swiss psychiatrist and psychotherapist
For his grandfather professor of music, see Karl Gustav Jung “ Jung ” redirects here. For other uses, see Jung ( disambiguation )

Carl Gustav Jung ( YUUNG ; [ 21 ] [ 22 ] german : [ kaʁl ˈjʊŋ ] ; 26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961 ) was a swiss psychiatrist and analyst who founded analytic psychology. Jung ‘s work has been influential in the fields of psychiatry, anthropology, archeology, literature, doctrine, psychology, [ 23 ] and religious studies. Jung worked as a research scientist at the celebrated Burghölzli hospital, under Eugen Bleuler. During this meter, he came to the attention of Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis. The two men conducted a drawn-out agreement and collaborated, for a while, on a joint imagination of human psychology. Freud saw the younger Jung as the successor he had been seeking to take forward his “ raw skill ” of psychoanalysis and to this end secured his appointment as president of his newly founded International Psychoanalytical Association. Jung ‘s research and personal vision, however, made it impossible for him to follow his older colleague ‘s doctrine and a schism became inevitable. This division was personally atrocious for Jung and resulted in the establishment of Jung ‘s analytic psychology as a comprehensive system offprint from psychoanalysis. Among the central concepts of analytic psychology is individualization —the lifelong psychological procedure of specialization of the self out of each person ‘s conscious and unconscious elements. Jung considered it to be the main undertaking of human growth. He created some of the best know psychological concepts, including synchronism, archetypal phenomenon, the collective unconscious mind, the psychological complex and extraversion and introversion. Jung was besides an artist, craftsman, builder and a fecund writer. many of his works were not published until after his death and some are hush awaiting publication. [ 24 ]

biography [edit ]

early years [edit ]

childhood [edit ]

The clergy house in Kleinhüningen, Basel where Jung grew up Carl Gustav Jung [ a ] was born 26 July 1875 in Kesswil, in the swiss guangzhou of Thurgau, the first surviving son of Paul Achilles Jung ( 1842–1896 ) and Emilie Preiswerk ( 1848–1923 ). [ 25 ] His parentage was preceded by two stillbirths and the parentage of a son named Paul, born in 1873, who survived alone a few days. [ 26 ] [ 27 ] Paul Jung, Carl ‘s father, was the youngest son of notice German-Swiss professor of medicine at Basel, Karl Gustav Jung ( 1794–1864 ). [ 28 ] Paul ‘s hopes of achieving a luck never materialised, and he did not progress beyond the condition of an broken rural curate in the Swiss Reformed Church. Emilie Preiswerk, Carl ‘s mother, had besides grown up in a large syndicate, whose swiss roots went back five centuries. Emilie was the youngest child of a identify Basel cleric and academic, Samuel Preiswerk ( 1799–1871 ), and his second wife. Samuel Preiswerk was an Antistes, the entitle given to the head of the Reformed clergy in the city, a well as a Hebraist, writer, and editor, who taught Paul Jung as his professor of Hebrew at Basel University. [ 26 ] : 17–19 Jung ‘s father was appointed to a more comfortable parish in Laufen, when Jung was six years old. At this time, tensions between father and mother had developed. Jung ‘s mother was an eccentric and depressed womanhood ; she spent considerable time in her bedroom, where she said that spirits visited her at night. [ 29 ] Although she was normal during the day, Jung recalled that at nox his mother became strange and mysterious. He reported that one night he saw a faintly aglow and indefinite figure coming from her room with a point detached from the neck and float in the tune in front of the body. Jung had a better kinship with his don. [ 29 ] Jung ‘s mother left Laufen for several months of hospitalization near Basel for an nameless physical ailment. His father took the boy to be cared for by Emilie Jung ‘s unmarried sister in Basel, but he was late brought back to his father ‘s mansion. Emilie Jung ‘s continuing bouts of absence and depression profoundly troubled her son and caused him to associate women with “ unconditioned undependability ”, whereas “ forefather ” mean for him dependability but besides powerlessness. [ 30 ] In his memoir, Jung would remark that this parental influence was the “ disable ” I started off with. Later, these early impressions were revised : I have trusted men friends and been disappointed by them, and I have mistrusted women and was not disappoint. ” [ 31 ] After three years of living in Laufen, Paul Jung requested a transfer. In 1879 he was called to Kleinhüningen, adjacent to Basel, where his syndicate lived in a parsonage of the church. The move brought Emilie Jung closer into contact with her family and lifted her melancholy. [ 33 ] When he was nine years old, Jung ‘s sister Johanna Gertrud ( 1884–1935 ) was born. Known in the family as “ Trudi ”, she former became a secretary to her buddy. [ 26 ] : 349

Memories of childhood [edit ]

Jung was a alone and introspective child. From childhood, he believed that like his mother, [ 34 ] he had two personalities—a advanced Swiss citizen and a personality more befit to the eighteenth hundred. [ 35 ] “ Personality Number 1 ”, as he termed it, was a typical schoolboy exist in the earned run average of the time. “ Personality Number 2 ” was a dignify, authoritative, and influential man from the past. Although Jung was close to both parents, he was disappointed by his father ‘s academic approach to faith. [ 36 ] Some childhood memories made lifelong impressions on him. As a boy, he carved a bantam mannequin into the end of the wooden rule from his pencil case and placed it inside the case. He added a stone, which he had painted into upper berth and lower halves, and hid the shell in the attic. sporadically, he would return to the mannequin, frequently bringing bantam sheets of newspaper with messages inscribed on them in his own clandestine language. [ 37 ] He by and by reflected that this ceremonial work brought him a feeling of inner peace and security. Years late, he discovered similarities between his personal experience and the practices associated with totems in autochthonal cultures, such as the collection of soul-stones near Arlesheim or the tjurungas of Australia. He concluded that his intuitive ceremony act was an unconscious mind ritual, which he had practiced in a way that was strikingly similar to those in distant locations which he, as a young boy, knew nothing about. [ 38 ] His observations about symbols, archetypes, and the collective unconscious were inspired, in separate, by these early experiences combined with his later inquiry. [ 39 ] [ 40 ] At the age of 12, curtly before the end of his inaugural class at the Humanistisches Gymnasium in Basel, Jung was pushed to the ground by another boy then difficult that he momentarily lost awareness. ( Jung late recognized that the incident was indirectly his fault. ) A opinion then came to him— ” now you wo n’t have to go to school anymore. ” [ 41 ] From then on, whenever he walked to school or began homework, he fainted. He remained at home for the adjacent six months until he overheard his founder speaking hurriedly to a visitor about the boy ‘s future ability to support himself. They suspected he had epilepsy. Confronted with the reality of his family ‘s poverty, he realized the need for academician excellence. He went into his forefather ‘s analyze and began poring over Latin grammar. He fainted three more times but finally overcame the urge and did not faint again. This event, Jung late recalled, “ was when I learned what a neurosis is. ” [ 42 ]

University studies and early career [edit ]

initially, Jung had aspirations of becoming a preacher or curate in his early life. There was a strong moral sense in his family and respective of his family members were clergymen vitamin a well. For a time, Jung had wanted to study archeology, but his family could not afford to send him far than the University of Basel, which did not teach archeology. After studying philosophy in his teens, Jung decided against the way of religious traditionalism and decided alternatively to pursue psychiatry and medicine. [ 43 ] His interest was immediately captured—it combined the biological and the spiritual, precisely what he was searching for. [ 44 ] In 1895 Jung began to study music at the University of Basel. scantily a year late in 1896, his father Paul died and left the family near destitute. They were helped out by relatives who besides contributed to Jung ‘s studies. [ 45 ] During his scholar days, he entertained his contemporaries with the family legend that his agnate grandfather was the bastard son of Goethe and his german great-grandmother, Sophie Ziegler. In late life, he pulled back from this narrative, saying entirely that Sophie was a friend of Goethe ‘s niece. [ 46 ] In 1900, Jung moved to Zürich and began working at the Burghölzli psychiatric hospital under Eugen Bleuler. Bleuler was already in communication with the austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud. Jung ‘s dissertation, published in 1903, was titled On the Psychology and Pathology of So-Called Occult Phenomena. It was based on the analysis of the supposed mediumship of Jung ‘s cousin Hélène Preiswerk, under the influence of Freud ‘s contemporary Théodore Flournoy. [ 48 ] Jung besides studied with Pierre Janet in Paris in 1902 [ 49 ] and former equated his view of the building complex with Janet ‘s idée fixe subconsciente. [ 50 ] In 1905, Jung was appointed as a permanent wave ‘senior ‘ doctor at the hospital and besides became a lecturer Privatdozent in the medical faculty of Zurich University. [ 51 ] In 1904, he published with Franz Riklin their Diagnostic Association Studies, of which Freud obtained a copy. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] In 1909, Jung left the psychiatric hospital and began a secret practice in his home in Küsnacht. finally, a close friendship and a potent professional association developed between the elder Freud and Jung, which left a goodly commensurateness. For six years they cooperated in their work. In 1912, however, Jung published Psychology of the Unconscious, which made manifest the developing theoretical divergence between the two. consequently, their personal and professional relationship fractured—each stating that the other was ineffective to admit he could be incorrect. After the culminating collapse in 1913, Jung went through a difficult and pivotal psychological transformation, exacerbated by the outbreak of the First World War. Henri Ellenberger called Jung ‘s intense know a “ creative illness ” and compared it favorably to Freud ‘s own menstruation of what he called neurasthenia and craze. [ 55 ] : 173

marriage [edit ]

In 1903, Jung married Emma Rauschenbach, seven years his junior and the elder daughter of a affluent industrialist in eastern Switzerland, Johannes Rauschenbach-Schenck, and his wife. Rauschenbach was the owner, among other concerns, of IWC Schaffhausen —the International Watch Company, manufacturers of luxury time-pieces. Upon his death in 1905, his two daughters and their husbands became owners of the business. Jung ‘s brother-in-law— Ernst Homberger —became the principal owner, but the Jungs remained shareholders in a booming business that ensured the kin ‘s fiscal security for decades. [ 57 ] Emma Jung, whose education had been limited, evinced considerable ability and interest in her conserve ‘s research and threw herself into studies and acted as his adjunct at Burghölzli. She finally became a celebrated analyst in her own right. They had five children : Agathe, Gret, Franz, Marianne, and Helene. The marriage lasted until Emma died in 1955. [ 58 ] During his marriage, Jung allegedly engaged in adulterous relationships. His alleged affairs with Sabina Spielrein [ 59 ] and Toni Wolff [ 60 ] were the most widely discussed. Though it was by and large taken for granted that Jung ‘s kinship with Spielrein included a intimate kinship, this presumption has been disputed, in detail by Henry Zvi Lothane. [ 61 ] [ 62 ]

Wartime army service [edit ]

During World War I, Jung was drafted as an army doctor and soon made commanding officer of an internment camp for british officers and soldiers. The Swiss were neutral and obliged to intern personnel from either side of the conflict who crossed their frontier to evade capture. Jung worked to improve the conditions of soldiers stranded in Switzerland and encouraged them to attend university courses. [ 63 ]

relationship with Freud [edit ]

converge and collaboration [edit ]

Jung and Freud influenced each other during the intellectually formative years of Jung ‘s animation. Jung had become concern in psychiatry as a scholar by reading Psychopathia Sexualis by Richard von Krafft-Ebing. In 1900, Jung completed his degree and started shape as an intern ( voluntary doctor ) under the psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler at Burghölzli Hospital. [ 65 ] It was Bleuler who introduced him to the writings of Freud by asking him to write a review of The Interpretation of Dreams ( 1899 ). In the early 1900s psychology as a skill was placid in its early stages, but Jung became a restricted advocate of Freud ‘s modern “ psycho-analysis ”. At the clock, Freud needed collaborators and pupils to validate and spread his ideas. Burghölzli was a celebrated psychiatric clinic in Zurich and Jung ‘s research had already gained him international recognition. Jung sent Freud a copy of his Studies in Word Association in 1906. [ 66 ] The lapp class, he published Diagnostic Association Studies, which he subsequently sent a copy of to Freud—who had already purchased a copy. [ 53 ] Preceded by a bouncy correspondence, Jung met Freud for the first meter in Vienna on March 3, 1907. [ 67 ] Jung recalled the discussion between himself and Freud as endless, unceasing for thirteen hours. [ 68 ] Six months late, the then 50-year-old Freud sent a collection of his latest published essays to Jung in Zurich. This marked the begin of an intense parallelism and collaboration that lasted six years. [ 69 ] In 1908, Jung became an editor program of the newly founded Yearbook for Psychoanalytical and Psychopathological Research. In 1909, Jung travelled with Freud and Hungarian analyst Sándor Ferenczi to the United States ; they took part in a conference at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts. The conference at Clark University was planned by the psychologist G. Stanley Hall and included twenty-seven distinguished psychiatrists, neurologists, and psychologists. It represented a watershed in the acceptance of psychoanalysis in North America. This forged welcome links between Jung and influential Americans. [ 70 ] Jung returned to the United States the future year for a brief visit. In 1910 Freud proposed Jung, “ his dramatize eldest son, his crown prince and successor ”, for the put of life President of the newly formed International Psychoanalytical Association. however, after emphatic objections from his viennese colleagues, it was agreed Jung would be elected to serve a biennial term of office. [ 71 ]

divergence and break [edit ]

Jung outside Burghölzli in 1910 While Jung worked on his Psychology of the Unconscious: a study of the transformations and symbolisms of the libido, tensions manifested between him and Freud because of versatile disagreements, including those concerning the nature of libido. [ 72 ] Jung de-emphasized the importance of sexual development and focused on the collective unconscious : the part of the unconscious that contains memories and ideas that Jung believed were inherited from ancestors. While he did think that libido was an important source for personal growth, unlike Freud, Jung did not believe that libido alone was responsible for the geological formation of the core personality. [ 73 ] In 1912 these tensions came to a peak because Jung felt sternly slighted after Freud visited his colleague Ludwig Binswanger in Kreuzlingen without paying him a visit in nearby Zurich, an incident Jung referred to as “ the Kreuzlingen gesticulate ”. curtly thereafter, Jung again traveled to the United States and gave the Fordham University lectures, a six-week series, which were published late in the class as Psychology of the Unconscious ( subsequently republished as Symbols of Transformation ). While they contain some remarks on Jung ‘s dissenting scene on the libido, they represent largely a “ psychoanalytical Jung ” and not the theory of analytic psychology, for which he became celebrated in the adopt decades. however, it was their issue which, Jung declared, “ cost me my friendship with Freud ”. [ 74 ] Another primary disagreement with Freud stemmed from their differing concepts of the unconscious. [ 75 ] Jung saw Freud ‘s theory of the unconscious mind as incomplete and unnecessarily damaging and inelastic. According to Jung, Freud conceived the unconscious entirely as a depository of repress emotions and desires. [ 76 ] Jung ‘s observations overlap to an extent with Freud ‘s mannequin of the unconscious, what Jung called the “ personal unconscious “, but his hypothesis is more about a work than a static model and he besides proposed the being of a second, overarching shape of the unconscious beyond the personal, that he named the psychoid — a condition borrowed from neo-vitalist philosopher and embryologist Hans Driesch ( 1867-1941 ) – but with a reasonably altered mean. [ 77 ] The corporate unconscious is not so much a ‘geographical location ‘, but a subtraction from the alleged ubiquity of archetypes over outer space and fourth dimension. In November 1912, Jung and Freud met in Munich for a meet among big colleagues to discuss psychoanalytical journals. [ 78 ] At a lecture about a new psychoanalytical try on Amenhotep IV, Jung expressed his views on how it related to actual conflicts in the psychoanalytical movement. While Jung spoke, Freud suddenly fainted and Jung carried him to a sofa. [ 79 ] Jung and Freud personally met for the last time in September 1913 for the Fourth International Psychoanalytical Congress in Munich. Jung gave a talk on psychological types, the introvert and extrovert character in analytic psychology .

Midlife isolation [edit ]

It was the publication of Jung ‘s bible Psychology of the Unconscious in 1912 that led to the break with Freud. Letters they exchanged show Freud ‘s refusal to consider Jung ‘s ideas. This rejection caused what Jung described in his ( posthumous ) 1962 autobiography, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, as a “ resonant excommunication ”. Everyone he knew dropped away except for two of his colleagues. Jung described his book as “ an attempt, only partially successful, to create a wide setting for aesculapian psychology and to bring the wholly of the psychic phenomena within its horizon. ” The book was subsequently revised and retitled Symbols of Transformation in 1922. [ citation needed ]

London 1913–14 [edit ]

Jung spoke at meetings of the Psycho-Medical Society in London in 1913 and 1914. His travels were soon interrupted by the war, but his ideas continued to receive attention in England primarily through the efforts of Constance Long who translated and published the first english volume of his collected writings. [ 80 ] [ 81 ]

The Black Books and The Red Book [edit ]

The Red Book resting on Jung ‘s desk In 1913, at the age of thirty-eight, Jung experienced a atrocious “ confrontation with the unconscious mind ”. He saw visions and learn voices. He worried at times that he was “ menaced by a psychosis ” or was “ doing a schizophrenia ”. He decided that it was valuable have and, in private, he induced hallucinations or, in his words, a summons of “ active imagination “. He recorded everything he experienced in little journals, which Jung referred to in the singular as his Black Book, [ 82 ] considering it a “ single built-in solid ” ; and while among these original journals, some have a embrown cover. [ 82 ] The substantial Jung wrote was subjected to several edits, hand-written and typed, including another, “ second layer ” of text, his continual psychological interpretations during the process of editing. [ 83 ] [ 84 ] Around 1915, Jung commissioned a large bolshevik leather-bound book, [ 85 ] [ 86 ] and began to transcribe his notes, along with painting, working intermittently for sixteen years. [ 87 ] Jung left no posthumous instructions about the final inclination of what he called the Liber Novus or the Red Book. Sonu Shamdasani, an historian of psychology from London, tried for three years to persuade Jung ‘s insubordinate heirs to have it published. Ulrich Hoerni, Jung ‘s grandson who manages the Jung archives, decided to publish it when the necessary extra funds needed were raised through the Philemon Foundation. [ 87 ] Up to mid-September 2008, fewer than two twelve people had always seen it. In 2007, two technicians for DigitalFusion, working with New York City publishers W. W. Norton & Company, scanned the manuscript with a 10,200-pixel scanner. It was published on 7 October 2009, in german with a “ divide english translation along with Shamdasani ‘s introduction and footnotes ” at the back of the book. According to Sara Corbett, reviewing the text for The New York Times, “ The script is bombastic, baroque and like then much else about Carl Jung, a willful oddity, synched with an antediluvian and mystic reality. ” [ 87 ] The Rubin Museum of Art in New York City displayed Jung ‘s Red Book leather folio, ampere well as some of his master “ Black Book ” journals, from 7 October 2009 to 15 February 2010. [ 88 ] According to them, “ During the time period in which he worked on this ledger Jung developed his principal theories of archetypes, collective unconscious, and the work of individualization. ” Two-thirds of the pages bear Jung ‘s illuminations and illustrations to the text. [ 88 ]

Travels [edit ]

Jung emerged from his period of isolation in the recently nineteen-teens with the issue of several journal articles, followed in 1921 with Psychological Types, one of his most influential books. There followed a ten of active publication, interspersed with oversea travels .

England ( 1920, 1923, 1925, 1935, 1938, 1946 ) [edit ]

constance Long arranged for Jung to deliver a seminar in Cornwall in 1920. Another seminar was held in 1923, this one organized by Jung ‘s british protégé Helton Godwin Baynes ( known as “ Peter ” ) ( 1882-1943 ), and another in 1925. [ 89 ] In 1935, at the invitation of his close british friends and colleagues, H. G. Baynes, E. A. Bennet and Hugh Crichton-Miller, Jung gave a series of lectures at the Tavistock Clinic in London, later published as character of the Collected Works. [ 90 ] In 1938, Jung was awarded an honorary degree by the University of Oxford. At the tenth International Medical Congress for Psychotherapy held at Oxford from 29 July to 2 August 1938, Jung gave the presidential address, followed by a visit to Cheshire to stay with the Bailey kin at Lawton Mere. [ 92 ] In 1946, Jung agreed to become the first Honorary President of the newly formed Society of Analytical Psychology in London, having previously approved its train program devised by Michael Fordham. [ 93 ]

United States 1909–1912, 1924–25, 1936–37 [edit ]

During the time period of Jung ‘s collaboration with Freud, both visited the US in 1909 to lecture at Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts [ 70 ] where both were awarded honorary degrees. In 1912 Jung gave a series of lectures at Fordham University, New York which were published later in the year as Psychology of the Unconscious. [ 74 ] Jung made a more across-the-board slip westbound in the winter of 1924–5, financed and organized by Fowler McCormick and George Porter. Of particular value to Jung was a visit with Chief Mountain Lake of the Taos Pueblo near Taos, New Mexico. [ 89 ] Jung made another travel to America in 1936, receiving an honorary academic degree at Harvard [ 94 ] and giving lectures in New York and New England for his growing group of american followers. He returned in 1937 to deliver the Terry Lectures at Yale University, belated published as Psychology and Religion. [ 95 ]

East Africa [edit ]

In October 1925, Jung embarked on his most ambitious dispatch, the “ Bugishu Psychological Expedition ” to East Africa. He was accompanied by his english supporter, “ Peter ” Baynes and an american english associate degree, George Beckwith. On the voyage to Africa, they became acquainted with an english womanhood named Ruth Bailey, who joined their campaign a few weeks late. The group traveled through Kenya and Uganda to the slopes of Mount Elgon, where Jung hoped to increase his understanding of “ primitive psychology ” through conversations with the culturally isolate residents of that area. by and by he concluded that the major insights he had gleaned had to do with himself and the European psychology in which he had been raised. [ 96 ] [ 97 ] One of Jung ‘s most celebrated proposed constructs is kinship libido. Jung defined this as an natural spirit of belonging to a finical group or family and Jung believed it was vital to the human have and used this as an endogamous aspect of the libido and what lies amongst the class. This could be a term Jung learned during his tripper to Africa and is like to a Bantu term called Ubuntu that emphasizes humanness and about the same entail as kinship libido, which is, “ I am because you are. ” [ 98 ]

India [edit ]

In December 1937, Jung left Zurich again for an extensive go of India with Fowler McCormick. In India, he felt himself “ under the direct influence of a alien polish ” for the foremost meter. In Africa, his conversations had been rigorously limited by the lyric barrier, but in India, he was able to converse extensively. Hindu doctrine became an significant element in his sympathy of the function of symbolism and the life of the unconscious mind, though he avoided a meet with Ramana Maharshi. He described Ramana as being absorbed in “ the self ”. Jung became seriously ill on this trip and endured two weeks of craze in a Calcutta hospital. After 1938, his travels were confined to Europe. [ 99 ]

late years and death [edit ]

Jung became a full professor of aesculapian psychology at the University of Basel in 1943 but resigned after a heart attack the adjacent year to lead a more private life. He became ill again in 1952. Jung continued to publish books until the end of his life, including Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies ( 1959 ), which analyzed the archetypal mean and potential psychological significance of the report observations of UFOs. [ 101 ] He besides enjoyed a friendship with an english Roman Catholic priest, Father Victor White, who corresponded with Jung after he had published his controversial Answer to Job. [ 102 ] In 1961, Jung wrote his last work, a contribution to Man and His Symbols entitled “ Approaching the unconscious mind ” ( published posthumously in 1964 ). Jung died on 6 June 1961 at Küsnacht after a short illness. [ 55 ] : 450 [ 103 ] He had been beset by circulative diseases. [ 104 ]

Awards [edit ]

Among his chief distinctions are honorary doctorates from :
In accession, he was :

think [edit ]

Jung ‘s think was formed by early on family influences, which on the maternal side were a blend of matter to in the eclipse and in solid reformed academic theology. On his beget ‘s side were two crucial figures, his grandfather, the doctor and academician scientist Karl Gustav Jung, and Lotte Kestner, the niece of german polymath Johann Wolfgang Goethe ‘s “ Lottchen ”. [ 106 ] Although he was a rehearse clinician and writer and as such establish analytic psychology, a lot of his animation ‘s employment was spent exploring other areas such as quantum physics, vitalism, Eastern and Western philosophy including epistemology, chemistry, astrology, and sociology, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as literature and the arts. Jung ‘s interest in philosophy and apparitional subjects led many to view him as a mysterious, although his predilection was to be seen as a man of skill ; Jung was, unlike Freud, heavily knowing on philosophical concepts and aimed to link the arm of epistemology to the more modern theories of psychology. [ 107 ] [ 108 ]

Key concepts [edit ]

Within the field of analytic psychology, a brief surveil of major concepts developed by Jung include ( alphabetic ) : [ 109 ]

  • Anima and animus – (archetype) the contrasexual aspect of a person’s psyche. In a woman’s psyche, her inner personal masculine is conceived both as a complex and an archetypal image; comparably in a man’s psyche, his inner personal feminine is conceived both as a complex and an archetypal image.
  • Archetype – a concept “borrowed” from anthropology to denote supposedly universal and recurring mental images or themes. Jung’s descriptions of archetypes varied over time.
  • Archetypal images – universal symbols that can mediate opposites in the psyche, often found in religious art, mythology, and fairy tales across cultures.
  • Collective unconscious – aspects of unconsciousness experienced by all people in different cultures.
  • Complex – the repressed organisation of images and experiences that governs perception and behaviour.
  • Extraversion and introversion – personality traits of degrees of openness or reserve contributing to psychological type.[110]
  • Individuation – the process of fulfilment of each individual “which negates neither the conscious or unconscious position but does justice to them both”.[111]
  • Persona – element of the personality that arises “for reasons of adaptation or personal convenience” – the “masks” one puts on in various situations.[112]
  • Psychological types – a framework for consciously orienting psychotherapists to patients, by raising to consciousness particular modes of personality, differentiation between analyst and patient.
  • Shadow – (archetype) the repressed, therefore unknown, aspects of the personality including those often considered to be negative.
  • Self – (archetype) the central overarching concept governing the individuation process, as symbolised by mandalas, the union of male and female, totality, and unity. Jung viewed it as the psyche’s central archetype.
  • Synchronicity – an acausal principle as a basis for the apparently random simultaneous occurrence of phenomena.[113]

Collective unconscious [edit ]

Since the constitution of psychoanalytical theory, the notion and mean of individuals having a personal unconscious has gradually come to be normally accepted. This was popularised by both Freud and Jung. Whereas an individual ‘s personal unconscious is made up of thoughts and emotions which have, at some time, been experienced or held in beware, but which have been repressed or forgotten, in line, the collective unconscious is neither acquired by activities within an person ‘s life, nor a container of things that are thoughts, memories or ideas which are capable of being conscious during one ‘s life. The contents of it were never naturally “ known ” through physical or cognitive experience and then forgotten. The corporate unconscious consists of cosmopolitan inheritable elements common to all humans, distinct from other species. [ 114 ] It encapsulates fields of evolutionary biology, history of civilization, ethnology, brain and aflutter system development, and general psychological development. [ 115 ] Considering its musical composition in hardheaded physiologic and psychological terms, “ it consists of preexistent forms, the archetypes, which can only become conscious secondarily and which give definite shape to certain psychic contents. ” [ 115 ] specifically contrasting himself from the work of Freud and Adler, [ clarification needed ] who were wholly concerned with personal psychology, Jung writes about causal factors in personal psychology, as stemming from, influenced by an abstraction of the impersonal physical layer, the common and universal physiology among all humans. [ 116 ] Jung considers that science would barely deny the being and basic nature of ‘instincts ‘, existing as a wholly rig of motivating urges. The collective unconscious acts as the frame where skill can distinguish individual motivate urges, thought to be cosmopolitan across all individuals of the human species, while instincts are confront in all species. Jung contends, “ the hypothesis of the collective unconscious is, therefore, no more audacious than to assume there are instincts. ” [ 115 ]

original [edit ]

Isis, The Great mother of divine son HorusDemeter, Great Mother of divine daughter PersephoneLao Tzu, Wise Old ManChrist, Hero coarse archetypal motifs : Devourer, Great/Benevolent Mother, Wise Old Man, Hero/Self The original is a concept “ borrowed ” from anthropology to denote a process of nature. Jung ‘s definitions of archetypes varied over fourth dimension and have been the capable of debate as to their utility. Archetypal images, besides referred to as motifs in mythology, [ bacillus ] are universal joint symbols that can mediate opposites in the soul, are often found in religious art, mythology and fairy tales across cultures. Jung saw archetypes as pre-configurations in nature that give lift to repeat, apprehensible, describable experiences. In addition the concept takes into report the passing of time and of patterns resulting from transformation. [ 117 ] Archetypes are said to exist independently of any stream consequence, or its consequence. They are said to exert influence both across all domains of experience and throughout the stages of each person ‘s unique development. Being in partially based on inheritable physiology, they are thought to have “ existed ” since humans became a distinguish species. They have been deduced through the development of storytelling over tens of thousands of years, indicating repeating patterns of individual and group experience, behaviors, and effects across the satellite, apparently displaying common themes. [ 115 ] The concept did not originate with Jung but with Plato who first conceived of aboriginal patterns. later contributions came from Adolf Bastian, and Hermann Usener among others. [ 118 ] In the first half of the twentieth hundred it proved impossible to objectively isolate and categorize the impression of an original within a materialist frame. According to Jung, there are “ as many archetypes as there are typical situations in life ”, [ 119 ] and he asserted that they have a moral force common influence on one another. Their alleged presence could be extracted from thousand-year-old narratives, from comparative religion and mythology. [ 120 ] Jung elaborated many archetypes in “ The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious “ and in “ Aion: Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self “. Examples of archetypes might be the apparition, the bomber, the self, anima, animosity, mother, don, child, and deceiver .

shadow [edit ]

The shadow exists as part of the unconscious mind and is composed of the traits individuals instinctively or consciously resist identifying as their own and would rather ignore, typically : repressed ideas, weaknesses, desires, instincts, and shortcomings. much of the darkness comes as a consequence of an individual ‘s adaptation to cultural norms and expectations. [ 112 ] Thus, this original not lone consists of all the things deemed unacceptable by club but besides those that are not aligned with one ‘s own personal morals and values.

Jung argues that the shadow plays a distinctive character in balancing one ‘s overall mind, the counter-balancing to consciousness – “ where there is light up, there must besides be shadow ”. Without a well-developed shadow ( frequently “ shadow work ”, “ integrating one ‘s shadow ” ), an individual can become shallow and highly preoccupied with the opinions of others ; that is, a walk persona. [ 112 ] not wanting to look at their shadows directly, Jung argues, often results in psychological projection. Individuals project imagined attitudes onto others without awareness. The qualities an individual may hate ( or love ) in another, may be obviously portray in the individual, who does not see the external, material accuracy. [ 112 ] In order to truly grow as an individual, Jung believed that both the persona and shadow should be balanced. [ 112 ] The trace can appear in dreams or visions, much taking the form of a dark, angry, alien figure. [ citation needed ]

extraversion and invagination [edit ]

Jung was one of the first people to define invagination and extraversion in a psychological context. In Jung ‘s Psychological Types, he theorizes that each person falls into one of two categories : the introvert or the extrovert. Jung compares these two psychological types to ancient archetypes, Apollo and Dionysus. The introvert is likened to Apollo, who shines a light up on reason. The invaginate is focused on the inner world of mirror image, dream, and sight. Thoughtful and insightful, the introvert can sometimes be uninterested in joining the activities of others. The extrovert is associated with Dionysus, interested in joining the activities of the world. The extrovert is focused on the external world of objects, sensory perception, and natural process. energetic and bouncy, the extrovert may lose their sense of self in the poisoning of dionysian pursuits. [ 121 ] jungian invagination and extraversion is quite unlike from the modern estimate of invagination and extraversion. [ 122 ] Modern theories often stay truthful to behaviourist means of describing such a trait ( sociability, garrulity, assertiveness, etc. ), whereas jungian invagination and extraversion are expressed as a position : introverts interpret the world subjectively, whereas extraverts interpret the earth objectively. [ 123 ]

persona [edit ]

In his psychological theory – which is not inevitably linked to a detail theory of social structure – the persona appears as a consciously created personality or identity, fashioned out of part of the collective soul through socialization, socialization and experience. [ 124 ] Jung applied the term persona, explicitly because, in Latin, it means both personality and the masks break by Roman actors of the classical period, expressive of the individual roles played. The persona, he argues, is a mask for the “ corporate mind ”, a mask that ‘pretends ‘ identity, so that both self and others believe in that identity, even if it is very no more than a well-played role through which the collective mind is expressed. Jung regarded the “ persona-mask ” as a complicated system which mediates between individual awareness and the social community : it is “ a compromise between the person and company as to what a man should appear to be ”. [ 125 ] But he besides makes it quite explicit that it is, in means, a character mask in the classical sense known to theatre, with its double function : both intended to make a certain impression on others, and to hide ( part of ) the true nature of the individual. [ 126 ] The therapist then aims to assist the individuality march through which the customer ( rhenium ) gains their “ own self ” – by liberating the self, both from the deceptive cover of the persona, and from the power of unconscious mind impulses. Jung has become enormously influential in management theory ; not just because managers and executives have to create an appropriate “ management character ” ( a corporate masquerade ) and a persuasive identity, [ 127 ] but besides because they have to evaluate what sort of people the workers are, to manage them ( for example, using personality tests and peer reviews ). [ 128 ]

spiritualty [edit ]

Jung ‘s shape on himself and his patients convinced him that animation has a apparitional purpose beyond corporeal goals. [ 129 ] [ 130 ] Our chief tax, he believed, is to discover and fulfill our cryptic, congenital likely. Based on his discipline of Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Gnosticism, Taoism, and other traditions, Jung believed that this journey of transformation, which he called individuality, is at the mystic heart of all religions. It is a travel to meet the self and at the same time to meet the Divine. [ 131 ] Unlike Freud ‘s objectivist worldview, Jung ‘s pantheism may have led him to believe that apparitional experience was all-important to our wellbeing, as he specifically identifies person human life with the population as a wholly. [ 132 ] [ 133 ] In 1959, Jung was asked by host John Freeman on the BBC interview course of study Face to Face whether he believed in God, to which Jung answered, “ I do not need to believe. I know. ” [ 134 ] [ 135 ] Jung ‘s ideas on religion counterbalance freudian incredulity. Jung ‘s idea of religion as a virtual road to individuality is hush treated in modern textbooks on the psychology of religion, though his ideas have besides been criticized. [ 136 ] Jung recommended spirituality as a bring around for dipsomania, and he is considered to have had an indirect character in establishing Alcoholics Anonymous. [ 137 ] Jung once treated an american patient ( Rowland Hazard III ), who had chronic dipsomania. After working with the patient for some time and achieving no significant build up, Jung told the serviceman that his alcoholic condition was near to hopeless, save only the possibility of a apparitional experience. Jung noted that, occasionally, such experiences had been known to reform alcoholics when all other options had failed. Hazard took Jung ‘s advice badly and set about seeking a personal, spiritual experience. He returned home to the United States and joined a christian evangelical movement known as the Oxford Group ( late known as Moral Re-Armament ). He besides told other alcoholics what Jung had told him about the importance of a spiritual feel. One of the alcoholics he brought into the Oxford Group was Ebby Thacher, a long-time friend and drink buddy of Bill Wilson, late co-founder of Alcoholics Anonymous ( AA ). Thacher told Wilson about the Oxford Group and, through them, Wilson became aware of Hazard ‘s have with Jung. The influence of Jung frankincense indirectly found its way into the formation of Alcoholics Anonymous, the original twelve-step program. The above claims are documented in the letters of Jung and Bill Wilson, excerpts of which can be found in Pass It On, published by Alcoholics Anonymous. [ 138 ] Although the contingent of this fib is disputed by some historians, Jung himself discussed an Oxford Group member, who may have been the lapp person, in talks given around 1940. The remarks were distributed privately in transcript form, from shorthand taken by an attendant ( Jung reportedly approved the transcript ), and late recorded in volume 18 of his Collected Works, The Symbolic Life,

For example, when a extremity of the Oxford Group comes to me in order to get treatment, I say, ‘You are in the Oxford Group ; therefore long as you are there, you settle your affair with the Oxford Group. I ca n’t do it better than Jesus. [ 139 ]

Jung goes on to state that he has seen similar cures among roman Catholics. The 12 tone program of Alcoholics Anonymous has an intense psychological backdrop, involving the human ego and dichotomy between the conscious and unconscious mind. [ 140 ]

Inquiries into the extrasensory [edit ]

Jung had an apparent interest in the extrasensory and mysterious. For decades he attended seances and claimed to have witnessed “ parapsychic phenomenon ”. initially, he attributed these to psychological causes, even delivering a 1919 lecture in England for the Society for Psychical Research on “ The psychological Foundations for the impression in spirits ”. [ 141 ] however, he began to “ doubt whether an entirely psychological approach path can do department of justice to the phenomenon in wonder ” [ 141 ] and stated that “ the spirit guess yields better results ”. [ 142 ] Showing his own agnosticism toward this postulation, as he could not find substantial evidence of the universe of spirits. [ 142 ] Jung ‘s ideas about the extrasensory culminated in “ synchronism “. [ 143 ] This is the theme that certain coincidences manifest in the world, have exceptionally acute entail to observers. such coincidences have bang-up effect on the observer from multiple accumulative aspects : from the contiguous personal relevance of the coincidence to the perceiver ; from the peculiarities of ( the nature of, the character, bangle, curio of ) any such coincidence ; from the diaphanous improbability of the coincidence, having no apparent causal link ( hence Jung ‘s try subtitle “ An Acausal Connecting Principle ” ). Despite his own experiments failing to confirm the phenomenon [ 144 ] he held on to the theme as an explanation for apparent ESP. [ 145 ] In accession, he proposed it as a running explanation for how the I-Ching worked, although he was never clear about how synchronism worked. [ 146 ]

interpretation of quantum mechanics [edit ]

Jung influenced one philosophic interpretation ( not the skill ) of quantum physics with the concept of synchronism regarding some events as non-causal. That mind influenced the physicist Wolfgang Pauli ( with whom, via a letter commensurateness, he developed the notion of unus mundus in connection with the notion of nonlocality ) and some other physicists. [ 147 ]

chemistry [edit ]

Atalanta Fugiens Emblem 21 The fabulous alchemic philosopher ‘s stone as visualize inEmblem 21 Jung ‘s acquaintance with alchemy came between 1928 and 1930, when he was introduced to a manuscript of The Secret of the Golden Flower, translated by Richard Wilhelm. [ 148 ] The work and writings of Jung from the 1930s onwards shifted to a concenter on the psychological meaning of alchemy. [ 149 ] In 1944 Jung published Psychology and Alchemy, in which he analyzed the alchemic symbols and came to the ending that there is a target relationship between them and the psychoanalytical process. [ c ] He argued that the alchemic serve was the transformation of the impure soul ( lead ) to perfected soul ( amber ), and a metaphor for the individualization action. [ 44 ] In 1963 Mysterium Coniunctionis first appeared in English as part of The Collected Works of C. G. Jung. Mysterium Coniunctionis was Jung ‘s last major bible and focused on the “ Mysterium Coniunctionis “ original, known as the hallowed marriage between sun and moon. Jung argued that the stages of the alchemists, the blacken, the whitening, the blush, and the yellow, could be taken as symbolic of individuation—his chosen term for personal increase ( 75 ) .

artwork therapy [edit ]

Jung proposed that art can be used to alleviate or contain feelings of trauma, fear, or anxiety and besides to repair, restore and heal. [ 37 ] In his work with patients and his own personal explorations, Jung wrote that artwork expression and images found in dreams could help recover from injury and emotional distress. At times of emotional straiten, he often drew, painted, or made objects and constructions which he recognized as more than recreational. [ 37 ]

Dance/movement therapy [edit ]

Dance/movement therapy as active resource was created by Carl Gustav Jung and Toni Wolff in 1916 [ 150 ] and was practiced by Tina Keller-Jenny and other analysts, but remained largely stranger until the 1950s when it was rediscovered by marian Chace and therapist Mary Whitehouse. Whitehouse, after studying with Martha Graham and Mary Wigman, became herself a dancer and teacher of modern dance, [ 151 ] deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as swiss Dancer Trudy Schoop in 1963, who is considered one of the founders of the dance/movement therapy in the United States .

political views [edit ]

The state [edit ]

Jung stressed the importance of individual rights in a person ‘s relation to the country and club. He saw that the state was treated as “ a quasi-animate personality from whom everything is expected ” but that this personality was “ alone camouflage for those individuals who know how to manipulate it ”, [ 152 ] and referred to the state as a form of slavery. [ 153 ] [ 154 ] [ 155 ] [ 156 ] He besides thought that the country “ swallowed up [ people ‘s ] religious forces ”, [ 157 ] and consequently that the express had “ taken the place of God ” —making it comparable to a religion in which “ department of state bondage is a shape of idolize ”. [ 155 ] Jung observed that “ stage acts of [ the ] state ” are comparable to religious displays :

Brass bands, flags, banners, parades and giant demonstrations are no different in rationale from ecclesiastical processions, cannonades and displace to scare off demons. [ 158 ]

From Jung ‘s position, this successor of God with the state in a mass society leads to the dislocation of the religious drive and results in the same fanaticism of the church-states of the Dark Ages—wherein the more the express is ‘worshipped ‘, the more exemption and morality are suppressed ; [ 159 ] this ultimately leaves the individual psychically undeveloped with extreme feelings of marginalization. [ 160 ]

Germany, 1933 to 1939 [edit ]

Jung had many jewish friends and colleagues and maintained relations with them throughout the 1930s despite prevailing anti-semitism. Until 1939, he besides maintained professional relations with psychotherapists in Germany who had declared their support for the Nazi government. Some scholars allege that he himself sympathized with the government. [ 161 ] In 1933, after the nazi gained baron in Germany, Jung took separate in the restructure of the General Medical Society for Psychotherapy ( Allgemeine Ärztliche Gesellschaft für Psychotherapie ), a German-based professional body with an external membership. The company was reorganized into two distinct bodies :

  1. A strictly German body, the Deutsche Allgemeine Ärztliche Gesellschaft für Psychotherapie, led by Matthias Göring, an Adlerian psychotherapist[162] and a cousin of the prominent Nazi Hermann Göring
  2. International General Medical Society for Psychotherapy, led by Jung. The German body was to be affiliated to the international society, as were new national societies being set up in Switzerland and elsewhere.[163]

The International Society ‘s constitution permitted individual doctors to join it directly, preferably than through one of the national affiliate societies, a planning to which Jung drew attention in a circular in 1934. [ 164 ] This implied that german jewish doctors could maintain their professional status as individual members of the external consistency, tied though they were excluded from the german affiliate, equally well as from other German aesculapian societies operating under the Nazis. [ 165 ] As drawing card of the international body, Jung assumed overall duty for its issue, the Zentralblatt für Psychotherapie. In 1933, this journal published a statement endorsing Nazi positions [ 166 ] and Hitler ‘s book Mein Kampf. [ 167 ] In 1934, Jung wrote in a swiss publication, the Neue Zürcher Zeitung, that he experienced “ capital surprise and disappointment ” [ 168 ] when the Zentralblatt associated his name with the pro-Nazi statement. Jung went on to say “ the chief steer is to get a young and insecure science into a seat of condom during an earthquake ”. [ 169 ] He did not end his relationship with the Zentralblatt at this time, but he did arrange the appointment of a new do editor program, Carl Alfred Meier of Switzerland. For the future few years, the Zentralblatt under Jung and Meier maintained a military position distinct from that of the Nazis, in that it continued to acknowledge contributions of jewish doctors to psychotherapy. [ 170 ] In the face of energetic german attempts to Nazify the international torso, Jung resigned from its presidency in 1939, [ 170 ] the class the Second World War started .

nazism and anti-semitism [edit ]

Jung ‘s sake in european mythology and family psychology was shared by the Nazis. [ 171 ] [ 79 ] Richard Noll describes Jung ‘s own reaction to this connection :

Jung intelligibly identifies himself with the spirit of german Volkstumsbewegung throughout this period and well into the 1920s and 1930s, until the horrors of Nazism finally compelled him to reframe these neopagan metaphors in a negative light in his 1936 try on Wotan. [ 173 ]

diverse statements made by Jung in the 1930s have been cited as testify of both contempt for Nazism and sympathy for Nazism. [ 161 ] In the 1936 essay “ Wotan ”, Jung described the influence of Adolf Hitler on Germany as “ one man who is obviously ‘possessed ‘ has infected a whole nation to such an extent that everything is set in motion and has started rolling on its course towards hell. ” [ 174 ] [ 175 ] He would late say, during a drawn-out interview with H. R. Knickerbocker in October 1938 : [ 176 ] [ 177 ]

Hitler seemed like the ‘double ‘ of a real number person, as if Hitler the world might be hiding inside like an appendix, and intentionally sol concealed in rate not to disturb the mechanism … You know you could never talk to this homo ; because there is cipher there … It is not an individual ; it is an entire nation .

Jung systematically rejected accusations of anti-semitism. In a 1948 interview with Carol Baumann, he stated :

It must be clear to anyone who has read any of my books that I have never been a Nazi sympathizer and I never have been anti-semitic, and no sum of misquotation, mistranslation, or rearrangement of what I have written can alter the record of my true point of watch. closely every one of these passages has been tampered with, either by malice or by ignorance. furthermore, my friendly relations with a large group of jewish colleagues and patients over a period of many years in itself disproves the charge of anti-semitism. [ 178 ] [ five hundred ]

The accusations, however, have continued to be made concerning Jung ‘s statements. Avner Falk cites articles such as “ The State of Psychotherapy Today ”, [ 179 ] published in 1934 in the Zentralblatt fur Psychotherapie, where Jung wrote : “ The Aryan unconscious has a greater potential than the jewish unconscious ” and “ The Jew, who is something of a nomad, has never even created a cultural form of his own and deoxyadenosine monophosphate far as we can see never will ”. [ 180 ] Andrew Samuels argues that his remarks on the “ Aryan unconscious ” and the “ corrosive character ” of Freud ‘s “ jewish gospel ” [ 181 ] demonstrate an anti-semitism “ cardinal to the structure of Jung ‘s think ”. [ 182 ]

Service to the Allies during World War II [edit ]

Jung was in contact with Allen Dulles of the Office of Strategic Services ( predecessor of the Central Intelligence Agency ) and provided valuable intelligence on the psychological condition of Hitler. Dulles referred to Jung as “ agent 488 ” and offered the following description of his service : “ cipher will probably ever know how much Professor Jung contributed to the Allied Cause during the war, by seeing people who were connected somehow with the other side ”. Jung ‘s servicing to the Allied campaign through the OSS remained classified after the war. [ 183 ]

Views on homosexuality [edit ]

Jung addressed homosexuality in his publish writings, in one comment specifying that homosexuality should not be a concern of legal authorities nor be considered a crime. He besides claimed that homosexuality does not reduce the value of a person as a member of company. however, Jung has besides stated that homosexuality is a result of psychological immaturity, but only if one ‘s sex is not an aspect of their sex and constituent characteristics. [ clarify ] [ 184 ]

Psychedelics [edit ]

Jung ‘s theories are considered to be a useful therapeutic model for the analysis of unconscious phenomena that become manifest in the acute psychedelic state. [ 185 ] This watch is based on parallelism Jung had with researchers involved in psychedelic research in the 1950s, equally well as more recent neuroimaging inquiry where subjects who are administered psychedelic compounds seem to have archetypal religious experiences of “ integrity ” and “ ego profligacy ” associated with deoxidize activity in the default mode network. [ 186 ] This research has led to a re-evaluation of Jung ‘s bring, and particularly the visions detailed in The Red Book, in the context of contemporary psychedelic, evolutionary and developmental neuroscience. For example, in a chapter entitled ‘Integrating the Archaic and the Modern : The Red Book, Visual Cognitive Modalities and the Neuroscience of Altered States of Consciousness ‘, in the 2020 volume Jung’s Red Book for Our Time: Searching for Soul Under Postmodern Conditions, Volume 4, it is argued Jung was a pioneer who explored chartless “ cognitive domains ” that are alien to Western modes of remember. While such domains of have are not depart of mainstream western culture and think, they are central to versatile autochthonal cultures who use psychedelics such as Iboga and Ayahuasca during rituals to alter consciousness. As the author writes : “ Jung seems to have been dealing with modes of consciousness alien to mainstream Western thought, exploring the terrain of chartless cognitive domains. I argue that skill is beginning to catch up with Jung who was a initiate whose insights contribute a capital deal to our emerging sympathize of human consciousness. ” [ 187 ] In this analysis Jung ‘s paintings of his visions in The Red Book were compared to the paintings of Ayahuasca visions by the peruvian shaman Pablo Amaringo. [ 188 ] Commenting on research that was being undertake during the 1950s, Jung wrote the trace in a letter to Betty Eisner, a psychologist who was involved in LSD research at the University of California : “ Experiments along the trace of mescaline and associate drugs are surely most matter to since such drugs lay bare a level of the unconscious mind that is differently accessible only under peculiar psychic conditions. It is a fact that you get certain perceptions and experiences of things appearing either in mysterious states or in the analysis of unconscious phenomena. ” [ 189 ] A detail report of Jung and psychedelics, equally well as the importance of jungian psychology to psychedelic-assisted therapies, is outlined in Scott Hill ‘s 2013 reserve Confrontation with the Unconscious: Jungian Depth Psychology and Psychedelic Experience. [ 190 ] An article published in 2021 in the International Journal of Jungian Studies, entitled ‘Carl Jung and the Psychedelic Brain : An evolutionary model of Analytical Psychology Informed by Psychedelic Neuroscience ‘ discusses Jung ‘s attitude towards psychedelics, a well as the applicability of his ideas to current research. As the generator writes Jung ‘s ‘ … legalize reservations about the clinical practice of psychedelics are nobelium longer relevant as the field has progressed significantly, devising full-bodied clinical and experimental protocols for psychedelic help therapies. That said Jung ‘s concept of individualization — that is the consolidation of the archaic unconscious mind with consciousness — seems highly pertinent to modern psychedelic research. ‘ [ 191 ] The generator besides uses work in evolutionary and psychedelic neuroscience, and specifically the latter ‘s ability to make manifest ancient subcortical brain systems, to illuminate Jung ‘s concept of an archaic collective unconscious that evolved prior to the ego building complex and the uniquely human default modality network. [ 192 ]

bequest [edit ]

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ( MBTI ), a psychometric instrument by and large popular with non-psychologists, equally well as the concepts of socionics, were developed from Jung ‘s model of psychological types. The MBTI is considered pseudoscience [ 193 ] and is not wide accepted by researchers in the field of psychology. [ 194 ] Jung saw the human soul as “ by nature religious ” and made this mind a principal focus of his explorations. Jung is one of the best know contemporary contributors to dream psychoanalysis and symbolism. His charm on popular psychology, the “ psychologization of religion ”, spiritualty and the New Age drift has been huge. A Review of General Psychology review, published in 2002, ranked Jung as the 23rd most reference psychologist of the twentieth century. [ 195 ] Although psychoanalysis is still studied in the humanities, a 2008 discipline in The Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association found that psychology departments and textbooks treat it as “ dried and dead ”. [ 196 ] Similarly, Alan Stone noted, “ As academic psychology becomes more ‘scientific ‘ and psychiatry more biological, psychoanalysis is being brushed aside. ” [ 197 ] Houses and institutions

In popular culture [edit ]

literature [edit ]

artwork [edit ]

Original statue of Jung in Mathew Street, Liverpool, a half-body on a pedestal captioned “ Liverpool is the pool of life ”

  • The visionary Swiss painter Peter Birkhäuser was treated by a student of Jung, Marie-Louise von Franz, and corresponded with Jung about the translation of dream symbolism into works of art.[203]
  • American Abstract Expressionist Jackson Pollock underwent Jungian psychotherapy in 1939 with Joseph Henderson. Henderson engaged Pollock through his art, having him make drawings, which led to the appearance of many Jungian concepts in his paintings.[204][205]
  • Contrary to some sources,[206] Jung did not visit Liverpool but recorded a dream in which he did, and of which he wrote, “Liverpool is the pool of life, it makes to live.” A plaster statue of Jung was erected in Mathew Street in 1987 that was vandalised and replaced by a more durable version in 1993.[207]

music [edit ]

Theatre, film, television and radio [edit ]

Video games [edit ]

  • The Persona series of games is heavily based on Jung’s theories,[230] as is the Nights into Dreams series of games.[231]
  • Xenogears for the original PlayStation and its associated works—including its reimagination as the “Xenosaga” trilogy and a graphic novel published by the game’s creator, Perfect Works—center around Jungian concepts. Control centers around Jung’s theories of the darkness and the astral plane. Jungian concepts are present in the Xenoseries.
  • Jung’s Labyrinth[232] is a psychological exploration PC game that uses Jungian psychology, mythology, alchemical, and dream symbolism in a series of active imaginations to map the process of individuation. The Jungian concepts are represented mostly by the 12 archetypes that the player engages in a conversation.
  • The game Control is heavily influenced by Carl Jung’s ideas, particularly synchronicity and shadow selves.[233][234]

bibliography [edit ]

Books [edit ]

Collected Works [edit ]

The Collected Works of C. G. Jung. Eds. Herbert Read, Michael Fordham, Gerhard Adler. Executive erectile dysfunction. W. McGuire. Trans R.F.C. Hull. London : Routledge Kegan Paul ( 1953–1980 ) .

1. Psychiatric Studies (1902–06)
2. Experimental Researches (1904–10) (trans L. Stein and D. Riviere)
3. Psychogenesis of Mental Disease (1907–14; 1919–58)
4. Freud and Psychoanalysis (1906–14; 1916–30)
5. Symbols of Transformation (1911–12; 1952)
6. Psychological Types (1921)
7. Two Essays on Analytical Psychology (1912–28)
8. Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche (1916–52)
9.1 Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious (1934–55)
9.2 Aion: Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self (1951)
10. Civilization in Transition (1918–1959)
11. Psychology and Religion: West and East (1932–52)
12. Psychology and Alchemy (1936–44)
13. Alchemical Studies (1919–45):
14. Mysterium Coniunctionis (1955–56):
15. Spirit in Man, Art, and Literature (1929–1941)
16. The Practice of Psychotherapy (1921–25)
17. The Development of Personality (1910; 1925–43)
18. The Symbolic Life: Miscellaneous Writings
19. General Bibliography
20. General Index

Supplementary volumes

A. The Zofingia Lectures
B. Psychology of the Unconscious (trans. Beatrice M. Hinckle)


Analytical Psychology (1925)
Dream Analysis (1928–30)[235]
Visions (1930-34)
The Kundalini Yoga (1932)
Nietzsche’s Zarathustra (1934-39)
Children’s Dreams (1936-1940)

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

References [edit ]

Sources [edit ]

far read [edit ]

Introductory texts
Texts in various areas of Jungian thought
Academic texts

  • Andrew Samuels, The Political Psyche (Routledge), ISBN 978-0-415-08102-3
  • Lucy Huskinson, Nietzsche and Jung: The Whole Self in the Union of Opposites (Routledge), ISBN 978-1-58391-833-3
  • Davydov, Andrey. From Carl Gustav Jung’s Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious to Individual Archetypal Pattern. HPA Press, 2014. ISBN 978-1-311-82008-2
  • Remo, F. Roth: Return of the World Soul, Wolfgang Pauli, C.G. Jung and the Challenge of Psychophysical Reality [unus mundus], Part 1: The Battle of the Giants. Pari Publishing, 2011, ISBN 978-88-95604-12-1
  • Remo, F. Roth: Return of the World Soul, Wolfgang Pauli, C.G. Jung and the Challenge of Psychophysical Reality [unus mundus], Part 2: A Psychophysical Theory. Pari Publishing, 2012, ISBN 978-88-95604-16-9

Jung-Freud relationship

  • Kerr, John. A Most Dangerous Method: The Story of Jung, Freud, and Sabina Spielrein. Knopf, 1993. ISBN 978-0-679-40412-5.

Other people’s recollections of Jung

  • van der Post, Laurens, Jung and the Story of Our Time, New York: Pantheon Books, 1975. ISBN 978-0-394-49207-0
  • Hannah, Barbara, Jung, his life and work: a biographical memoir, New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1976. SBN: 399-50383-8
  • David Bailey’s biography of his Great Aunt, Ruth Bailey, ‘The English Woman and C.G.Jung’ drawing extensively on her diaries and correspondence, explores the deep and long-lasting friendship between Ruth, Jung, and Jung’s wife and family.

Critical scholarship