Sultan of Kedah leased Penang Island to the british East India Company. The british obtained the town of Singapore in 1819, [ 48 ] and in 1824 took command of Malacca following the Anglo-Dutch Treaty. By 1826, the british immediately controlled Penang, Malacca, Singapore, and the island of Labuan, which they established as the crown colony of the Straits Settlements. By the twentieth century, the states of Pahang, Selangor, Perak, and Negeri Sembilan, known together as the Federated Malay States, had british residents appointed to advise the Malay rulers, to whom the rulers were bound to defer by treaty. [ 49 ] The remaining five states in the peninsula, known as the Unfederated Malay States, while not immediately under british rule, besides accepted british advisers around the turn of the twentieth hundred. Development on the peninsula and Borneo were generally separate until the nineteenth century. Under british rule the immigration of Chinese and Indians to serve as labourers was encouraged. [ 50 ] The area that is now Sabah came under british master as North Borneo when both the Sultan of Brunei and the Sultan of Sulu transferred their respective territorial rights of ownership, between 1877 and 1878. [ 51 ] In 1842, Sarawak was ceded by the Sultan of Brunei to James Brooke, whose successors ruled as the White Rajahs over an independent kingdom until 1946, when it became a crown colony. [ 52 ] In the second World War, the japanese Army invaded and occupied Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore for over three years. During this prison term, cultural tensions were raised and nationalism grew. [ 53 ] Popular support for independence increased after Malaya was reconquered by Allied forces. [ 54 ] Post-war British plans to unite the government of Malaya under a single crown colony called the “ Malayan Union “ met with firm confrontation from the Malays, who opposed the weakening of the Malay rulers and the concede of citizenship to the ethnic Chinese. The Malayan Union, established in 1946, and consisting of all the british possessions in the Malay Peninsula with the exception of Singapore, was cursorily dissolved and replaced on 1 February 1948 by the Federation of Malaya, which restored the autonomy of the rulers of the Malay states under british protection. [ 55 ]
During this clock, the largely ethnically chinese rebels under the leadership of the Malayan Communist Party launched guerrilla operations designed to force the british out of Malaya. The Malayan Emergency ( 1948–1960 ) involved a long anti-insurgency campaign by Commonwealth troops in Malaya. [ 56 ] On 31 August 1957, Malaya became an mugwump member of the Commonwealth of Nations. [ 57 ] After this a design was put in home to federate Malaya with the crown colonies of North Borneo ( which joined as Sabah ), Sarawak, and Singapore. The date of confederation was planned to be 31 August 1963 so as to coincide with the anniversary of Malayan independence ; however, federation was delayed until 16 September 1963 in holy order for a United Nations survey of back for confederation in Sabah and Sarawak, called for by parties opposed to federation including Indonesia ‘s Sukarno and the Sarawak United Peoples ‘ Party, to be completed. [ 58 ] [ 59 ] [ 60 ] [ 61 ] Federation brought heightened tensions including a conflict with Indonesia ampere well continuous conflicts against the Communists in Borneo and the Malayan Peninsula which escalates to the Sarawak Communist Insurgency and Second Malayan Emergency together with respective other issues such as the cross edge attacks into North Borneo by Moro pirates from the southerly islands of the Philippines, Singapore being expelled from the Federation in 1965, [ 62 ] [ 63 ] and racial strife. This discord culminated in the 13 May race riots in 1969. [ 64 ] After the riots, the controversial New Economic policy was launched by Prime Minister Tun Abdul Razak, trying to increase the contribution of the economy held by the bumiputera. [ 65 ] Under Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad there was a period of rapid economic emergence and urbanization begin in the 1980s. The economy shifted from being agriculturally based to one based on fabrication and industry. numerous mega-projects were completed, such as the Petronas Towers, the North–South Expressway, the Multimedia Super Corridor, and the new federal administrative capital of Putrajaya. [ 40 ] however, in the late 1990s the asian fiscal crisis about caused the break down of the currency and the stock and property markets, although they late recovered. [ 66 ] The 1MDB scandal was a major global corruption scandal that implicated then-Prime Minister Najib Razak in 2015. [ 67 ] The scandal contributed to the inaugural change in ruling political party since independence in the 2018 cosmopolitan election. [ 68 ] In the 2020s, the nation was gripped by political crisis that coincided with health and economic crises caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. [ 69 ]

Government and politics

Malaysia is a union constitutional elective monarchy ; the only federal state in Southeast Asia. [ 70 ] The system of government is close modelled on the Westminster parliamentary organization, a bequest of british rule. [ 71 ] The fountainhead of state is the King, whose official title is the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. The King is elected to a five-year term by and from among the nine familial rulers of the Malay states. The early four states, which have titular Governors, do not participate in the choice. By informal agreement the stead is rotated among the nine, [ 71 ] and has been held by Abdullah of Pahang since 31 January 2019. [ 72 ] The King ‘s function has been largely ceremonial since changes to the united states constitution in 1994, picking ministers and members of the amphetamine sign of the zodiac. [ 73 ] legislative might is divided between federal and state legislatures. The bicameral federal parliament consists of the lower house, the House of Representatives and the upper berth firm, the Senate. [ 74 ] The 222-member House of Representatives is elected for a maximal term of five years from single-member constituencies. All 70 senators sit for three-year terms ; 26 are elected by the 13 state assemblies, and the remaining 44 are appointed by the King upon the Prime Minister ‘s recommendation. [ 47 ] The parliament follows a multi-party arrangement and the government is elected through a first-past-the-post arrangement. [ 47 ] [ 75 ] Parliamentary elections are held at least once every five years, [ 47 ] the most late of which took place in May 2018. [ 68 ] Before 2018, registered voters aged 21 and above could vote for the members of the House of Representatives and, in most of the states, for the state legislative bedroom. Voting is not mandate. [ 76 ] In July 2019, a bill to lower the vote age to 18 years old was officially passed. [ 77 ] Malaysia ‘s ranking increased by 9 places in the 2019 Democracy Index to 43th compared to the former year, and is classified as a ‘flawed majority rule ‘. [ 78 ]
executive power is vested in the Cabinet, led by the Prime Minister. The prime minister must be a member of the House of Representatives, who in the opinion of His Majesty the King, commands the subscribe of a majority of members. The Cabinet is chosen from members of both houses of Parliament. [ 47 ] The Prime Minister is both the forefront of cabinet and the head of government. [ 73 ] As a resultant role of the 2018 general election Malaysia was governed by the Pakatan Harapan political alliance, [ 68 ] although Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad resigned amid a political crisis in 2020. In March 2020, the Perikatan Nasional alliance formed under Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin, [ 79 ] before Muhyiddin lost majority support and was replaced by deputy Prime Minister Ismail Sabri Yaakob, a veteran politician from UMNO, in August 2021. [ 80 ] [ 81 ] Malaysia ‘s legal system is based on English Common Law. [ 47 ] Although the judiciary is theoretically independent, its independence has been called into interrogate and the appointment of judges lacks accountability and transparency. [ 82 ] The highest court in the judicial system is the Federal Court, followed by the Court of Appeal and two high courts, one for Peninsular Malaysia and one for East Malaysia. Malaysia besides has a special court to hear cases brought by or against royalty. [ 83 ] The end penalty is in use for unplayful crimes such as murder, terrorism, drug traffic, and kidnapping, [ 84 ] [ 85 ] but in June 2022, Malaysian law minister Wan Junaidi pledged to abolish the capital punishment and replace it with other punishments at the free will of the court. [ 86 ] Separate from and running parallel to the civil courts [ 87 ] are the Syariah Courts, which apply Shariah police to Muslims [ 88 ] in the areas of class law and religious observances. Homosexuality is illegal in Malaysia, [ 89 ] [ 90 ] and the authorities can impose punishment such as caning. [ 91 ] Human traffic and sex traffic in Malaysia are meaning problems. [ 92 ] [ 93 ] Race is a meaning force in politics. [ 47 ] Affirmative actions such as the New Economic Policy [ 65 ] and the National Development Policy which superseded it, were implemented to advance the resist of the bumiputera, consisting of Malays and the autochthonal tribes who are considered the original inhabitants of Malaysia, over non- bumiputera such as malaysian Chinese and Malaysian Indians. [ 94 ] These policies provide discriminatory treatment to bumiputera in employment, education, scholarships, commercial enterprise, and access to cheaper house and assisted savings. however, it has generated greater interethnic resentment. [ 95 ] There is ongoing debate over whether the laws and society of Malaysia should reflect layman or Islamic principles. [ 96 ] Islamic condemnable laws passed by the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party with the documentation of United Malays National Organisation ( UMNO ) express assemblymen in the department of state legislative fabrication of Kelantan have been blocked by the federal government on the basis that condemnable laws are the responsibility of the federal government. [ 97 ] [ 98 ] [ 99 ] Malaysia ‘s rate in the 2020 Press Freedom Index increased by 22 places to 101st compared to the previous year, making it one of two countries in Southeast Asia without a ‘Difficult position ‘ or ‘Very unplayful site ‘ with regards to press exemption. [ 100 ] however, it fell 18 places the follow class due to the policies of the Perikatan Nasional politics. [ 101 ] Malaysia is marked in the 50–59 image according to the 2019 Corruption Perceptions Index, indicating a moderate charge of corruptness. Freedom House noted Malaysia as “ partially dislodge ” in its 2018 sketch. [ 102 ] A lawsuit filed by Department of Justice ( DOJ ), alleged that at least $ 3.5 billion has been stolen from Malaysia ‘s 1MDB state-owned investment company. [ 67 ] [ 103 ] [ 104 ]

administrative divisions

Malaysia is a federation of 13 states and three federal territories. [ 105 ] These are divided between two regions, with 11 states and two federal territories on Peninsular Malaysia and the other two states and one federal territory in East Malaysia. Each state of matter is divided into districts, which are then divided into mukim. In Sabah and Sarawak districts are grouped into divisions. [ 106 ] government of the states is divided between the union and the state of matter governments, with different powers reserved for each, and the Federal government has direct presidency of the federal territories. [ 107 ] Each department of state has a unicameral State Legislative Assembly whose members are elected from single-member constituencies. state governments are led by Chief Ministers, [ 47 ] who are state forum members from the majority party in the assembly. In each of the states with a ancestral ruler, the Chief Minister is normally required to be a Malay, appointed by the ruler upon the recommendation of the Prime Minister. [ 108 ] Except for state elections in Sarawak, by conventionality state elections are held concurrently with the federal election. [ 73 ] Lower-level government is carried out by local authorities, which include city councils, district councils, and municipal councils, although autonomous statutory bodies can be created by the federal and country governments to deal with certain tasks. [ 109 ] The federal constitution puts local authorities outside of the federal territories under the exclusive jurisdictions of the state government, [ 110 ] although in practice the federal politics has intervened in the affairs of submit local governments. [ 111 ] There are 154 local anesthetic authorities, consisting of 14 city councils, 38 municipal councils and 97 zone councils. The 13 states are based on historic Malay kingdoms, and 9 of the 11 Peninsular states, known as the Malay states, retain their royal families. The King is elected by and from the nine rulers to serve a five-year term. [ 47 ] This King appoints governors serving a four-year condition for the states without monarchies, after consultations with the chief minister of that country. Each state has its own written constitution. [ 112 ] Sabah and Sarawak have well more autonomy than the other states, most notably having separate immigration policies and controls, and a singular residency condition. [ 113 ] [ 114 ] [ 115 ] Federal intervention in express affairs, lack of development, and disputes over vegetable oil royalties have occasionally led to statements about secession from leaders in several states such as Penang, Johor, Kelantan, Sabah and Sarawak, although these have not been followed up and no serious independence movements exist. [ 116 ] [ 117 ] [ 118 ] [ 119 ]


A list of thirteen states and each state capital ( in brackets ) :

Federal Territories

extraneous relations and military

With Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad Former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad meet with US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo at the Prime Minister ‘s Office in Putrajaya, 2018 A establish member of the Association of Southeast asian Nations ( ASEAN ) [ 120 ] and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation ( OIC ), [ 121 ] the area participates in many external organisations such as the United Nations, [ 122 ] the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, [ 123 ] the Developing 8 Countries, [ 124 ] and the Non-Aligned Movement ( NAM ). [ 125 ] It has chaired ASEAN, the OIC, and the NAM in the past. [ 47 ] A early british colony, it is besides a extremity of the Commonwealth of Nations. [ 126 ] Kuala Lumpur was the site of the first East Asia Summit in 2005. [ 127 ] Malaysia ‘s foreign policy is officially based on the principle of neutrality and maintaining peaceful relations with all countries, regardless of their political system. [ 128 ] The government attaches a high precedence to the security and stability of Southeast Asia, [ 127 ] and seeks to further develop relations with other countries in the area. Historically the government has tried to portray Malaysia as a progressive Islamic nation [ 128 ] while strengthening relations with other Islamic states. [ 127 ] A impregnable dogma of Malaysia ‘s policy is national sovereignty and the right of a state to control its domestic affairs. [ 73 ] Malaysia signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. [ 129 ] [ 130 ] The Spratly Islands are disputed by many states in the area, and a big assign of the South China Sea is claimed by China. Unlike its neighbours of Vietnam and the Philippines, Malaysia historically avoided conflicts with China. [ 131 ] however, after the trespass of taiwanese ships in malaysian territorial waters, [ 132 ] Malaysia has become active in condemning China. [ 133 ] [ 134 ] Brunei and Malaysia in 2009 announced an end to claims of each other ‘s land, and committed to resolve issues related to their nautical borders. [ 135 ] The Philippines has a dormant claim to the eastern character of Sabah. [ 136 ] Singapore ‘s land reclamation has caused tensions, [ 137 ] and minor nautical and domain molding disputes exist with Indonesia. [ 136 ] [ 138 ] malaysia has never recognised Israel and has no diplomatic ties with it, [ 139 ] and has called for the International Criminal Court to take action against Israel over its Gaza flotilla raid. [ 140 ] Malaysia has stated it will establish official relations with Israel only when a peace agreement with the State of Palestine has been reached, and called for both parties to find a immediate resolution to realise the two-state solution. [ 139 ] [ 141 ] [ 142 ] [ 143 ] malaysian peacekeeping forces have contributed to many UN peacekeeping missions, such as in Congo, Iran–Iraq, Namibia, Cambodia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Somalia, Kosovo, East Timor and Lebanon. [ 47 ] [ 144 ]
The Malaysian Armed Forces have three branches : the Royal Malaysian Navy, the malaysian Army, and the Royal Malaysian Air Force. There is no conscription, and the needed age for voluntary military service is 18. The military uses 1.5 % of the nation ‘s GDP, and employs 1.23 % of Malaysia ‘s work force. [ 145 ] The Five Power Defence Arrangements is a regional security first step which has been in invest for about 40 years. It involves joint military exercises held among Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. [ 146 ] Joint exercises and war games have besides been held with Brunei, [ 147 ] China, [ 148 ] India, [ 149 ] Indonesia, [ 150 ] Japan, [ 151 ] and the United States. [ 152 ] Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam have agreed to host joint security system force exercises to secure their maritime margin and tackle issues such as illegal immigration, piracy, and smuggling. [ 153 ] [ 154 ] [ 155 ] previously there were fears that extremist militants activities in the Muslim areas of the southern Philippines [ 156 ] and southern Thailand [ 157 ] would spill over into Malaysia. Because of this, Malaysia began to increase its bound security. [ 156 ]


malaysia is the 66th largest country by total land area, with a down area of 329,613 km2 ( 127,264 sq nautical mile ). The estate borders are defined in big part by geological features such as the Perlis River, the Golok River and the Pagalayan Canal, whilst some of the nautical boundaries are the subject of ongoing competition. [ 158 ] Brunei forms what is about an enclave in Malaysia, [ 159 ] with the state of Sarawak dividing it into two parts. Malaysia is the only state with territory on both the asian mainland and the Malay archipelago. [ 160 ] The Strait of Malacca, lying between Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia, is one of the most authoritative thoroughfares in ball-shaped commerce, carrying 40 per penny of the world ‘s trade. [ 161 ] The two parts of Malaysia, separated from each other by the South China Sea, share a largely exchangeable landscape in that both Peninsular and East Malaysia have coastal plains rising to hills and mountains. [ 158 ] Peninsular Malaysia, containing 40 per penny of Malaysia ‘s land area, [ 160 ] extends 740 kilometer ( 460 mi ) from north to south, and its utmost width is 322 kilometer ( 200 security service ). [ 162 ] It is divided between its east and west coasts by the Titiwangsa Mountains, [ 163 ] rising to a peak elevation of 2,183 metres ( 7,162 foot ) at Mount Korbu, [ 164 ] part of a serial of mountain ranges running down the center of the peninsula. [ 160 ] These mountains are heavily forested, [ 165 ] and chiefly composed of granite and other fiery rocks. much of it has been eroded, creating a karst landscape. [ 160 ] The range is the lineage of some of Peninsular Malaysia ‘s river systems. [ 165 ] The coastal plains surrounding the peninsula reach a maximal width of 50 kilometres ( 31 mi ), and the peninsula ‘s coastline is closely 1,931 kilometer ( 1,200 mile ) long, although harbours are only available on the western side. [ 162 ]
East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo, has a coastline of 2,607 km ( 1,620 security service ). [ 158 ] It is divided between coastal regions, hills and valleys, and a mountainous inside. [ 160 ] The Crocker Range extends northwards from Sarawak, [ 160 ] dividing the state of Sabah. It is the location of the 4,095 megabyte ( 13,435 foot ) high Mount Kinabalu, [ 166 ] [ 167 ] the tallest batch in Malaysia. Mount Kinabalu is located in the Kinabalu National Park, which is protected as one of the four UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Malaysia. [ 168 ] The highest mountain ranges form the frame between Malaysia and Indonesia. Sarawak contains the Mulu Caves, the largest cave system in the populace, in the Gunung Mulu National Park which is besides a World Heritage Site. [ 160 ] The largest river in Malaysia is the Rajang. Around these two halves of Malaysia are numerous islands, the largest of which is Banggi. [ 169 ] The local anesthetic climate is equatorial and characterised by the annual southwest ( April to October ) and northeast ( October to February ) monsoons. [ 162 ] The temperature is moderated by the presence of the encompassing oceans. [ 160 ] Humidity is normally high, and the average annual rain is 250 centimeter ( 98 in ). [ 162 ] The climates of the Peninsula and the East differ, as the climate on the peninsula is directly affected by wind from the mainland, as opposed to the more nautical weather of the East. local climates can be divided into three regions, highland, lowland, and coastal. Climate change is likely to affect sea levels and rain, increasing flood risks and leading to droughts. [ 160 ]

Biodiversity and conservation

malaysia signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 12 June 1993, and became a party to the convention on 24 June 1994. [ 170 ] It has subsequently produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, which was received by the convention on 16 April 1998. [ 171 ] The country is megadiverse with a high count of species and high levels of indigenousness. [ 172 ] It is estimated to contain 20 per penny of the world ‘s animal species. [ 173 ] High levels of indigenousness are found on the divers forests of Borneo ‘s mountains, as species are isolated from each early by lowland forest. [ 160 ] There are about 210 mammal species in the area. [ 166 ] Over 620 species of birds have been recorded in Peninsular Malaysia, [ 173 ] with many endemic to the mountains there. A high count of endemic dame species are besides found in malaysian Borneo. [ 160 ] 250 reptile species have been recorded in the state, with about 150 species of snakes [ 174 ] and 80 species of lizards. [ 166 ] There are about 150 species of frogs, [ 166 ] and thousands of worm species. [ 166 ] The Exclusive economic zone of Malaysia is 334,671 km2 ( 129,217 sq secret intelligence service ) and 1.5 times larger than its nation area. It is chiefly in the South China Sea. [ 175 ] [ 176 ] Some of its waters are in the Coral Triangle, a biodiversity hot spot. [ 177 ] The waters around Sipadan island are the most biodiverse in the populace. [ 173 ] Bordering East Malaysia, the Sulu Sea is a biodiversity hot spot, with around 600 coral species and 1200 pisces species. [ 178 ] The alone biodiversity of malaysian Caves constantly attracts lovers of ecotourism from all over the global. [ 179 ] about 4,000 species of fungi, including lichen-forming species have been recorded from Malaysia. Of the two fungal groups with the largest number of species in Malaysia, the Ascomycota and their asexual states have been surveyed in some habitats ( decaying wood, marine and fresh water ecosystems, as parasites of some plants, and as agents of biodegradation ), but have not been or have been lone ailing surveyed in early habitats ( as endobionts, in soils, on droppings, as human and animal pathogens ) ; the Basidiomycota are only partially surveyed : bracket fungus, and mushrooms and toadstools have been studied, but Malaysian rust and smut fungi remain very ill known. Without doubt, many more fungal species in Malaysia have not yet been recorded, and it is probable that many of those, when found, will be new to science. [ 180 ]
Red flower made of 5 petals surrounding a depressed centre, on the forest floor surrounded by dead leaves and small green plants Rafflesia can grow up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) in diameter, making them the largest flowers in the world. Some species ofcan grow up to 1 molarity ( 3 foot 3 in ) in diameter, making them the largest flowers in the world. About two thirds of Malaysia was covered in afforest as of 2007, [ 162 ] with some forests believed to be 130 million years old. [ 166 ] The forests are dominated by dipterocarp. [ 181 ] Lowland forest covers areas below 760 meter ( 2,490 foot ), [ 162 ] and once East Malaysia was covered in such rain forest, [ 181 ] which is supported by its hot wet climate. [ 160 ] There are around 14,500 species of flowering plants and trees. [ 166 ] Besides rainforests, there are over 1,425 km2 ( 550 sq security service ) of mangroves in Malaysia, [ 162 ] and a large measure of peat forest. At higher altitudes, oaks, chestnuts, and rhododendrons replace dipterocarp. [ 160 ] There are an estimate 8,500 species of vascular plants in Peninsular Malaysia, with another 15,000 in the East. [ 182 ] The forests of East Malaysia are estimated to be the habitat of around 2,000 tree species, and are one of the most biodiverse areas in the world, with 240 different species of trees every hectare. [ 160 ] These forests host many members of the Rafflesia genus, the largest flowers in the universe, [ 181 ] with a maximum diameter of 1 thousand ( 3 foot 3 in ). [ 183 ] Logging, along with cultivation practices has devastated tree overlay, causing severe environmental abasement in the nation. Over 80 per penny of Sarawak ‘s rain forest has been logged. [ 160 ] Floods in East Malaysia have been worsened by the loss of trees, and over 60 per cent of the Peninsula ‘s forest have been cleared. [ 183 ] With current rates of deforestation, chiefly for the palm anoint industry, the forests are predicted to be extinct by 2020. [ 160 ] [ 184 ] Deforestation is a major problem for animals, fungi and plants, having caused species such as Begonia eiromischa to go extinct. [ 185 ] Most remaining forest is found inside reserves and national parks. [ 183 ] Habitat destruction has proved a menace for marine life. [ 178 ] Illegal fishing is another major menace, [ 178 ] with fishing methods such as dynamite fishing and poisoning depleting marine ecosystems. [ 186 ] Leatherback capsize numbers have dropped 98 per cent since the 1950s. [ 174 ] Hunting has besides been an issue for some animals, [ 183 ] with overconsumption and the use of animal parts for profit endangering many animals, from marine animation [ 178 ] to tigers. [ 185 ] Marine life is besides detrimentally affected by uncontrolled tourism. [ 187 ] The malaysian government aims to balance economic increase with environmental security, but has been accused of favouring big business over the environment. [ 183 ] Some state governments are immediately trying to counter the environmental impingement and befoulment created by deforestation ; [ 181 ] and the federal government is trying to cut log by 10 per cent each year. A sum of 28 national parks have been established, 23 in East Malaysia and five in the Peninsula. [ 183 ] Tourism has been limited in biodiverse areas such as Sipadan island. [ 187 ] Wildlife traffic is a big issue, and the malaysian government has held talks with the governments of Brunei and Indonesia to standardise anti-trafficking laws. [ 188 ]


Development of real GDP per caput, 1870 to 2018 A proportional representation of Malaysia exports, 2019A blue Proton Suprima The Proton company is a malaysian car manufacturer. Malaysia is a relatively unfold state-oriented and newly industrialised commercialize economy. [ 189 ] [ 190 ] The submit plays a meaning but declining function in guiding economic natural process through macroeconomic plans. Malaysia has had one of the best economic records in Asia, with GDP growing an average 6.5 per penny per annum from 1957 to 2005. [ 47 ] The economy of Malaysia in terms of megascopic domestic merchandise ( GDP ) at purchasing power parity bit ( PPP ) in April 2019 was estimated to be $ 999.397 billion, the third gear largest in ASEAN and the 25th largest in the earth. In the 1970s, the predominantly mine and agricultural-based economy began a conversion towards a more multi-sector economy. Since the 1980s, the industrial sector, with a high degree of investment, has led the state ‘s increase. [ 47 ] [ 191 ] The economy recovered from the 1997 asian Financial Crisis earlier than neighbouring countries did, and has since recovered to the levels of the pre-crisis earned run average with a GDP per head of $ 14,800. [ 192 ] [ 193 ] Economic inequalities exist between different ethnic groups. The Chinese make up about one-fourth of the population, but accounts for 70 per cent of the country ‘s market capitalization. [ 194 ] chinese businesses in Malaysia are partially of the larger bamboo network, a network of abroad chinese businesses in the Southeast asian market sharing common family and cultural ties. [ 195 ] International barter, facilitated by the shipping route in adjacent Strait of Malacca, and manufacture are the key sectors. [ 196 ] [ 197 ] [ 198 ] Malaysia is an exporter of natural and agricultural resources, and petroleum is a major export. [ 47 ] Malaysia has once been the largest producer of tin, [ 199 ] arctic and decoration petroleum in the global. manufacture has a large charm in the country ‘s economy, [ 200 ] although Malaysia ‘s economic structure has been moving away from it. [ 201 ] Malaysia remains one of the worldly concern ‘s largest producers of palm petroleum. [ 202 ] In an effort to diversify the economy and make it less subject on export goods, the politics has pushed to increase tourism to Malaysia. As a result, tourism has become Malaysia ‘s third largest source of alien exchange, although it is threatened by the damaging effects of the growing industrial economy, with large amounts of tune and water contamination along with deforestation affecting tourism. [ 203 ]

The country has developed into a center of Islamic bank, and is the country with the highest numbers of female workers in that industry. [ 204 ] Knowledge-based services are besides expanding. [ 201 ] To create a autonomous defensive ability and support national development, Malaysia privatised some of its military facilities in the 1970s. The denationalization has created defense diligence, which in 1999 was brought under the Malaysia Defence Industry Council. The government continues to promote this sector and its competitiveness, actively marketing the defense diligence. [ 205 ] The state is one of the earth ‘s largest exporters of semiconductor device devices, electrical devices, and IT and communication products. [ 47 ] Malaysia began developing its own space program in 2002, [ 206 ] [ 207 ] and in 2006, Russia agreed to transport one Malaysian to the International Space Station as character of a multibillion-dollar buy of 18 russian Sukhoi Su-30MKM champion jets by the Royal Malaysian Air Force. [ 208 ] The politics has invested in build satellites through the RazakSAT course of study. [ 209 ] Malaysia was ranked 36th in the Global Innovation Index in 2021. [ 210 ]


Malaysia ‘s dogged drive to develop and upgrade its infrastructure has resulted in one of the most well-developed infrastructure among the newly industrialize countries of Asia. In 2014, Malaysia ranked 8th in Asia and 25th in the populace in term of overall infrastructure development. [ 211 ] The country ‘s telecommunications network is second entirely to Singapore ‘s in Southeast Asia, with 4.7 million fixed-line subscribers and more than 30 million cellular subscribers. [ 212 ] [ 213 ] The nation has seven international ports, the major one being the Port Klang. There are 200 industrial parks along with speciate parks such as Technology Park Malaysia and Kulim Hi-Tech Park. [ 214 ] Fresh water is available to over 95 per penny of the population with flat coat water accounts for 90 percentage of the fresh water resources. [ 215 ] [ 216 ] During the colonial period, exploitation was chiefly concentrated in economically powerful cities and in areas forming security concerns. Although rural areas have been the focus of great exploitation, they still lag behind areas such as the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. [ 217 ] The telecommunication net, although potent in urban areas, is less available to the rural population. [ 212 ] Malaysia ‘s energy infrastructure sector is largely dominated by Tenaga Nasional, the largest electric utility party in Southeast Asia, with over RM99.03 billion of assets. Customers are connected to electricity through the National Grid, with more than 420 transmittance substations in the Peninsular linked together by approximately 11,000 km of transmission lines operating at 66, 132, 275, and 500 kilovolts. [ 218 ] The early two electric utility companies in the nation are Sarawak Energy and Sabah Electricity. [ 219 ] In 2013, Malaysia ‘s total power generation capacity was over 29,728 megawatts. total electricity generation was 140,985.01 GWh and entire electricity consumption was 116,087.51 GWh. [ 220 ] Energy production in Malaysia is largely based on petroleum and natural natural gas, owing to Malaysia ‘s anoint reserves and natural gas reserves, which is the fourth largest in Asia-Pacific region. [ 221 ]
Malaysia ‘s road network is one of the most comprehensive examination in Asia and covers a sum of 144,403 kilometres ( 89,728 mi ). The independent national road network is the malaysian Federal Roads System, which span over 49,935 km ( 31,028 michigan ). There are presently 1,833 kilometres ( 1,139 mile ) of railways in Malaysia, of which 767 kilometer ( 477 secret intelligence service ) are double track and electrify. Malaysia has 118 airports, of which 38 are paved. The national airline is Malaysia Airlines, providing international and domestic air services. Kuala Lumpur International Airport is the main and busiest airport of Malaysia. In 2014, it was the worldly concern ‘s 13th busy airport by international passenger traffic, recording over 25.4 million international passenger dealings. It was besides the world ‘s twentieth busy airport by passenger traffic .


Percentage distribution of Malaysian population by ethnic group, 2010 The share distribution of malaysian population by cultural group based on 2010 census According to the Malaysian Department of Statistics, the state ‘s population was 28,334,135 in 2010, [ 9 ] making it the 42nd most populate nation. According to a 2012 appraisal, the population is increasing by 1.54 percentage per year. Malaysia has an average population concentration of 96 people per km2, ranking it 116th in the world for population concentration. People within the 15–64 age group constitute 69.5 percentage of the full population ; the 0–14 age group corresponds to 24.5 percentage ; while aged citizens aged 65 years or older make up 6.0 percentage. In 1960, when the foremost official census was recorded in Malaysia, the population was 8.11 million. 91.8 per penny of the population are malaysian citizens. [ 222 ] malaysian citizens are divided along local heathen lines, with 69.7 per cent considered bumiputera. [ 223 ] The largest group of bumiputera are Malays, who are defined in the constitution as Muslims who practise Malay customs and polish. They play a dominant role politically. [ 224 ] Bumiputera condition is besides accorded to the non-Malay autochthonal groups of Sabah and Sarawak : which includes Dayaks ( Iban, Bidayuh, Orang Ulu ), Kadazan-Dusun, Melanau, Bajau and others. Non-Malay bumiputeras make up more than one-half of Sarawak ‘s population and over two thirds of Sabah ‘s population. [ 225 ] [ 226 ] There are besides autochthonal or native groups in much smaller numbers on the peninsular, where they are jointly known as the Orang Asli. [ 227 ] Laws over who gets bumiputera status vary between states. [ 228 ] There are besides two other non-Bumiputera local heathen groups. 22.5 per cent of the population are malaysian Chinese, while 6.8 per cent are malaysian Indian. [ 223 ] The local Chinese have historically been more dominant in the business community. local anesthetic indian are majority of Tamil descent. [ 229 ] [ 230 ] Malaysian citizenship is not automatically granted to those born in Malaysia, but is granted to a child born of two malaysian parents outside Malaysia. Dual citizenship is not permitted. [ 231 ] Citizenship in the states of Sabah and Sarawak in Malaysian Borneo are discrete from citizenship in Peninsular Malaysia for immigration purposes. Every citizen is issued a biometric ache chip identity menu known as MyKad at the age of 12, and must carry the card at all times. [ 232 ]
A map of Malaysia depicting the expected 2010 estimated population density. 2) in 2010 population concentration ( person per kilometer ) in 2010 The population is concentrated on Peninsular Malaysia, [ 233 ] where 20 million out of approximately 28 million Malaysians be. [ 47 ] 70 per cent of the population is urban. [ 158 ] Due to the upgrade in labor-intensive industries, [ 234 ] the area is estimated to have over 3 million migrant workers ; about 10 per cent of the population. [ 235 ] Sabah-based NGOs estimate that out of the 3 million that make up the population of Sabah, 2 million are illegal immigrants. [ 236 ] Malaysia hosts a population of refugees and refuge seekers numbering approximately 171,500. Of this population, approximately 79,000 are from Burma, 72,400 from the Philippines, and 17,700 from Indonesia. malaysian officials are reported to have turned deportees directly over to human smugglers in 2007, and Malaysia employs RELA, a tennessean militia with a history of controversies, to enforce its immigration law. [ 237 ]


Percentage distribution of Malaysian population by religion, 2010. [9] The percentage distribution of malaysian population by religion based on 2010 census The constitution grants freedom of religion and makes Malaysia an formally secular express, while establishing Islam as the “ religion of the Federation ”. [ 238 ] According to the Population and Housing Census 2010 figures, ethnicity and religious beliefs correlate highly. approximately 61.3 % of the population drill Islam, 19.8 % practice Buddhism, 9.2 % Christianity, 6.3 % Hinduism and 1.3 % practice Confucianism, Taoism and early traditional chinese religions. 0.7 % declared no religion and the remaining 1.4 % practised early religions or did not provide any data. [ 9 ] Sunni Islam of Shafi ‘ iodine educate of jurisprudence is the dominant branch of Islam in Malaysia, [ 239 ] [ 240 ] while 18 % are nondenominational Muslims. [ 241 ] The malaysian constitution strictly defines what makes a “ Malay ”, considering Malays those who are Muslim, address Malay regularly, practice Malay customs, and lived in or have ancestors from Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore. [ 160 ] Statistics from the 2010 Census indicate that 83.6 % of the chinese population identify as Buddhist, with significant numbers of adherents following Taoism ( 3.4 % ) and Christianity ( 11.1 % ), along with humble Muslim populations in areas like Penang. The majority of the amerind population follow Hinduism ( 86.2 % ), with a significant minority identify as Christians ( 6.0 % ) or Muslims ( 4.1 % ). Christianity is the prevailing religion of the non-Malay bumiputera residential district ( 46.5 % ) with an extra 40.4 % identify as Muslims. [ 9 ] Muslims are obliged to follow the decisions of Syariah Courts ( i.e. Shariah courts ) in matters concerning their religion. The Islamic judges are expected to follow the Shafi ‘ one legal school of Islam, which is the main madh’hab of Malaysia. [ 239 ] The jurisdiction of Syariah courts is limited to Muslims in matters such as marriage, inheritance, disassociate, apostasy, religious conversion, and custody among others. No other condemnable or civil offences are under the legal power of the Syariah courts, which have a like hierarchy to the Civil Courts. Despite being the supreme courts of the kingdom, the Civil Courts do not hear matters related to Islamic practices. [ 242 ]


(click image to enlarge)  Malayic Bornean Aslian Land Dayak Sama–Bajaw Philippine Chinese


Areas with multiple languages The distribution of linguistic process families of Malaysia shown by colours : The official and national lyric of Malaysia is malaysian, [ 158 ] a standardize form of the Malay linguistic process. [ 243 ] The terminology as per government policy is Bahasa Malaysia ( “ malaysian lyric ” ) [ 244 ] [ 245 ] [ 246 ] but legislation continues to refer to the official lyric as Bahasa Melayu ( alight. ‘Malay lyric ‘ ) [ 247 ] and both terms remain in habit. [ 248 ] [ 249 ] The National Language Act 1967 specifies the Latin ( Rumi ) script as the official script of the home terminology, but does not prohibit the use of the traditional Jawi handwriting. [ 250 ] english remains an active second language, with its use allowed for some official purposes under the National Language Act of 1967. [ 250 ] In Sarawak, English is an official state of matter speech aboard Malaysian. [ 251 ] [ 252 ] [ 253 ] Historically, English was the de facto administrative language ; Malay became prevailing after the 1969 race riots ( 13 May incidental ). [ 254 ] Malaysian English, besides known as malaysian Standard English, is a form of English derived from british English. malaysian English is widely used in business, along with Manglish, which is a colloquial shape of English with heavy Malay, Chinese, and Tamil influences. The government discourages the use of non-standard Malay but has no office to issue compounds or fines to those who use what is perceived as improper Malay on their advertisements. [ 255 ] [ 256 ] many early languages are used in Malaysia, which contains speakers of 137 living languages. [ 257 ] Peninsular Malaysia contains speakers of 41 of these languages. [ 258 ] The native tribe of East Malaysia have their own languages which are related to, but easily distinguishable from, Malay. Iban is the main tribal speech in Sarawak while Dusunic and Kadazan languages are spoken by the natives in Sabah. [ 259 ] chinese Malaysians predominantly speak taiwanese dialects from the southern part of China. The more common taiwanese varieties in the country are Mandarin, Cantonese, Hokkien, and therefore on. [ 260 ] The Tamil linguistic process is used predominantly by the majority of malaysian Indians. [ 261 ] A modest count of Malaysians have european ancestry and address creole languages, such as the Portuguese-based Malaccan Creoles, [ 262 ] and the Spanish-based Chavacano language. [ 263 ]


The baby mortality rate in 2009 was 6 deaths per 1000 births, and life anticipation at give birth in 2009 was 75 years. [ 264 ] With the purpose of developing Malaysia into a checkup tourism finish, 5 per penny of the politics social sector development budget is spent on health care. [ 265 ] There was besides a descent in petroleum birth pace from 16.7 ( 2015 ) to 16.1 ( 2016 ) per 1,000 population. male babies account for 51.7 % of all babies born in the year 2016. The highest crude birth rate was reported at Putrajaya ( 30.4 ) and the low was reported at Penang ( 12.7 ). The Julau zone has the highest unrefined birth rate nationally at 26.9 per 1000 population, meanwhile, the lowest crude parentage rate was recorded in the Selangau district. The total richness rate in Malaysia remains below the successor degree at 1.9 babies in 2017. The highest blunt death pace was reported in Perlis at 7.5 per 1000 population and the lowest crude death rate was reported in Putrajaya ( 1.9 ) in 2016. Kuala Penyu was the zone with the highest crude death rate while Kinabatangan recorded the lowest crude death rate in the country. [ 266 ]


The education system of Malaysia features a non-compulsory kindergarten education followed by six years of compulsory primary education, and five years of optional secondary education. [ 267 ] Schools in the chief education arrangement are divided into two categories : national primary schools, which teach in Malay, and slang schools, which teach in Chinese or Tamil. [ 268 ] secondary coil education is conducted for five years. In the final year of secondary education, students sit for the malaysian Certificate of Education examination. [ 269 ] Since the introduction of the matriculation program in 1999, students who completed the 12-month broadcast in matriculation colleges can enroll in local universities. however, in the matriculation system, only 10 per penny of places are open to non- bumiputera students. [ 270 ]


The wooden frame of a house under construction, with the floor raised off the ground A traditional family being built in Sabah Malaysia has a multiethnic, multicultural, and multilingual society. The original culture of the sphere stemmed from autochthonal tribes that inhabited it, along with the Malays who later moved there. solid influence exists from chinese and indian culture, dating bet on to when alien deal began. other cultural influences include the Persian, Arabic, and british cultures. Due to the structure of the government, coupled with the social contract theory, there has been minimal cultural assimilation of heathen minorities. [ 271 ] Some cultural disputes exist between Malaysia and neighbor countries, notably Indonesia. [ 272 ] In 1971, the politics created a “ National Cultural Policy ”, defining malaysian acculturation. It stated that malaysian acculturation must be based on the culture of the autochthonal peoples of Malaysia, that it may incorporate desirable elements from early cultures, and that Islam must play a part in it. [ 273 ] It besides promoted the Malay speech above others. [ 274 ] This government intervention into polish has caused resentment among non-Malays who feel their cultural exemption was lessened. Both chinese and indian associations have submitted memorandums to the politics, accusing it of formulating an undemocratic culture policy. [ 273 ]

all right arts

Making Malaysian batik batik. A craftsman making malaysian batik is normally patterned with floral motifs with abstemious colouring. traditional malaysian art was chiefly centred on the areas of carve, weave, and silversmithing. [ 275 ] Traditional art ranges from hand-loomed baskets from rural areas to the silverwork of the Malay courts. Common artworks included ornamental kris, mallet nut sets, and woven batik and songket fabrics. Indigenous East Malaysians are known for their wooden masks. [ 160 ] Each heathen group have distinct do arts, with short overlap between them. however, Malay art does show some North indian influence due to the historic influence of India. [ 276 ] traditional Malay music and performing arts appear to have originated in the Kelantan – Pattani region with influences from India, China, Thailand, and Indonesia. The music is based around percussion instruments, [ 276 ] the most authoritative of which is the gendang ( drum ). There are at least 14 types of traditional drums. [ 277 ] Drums and early traditional percussion instruments and are frequently made from natural materials. [ 277 ] Music is traditionally used for storytelling, celebrating life-cycle events, and occasions such as a harvest. [ 276 ] It was once used as a form of long-distance communication. [ 277 ] In East Malaysia, gong -based musical ensembles such as agung and kulintang are normally used in ceremonies such as funerals and weddings. [ 278 ] These ensembles are besides common in neighbouring regions such as in Mindanao in the Philippines, Kalimantan in Indonesia, and Brunei. [ 278 ] Malaysia has a strong oral tradition that has existed since before the arrival of writing, and continues today. Each of the Malay Sultanates created their own literary custom, influenced by preexistent oral stories and by the stories that came with Islam. [ 279 ] The first base Malay literature was in the Arabic handwriting. The earliest know Malay write is on the Terengganu stone, made in 1303. [ 160 ] Chinese and indian literature became coarse as the numbers of speakers increased in Malaysia, and locally produced works based in languages from those areas began to be produced in the nineteenth hundred. [ 279 ] English has besides become a park literary language. [ 160 ] In 1971, the politics took the step of defining the literature of different languages. Literature written in Malay was called “ the national literature of Malaysia ”, literature in early bumiputera languages was called “ regional literature ”, while literature in other languages was called “ sectional literature ”. [ 274 ] Malay poetry is highly developed, and uses many forms. The Hikayat form is democratic, and the pantun has spread from Malay to other languages. [ 279 ]


Malaysia ‘s cuisine reflects the multiethnic constitution of its population. [ 282 ] many cultures from within the nation and from surrounding regions have greatly influenced the cuisine. much of the charm comes from the Malay, Chinese, Indian, Thai, Javanese, and Sumatran cultures, [ 160 ] largely due to the state being separate of the ancient spice road. [ 283 ] The cuisine is very exchangeable to that of Singapore and Brunei, [ 183 ] and besides bears resemblance to Filipino cuisine. [ 160 ] The different states have varied dishes, [ 183 ] and often the food in Malaysia is different from the original dishes. [ 230 ] sometimes food not found in its original polish is assimilated into another ; for example, chinese restaurants in Malaysia frequently serve Malay dishes. [ 284 ] Food from one polish is sometimes besides cook using styles taken from another culture, [ 183 ] For example, sambal belacan ( runt paste ) are normally used as ingredients by taiwanese restaurants to create the touch fried water spinach ( kangkung belacan ). [ 285 ] This means that although much of malaysian food can be traced back to a certain culture, they have their own identity. [ 283 ] Rice is popular in many dishes. Chili is normally found in local cuisine, although this does not necessarily make them hot. [ 282 ]


Malaysia ‘s main newspapers are owned by the government and political parties in the rule alliance, [ 286 ] [ 287 ] although some major confrontation parties besides have their own, which are openly sold aboard even newspapers. A watershed exists between the media in the two halves of the state. Peninsular-based media gives first gear precedence to news from the East, and frequently treats the eastern states as colonies of the Peninsula. [ 288 ] As a result of this, East Malaysia area of Sarawak launched television Sarawak as internet streaming beginning in 2014, and as television receiver post on 10 October 2020 [ 289 ] to overcome the low precedence and coverage of Peninsular-based media and to solidify the representation of East Malaysia. [ 290 ] The media have been blamed for increasing tension between Indonesia and Malaysia, and giving Malaysians a bad visualize of Indonesians. [ 291 ] The area has Malay, English, Chinese, and Tamil dailies. [ 288 ] Kadazandusun and Bajau news lone available via television receiver broadcast Berita RTM. [ 292 ] Written Kadazan newsworthiness was once included in publications such as The Borneo Post, the Borneo Mail, the Daily Express, and the New Sabah Times, but issue has ceased with the newspaper or as a section. [ 293 ] [ 294 ] exemption of the press is limited, with numerous restrictions on publishing rights and information dissemination. [ 295 ] The government has previously tried to crack down on opposition papers before elections. [ 287 ] In 2007, a politics representation issued a directive to all secret television and radio stations to refrain from broadcasting speeches made by opposition leaders, [ 296 ] a motion condemned by politicians from the opposition democratic Action Party. [ 297 ] Sabah, where all tabloids but one are autonomous of government control, has the freest press in Malaysia. [ 288 ] Laws such as the Printing Presses and Publications Act have besides been cited as curtailing exemption of formula. [ 298 ]

Holidays and festivals

Malaysians observe a number of holidays and festivities throughout the year. Some are federally gazetted public holidays and some are observed by individual states. early festivals are observed by detail cultural or religion groups, and the chief vacation of each major group has been declared a public vacation. The most note national vacation is Hari Merdeka ( Independence Day ) on 31 August, commemorating the independence of the Federation of Malaya in 1957. [ 160 ] Malaysia Day on 16 September commemorates federation in 1963. [ 299 ] other luminary national holidays are parturiency Day ( 1 May ) and the King ‘s birthday ( first week of June ). [ 160 ] Muslim holidays are outstanding as Islam is the state religion ; Hari Raya Puasa ( besides called Hari Raya Aidilfitri, Malay for Eid al-Fitr ), Hari Raya Haji ( besides called Hari Raya Aidiladha, Malay for Eid ul-Adha ), Maulidur Rasul ( birthday of the Prophet ), and others being observed. [ 160 ] Malaysian Chinese lionize festivals such as chinese New Year and others relating to traditional chinese beliefs. Wesak Day is observed and celebrated by Buddhists. Hindus in Malaysia celebrate Deepavali, the festival of lights, [ 300 ] while Thaipusam is a religious rite which sees pilgrims from all over the state converge at the Batu Caves. [ 301 ] Malaysia ‘s Christian community celebrates most of the holidays observed by Christians elsewhere, most notably Christmas and Easter. In addition to this, the Dayak community in Sarawak celebrate a harvest festival known as Gawai, [ 302 ] and the Kadazandusun community celebrate Kaamatan. [ 303 ] Despite most festivals being identified with a particular ethnic or religious group, celebrations are universal. In a custom known as “ open house ” Malaysians participate in the celebrations of others, frequently visiting the houses of those who identify with the festival. [ 214 ]


A woman and a man in black outfits with red belts practising the martial art of Silat Melayu traditional sports such as the martial art manner Silat Melayu prevail aboard modern sports. popular sports in Malaysia include association football, badminton, field ice hockey, stadium, tennis, squash, warlike arts, horse ride, seafaring, and skate board. [ 214 ] Football is the most popular sport in Malaysia. [ 304 ] Badminton matches besides attract thousands of spectators, and since 1948 Malaysia has been one of four countries to hold the Thomas Cup, the world team championship trophy of men ‘s badminton. [ 305 ] The malaysian Lawn Bowls Federation was registered in 1997. [ 306 ] Squash was brought to the area by members of the british army, with the first rival being held in 1939. [ 307 ] The Squash Racquets Association Of Malaysia was created on 25 June 1972. [ 308 ] The men ‘s national field ice hockey team ranked 10th in the worldly concern as of June 2022. [ 309 ] The 3rd Hockey World Cup was hosted at Merdeka Stadium in Kuala Lumpur, equally well as the tenth cup. [ 310 ] The state besides has its own Formula One cut – the Sepang International Circuit, with the first malaysian Grand Prix held in 1999. [ 311 ] Traditional sports include Silat Melayu, the most common style of martial arts practised by ethnic Malays. [ 312 ] The Federation of Malaya Olympic Council was formed in 1953, and received recognition by the IOC in 1954. It first participated in the 1956 Melbourne Olympic Games. The council was renamed the Olympic Council of Malaysia in 1964, and has participated in all but one Olympic games since its origin. The largest issue of athletes always sent to the Olympics was 57 to the 1972 Munich Olympic Games. [ 313 ] Besides the Olympic Games, Malaysia besides participates in the Paralympic Games. [ 314 ] Malaysia has competed at the Commonwealth Games since 1950 as Malaya, and 1966 as Malaysia, and the games were hosted in Kuala Lumpur in 1998. [ 315 ] [ 316 ]

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