City and submit capital in Sabah, Malaysia
Kota Kinabalu ( malaysian pronunciation : [ ˈkota kinaˈbalu ] ; once known as Jesselton ), colloquially referred to as KK, is the state of matter capital of Sabah, Malaysia. It is besides the capital of the Kota Kinabalu District a well as the West Coast Division of Sabah. The city is located on the northwest coast of Borneo facing the South China Sea. The Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park [ 4 ] lies to its west and Mount Kinabalu, which gave the city its appoint, is located to its east. Kota Kinabalu has a population of 452,058 according to the 2010 census ; [ 5 ] when the adjacent Penampang and Putatan districts are included, the metro area has a combined population of 628,725. [ 5 ] In the fifteenth hundred, the area of Kota Kinabalu was under the influence of Bruneian Empire. In the nineteenth century, the british North Borneo Company ( BNBC ) first set up a village near the Gaya Island. however, it was destroyed by fire in 1897 by a local leader named Mat Salleh. In July 1899, the locate located opposite to the Gaya Island was identified as a suitable place for settlements. Development in the area was started soon after that ; and the place was named “ Api-api ” before it was renamed after Sir Charles Jessel, the vice-chairman of BNBC, as “ Jesselton ”. Jesselton became a major trading port in the sphere, and was connected to the North Borneo Railway. Jesselton was largely destroyed during World War II. The japanese occupation of Jesselton provoked several local uprisings notably the Jesselton Revolt but they were finally defeated by the Japanese. After the war, BNBC was unable to finance the high cost of reconstructions and the space was ceded to the british Crown Colony. The british Crown declared Jesselton as the raw capital of North Borneo in 1946 and started to rebuild the town. After the formation of Malaysia, North Borneo was renamed as Sabah. In 1967, Jesselton was renamed as Kota Kinabalu, Kota being the Malay son for Fort and Kinabalu after the nearby Mount Kinabalu. Kota Kinabalu was granted city condition in 2000.

Kota Kinabalu is frequently known as KK both in Malaysia and internationally. It is a major tourist address and a gateway for travellers visiting Sabah and Borneo. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] Kinabalu Park is located about 90 kilometres from the city and there are many early tourist attractions in and around the city. Kota Kinabalu is besides one of the major industrial and commercial centres of East Malaysia. These two factors combine to make Kota Kinabalu one of the fastest-growing cities in Malaysia. [ 8 ]

etymology [edit ]

“ Kina Balu from Pinokok Valley ” – lithograph published in 1862. Kota Kinabalu is named after Mount Kinabalu, which is situated about 50 kilometres east-northeast of the city. Kinabalu is derived from the name Aki Nabalu meaning the “ reverence place of the dead. ” Aki means “ ancestors ” or “ grandfather ”, and Nabalu is a name for the mountain in the Dusun language. [ 9 ] There is besides a informant claim that the term originated from Ki Nabalu, Ki meaning “ have ” or “ exist ”, and Nabalu meaning “ spirit of the dead ”. [ 10 ] The parole kota comes from Malay word kota which in become comes from the Sanskrit word कोट्ट ( kota ) which means garrison, fortress, castle, fortified house, fortification, works, city, town, or space encircled by walls. [ 11 ] It is besides used formally in a few other malaysian towns and cities, for exemplar, Kota Bharu, Kota Tinggi, and Kota Kemuning. It can besides be used informally to refer to any towns or cities. Hence, a steer translation of the name Kota Kinabalu into English would be “ City of Kinabalu ” or “ Kinabalu City ” .

master names [edit ]

Besides Jesselton, there are besides early older names for Kota Kinabalu. The most popular is Api-Api, or simply Api, which is a Malay son meaning ‘Fire ‘. [ 4 ] Wendy Law Suart wrote in her bible on North Borneo, The Lingering Eye, “ there is in the Sabah State Museum a dutch map of Borneo and the Celebes dated 1657 in which the colonization where Jesselton was to stand is distinctly labelled Api Api. It may have some connection with the seaside tree with breathing roots that bears the lapp name ”. [ 12 ] There are claims, however, that Kota Kinabalu was actually named after a nearby river called Sungai Api-Api. In taiwanese, the city is still known as ‘Api ‘, which is the Hakka pronunciation for 亚庇 ( Simplified Chinese ; traditional taiwanese : 亞庇 ; Pinyin : yà bì ). Another suggested diachronic list is Deasoka, which approximately means “ below the coconut tree ” in the Bajau language. [ 13 ] The Bajau locals purportedly used this name to refer to a village in the southerly separate of the city which was filled with coconut trees. Yet another mention was Singgah Mata which literally means “ transit eye ”, but can be broadly translated as “ pleasing to the eye ”. It is a name said to have been given by fishermen from Gaya Island referring to the strip of country that is nowadays ‘s business district Kota Kinabalu. [ 14 ] today, all these names have been immortalised as names of streets or buildings around the city. Some examples are Lintasan Deasoka, Api-Api Centre and Singgah Mata Street .

history [edit ]

c. 1911. Jesselton, Since 15th century, the area of what is now Kota Kinabalu came under the charm of the Bruneian Empire. [ 15 ] [ 16 ] In the late 1800s, the british North Borneo Company ( BNBC ) began to establish colonial settlements throughout North Borneo. [ 17 ] In 1882, BNBC founded a small settlement in the sphere known as Gaya Bay, which was already inhabited by the Bajau people. [ 18 ] The beginning settlement was at Gaya Island. [ 4 ] however, in 1897, the settlement was burned and destroyed by the autochthonal Bajau- Suluk foreman Mat Salleh. [ 16 ] After the end, BNBC decided to relocate the colonization to the more easily defended mainland at Gantian Bay ( now Sepanggar Bay ) in 1898. [ 19 ] however, Gantian Bay was found to be undesirable and in July 1899, Henry Walker, a Land Commissioner, identified a 30 acres ( 12 hour angle ) site opposite Gaya Island as a refilling for Gantian Bay. [ 20 ] The substitution colonization web site was a fishing village called Api-Api ( see Original names above ). The locate was chosen due to its proximity to the North Borneo Railway and its natural port that provided good anchorage, which was up to 24 feet deep. [ 4 ] Children in Jesselton filmed by australian government example a year after the war in 1946. By the end of 1899, construction had started on shoplots, [ 21 ] a pier and government buildings. [ 20 ] This newfangled administrative center was renamed Jesselton after Sir Charles Jessel, who was the then Vice-Chairman of BNBC. finally, Jesselton became a major trade position of North Borneo, dealing in rubber, rattan, beloved, and wax. [ 4 ] [ 22 ] The North Borneo Railway was used to transport goods to the Jesselton harbor. [ 22 ] The Malay and Bajau uprisings during those times were not rare, and BNBC worked to quell the long-standing threat of plagiarism in the region. Jesselton was partially razed by the british during their withdraw from the advancing japanese and suffered foster devastation when the Allies bombed it in 1945. [ 23 ] After the japanese coup d’etat of Borneo, it was again rename Api. several rebellions against the japanese military administration took position in Api. One major rebellion in the town occurred on 10 October 1943 by a group called Kinabalu Guerrillas in the Jesselton Revolt consisting of local inhabitants. japanese forces quelled the rebellion after its leader, Albert Kwok, was arrested and executed in 1944. [ 24 ] At the by and by stages of the war, what remained of the town was destroyed again by Allied bombings day and night for over six months as separate of the Borneo Campaign in 1945, leaving only three buildings standing. [ 4 ] The war in North Borneo ended with the official surrender of the japanese thirty-seventh Army by Lieutenant General Baba Masao in Labuan on 10 September 1945. [ 25 ] After the war on the edge of bankruptcy, the british North Borneo Company returned to administer Jesselton but was ineffective to finance the huge costs of reconstruction. They gave manipulate of North Borneo to the british Crown on 18 July 1946. The newly colonial government elected to rebuild Jesselton as the das kapital of North Borneo rather of Sandakan, which had besides been destroyed by the war. [ 26 ] The Crown Colony presidency designed a plan, by and by known as the “ Colonial Office Reconstruction and Development Plan for North Borneo : 1948–1955 ”, to rebuild North Borneo. This design provided £ 6,051,939 for the rebuild of infrastructure in North Borneo. [ 27 ] When the Crown Colony of North Borneo together with Sarawak, Singapore and the Federation of Malaya formed the Federation of Malaysia in 1963, it became known as Sabah, and Jesselton remained its capital. [ 28 ] On 22 December 1967, the State Legislative Assembly under Chief Minister Mustapha Harun passed a bill renaming Jesselton as Kota Kinabalu. The city was upgrade to city condition on 2 February 2000. [ 28 ]

capital city [edit ]

Kota Kinabalu is located in Kota KinabaluKota Kinabalu Kota KinabaluInanamInanamTelipokTelipokManggatalManggatalclass=notpageimage| Locations of Kota Kinabalu and its suburb Being the das kapital city of Sabah, Kota Kinabalu plays an important role in the political and economic benefit of the population of the entire express. It is the seat of the state of matter government where about all of their ministries and agencies are based. Most of the Malaysian union government agencies and departments are besides located in Kota Kinabalu. The Sabah State Legislative Assembly is located at the nearby Likas Bay. There are four members of fantan ( MPs ) representing the four parliamentary constituencies in the city : Sepanggar ( P.171 ), Kota Kinabalu ( P.172 ), Putatan ( P.173 ), Tuaran ( “ P.176 ” ) and Penampang ( P.174 ). The city besides elects 9 representatives to the department of state legislature from the state of matter assembly districts of Karambunai, Inanam, Likas, Api-Api, Luyang, Tanjung Aru, Petagas, Kepayan, Segama, Menggatal, Tuaran, Lido, and Moyog. [ 29 ]

local authority and city definition [edit ]

A pugnacious map of Kota Kinabalu city and urban area. Blue lines indicate main roads, grey lines indicate railroad track lines, and tap dotted lines indicate district boundaries. The city is administered by the Kota Kinabalu City Hall ( Dewan Bandaraya Kota Kinabalu ). The current mayor of Kota Kinabalu is Noorliza Awang Alip, who became the foremost female mayor after taking over the station from Nordin Siman on 1 January 2021. [ 30 ] Iliyas in turn became the moment mayor of the city after taking over from Abdul Ghani Rashid in 2006. The city obtained city status on 2 February 2000, [ 28 ] and anterior to this it was administered by Majlis Perbandaran Kota Kinabalu ( Kota Kinabalu Municipal Council/Kota Kinabalu Town Hall ) .
view over the southern city central business district. The city is defined within the borders of what is the zone, once the municipality, of Kota Kinabalu. With an sphere of 351 square kilometres, it is the smallest but the most populous zone in Sabah. [ 31 ] It encompasses Tanjung Aru and Kepayan in the south, up to Telipok and Sepanggar in the north. The urban area of the city however extends into the zone of Penampang [ 32 ] on the south of the city bound, which includes the towns of Donggongon and Putatan. The compound sphere of Kota Kinabalu District and the conterminous built up areas in Penampang and Putatan is known as Greater Kota Kinabalu. [ 33 ] The district of Penampang has an area of 466 square kilometres, and is administered by Majlis Daerah Penampang ( Penampang District Council ). [ 34 ] On one end of the scale, Kota Kinabalu may sometimes only consult to, specially by local inhabitants, the city center or cardinal business district near the sea facing Gaya Island. On the other end of the scale, it may besides refer to the metropolitan area which includes urban Kota Kinabalu ( Greater Kota Kinabalu ), and the surrounding towns of Papar and Kinarut in the south, and Tuaran and Tamparuli in the union, being within its zone of influence .

geography [edit ]

view of Greater Kota Kinabalu with skyscrapers dotting the city above lavish green treetops. Kota Kinabalu is located on the west coast of Sabah. The city lies on a narrow flatland between the Crocker Range to the east and the South China Sea to the west. There are six islands off the coast of the city. The largest is Gaya Island, the web site of the first british settlement. approximately 8,000 people live there. [ 35 ] The smaller islands, chiefly uninhabited, are named Sapi Island, Manukan Island, Sulug Island, Mamutik Island and Sepanggar Island to the north. [ 36 ] Sepanggar island is located north of the National Park opposite Sepanggar Bay. flat kingdom is at a premium in the city center, and there is a stern limit to the acme of buildings : the airport is 7 kilometer ( 4 mi ) away, and the city is directly in the fledge way. Most of the Central Business District ( CBD ) today is built on land reclaimed from the sea. [ 4 ] The original local plant liveliness has largely disappeared, but several hills within the city ( excessively steep for build ) are still clothed with tropical rain forest. One of these is Signal Hill, which confines the CBD to the shore. In the area of Likas Bay, the remnants of an extensive mangrove forest was closely lost. [ 37 ] In 1996, the submit government declared 24 acres ( 9.7 hour angle ) of the forest as a protect area. This afforest is now known as the Kota Kinabalu City Bird Sanctuary. The chancel was given extra auspices as a State Cultural Heritage Site in 1998. [ 37 ] The city as seen from the air in 2015. The five islands ( of Gaya, Sapi, Manukan, Sulug, Mamutik ) opposite the city, and their smother waters, are besides preserved as the Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park. [ 4 ] The parking lot was named in honor of the first Prime Minister of Malaysia, Tunku Abdul Rahman. The ballpark is a amateur spot for tourists and local people. [ 38 ] The Kota Kinabalu city center, consisting of largely businesses and the government, includes Karamunsing, the interface area ( Tanjung Lipat ), Signal Hill, Kampung Air, Sinsuran, Segama, Asia City, Gaya Street ( Old Town ), Bandaran Berjaya, Api-Api, Sutera Harbour and Sembulan. Outlying neighbourhoods and residential suburbs include Kepayan Ridge, Tanjung Aru, Petagas, Kepayan, Lido, Lintas, Nosoob, Bukit Padang, Luyang, Damai, Lok Kawi, Bukit Bendera, Kasigui, Bundusan, Likas and Kolombong. The city is growing steadily and the urban sprawl extends to the towns of Inanam, Menggatal, Sepanggar, Telipok and south of the zone border to Penampang, Putatan, and Lok Kawi. [ 39 ] Kota Kinabalu is broadly isolated from the rest of the country ; it is located about 1,624 kilometres ( 1,009 mile ) from Kuala Lumpur in Peninsular Malaysia [ 40 ] and 804 kilometres ( 500 security service ) from Kuching in the neighbor state of matter of Sarawak. [ 41 ]

climate [edit ]

Kota Kinabalu features a tropical monsoon climate ( Am ) with constant high temperatures, and a considerable amount of rain and high humidity throughout the course of the year. [ 42 ] Two prevailing monsoons characterise the climate of this part of Sabah are the Northeast Monsoon and the Southwest Monsoon. The Northeast Monsoon occurs between November and March, while the Southwest Monsoon occurs between May and September. There are besides two consecutive inter-monsoons from April to May and from September to October. [ 42 ] During the 1995–2004 period, Kota Kinabalu ‘s median temperature ranges from 26 °C ( 79 °F ) to 28 °C ( 82 °F ). [ 43 ] April and May are the hottest months, while January is the coolest one. [ 42 ] The average annual rain is about 2,400 millimetres [ 43 ] and varies markedly throughout the year. February and March are typically the driest months while rain peaks in the inter-monsoon time period in October. [ 44 ] The wind speed ranges from 5.5 to 7.9 m/s during the Northeast Monsoon but is significantly lower to 0.3 to 3.3 m/s during the Southwest Monsoon. [ 45 ]

Climate data for Kota Kinabalu (1971–2000, extremes 1946–1999)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.0
(95.0)
34.2
(93.6)
35.7
(96.3)
35.6
(96.1)
35.3
(95.5)
35.6
(96.1)
34.1
(93.4)
35.0
(95.0)
34.0
(93.2)
33.3
(91.9)
33.5
(92.3)
32.4
(90.3)
35.7
(96.3)
Average high °C (°F) 30.4
(86.7)
30.7
(87.3)
31.5
(88.7)
32.2
(90.0)
32.1
(89.8)
31.8
(89.2)
31.5
(88.7)
31.6
(88.9)
31.4
(88.5)
31.2
(88.2)
31.0
(87.8)
30.9
(87.6)
31.4
(88.5)
Average low °C (°F) 22.9
(73.2)
23.0
(73.4)
23.4
(74.1)
24.1
(75.4)
24.3
(75.7)
24.0
(75.2)
23.7
(74.7)
23.7
(74.7)
23.7
(74.7)
23.6
(74.5)
23.5
(74.3)
23.3
(73.9)
23.6
(74.5)
Record low °C (°F) 18.0
(64.4)
17.0
(62.6)
18.0
(64.4)
18.0
(64.4)
18.0
(64.4)
18.0
(64.4)
17.0
(62.6)
16.0
(60.8)
17.0
(62.6)
19.0
(66.2)
18.0
(64.4)
18.0
(64.4)
16.0
(60.8)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 104.8
(4.13)
73.4
(2.89)
50.5
(1.99)
114.2
(4.50)
216.2
(8.51)
279.4
(11.00)
262.7
(10.34)
270.3
(10.64)
285.2
(11.23)
345.8
(13.61)
302.4
(11.91)
242.3
(9.54)
2,547.2
(100.28)
Average rainy days ( ≥ 1.0 millimeter ) 8 7 6 8 12 13 13 13 14 16 17 13 140
Average relative humidity (%) 83 82 81 80 81 80 79 78 81 82 83 83 81
Mean monthly sunshine hours 187.7 194.8 233.4 245.3 228.8 197.6 204.9 196.7 180.7 191.9 192.5 197.5 2,451.8
Source 1: World Meteorological Organisation[46]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990),[47] Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes and humidity)[48]

demography [edit ]

There have not been any official or democratic adjectives, or demonyms, to describe the people of Kota Kinabalu. A simple manner to describe the people of the city is “ orang KK “, where orang means “ person ” or “ people ” in Malay. The terms “ K.K-ites ” [ 8 ] and “ K.K-ians ” have besides been used to a limited extent. People from Sabah are called Sabahans. [ 49 ]

ethnicity and religion [edit ]

The pursuit is based on Department of Statistics Malaysia 2010 census. [ 50 ]

Ethnic groups in Kota Kinabalu, 2010
Ethnicity Population Percentage
Chinese 93,429 20.7%
Bajau 72,931 16.13%
Kadazan-Dusun 69,993 15.5%
Other Bumiputras 59,607 13.2%
Bruneian Malays 35,835 7.9%
Murut 2,518 0.6%
Indian 2,207 0.5%
Others 5,482 1.21%
Non-Malaysian 110,556 24.5%

The Malaysian Census 2010 Report estimated the population of Kota Kinabalu at 452,058. [ 50 ] The city ‘s population is a concoction of many unlike races and ethnicities. Non-Malaysian citizens form the largest group in the city with 110,556 people followed by Chinese ( 93,429 ), Bajau /Suluk ( 72,931 ), Kadazan-Dusun ( 69,993 ), other Bumiputras ( 59,107 ), bruneian Malays [ 51 ] ( 35,835 ), Murut ( 2,518 ), indian ( 2,207 ) and others ( 5,482 ). [ 50 ] The Chinese are by and large Hakkas and reside chiefly in the Luyang sphere. There is besides a goodly Cantonese-speaking population and smaller communities of Hokkien and Foochow-speaking Chinese scattered throughout all areas of the city. Most of the Foochow speakers in finical emigrated to Sabah from the neighbouring malaysian state of Sarawak. Penampang zone is populated chiefly by Kadazans, while Bajaus and Dusuns chiefly reside in Likas, Sembulan, Inanam, Menggatal, Sepanggar and Telipok. The Brunei Malays and Bajau/Suluks are Muslims. The Kadazan-Dusuns, Muruts, Rungus and Lundayeh/Lun Bawang chiefly practice Folk forms of Christianity, Islam, or Animism, whilst the Chinese are chiefly Buddhists, Taoist or Christians. There are numerous Roman Catholic, Basel ( Lutheran ), Anglican, Evangelical, and Methodist churches throughout the city. A small total of Hindus, Sikhs, Animists, and secularists can besides be found .
There is besides a goodly Filipino population in the city. The beginning wave of migrants arrived in the late fifteenth century during the spanish colonization, while a later wave arrived in the early 1970s, driven away from the Philippines by political and economic uncertainties there. Most of the earlier migrants have been naturalised as malaysian citizens. however, there are silent some Filipinos support in the city without proper documentation as illegal immigrants. [ 52 ] Most of the Filipino migrants are Chavacano -speaking Tausūgs ( Suluk ) coming from the southern parts of Philippines. [ 53 ] The city besides is home to immigrants from Indonesia. [ 53 ] There is a minor population of Indians, Pakistanis and Eurasians scattered around the city. More recently, the number of expatriates living in the city, whether temporarily or permanently, have besides increased. Most of them come from China, South Korea, Japan, Australia, Taiwan and Europe. Interracial marriages are not rare and Kadazan-Chinese intermarriages are particularly common. [ 54 ] The mix race offspring of Kadazan and Chinese are referred to as Sino-Kadazans or simply “ Sinos ”. [ 54 ]

Languages [edit ]

The people of Kota Kinabalu chiefly speak Malay, with a distinct Sabahan creole. [ 49 ] however, as about 50 % of Kota Kinabalu residents are of chinese lineage, [ 55 ] Chinese is besides widely spoken. Among the Chinese, the most normally speak varieties are Huiyang Hakka ( Simplified Chinese : 惠阳客家话 ; traditional chinese : 惠陽客家話 ) and Mandarin. additionally, most chinese can speak Cantonese, although with widely varying levels of eloquence. Almost all residents are besides able to speak English, particularly the younger coevals. however, some find it unmanageable to speak fluently due to a limited vocabulary and the general miss of usage of the english terminology as a colloquial tongue franca among Sabahans as a wholly. The number of Kadazan-Dusun speakers is thought to have dropped importantly throughout Sabah, specially in larger towns or cities like Kota Kinabalu. however, some effort has been taken by some to revive the usage of the speech. Kadazan has been considered an endangered language, along with the culture of heathen Kadazans. [ 56 ]

economy [edit ]

Besides being the capital city, Kota Kinabalu is besides the main industrial and commercial center for Sabah. The economy is dominated by the basal sector of industry. Historically, the secondary sector dominated the economy, but ascribable to rapid urbanization and economic development, this sector of the economy is slowly diminishing. More recently, a move towards a more tertiary-based industry has become more apparent, particularly with regards to the boom in the tourism diligence. [ 7 ] many state-level, national-level and external commercial banks, a well as some policy companies have their headquarters or branches here. The oversea chinese population besides contributes to the growth of KK since their immigration in the former nineteenth century. [ 57 ] Their original role was frequently a ‘ coolie ‘ ( manual laborer ) and today many taiwanese work as shopowners. [ 57 ] A number of industrial and fabrication companies besides have plants here, particularly in the industrial districts of Likas, Kolombong, and Inanam. The ongoing construction of the 8,320-acre ( 33.7 km2 ) Kota Kinabalu Industrial Park ( KKIP ) in Sepanggar is intended to boost the city ‘s industrial and commercial activity, making it a major emergence center in East Malaysia, equally well for the BIMP-EAGA ( Brunei-Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines East ASEAN Growth Area ) region. [ 58 ] Kota Kinabalu besides hosts numerous national, regional and international conferences or trade fairs every year, including the biennial Sabah International Expo, the Asia Pacific eTourism Conference by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development ( UNCTAD ), the ASEAN Australian Engineering Congress, and many others. These events are normally held either at the Sabah Trade Centre or Sutera Harbour recourse .

exile [edit ]

down [edit ]

A highway in Kota Kinabalu The inner roads linking different parts of the city are generally state roads constructed and maintained by the state ‘s Public Works Department. [ 59 ] Most major internal roads are dual-carriageways. One of the major roads hera is Lintas-Tuaran Bypass Road, which together serves about as a ring road, circling the city and connecting the districts and suburbs surrounding the city, namely Putatan, Penampang, Luyang, Likas, Inanam, Menggatal, Sepanggar and Tuaran. There are presently no freeways in the city or in any early part of Sabah. The city is linked by highways to other towns in Sabah. These are chiefly federal roads maintained by the national Public Works Department. Highway routes from Kota Kinabalu include : [ 60 ]

populace transportation [edit ]

The North Bus Terminal in Inanam serves long-distance buses bound for the north and east of Sabah. regular bus services operate in the city. aside from buses, minibuses or vans are used as an option mode of populace conveyance. [ 61 ] There are two independent bus terminals in the city center. The terminal along Tun Razak Road provide bus services to different parts of the city and its outskirts, while the KK Sentral terminal provides intercity services to destinations south of the city ( Papar, Beaufort, Sipitang, Limbang and so forth ). A third base bus topology terminal, the North Kota Kinabalu Bus Terminal in Inanam district, services intercity buses heading towards destinations north and northeast of the city ( Ranau, Sandakan, Lahad Datu, Tawau, Semporna etc. ). Taxis are available throughout the city. [ 61 ] A railway system once known as the North Borneo Railway was established in 1896 by the british North Borneo Company. [ 22 ] [ 62 ] It was built for the independent aim of transporting commodities from the Interior Division to the port in Jesselton ( now Kota Kinabalu ) during the period of british rule. [ 22 ] The railway line connects Tanjung Aru in Kota Kinabalu to Tenom and several other towns in between, and it is the only railway system operating in East Malaysia. [ 22 ] [ 62 ] today, the railway telephone line is known as the western Line and managed by the Sabah State Railway, providing daily services for commuters, travellers, adenine well as for cargo exile. [ 22 ] A separate company operates the leisure enlistment besides called the North Borneo Railway, which caters chiefly for tourists. This old-timer steam trail overhaul only running on Saturday and Wednesday mornings from Tanjung Aru place to Kinarut station before returning to the erstwhile place. [ 22 ] In 2016, the Tanjung Aru railway station was moved to Aeropod with a new terminal and more public facilities .

Air [edit ]

Kota Kinabalu International Airport ( KKIA ) ( ICAO Code : WBKK, IATA Code : BKI ) is a independent hub for Malaysia Airlines and a secondary hub for AirAsia and MASwings. It has one concluding [ 63 ] and is the second busy airport in Malaysia after Kuala Lumpur International Airport and is one of the independent gateways into Sabah and East Malaysia. [ 64 ] In addition to domestic flights within Sabah and Malaysia, KKIA is besides serviced by external flights to respective cities in southeast and northeasterly Asia, vitamin a well as Perth in Australia .

Sea [edit ]

A ferry from Labuan at Kota Kinabalu Ferry Terminal . entrance to the Jesselton Point waterfront. Kota Kinabalu has two ports : Kota Kinabalu Port and Sepanggar Bay Container Port ( SBCP ). Kota Kinabalu Port chiefly handles loose/bulk cargo, while SBCP operates as a naval base for the Royal Malaysian Navy and an oil terminal in addition to handling containerised cargo. [ 65 ] In 2004, Kota Kinabalu Port handled about 3.6 million tonnes of freight cargo, the third gear highest in the department of state after Sandakan Port and Tawau Port. [ 31 ] however, it handles the highest number of containers in the department of state, with 153,793 twenty-foot equivalent units ( TEU ) of containers handled in 2006. Sepanggar Bay Port will have an annual capacitance of 200,000 TEU when its container end is completed. [ 66 ] All ports in Sabah are managed and operated by Sabah Ports Sdn Bhd. [ 67 ] The Kota Kinabalu Ferry Service operates from a passenger ferry terminal located at Jesselton Point, [ 68 ] providing ferry and motorboat services to nearby islands. There are besides regular scheduled ferry services to Labuan. [ 68 ]

early utilities [edit ]

Courts of police and legal enforcement [edit ]

Sabah Police Headquarters. The Kota Kinabalu Court Complex is located along Kebajikan Road. It contains three High Courts, six Magistrates ‘ courts, six Sessions Courts including the Child Sexual Offence Court and a Federal Court. [ 69 ] Another court for the Sharia law were besides located in the area of Sembulan. [ 70 ] The Sabah Police Contingent Headquarters is located in Kepayan. There are two district headquarters in the city, the Kota Kinabalu District police headquarters located in Karamunsing, and the Penampang District headquarters. Both besides operate as police stations. other patrol stations are found in KKIA, Tanjung Aru, Putatan, and Menggatal. Police substations ( Pondok Polis ) are found in Luyang, Likas, Telipok and Babagon. [ 71 ] The city ‘s traffic police headquarter is located along Lorong Dewan near Gaya Street, and the marine police headquarters is located near the city ferry end along Tun Razak Road.

Kota Kinabalu Central Prison is located in Kepayan. [ 72 ] Temporary lock-ups or prison cells are found in most police stations around the city .

healthcare [edit ]

queen Elizabeth Hospital. There are three public hospitals, six publics health clinic, two child and mother health clinics, six village clinics, one mobile clinic and six 1Malaysia clinics in Kota Kinabalu. [ 73 ] [ 74 ] Queen Elizabeth General Hospital, which is located along Penampang Road and named after Queen Elizabeth II, is the largest public hospital in the department of state with 589 beds. [ 75 ] Built in 1957, it is the most crucial healthcare center in the city and one of three general hospitals in Sabah. Queen Elizabeth Hospital II was established then after the skill of the former build of Sabah Medical Centre ( SMC ) in 2009. The second chief government hospital are chiefly used for kernel center. Hospital Wanita dan Kanak-kanak ( Sabah Women and Children Hospital ) serves as a referral hospital for children and women. Hospital Mesra Bukit Padang ( Bukit Padang Mental Hospital ), which opened in 1971, provides psychiatric services for the stallion state. KPJ Specialist Hospital is the largest private hospital with 245 beds. [ 76 ] In addition, five other bombastic private health facilities are Gleneagles Kota Kinabalu with 200 beds, [ 77 ] Jesselton Medical Centre ( JMC ) with 73 beds, [ 78 ] Damai Specialist Centre ( DMC ) with 56 beds [ 79 ] and Rafflesia Medical Centre ( RMC ) with 33 beds. [ 80 ]

education [edit ]

Kota Kinabalu Polytechnic. There are many government or state of matter schools in and around the city. Among the well-established and prestigious board schools in Sabah is Sekolah Menengah Sains Sabah, formally known as Sekolah Berasrama Penuh Sabah ( SBPS ), which is in Bukit Padang. [ 81 ] other junior-grade schools are KK High School, SM La Salle, Sekolah Menengah Shan Tao, Sekolah Menengah Taman Tun Fuad, Sekolah Menengah Likas, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Perempuan Likas, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan St. Francis Convent, Sekolah Menengah All Saints, Sekolah Menengah Stella Maris, Sekolah Menengah Saint Michael, Maktab Sabah, Sekolah Menengah Lok Yuk, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Agama Kota Kinabalu and Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Agama Tun Ahmadshah. [ 81 ] There are independent secret schools in the city. Among them are Sabah Tshung Tsin Secondary School, Kian Kok Middle School, Maktab Nasional and Seri Insan Secondary School. [ 82 ] Classes normally begin at 7 am and end at 1 prime minister except for boarding schools where classes begins deoxyadenosine monophosphate early as 6.30 am and end at 2 phase modulation. Children age 7 must attend basal education, which consists of six years of eruditeness, while those old age 13 can pursue their studies in lower secondary education for three years. After completing their Lower Secondary Examination, students enter Upper Secondary education, where they will be streamed into either the Science or the Arts stream based on their interrogation results. Students who choose to study at boarding schools will be placed into the Science stream. presently, there are four boarding schools in Sabah .
There are two international schools teaching the british Curriculum. Sayfol International School Sabah teaches from kindergarten to the GCE ‘A ‘ Levels, which is taken at historic period 18 ( pre-university ). [ 83 ] Sayfol International School is the sister school of the established and highly successful Sayfol International School in Kuala Lumpur. Kinabalu International School ( KIS ) is depart of the Federation of British International Schools in South and East Asia ( FOBISSEA ). Both English medium schools are in Bukit Padang. other external schools are the Kinabalu japanese School, one of four japanese schools in Malaysia and the Kota Kinabalu Indonesian School. [ 84 ] [ 85 ] Both schools cater to children of japanese and indonesian expatriates working and living around the city. Universiti Malaysia Sabah ( UMS ), founded in 1994, is the largest university in Sabah. Its chief campus is on a 999-acre ( 4.04 km2 ) piece of estate, on a hill facing the South China Sea at Sepanggar Bay, about 10 kilometres north of the city center. A 6 hectare botanic garden was proposed for its campus in 2010. [ 86 ] It has branch campuses in Labuan and Sandakan. The oldest university in Sabah is Universiti Teknologi MARA Sabah which was co-founded by UiTM and Yayasan Sabah in 1973. It has been certified by the Kota Kinabalu City Hall as a litter-free university. [ 87 ] There are private colleges and one polytechnic institute manoeuver in the city, which are Universiti Tun Abdul Razak, AlmaCrest International College, INTI College, Kinabalu Commercial College, Jesselton College, Informatics College, Kota Kinabalu Polytechnic and Institut Sinaran. [ 88 ] The established Public College Tunku Abdul Rahman is in the Donggongon area. many affluent residents send their children oversea to pursue secondary or tertiary education .
Sabah State Library headquarters in the country .

Libraries [edit ]

The Sabah State Library Headquarters is located on Tasik Road Off Maktab Gaya Road while its chief branch in Tanjung Aru is sandwiched between Perdana Park and the Plaza Tanjung Aru along Mat Salleh Road as the independent library in the department of state. other populace libraries include the Kota Kinabalu City ( Regional ) Library, Penampang Branch Library and Menggatal Village Library. They are operated by the Sabah State Library department. [ 89 ] early libraries or private libraries can be found in schools, colleges, or universities. [ 73 ]

spare Wi-Fi zones [edit ]

On 23 September 2017, the KK City WiFi was officially announced for public and tourist use in the city with free internet access through high accelerate character via a fresh submarine cable connecting the West and East Malaysia. Each exploiter is entitled to 10 GB of quota with no access fourth dimension specify every day. The inaugural phase covering the area from Tun Fuad Stephens Road to Pantai Road – Tugu Road, Lintasan Deasoka, Kg. Air and Shell. [ 90 ]

culture and leisure [edit ]

Attractions and refreshment spots [edit ]

cultural [edit ]

There are a total of cultural venues in Kota Kinabalu. The Sabah State Museum, situated near the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, is the main museum of Sabah. [ 4 ] In the vicinity of the museum are the Science and Technology Centre, Sabah Art Gallery, and the Ethno Botanic Gardens. Wisma Budaya Art Gallery in the city center hosts some national equally well as regional art exhibitions. The Hongkod Koisaan build in Penampang is home to the Kadazan-Dusun Cultural Association ( KDCA ). [ 91 ] It hosts the annual Kaamatan or Harvest Festival and the Unduk Ngadau beauty contest, which is held concurrently, in May. Monsopiad cultural Village ( Kampung Monsopiad ) features cultural shows related to the Kadazan-Dusun culture. It is named after the fabled Kadazan-Dusun headhunting warrior, Monsopiad. [ 92 ] The Borneo Traditional Cooking Class is another event attraction to taste traditional food and learn more about the autochthonal cultures. [ 93 ]

historical [edit ]

The Merdeka Square ( Malay : Padang Merdeka ) or besides known as “ Town Field ” is the site where the contract of Sabah ‘s independence and formation of Malaysia took place. [ 94 ] The contract was announced by Sabah ‘s first head Minister, Tun Fuad Stephens, on 16 September 1963, besides known as Malaysia Day. [ 94 ] Today the locate hosts the annual City Day celebration on 2 February, Merdeka Day celebration on 31 August, and a number of other celebrations and functions. The Atkinson Clock Tower near Bandaran Berjaya was built by Mary Edith Atkinson in 1905 in memory of her son, Francis George Atkinson. [ 95 ] It was once used as a seafaring care for ships. [ 95 ] It is lone one of three pre-World War II buildings to survive the war. [ 4 ] The Petagas War Memorial, located near KKIA, is a reminder of those who died when they went against the japanese forces during World War II. It is situated at the place where the Kinabalu Guerrillas were killed by the japanese united states army in 1944. The double Six Monument, located in Sembulan, is besides a memorial to remember Sabah ‘s first foreman Minister and six other department of state ministers who died on a plane crash known as the Double Six Tragedy on 6 June 1976. [ 96 ]

leisure and conservation areas [edit ]

The panorama of Sabah Golf & Country Club. There are many leisure spots and conserved areas in and around Kota Kinabalu. Anjung Samudra ( KK Waterfront ) is a waterfront entertainment position in the city center which features restaurants, cafe, public house, and a cabaret. The Royal Sabah Turf Club in Tanjung Aru hosts weekly cavalry racing events but has since closed and moved to Tambalang Race Course in Tuaran due to the expansion of Kota Kinabalu International Airport. The North Borneo Railway, which begins its journey from Tanjung Aru place, offers a scenic tour of the countryside in the West Coast Division and the Interior Division. [ 22 ] The railway journey ends in the town of Tenom. [ 22 ] Sutera Harbour Golf & Country Club near the city center was built on domesticate land. [ 4 ] It features a golf and country baseball club, a marina, and two hotels .
Sunset at Tanjung Aru beach. Sulug Island can be seen on the leave and Manukan Island on the correct of the horizon. Tanjung Aru, located about 10 kilometres, 6 miles, from the city centre, is one of the beaches along the West Coast. Its name was derived from the casuarina trees ( locally called Aru trees ) that grow on the shoreline. [ 97 ] The beach is 3 kilometres in distance. The entrance car parking area to Tanjung Aru has increase in size as the previous construction that were on the web site have been demolished in 2017. In the vicinity of Tanjung Aru lies the Kinabalu Golf Club, Prince Philip Botanical Park, KK Yacht Club, and Shangri-La ‘s Tanjung Aru Beach Resort. Prince Philip Park is freely accessible to the public, while the others need license. This beach is known for its sunset views. [ 98 ] [ 99 ] Located within the Likas Bay area is the Kota Kinabalu City Bird Sanctuary. With an area of 24 acres ( 9.7 hour angle ), it is one of the few remaining patches of mangrove afforest that once existed extensively along the coastal region of Kota Kinabalu. [ 101 ] It was conserved in September 1996 by the State Government to assist and foster a better agreement and awareness of the value of wetlands. The Sabah Zoological and Botanical Park ( Lok Kawi Wildlife Park ) in Lok Kawi, about 20 kilometres south of the city, is the first menagerie in Sabah. Set on a 280-acre ( 1.1 km2 ) piece of nation, it is arguably the largest menagerie in Malaysia. [ 102 ] The green Connection aquarium just outside the center of KK showcases the pisces, coral and reptile biodiversity of Sabah, with exhibits on many of the aquatic ecosystems of Sabah. At the green Connection aquarium, there are 5 of the top 10 wildlife icons of Borneo like sharks, rays, coral, pisces and snakes. [ 103 ] The boardwalk in Kota Kinabalu at twilight. Tun Fuad Stephens Park, located in Bukit Padang, is used for square up and hike by locals. It is surrounded by forests and besides features a man-made lake. It has a few food stalls and restaurants. Tunku Abdul Rahman Park is a State Park dwell of the islands of Sapi, Mamutik, Manukan, Sulug and Gaya. [ 4 ] It is used for snorkelling. The park is about a 10 to 15 minutes boat ride aside from the city ferry terminal. Babagon River in Penampang and Kiansom Falls near Inanam are besides places visited for picnics and leisure bathe. [ 104 ] Outside the city, Crocker Range Park, occupying a stretch of c. 20 adam 80 kilometer of the Crocker Range batch chain to the city ‘s southeast ( roughly between Tenom and Tambunan, is a common position for hobo camp trek and camping. Kota Kinabalu is besides the gateway to one of the most democratic conservation areas in Malaysia, Kinabalu Park. [ 105 ] The ballpark is a two-hour drive away from the city and Mount Kinabalu, which is the tenth highest extremum in South-East Asia and the highest in Malaysia, is located there. The Rafflesia Forest Reserve near Tambunan, which is 30 kilometres away from Kota Kinabalu, is besides within the Crocker Range National Park boundary. One of the smaller species of Rafflesia, R. pricei, can be found there. The Gunung Emas Highland Resort is besides nearby. The Tuaran Crocodile Farm, about 30 kilometres north of the city, has about 1400 crocodiles in its enclosure, making it the largest of its kind in Sabah. [ 106 ]

early sights [edit ]

The Tun Mustapha Tower ( once Sabah Foundation Building ) is about a 10-minute drive from the city center. This 30-storey glaze building is supported by high-tensile steel rods, one of entirely three buildings in the world that is built using this method. [ 107 ] other buildings and sites in the city are the stilt villages found in the areas of Sembulan, Tanjung Aru, Kampung Likas, and Kampung Pondo in Gaya Island. [ 108 ] These houses are built on shoal coastal waters and are homes for the Bajau and Suluk inhabitants. [ 109 ] The Sabah State Mosque in Sembulan is the chief mosque in the city. The City Mosque on Likas Bay is another meaning landmark in the city. On exceed of a hill in the city, there is besides a freemason hall. The Signal Hill Observatory near the CBD offers a scenic horizon of the city center, the islands, and the sea. [ 4 ]

Shopping [edit ]

Suria Sabah during the 2013 Chinese New Year celebrations, this is also one of the shopping malls in the city. Kota Kinabalu besides features a number of shopping malls. These include Imago KK Times Square, Oceanus Waterfront Mall, Karamunsing Complex, Centre Point, Wisma Merdeka, Warisan Square, Plaza Wawasan, Asia City Complex, [ 4 ] City Mall, KK Plaza, Mega Long Mall, Suria Sabah and 1Borneo, which is the largest hypermall in Kota Kinabalu. [ 110 ] Karamunsing, where Karamunsing Complex is situated, is an sphere that has more calculator shops per head than anywhere else in Sabah. [ 111 ] The weekly Gaya Street Sunday Market features a gather of local hawkers selling a wide crop of items from traditional cultural cultural souvenirs to pets and flowers. [ 112 ] The Kota Kinabalu Handicraft Market ( once known as the Filipino Market ) features vendors selling traditional handicrafts, souvenirs and foodstuffs. [ 113 ]

entertainment [edit ]

There are six cinemas in Kota Kinabalu : 2 Golden Screen Cinemas ( normally known as GSC ), MBO film located at Imago Mall Kota Kinabalu Times Square, City Cineplex at City Mall, Growball Cineplex at Centre Point Mall and Megalong Cineplex at Megalong Mall. One of the GSC film is located at Suria Sabah Shopping Mall, [ 114 ] while the early is located at 1Borneo. [ 115 ] Both GSC film hold eight cinema halls each. [ 116 ] 1Borneo Hypermall and Sutera Harbour Marina have bowling alleys and pool tables. [ 117 ] MBO Cinemas with a capacity of 1,038 is located in Imago Mall, KK Times Square. [ 118 ] Kota Kinabalu is well known as hot seafood market. There are many live seafood restaurants such as Hua Hing Seafood Restaurant ( located at Sedco Complex ), Welcome Seafood Restaurant ( Asia City ) and Hung Xing Seafood Restaurant around the city .

Sports [edit ]

The Likas Sports Complex in Kota Kinabalu provides assorted sporting and amateur facilities for public use. [ 73 ] It has, among others, a 20,000-seater football ( soccer ) stadium, [ 119 ] badminton, tennis, and squash courts, a secondary school, an Olympic size swimming pool, a drive image, ice hockey fields and a new Youth Challenge park consisting of an international standard skate park and indoor climbing center. It is the largest sports building complex in the express and has hosted numerous national a well as international sporting events. [ 73 ] Likas Stadium is the home stadium of Sabah F.C., besides known as SabaHawks. There is another sports complex in Penampang which besides has a full-sized football stadium. There are four golf courses in Kota Kinabalu, namely the Sabah Golf and Country Club in Bukit Padang, Kinabalu Golf Club in Tanjung Aru, Sutera Harbour Golf and Country Club, and Karambunai Golf and Country Club. [ 120 ] Kota Kinabalu has hosted a number of national sporting events such as the 2002 Sukma Games, international tournaments such as the 1994 Karate World Championships [ 121 ] and the 2008 BWF Super Series Masters Finals badminton tournament. [ 122 ] It is besides the starting charge of the annual external Borneo Safari 4×4 Challenge. [ 123 ] Kota Kinabalu has been one of the circuits for the F2 Powerboat UIM World Cup Series in December every year since 2007. [ 124 ]

music [edit ]

Kota Kinabalu is home to one of Asia ‘s darling jazz festivals, the KK Jazz Festival. It has become an annual event. [ 125 ] International performers such as Son2nos ( Venezuela ), award-winning korean jazz prima donna Nah Youn Sun, Hong Kong ‘s Junk Unit, Malaysia ‘s Double Take, Atilia and Mood Indigo from UK have all previously performed at the festival. [ 126 ] Coinciding with UNESCO ‘s International Jazz Day celebrations in 2019, the year marks the inauguration of Sabah Jazz in Kota Kinabalu with the showcases of local jazz artists deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as from the region. Among those who performed include Grupo Da Bossa, Gordon Horace Chin, Hady Afro, Joe Balanjiu Jr and La Sambusa Latina from Argentina. Sabah Jazz is set to be held annually. [ 127 ] BandWidth Street Press Magazine is Kota Kinabalu ‘s merely dislodge monthly magazine that promotes local Sabah music. The cartridge holder was launched in March 2009, and was supported by the local government and was referred by Sabah ‘s Minister of Culture, Environment & Tourism, YB Datuk Masidi Manjun, as a publication that will introduce and promote new local anesthetic musicians while serving up the latest data on the local entertainment scene. [ 128 ]

radio station [edit ]

several local radio stations have their office in the city, this include Hitz FM Sabah ( 100.8 ), KK12FM ( 89.5 ), Kupi-Kupi FM ( 96.3 ), Era FM Sabah ( 102.4 ), MY FM Sabah ( 104.0 ), VOKFM .

International relations [edit ]

several countries have set up their consulates in Kota Kinabalu, including Australia, [ 129 ] Brunei, [ 130 ] China, [ 131 ] Czech Republic, [ 132 ] Denmark, [ 133 ] France, [ 134 ] Finland, [ 135 ] Indonesia, [ 136 ] Japan, [ 137 ] Norway, [ 138 ] Panama, [ 139 ] Romania, [ 140 ] Slovakia, [ 141 ] Spain, [ 142 ] Sweden [ 141 ] and the United Kingdom. [ 143 ] [ 144 ] In 2018, Russia set up their arm function of the Russian Centre of Science and Culture ( RCSC ) to expanding the existing co-operation between Malaysia and Russia in the culture, economic and education spheres. [ 145 ] [ 146 ]

baby cities [edit ]

Kota Kinabalu presently has sixteen sister cities :

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

Others [edit ]

  • Sabah State Government and DANCED (Danish Co-operation for Environment and Development): Sabah Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM)

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