Full text of “Radiological health handbook”


PHS pub. i 
no. 2016i 
1970 





U. S. DEPARTMENT OF 
HEALTH. EDUCATION. AND WELFARE 
Public Health Service 




Trade names of commercially available products used in this 
publication implies neither endorsement of the product by 
the Public Health Service nor the unavailability of other 
suitable products. 


This publication contains copyrighted material. Further 
reproduction of such parts without permission of the author 
and publisher is prohibited. 


RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH HANDBOOK 


Compiled and edited 
by the 

Bureau of Radiological Health 
and the 

Training Institute 

Environmental Control Administration 



Revised Edition 
January 1970 


U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE 
Public Health Service 

Consumer Protection and Environmental Health Service 
Rockvi I ie, Mary land 20852 


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $4.00 



FOREWORD 


Twenty years ago the Public Health Service developed the first Radiological 
Health Handbook as a training aid, and it has since become a basic reference 
and a major resource for professional personnel and students in the field of 
radiological health. Credit for the development of the Handbook goes to 
members of the radiological health training staff, who through the years 
compiled and revised the information and data included in the book. 

New knowledge, new technological advancements, and the enactment of Public 
Law 90-602, "Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968," made the 
last edition outdated and inadequate. In 1968, Mr. James G. Terrill, Jr., 
then Director, National Center for Radiological Health, initiated revision 
of the Handbook. Suggestions for additions, corrections, and deletions were 
obtained from Handbook users across the United States and in a number of 
foreign countries. An advisory committee, representative of major programs 
in the Bureau of Radiological Health, helped select the content for the 
revised edition, and a number of the Bureau's technical programs provided 
new data which are reflected in some of the charts and tables. Mr. John E. 
Munzer and Mr. Ralph E. Bunge of the training staff assumed major responsi- 
bility for work on the revision. The present text includes information 
unavailable ten years ago: a new chart of the nuclides, a universal decay 

table in place of individual isotope listings, microwave and laser glossa- 
ries, film-speed charts, depth-dose tables, and a "rules of thumb" section. 

Although contributions from individuals and organizations are too numerous 
to list in detail, appreciation is expressed to all who made suggestions, 
provided material, and permitted the reprinting of data as acknowledged in 
the Handbook. 


iii 


Mr. John C. Villforth, Director 
Bureau of Radiological Health 


Mr. George R. Shultz, Director 
Training Institute 




TABLE OF CONTENTS 


Section Page 

FOREWORD iii 

I. PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND MATHEMATICAL DATA 1 

II. RADIOISOTOPE, DECAY, AND RADIOASSAY DATA 86 

III. RADIATION PROTECTION DATA.o 129 

IV. TABLE OF ISOTOPES 

Table 1 219 

Table II 381 

V. GLOSSARY. . 413 

% 

VI. INDEX... ..449 


V 



I 


SECTION I 

PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND MATHEMATICAL DATA 

Page 

SIGNS AND SYMBOLS 

Mathematics and Greek Alphabet 1 

Alphabetically by Name 2 

Alphabetically by Symbol 7 

CONSTANTS 11 

CONVERSION FACTORS 15 

EQUATIONS 26 

MATHEMATICAL TABLES 

Squares and Square Roots 36 

Values and Logarithms of Exponential Functions 41 

Trigonometric Functions 45 

Logarithms, Natural 46 

Logarithms, Common 48 

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM 50 

ATOMIC MASS TABLE (including binding energy) 51 

DENSITY OF ELEMENTS AND COMMON MATERIALS 65 

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS 67 

List of Elements 68 


CHART OF THE NUCLIDES 


69 




SIGNS AND SYMBOLS 
Mathematics 


+ 


± 

T 


().[] 


< 


cc 


00 


plus, addition, positive 

minus, subtraction, 
negative 

plus or minus, 

positive or negative 

minus or plus, 

negative or positive 

divis ion 

multiplication 

collection 

equal to 

not equal to 

identical to 

equals approximately, 
congruent 

greater than 

not greater than 

greater than or equal to 

less than 

not less than 

less than or equal to 

proportional to 

ratio 

similar to 

varies as, proportional to 

approaches 

inf inity 

therefore 


/ 

square root 


nth root 

a“ 

nth power of a 

a"° 

reciprocal of nth power 


of a, = 1/a" 

log,logio 

common logarithm 

ln,logg 

natural logarithm 

e, € 

base of natural logs. 


2.71828183. .. 

n 

pi, 3.14159265. .. 

L 

angle 

_L 

perpendicular to 

11 

parallel to 

n 

any number 

1 1 

absolute value of n 

n 

average value of n 

o 

n 

n degrees 

n’ 

n minutes, n feet 

n” 

n seconds, n inches 

f(x) 

function of x 

Ax 

increment of x 

dx 

differential of x 

Z 

summation of 

sin 

sine 

cos 

cos ine 

tan 

tangent 


GREEK ALPHABET 


A 

a 

Alpha 

I 

1 

Iota 

P 

p 

Rho 

B 


Beta 

K 

K 

Kappa 

2 

a 

Sigma 

r 

y 

Gamma 

A 

X 

Lambda 

T 

T 

Tau 

A 

8 

Delta 

M 

M 

Mu 

T 

V 

Upsilon 

E 

e 

Epsilon 

N 

V 

Nu 

 

 

Phi 

Z 

f 

Zeta 

2 


Xi 

X 

X 

Chi 

H 

V 

Eta 

0 

0 

Omicron 

'P 


Psi 

0 

e 

Theta 

n 

IT 

Pi 

n 

u 

Omega 


1 


SIGNS AND SYMBOLS 
ALPHABETICALLY BY NAME 


about ca 

absolute abs 

absolute temperature (Kelvin) __ K 

absorption coefficient, 

energy, for air = r + k + 

absorption coefficient, linear, 
effective or apparent p 

absorption cross section in 

barns 0"^ 

acceleration, linear a 

activation cross section 

in barns Cac 

activity, original Aq 

alkali alk 

alpha 0! 

alpha particle a 

alternating current a.c. 

ampere A, amp. 

angle between incident 

and scattered radiation 6 


angstrom A 

anno (year) a 

aqua aq. 

aqueous aq. 

approximately ca 

area A, 

total cross section in barns a ^ 

universal gas constant R 

velocity of light in vacuum c 


velocity, linear or particle v 

watt W 

wavelength X 

weber Wb 

weight wt. 

work W 

work function  

year (anno, annum) SL,yr 


Prefixes 


deci 

(= 10 ") 

d 

deka 

(= 10) 

da 

centi 

(= 10 

c 

hecto 

(= 10®) 

h 

mill i 

(= 10 

m 

kilo 

(= 10®) 

k 

micro 

(= 10'®) 

M- 

mega 

(= 10®) 

M 

nano 

(= 10'®) 

n 

giga 

(= 10®) 

G 

pico 

(= 10 ^^) 

P 

tera 

(= 10^®) 

T 

f emto 

(= 10'^®) 

f 




atto 

(= 10'^®) 






6 


SIGNS AND SYMBOLS 
ALPHABETICALLY BY SYMBOL 


a 

acceleration, linear; anno 

CGS 

A 

(year) ; atto (prefix) 
ampere; area; atomic mass 

chem. 


number; radioactivity 

cir. 

A 

angstrom 

c .m. 

abs 

absolute 



cm 

a. c. 

alternating current 

2 

cm 

alk 

alkali 

3 


cm 

amp. 

ampere (use A) 

coef. 

amu 

atomic mass unit-- 0 

colog 

(old) [use u) 


activity, original 

cone 

Aq 


aq • 

aqua; aqueous, water 

const. 

asym. 

asymmetrical 

cos 

at.no. 

atomic number 

cpm 

a t. wt. 

atomic weight 

cu. 

at, 
atmos 

atmosphere (atmospheric) 

cu.cm, 
cu. f t. 

av, avg. 

average 

cu. in. 

b 

barn; buildup factor 

cu.m. 

bar. 

barometer 

cu. yd. 

BeV 

billion electron volt 

cwt 

Bi 

biot 

cyl. 

b.p. 

boiling point 

d 

Btu 

British thermal unit 


c 

velocity of light in 

D 


vacuum; centi (prefix) ; 

C 

curie (old) [use Ci) 
capacitance; Celsius; 

da 


centigrade; concentre- 

dB 


tion; coulomb 

DE 

ca 

about; approximately; 

DF 


circa 

cal 

calorie 

dil 



cc 

cubic centimeter 

dpm 



cd 

candela 

dyn 


cfm 

cubic foot per minute 

e 


centime ter -gram- second 
system 

chemical; chemistry 

circular 

circular mill 

centimeter 

square centimeter 

cubic centimeter 

coefficient 

cologarithm 

concentrated 

constant 

cosine 

counts per minute 
cubic 

cubic centimeter 
cubic foot 
cubic inch 
cubic meter 
cubic yard 
hundredweight 
cylinder 

day; deci (prefix) ; densi 
general; deuteron; dis- 
tance, linear 

density, film; deuterium; 
dose; absorbed dose 

deka (prefix) 

decibel 

dose equivalent 

decontamination factor; 
distribution factor 

dilute 

disintegration per minute 
dyne 

base of natural logarithm 


E 


linear 


energy 

S electric field intensity 

e,e electron; negatron 

e electron; beta particle; 

+ o 

e ,+i e positron 

f femto (prefix) ; frequency 

F farad; fahrenheit; force 

Fr franklin 


G gravitational constant; 

gauss; giga (prefix) 

GeV giga electron volts 

G.I. gastrointestinal 

h Plank constant; hecto (pre- 

fix); height; hour 

H henry 

hv photon energy; quantum 

HVL half value layer 

Hz hertz 

I intensity of radiation 

Iq initial intensity 

insol. insoluble 

J joule 

k Stef an-Boltzman constant; 

kilo (prefix) 

K kayser; Kelvin; absolute 

temperature 

K.E. kinetic energy 

kg kilogram 

kVp kilovolt peak 

kVcp kilovolt constant potential 

kW kilowatt 

kWh kilowatt-hour 

1 length; liter 

1 mean free path 

lb. pound 

LD50 median lethal dose 

LET linear energy transfer 

lim limit 


1 in 

liq liquid 

In natural logarithm 

log logarithm 

logg logarithm to the base e; 

natural, hyperbolic or 

Napierian logarithm 


logio 

common logarithm; logarithm 
to the base 10 

m 

mass; meter; milli (prefix) 


minute 

nie 

rest mass of electron 

tnn 

mass of the hydrogen atom 



mass of the neutron 

3 

CO -Q 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

mass of the proton 

m 

square meter 

3 

m 

cubic meter 

M 

mega (prefix) 

max 

maximum 

mb 

millibarns 

med. 

medium 

MeV 

megaelectron volts 

tng 

milligram 

min 

minute 

MKSA 

me ter -kilogram- second- 
ampere system 

ml 

milliliter 

mm 

millimeter 

mm 

square millimeter 

3 

mm 

cubic millimeter 

mol 

mole; molecule 

mol. wt. 

molecular weight 

mole 

gram-molecule weight 

m.p. 

melting point 

MFC 

maximum permissible concen- 
tration 

MPD 

maximum permissible dose 

mu 

mass unit 


8 


Mx 


maxwe 1 1 

mp, millimicron (use nano) 

n nano (prefix) 

°n neutron 

N neutron; neutron number; 

newton; number; numeric 

Avogadro constant; number 

no. number 


RPG Radiation Protection Guide 

rpm revolutions per minute 

s distance, linear; second; 

soluble 

S observed standard deviation 

SFD source-to-f ilm distance 

sol. soluble 

SSD source-to-skin distance 


Nq number of radioactive atoms 

at zero time; number, 
original 

Oe oersted 

oz ounce 

p momentum; pico (prefix) ; 

pressure 

P poise 

PAG Protective Action Guide 

P.E. potential energy 

p.f. power factor 

precip., 

pptd precipitated 

pt. point; pint 

q maximum permissible radio- 

nuclide body burden (i,Ci 

Q electric charge; energy; 

quantity; reaction energy 
in MeV 

QF quality factor 

r radius; radial distance; 

roentgen (old) 

R range (radiation); rate. 


count; resistance; 
roentgen; universal gas 
constant; radius, nuclear 


rad radian, measure of angle 

RBE relative biological effec- 

tiveness 

RCG Radioactivity Concentration 

Guide 

Rd rutherford (obsolete) 

radio frequency 


s.t.p. standard temperature and 

pressure 

t temperature, general; time; 

ton 

T temperature, absolute; tera 

(prefix) ; tesla 

Tjj half-life, biological 

Tgjj half-life, effective 

Tj^ half-life, physical 

1 2 

u atomic mass unit-- C 

V potential; potential drop; 

volt; volume 

V velocity, linear or 

particle 

W watt; work 

Wb weber 

wt. weight 

X absorber thickness 

Z atomic number 

a alpha; alpha particle 

3,3'',-i3 beta; beta particle 

3^ 5+1 3 positron 

7 gamma ; gamma ray 

A finite increment 

6 electron capture; di- 

electric constant 

6 angle between incident and 

scattered radiation 

K pair production coefficient 

X decay constant; wave length 

X mean free path 


rf 


373-062 0 - 70 -2 


9 


biological decay constant 

M< absorption coefficient, 

effective or apparent, 
linear; micro; micron 
(prefix) 

M-a T + /c + = energy absorp- 

tion coefficient for air 

)Jjbar microbar 

M-25 3 

10 cm 


5 



Zeeman splitting constant 




e/4TTmc = 

4.668 58 

lO^ra'^T’^ 



4 



e/4TTmc^ = 

4.668 58 


10"^cm’^G“^ 


4 




11 


CONSTANTS - -Continued 


Quantity 

Value (±) 

MKSA 

CCS 

Planck constant h = 

6.625 6 
5 

10 J s 

10”®'^ erg s 

h/2n = ft = 
h/e = 
h/e = 
he/ e = 

1.054 50 
7 

4.135 56 
12 

1.397 47 
4 

4.135 56 
12 

10 J s 

10~^^J s C"^ 

10 ®^erg s 

10 erg s esu 

10 "^erg s emu ^ 

h/k = 

4.799 3 
6 

10"^^ s °K 

10-"" s °K 

1st radiation constant 




Cl = 2TThc^ = 

3.741 5 
3 

10“^ 

1 n-5 2 -1 

10 erg cm s 

2nd radiation constant 




Cg = hc/k = 

1.438 79 
19 

10"^m °K 

cm °K 

Wien's radiation law 




= Cs/4.965 U4 23 = 

2.897 8 
4 

10"^m °K 

10“" cm °K 

Stef an-Boltzmann constant 




o = 

5.669 7 
2 9 

10"®W °K"^ 

1 -2 -1 
10 erg cm s 

Ok-4 

fine structure constant O' = 

7.297 20 
10 

10'^ 

10"^ 

= 

1.370 388 
19 

10^ 

10^ 

= 

5.324 92 
14 

10“® 

10"^ 

Bohr radius ao = 

5.291 67 
7 

10“^^m 

10 ^ cm 

Rydberg constant = 

1.097 373 1 
3 

lO'^m’^ 

10^ cm " 

Rh = 

1.096 775 8 
3 

1 -1 
10 m 

1 o5 -1 

10 cm 

R c = 
00 

3.289 842 
4 

10^^ s"^ 

1^15 -1 

10 s 

R he = 
00 

2.179 72 
17 

10"^® J 

10 ""erg 


12 


CONSTANTS --Continued 


Quantity 


Bohr magneton 


M'S 


magnetic moment of electron 

M- e 


nuclear magneton 




M-n 


magnetic moment of proton 

= 

gyromagnetic ratio of proton 

Yp = 


Value (±) 


9.273 

9.284 

1.001 

5.050 

1.410 

2.792 

2.675 


2 

6 

0 

6 

159 615 
15 

5 

4 

49 

13 

76 

7 

19 

2 


MKSA 


10 T ^ 


10 T ^ 


10 T ^ 


10 T ^ 


10® s ^T ^ 


CCS 


10 ^^erg G ^ 


10 ^^erg G ^ 


10 ^^erg G ^ 


1 r\~~ 2 3 /I 1 

10 erg G 


10^ s ^G ^ 


Compton wave lengths: 
of electron 


of proton 


of neutron 


Xce “ h/mg 


Xr / 2 TT = 


^Cp = 


^Cp/2TT = 


^Cn = h/m^c 


^ Cn / 2 TT 


2.426 

3.861 

1.321 

2.103 

1.319 

2.100 


21 

6 

44 

9 

40 

4 

07 

6 

58 

4 

18 


1 r>-12 

10 m 


10 ^^m 


10 ^^m 


10 ^®m 


10""^m 


10-"% 


1 n-lO 

10 cm 


10 " " cm 


1 A-i 3 
10 cm 


10 "“"cm 


1 a- 13 
10 cm 


"\ r\ 

10 cm 


Avogadro constant 


N. = 


molar volume of ideal gas 
at s. t .p. 


molar gas constant 


= 


R = 


Faraday constant F = N^e 


F = N^e 
A 


F/c = N^e/c 


6.022 

2.241 

8.314 

1 

9.648 

2.892 

9.648 


52 

28 

36 

30 

3 

2 

70 

16 

61 

5 

70 

16 


-1 3 -| 1 

10 mol 


-1^23 -1 1 

10 m mol 


T 1-1 Otr-l 

J mol K 


lO^C mol " 


-T /~.2 3 1 1 

10 mol 


1 3 1-1 

10 cm mol 


10”^erg mol "°°K " 


lo"^esu mol " 


10® emu mol " 


! 3 


CONSTANTS - -Continued 


Quantity 

curie Ci 

base of natural logarithm 


e = 


gravitational acceleration 

g 


pi 

roentgen 

energy equivalent of 
electron mass me 

wave-length associated 


TT = 
R = 

2 _ 


with 1 eV 




ratio of chemical to 
unified mass scales 

r = M(0 = 16)/M(^^C = 12) 


r = M(^®0 = 16)/MC-^C = 12) = 


12 ^ _ 


mass unit, unified mass 


scale 


u = 1/N, = 


Value (±) 

MKSA 

3.7Xl0^°dps 


2.718 281 828 4 


9.806 65 

-2 

m s 

3.141 592 653 59 


2.58X10“^C kg"^ 

0.51 MeV 

1.239 81 

10 ^m 

1.000 043 
5 


loOOO 317 92 
2 


1.660 43 

lO'^’^kg 


CCS 


10^ cm s ^ 


10 ^ cm 


10"^^ g 


14 


CONVERSION FACTORS 


AREA 


Multiply # of — 

by 

— ► to obtain # of 

to obtain # of ■*— 

by ^ 

Divide # of 

barns 

10"®^ 

3 

cm 

circular mils 

7.854X10"'^ 

3 

in. 

2 

cm 

10®^ 

barns 

3 

cm 

0.1550 

in .® 

3 

cm 

1.076X10"® 

ft® 

cm^ 

1 

o 

m® 

ft^ 

929.0 

3 

cm 

ft® 

144 

. 3 

in 

ft® 

9.290X10"® 

3 

m 

in .® 

6.452 

cm® 

in .® 

6.944X10"® 

ft® 

3 

in. 

6.452X10"^ 

m® 

m® 

1550 

in.® 

m® 

10.76 

ft® 

3 

m 

1.196 

yd® 

3 

m 

3.861X10"’^ 

sq mi 


DENSITY 


cm® 

1.602X10"® 

ft®/lb 

ft®/lb 

62.43 

cm®/ g 

g/ cm® 

62.43 

Ib/ft® 

Ib/ft® 

1.602X10"® 

g/ cm® 

lb/ in 

27.68 

g/ cm® 

Ib/gal 

0.1198 

g/ cm® 


ELECTRICAL* 


Multiply # of 

^ by 

— ► to obtain # of 

to obtain # of — 

by 

— Divide # of 

amperes 

1 

coulombs 

amperes 

2.998X10® 

esu/ sec 

amperes 

6.281x10^® 

electrons/ sec 

ampere-hours 

3600.0 

coulombs 

ampere-hours 

0.03731 

faradays 

coulombs 

2.998x10® 

statcoulombs 

coulombs 

6.281X10^® 

electronic charges 

coulombs 

1.036X10"® 

faradays 

faradays/sec 

9.650X10^ 

amperes 

faradays 

26.80 

ampere -hours 

faradays 

9.650X10^ 

coulombs 

farads 

10® 

microfarads 

International 



amperes 

0.999835 

amperes (absolute) 

international 



volts 

1.00033 

volts (absolute) 

international 



ohms 

1.000495 

ohms (absolute) 

international 



volt farady 

9.654X10^ 

joules 

microfarads 

10~® 

farads 

microhms 

10"^^ 

megohms 

microhms 

10"® 

ohms 

watts 

1 

j oules/ sec 


ENERGY 


Btu 

1.0548X10 

joules (absolute) 

Btu 

0.25198 

kg-cal 

Btu 

1.0548X10 

ergs 

Btu 

2.930X10 

kW-hr 

Btu 

0.556 

g-cal/g 


* Units are absolute unless noted otherwise. 


ENERGY - -Continued 


Multiply # of 
to obtain # of 

eV 

eV 

eV 

ev 

ergs 

ergs 

ergs 

ergs 

ergs 

ergs 

ergs 

ergs 

gm-calories 

gm-calories 

joules (abs) 

joules (abs) 

joules (abs) 

g-cal/g 

kg-cal 

kg-cal 

ft-lb 

ft-lb 

kw-hr 

kW-hr 

MeV 


by 
by 

1.6021X10 
1. 6021 X 10 "^^ 
10 “^ 

10 "® 

lO""^ 

6.2418X10^ 

6.2418X10^^ 

1.0 

9.480X10"^^ 

7.375X10"® 

2.390X10"® 

1.020X10"® 

3.968X10"® 

4. 186X10'^ 

10 "^ 

0.7376 

9.480x10"^ 

1.8 

3.968 

3.087X10® 

1.356 

3.239x10"^ 

2.247x10^® 

3.60x10^® 

1.6021x10"® 


to obtain # of 
Divide # of 

ergs 

joules (abs) 

keV 

MeV 

joules (abs) 

MeV 

eV 

dyne-cm 

Btu 

ft-lb 

g-cal 

g-cm 

Btu 

ergs 

ergs 

ft-lb 

Btu 

Btu/ lb 

Btu 

ft-lb 

joules (abs) 

kg-cal 

MeV 

ergs 

ergs 


- 1 3 


1 7 


Energy to mass conversions under miscellaneous 


FISSION 


Multiply # of 

by ► 

- to obtain # of 

to obtain # of — 

by 

- Divide it= of 

Btu 

1.28X10"® 

grams fissioned* * * § 

Btu 

1.53X10"® 

grams destroyed*! 

Btu 

3.29X10^® 

fissions 

fission of 1 g 



235 y 

1 

megawatt -days 

fissions 

8.9058X10"^® 

kilowatt-hours 

fissions* 

3.204X10"^ 

ergs 

kilowatt-hours 

2.7865X10^’^ 

®®®U fission neutrons* 

kilowatts per 


average thermal neu- 

kilogram U 

2.43X10^° 

tron flux in fuel*! 

megawatt-days per 



ton U 

1.174X10"^ 

7c U atoms fissioned§ 

megawatts per ton 


average thermal neu- 

U 

2. 68X10^° /E^ 

tron flux in fuel*! 

neutrons per kilo- 



barn 

IXlO®^ 

neutrons/ cm® 

watts 

3.121X10^° 

fissions/ sec 


FLUID FLOW RATES 


cm /min 

2.19X10"® 

f t®/min 

cm /sec 

8.64X10"® 

m® / day 

cm /sec 

1.585X10"® 

gal/min 

cm / sec 

3.60 

liters/hr 

ft^/min 

4.72X10® 

cm /sec 

f t^ / sec 

4.488X10® 

gal/min 

gal/min 

2.228X10"® 

ft®/ sec 

liters/hr 

0.278 

cm /sec 

liters/min 

15.851 

gal/hr 


* At 200 MeV/fission. 

t Thermal neutron spectrum (a = 0.193). 

4= O’ (fission = 500 barns). 

§ At 200 MeV/fission, in 235y_238y [jj^^ture of low content. 
f=s E = enrichment in grams ^^^U/gram total. No other fission- 
able isotope present. 

Source: Nucleonics, Vol. 18, No. 11 (Nov. 1960), p. 209. 


18 


FLUID FLOW RATES- -Continued 


Multiply # of — 

^ by 

► to obtain # 

to obtain # of 

by ^ 

Divide # of 

liters/min 

15.851 

gal /hr 

/day 

11.57 

cm /sec 

yd^/min 

0.450 

f t^/sec 

yd^ /min 

3.367 

gal/ sec 

yd^ /min 

12.74 

liters/sec 


LENGTH 


angstroms (A) 

10“® 

cm 

o 

A 

10“^° 

m 

microns (fx) 

10“^ 

mm 


1 

o 

cm 

M- 

CD 

1 

O 

rH 

m 

1^ 

3.937X10"^ 

in. 

mm 

10“^ 

cm 

cm 

0.3937 

in. 

cm 

3.2808X10'^ 

ft 

cm 

10"^ 

m 

m 

39.370 

in. 

m 

3.2808 

ft 

m 

1.0936 

yd 

m 

10"^ 

km 

m 

6.2137X10"^ 

miles 

km 

0.62137 

miles 

mils 

10"^ 

in. 

mils 

2.540X10“^ 

cm 

in. 

10^ 

mils 

in. 

2.5400 

cm 

ft 

30.480 

cm 

rods 

5.500 

yd 

miles 

5280 

ft 

miles 

1760 

yd 

miles 

1.6094 

km 


; Q 


MASS 


Multiply # of 

by 

to obtain 

to obtain of — 

by 

Divide # of 

mg 

10"® 

g 

mg 

3.527X10"® 

oz avdp 

mg 

1.543X10"^ 

grains 

g 

3.527X10"^ 

oz avdp 

g 

CQ 

1 

o 
1— 1 

kg 

g 

980.7 

dynes 

g 

2.205X10"® 

lb 

kg 

2.205 

lb 

kg 

0.0685 

slugs 

kg 

9.807X10® 

dynes 

lb 

4.448X10® 

dynes 

lb 

453.592 

g 

lb 

0.4536 

kg 

lb 

16 

oz avdp 

lb 

0.0311 

slugs 

dynes 

1.020X10"® 

g 

dynes 

2.248X10"® 

lb 

u (unified-- 



scale) 

1.66043X10"®’^ 

kg 

amu (physical-- 



scale) 

1.65980X10"®'^ 

kg 

oz 

28.35 

g 

oz 

6.25X10"® 

lb 


Mass to energy conversions under miscellaneous. 


MISCELLANEOUS 

temperature °C = (°F-32)/1.8 = (°F-32) 5/9 

°F = 1.8°C + 32 = (9/5) °C + 32 

°K = °C + 273.16 
wavelength to energy conversion 
keV = 12.40/A 
eV = 1. 240X1 0"®/m 


MISCELLANEOUS --Continued 


Multiply IF of 

^ by 

to obtain # 

to obtain # of — 

by ^ 

Divide // of 

radians 

57.296 

degrees 

eV 

1. 78258X10"^® 

grams 

eV 

1.07356X10"^ 

u 

erg 

1.11265X10"^^ 

grams 

proton masses 

938.256 

MeV 

neutron masses 

939.550 

MeV 

electron masses 

511.006 

keV 

u (amu on C 



scale) 

931.478 

MeV 


POWER 


Btu/hr 

0.2162 

f t-lb/ sec 

Btu/hr 

0.0700 

gm-cal/ sec 

Btu/hr 

3.929X10"^ 

horsepower 

Btu/hr 

0.2930 

watts 

Btu/min 

12.97 

f t-lb/ sec 

Btu/min 

0.02357 

horsepower 

Btu/min 

0.01758 

kilowatts 

Btu/min 

17.58 

watts 

horsepower 

42.42 

Btu/min 

horsepower 

33,000 

ft- Ib/min 

horsepower 

550 

f t- Ib/sec 

horsepower 

10.69 

kg-cal/min 

horsepower 

0.7457 

kilowatts 

horsepower 

4.655x10^^ 

MeV/ sec 

kg-cal/min 

9.356X10"^ 

horsepower 

kilowatts 

14.33 

kg-cal/min 

kilowatts 

1.341 

horsepower 

kilowatts 

6.243X10^^ 

MeV/ sec 

watts 

lO"^ 

ergs/sec 

watts 

0.7376 

ft- lb/ sec 

watts 

3.414 

Btu/hr 


POWER- -Continued 


Multiply # of 

^ by 

— ^ to obtain # of 

to obtain # of 

by ^ 

Divide # of 

watts 

0.05690 

Btu/min 

watts 

0.01433 

kg-cal/min 

ergs/ sec 

5.688X10“® 

Btu/min 

ergs/ sec 

4.425X10“® 

f t-lb/min 

ergs/ sec 

1.433X10“® 

kg-cal/min 


PRESSURE 


atm 

14.696 

Ib/in.® 

atm 

760 

mm Hg (0°C) 

atm 

76.0 

cm Hg (0° C) 

atm 

1.0133 

bars 

atm 

1.0332X10® 

g/cm® 

atm 

29.921 

in. Hg (0°C) 

cm Hg 

0.1934 

lb/ in.® 

cm Hg 

1.316X10“^ 

atm 

cm Hg 

0.4465 

ft of HgO 

in. Hg 

0.4912 

Ib/in.® 

g/cm^ 

1.4223X10“® 

Ib/in.® 

bars 

1 — 1 

dynes/ cm® 

bars 

14.504 

lb/ in.® 

dynes/cm^ 

1.4504X10“® 

lb/ in.® 

dynes /cm^ 

1.0197X10“® 

g/cm® 

Ib/in.^ 

27.673 

in. of H 2 O (4°C) 

lb/in.2 

2.3066 

ft of H 2 O (4°C) 

Ib/in.^ 

6.805X10“® 

atm 

Ib/in.^ 

2.036 

in. Hg (0°C) 

lb/ in.^ 

5.1715 

cm Hg 

lb/ in.^ 

51.715 

mm Hg 

ft of H 2 O 

2.230 

cm Hg 


22 


RADIOLOGICAL UNITS 


Multiply # of 
to obtain # of 


by 

by 


to obtain # of 
Divide # of 


curies 


3.700X10^° 

dis/ sec 

curies 


2.220X10^^ 

dis/min 

curies 


10^ 

millicuries 

curies 


10® 

microcuries 

curies 


10^2 

picocuries 

curies 


10”® 

kilocuries 

dis/min 


4.505X10"^° 

millicuries 

dis/min 


4.505X10"’^ 

microcuries 

dis/ sec 


2.703X10"® 

millicuries 

dis/ sec 


2.703X10"® 

microcuries 

kilocuries 

10® 

curies 

tnicrocuries 

3.700X10^ 

dis/ sec 

tnicrocuries 

2.220X10® 

dis/min 

mill icuries 

3.700X10'^ 

dis/ sec 

millicuries 

2.220X10® 

dis/min 

R 


2.58X10"^ 

C/kg of air 

R 


1 

esu/cm® of air 
(s.t.p.) 

R 


2.082X10® 

ion prs/cm® of 
air (s.t.p.) 

R 


1.610X10^® 

ion prs/g of a 

R (33.7 
pr.) 

eV/ ion 

7.02X10^ 

7.02X10^ 

MeV/ cm® of air 
(s.t.p.) 

R (33.7 
pr.) 

eV/ ion 

5.43X10'^ 

MeV/g of air 

R (33.7 
pr .) 

eV/ ion 

86.9 

ergs/g of air 

R (33.7 
pr.) 

eV/ ion 

2.08X10"® 

g-cal/g of air 

R (33.7 
pr.) 

eV/ ion 

^98 

ergs/g of soft 
tissue 

rads 


0.01 

J/kg 

rads 


100 

ergs/g 

rads 


8.071X10^ 

MeV/ cm® of air 
(s.t.p.) 

rads 


6.242X10’^ 

MeV/g 

rads 


10"® 

watt -sec/ g 


RADIOLOGICAL UNITS- -Cont inued 


Multiply # of 

by 

— »- to obtain # 

to obtain # of 

by 

Divide # of 

rads (33.7 ev/ion 


ion prs/cm 

pr.) 

2.39X10® 

(s.t.p.) 

|j,Ci/cm^ (M-Ci/ml) 

2.22X10^® 

dpm/ m® 

|j,Ci/ ctn^ 

2.22X10® 

dpm/liter 

dpm/ tn^ 

0.4505 

pCi/ m® 


TIME 


days 

86,400 

sec 

days 

1440 

min 

years (365 days) 

3.1536X10’^ 

sec 

years 

5.256X10^ 

min 

years 

8.760X10^ 

hr 

work weeks 

1 .44X10^ 

sec 

work weeks 

40 

hr 

work months 

4.2 

work weeks 

work months 

168 

hr 


VELOCITY 


cm/ sec 

0.6000 

m/ min 

cm/ sec 

0.0360 

km/ hr 

cm/ sec 

0.032808 

ft/ sec 

cm/ sec 

1.9685 

ft/ min 

cm/ sec 

3.728X10"^ 

mi/min 

cm/ sec 

0.02237 

mph 

m/ min 

1.667 

cm/ sec 

m/ min 

5.468X10'® 

ft/ sec 

m/ min 

3.728X10'® 

mph 

ft/ sec 

18.29 

m/ min 

ft/ sec 

0.6818 

mph 

ft /min 

0.5080 

cm/ sec 

f t/min 

1.667X10'® 

ft/ sec 

ft/ min 

1.136X10'® 

mph 

mph 

44.70 

cm/ sec 


24 


VELOCITY - -Con t inued 


Multiply # of — 

^ by 

to obtain # of 

to obtain # of 

by 

Divide # of 

mph 

88 

ft/ min 

mph 

1.467 

ft/ sec 

mph 

26.82 

m/ min 


VOLUME 


cm^ (cc) 

0.99997 

ml 

3 

cm 

6.1023X10"^ 

3 

in. 

3 

cm 

10"® 

3 

m 

3 

cm 

9.9997X10"“^ 

liters 

3 

cm 

3.5314X10"® 

ft® 

3 

m 

35.314 

ft® 

3 

m 

2.642X10^ 

gal ^ 

3 

m 

9.9997X10^ 

liters 

3 

in. 

16.387 

-cm® 

3 

in. 

5.787X10"^ 

ft® 

3 

in. 

1.639X10"^ 

liters 

in 

4.329x10"® 

gal 

ft^ 

2.832X10"® 

3 

m 

ft^ 

7.481 

gal 

ft^ 

28.32 

liters 

ft^ 

1728 

. 3 
in. 

gal (U.S.) 

231.0 

in .® 

gal 

0.13368 

ft® 

liters 

33.8147 

fluid oz 

liters 

1.05671 

quarts 

liters 

0.26418 

gal 

gm moles (gas) 

22.4 

liters (s.t.p.) 


373-062 0 - 70-3 


EQUATIONS 


A. LOGARITHMIC RELATIONS 

log N = the exponent or power to which the base 10 must be raised 
to obtain a value N (the common logarithm of N) 

In N = the power to which the base 2.718... (e) must be raised to 
obtain a value N (the natural logarithm of N) 

(1) log N = 0.4343 In N 

(2) In N = 2.3026 log N 

(3) log MN = log M + log N 

(4) log M/N = log M - log N 

(5) log N®’ = a log N 

(6) log yir = (log N)/a 


B. CIASSICAL PHYSICS 


Unless otherwise noted, the symbols and dimensions in this section 
are used consistently as follows: 


F = force (gm-cm/sec^, dynes) 
r = radius of action (cm) 
s = distance (cm) 


m = mass (gm) 

V = velocity (cm/sec) 
a = acceleration (cm/sec^) 

(1) Linear Force 

F = m a = (gm) (cm/sec^ ) = gm-cm/sec^ = dynes 

(2) Momentum 

p = mv = (gm)(cm/sec) 

(3) Conservation of Momentum (any impact between Body A and Body B) 






= Va, 


B B, 


i = initial 
f = final 


(4) Work 

W=Fs=mas= (gm) (cm/sec^ ) (cm) = gm-cm^/sec^ = dyne-cm = erg 

(5) Energy 

E = (work) = F s = (gm-cm/sec^ ) (cm) = gm-cm^/sec^ = erg 

(6) Kinetic Energy 

K.E. = -g- m v^ = (gm) (cm/sec)^ = gm-cm^/sec^ = erg 

(7) Conservation of Kinetic Energy (elastic impact: Body A and Body B) 

+4"'b''b,^ +4”b''b,^ 

(8) Power 

P = (work/ time) = F s/t = (gm-cm/sec^ ) (cm) /sec = erg/sec 


26 


C. WAVE AND QUANTUM RELATIONS 


Unless otherwise noted, symbols and dimensions in this section are 
used consistently as follows: 

V = velocity of wave or particle (cm/sec) 
h = Planck constant (6.6 X 10~^^ erg sec) 

V = frequency of wave or quanta (hertz) 

X = wavelength (cm) 

Xq = wavelength of incident radiation (angstroms) 

Xg = wavelength of scattered radiation at angle 6 (angstroms) 

E = energy (ergs) 

6 = angle between incident and scattered radiation 
c = velocity of light (3 X 10^° cm/sec) 
m = mass of particle (gm) 

 = work function (ergs) 

(1) Wave Equation 

Wave velocity (v or c) = Xv 

(2) Associated Wavelength of a Particle 
Wavelength = X = ^ 

(3) Photoelectric Equation 
E = 0 + |mv^ 

(4) Photon Energy 
E = hv 

E = — 

^, 1.242 X 10^ 

Energy in electron volts = — — : 

Wavelength in angstroms 

(5) Mass-Energy Relation 
E = mc^ 

(6) Momentum of Photon 

h 

mv 

(7) Compton Scattering of Gamma and X Rays 
Xq = Xo + 0.0242 (1 - cos 0) 

D. ELECTROSTATICS 

The following units apply in this section: 

F = force (dynes) 

Q = electrostatic charge (statcoulombs) 


s = distance (cm) 

V = potential (statvolts) 

C = capacitance (statfarads) 

W = work (ergs) 

€ = dielectric constant 

(1) Force Between Two Charges, a and b (Coulomb's Law) 

F = 

(2) Work 

W = Q V 

(3) Capacitance 
C = Q/V 

(4) Potential 
V = Q/s 

E. RADIOACTIVE DECAY 

The following symbols will be used in this section: 

Nq = number of nuclei at some original time 
N = number of nuclei remaining after a time interval, t 

Iq = intensity of radiation at some original time 
I = intensity of radiation after a time interval, t 
Aq = activity of sample at some original time 
A = activity remaining after a time interval, t 
X = decay constant for the particular radioactive element 
e = base of natural logarithms; 2.718. .. 


t 

= 

elapsed time 





= 

half-life of a 

particular 

radioactive element 

n 

= 

t/T, = number 

of : 

half -live 

s 

(1) 

N 

= Noe"^^ 

or 

N 


(2) 

A 

= Aoe"^" 

or 

A 


(3) 

I 

*> 

CD 

O 

M 

II 

or 

I 


(4) 

N 

= Noe “ 

or 

N/No 

= 1/2" 

Decay 

Constant 




(5) 

X 

= 0.693/T, 





28 


F. 


G. 


Fission Product Decay* 

“13 “13 

(6) Ii ti ■ = I 2 tg ' where = radiation intensity at 

time ti (>4h) after fission 

Ig = radiation intensity at 
time tg (<200 days) 
after fission 

SPECIFIC ACTIVITY (Isotopic) 

Specific Activity 

\N = 0.693N/T, = dis/ sec/gm where T, = half-life (seconds) 

N = number of atoms per gram 


Specific Activity 

XN/(3.7 X 10^°) = 
RADIATION ABSORPTION 


N X 1.873 X 10"^^ 



curies/ gm 


( 1) Alpha Particle Range 
R0.8 MeV) 

R = 0.526 E - 0.094 


where Ra - range in cm of air at 
1 atm and 15°C 

E = energy, MeV 

where R = range in mg/ cm^ 

InR] ^ E = max. energy, MeV 

where R, E same as above 

where R = range, gm/ cm^ 

E = max. energy, MeV 


Feather's rule (E >0.6 MeV) 
R = 0.542 E - 0.133 


where R, E same as for Sargeant's rule 


(3) 


Gamma Ray Absorption 

The following symbols will be used in this 
Iq = original radiation exposure rate 
I = attenuated radiation exposure rate 
= linear absorption coefficient (cm ^) 


section: 


0.693 


■*See "The Effects of Nuclear Weapons," 


1962, §9.170-9.177 


|J./ p = mass absorption coefficient (cm^/gm) 
= absorber density (gm/cm^) 

= absorber thickness (cm) 

= half-value layer of absorber (cm) 

= base of natural logarithms (2.718. 

= "buildup” factor 


For monoenergetic or monochromatic narrow-beam radiation: 

I = loe-**" or 

For monoenergetic or monochromatic wide-beam radiation: 

I = bloe"^’' 

(4) Neutron Absorption (for a collimated beam of monoenergetic neutrons) 

T- T- - ffNx, _ ..... .. 

i = ioe where Iq = initial neutron intensities 


I 

N 


= final neutron intensities 

= number of atoms per cc in 
the absorber 

= cross section (square 
centimeters) 


X 

e 


= thickness of absorber (cm) 

. ) 


= base of the natural 
logarithm (2.718. 


Since this equation is only an approximation of neutron attenuation, 
average neutron energies can be used for determining the value of a. 
The equation is not accurate enough to justify the use of neutron 
buildup factors. 


(5) Approximate Range - Energy Relation for Protons* 


R = (E/9.3) 


1 .8 


where E 


R 


= energy in MeV (few MeV 
to 200 MeV) 

= range in meters in air 


H. BETA PARTICLE COUNTING 
(1) Self -Absorption 


R: 


""O _ -- /I -m X \ 

“5“ - “ (1 - e ) 


1 


R 


mx 


where Rq 
R 

X 

m 


= measured counting rate 

= true counting rate 

= sample thickness (mg/cm^) 

= absorption coefficient 
(cm^/mg) [See NBS Hand- 
book No. 51, p. 26] 


*Segre, Emilio, "Experimental Nuclear Physics," Vol. 1, New York: John Wiley & 

Sons, Inc., 1953. 


30 


(2) Resolving Time Determination 


T 


^ Rj + Ra - Ri2 

2 (Ri Rg) 


where r = resolving time, seconds 


Rjl = counting rate, source 1 
(c/ s) 

Rg = counting rate, source 2 
(c/s) 

Ri 2 “ counting rate, combined 
sources 1 and 2 (c/s) 


(3) Resolving Time Correction 



where R = true counting rate (c/ s) 
Ro = observed counting rate 


(c/ s) 

T = resolving time, seconds 


I. STATISTICS OF COUNTING^ 

n = number of counts, one observation 
t = counting time, one observation 
h = mean number of counts, series of observations 
t = mean counting time, series of observations 
m = number of observations 
a == theoretical standard deviation 

St = observed standard deviation of the time required to 
record a preset number of counts 

Sji = observed mean standard deviation of the number of 
counts recorded in a preset time 

r = average number of counts per unit time 

(1) Theoretical Standard Deviation 

(a) CTjj = = a/tT for single observation 

(b) a- = Vrt/m = A/n/ m for average number of counts/interval 

(2) Observed (Experimental) Standard Deviation 
(a) Series of observations, preset time 


* Bleuler, Ernst, and Goldsmith, George J., "Experimental Nucleonics," New York: 
Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc., 1952. 


m 


-1 i- 



1=1 


(b) Series of observations, preset count 


m 

(ti - t)^/(m - 1) 




St = I 

i = l 

Sn = (n/t)St 

(c) Reliability factor 
R.F. = S /a- 

n n 

J. CALIBRATION PROCEDURES 

Gamma Emitter Dose in Air 

(1) Exposure Rate (from a point source) 

(Equation assumes that one ion pair in air causes an 
ly = 0.156 n E (10^ Pa) average energy expenditure of 32.7 electron volts.) 

where ly = raR/hr at 1 meter per mCi 

n = gamma quanta per disinte- 
gration 

E = energy of gamma quanta in MeV 

Pa energy absorption coeffi- 
cient for gamma in air 


(S.T.P.) in cm 

(2) Exposure Rate (from point source of radium, 0.5 mm Pt cover) 


-1 


mE/hr = 

yd 

„ ,, 8400 mg of Ra 

mR/hr = 2 


cm 


where yd - distance to source (yd) 


cm = distance (cm) 


(3) Exposure Rate, Approximate (from any gamma point source) 

R/hr at 1 foot = 6 C E n where C = number of curies 

mR/hr/mCi at 1 meter = 0.5 nE E = gamma ray energy (MeV) 

n = gamma quanta/dis 

(4) Exposure Rate (from any gamma point source) 

mR/hr = nly/s^ where n = number of millicuries 

ly = mR/hr at 1 meter per mCi 
s = distance (meters) 

(5) Exposure Rate (from a linear gamma emitter source) 

The following terminology will be used: 

S = source activity in photons per second per unit length 

4> = flux at point of interest in photons per square centimeter 
per second 

r = distance from source to point of interest, P 
d = angle in degrees 


32 


JrN 



K. INTERNAL RADIATION DOSAGE 
(1) Biological Half-Life 
0.693 


(2) Effective Half-Life 


Teff 



T, +T 


b 


where 


biological decay constant 
biological half-life 


where 


Tgjf= effective half-life 

Tj^ = radioactive (physical) 
^ half-life 

T(j = biological half-life 


(3) Beta Emitter Dose 

D = 73.8 E TgffC (1 - e 


where D = dose (rads) 

E = average energy of beta 
particle (MeV) 

Teff = effective half-life 

C = |j,Ci/gtn of radionuclide in 
tissue 

Xgff = effective decay constant 
(day“^ ) 

t = time (day) 


L. D ECONT AMINATION FACTOR 

Initial Activity 
Final Activity 


3 3 


D.F. 



M. ISOTOPIC DILUTION 


( 1) Single Addition Method 



( 2 ) 


Double Dilution 


(a) S = 


Si Sg (Gi - 

Sg 


(b) Z = 


Sj Gg - S]^ 
Si - Sg 


Ga) 

Gi 

Gi 


N. NEUTRON ACTIVATION METHODS 
Thin Targef =^ 

A(f) = ko-g^ £ n (1 - e e 


where w = total weight of diluent 
material (weight of 
stable material) 

w' = total weight of labeled 
material (weight of 
radioactive material) 

SpA ' = specific activity of 
labeled material 

SpA = specific activity of 
mixture 


where Sq 
Si 


= initial specific activity 

= specific activity of first 
dilution 


Sg = specific activity of 
second dilution 

= weight of carrier added 
for first dilution 

Gg = weight of carrier added 
for second dilution 

Z = weight of original radio- 
active material 


where A^ 

4> 


k 


(7 


ac 


= measured activity in net 
counts per second at time  

= time increment between end 
of irradiation and the 
time at which the target 
is counted 

= efficiency of the counter 
for measuring the induced 
radioactivity 

= activation across section 
for neutron capture by 
the target material, 
square centimeters per 
atom per neutron 


*A thin target is one which will not reduce the neutron flux by more than the 
error permitted for the experiment. 


34 


f = flux of neutrons, 

neutrons per square 
centimeter per second 

n = total number of target 

nuclei 

X = disintegration constant 

of radioactive material 

t = time duration of expo- 

sure to neutron flux 

e = base of natural 

logarithm (2.718. . .) 

GEOMETRY OF A COUNTER 

Point Source 

G = 0.5 (1 - cos a) - sin^ ■|o' 

or phosphor 

d = distance between counter 

and source 

G = geometry factor 


where O! 


= arc tan — 
a 


= radius of counter window 


SQUARES AND SQUARE ROOTS 


N 


Vn 

VlON 

N 

N2 

Vn 

V \0 N 

N 

N2 

Vn 

VlON 

1.00 

1.0000 

1.00000 

3.16228 

1.60 

2.5600 

1.26491 

4.00000 

2.20 

4.8400 

1.48324 

4.69042 

1.01 

1.0201 

1.00499 

3.17805 

1.61 

2.5921 

1.26886 

4.01248 

2.21 

4.8841 

1.48661 

4.70106 

1.02 

1.0404 

1.00995 

3.19374 

1.62 

2.6244 

1.27279 

4.02492 

2.22 

4.9284 

1.48997 

4.71169 

1.03 

1.0609 

1.01489 

3.20936 

1.63 

2.6569 

1.27671 

4.03733 

2.23 

4.9729 

1.49332 

4.72229 

1.04 

1.0816 

1.01980 

3.22490 

1.64 

2.6896 

1.28062 

4.04969 

2.24 

5.0176 

1.49666 

4.73286 

1.05 

1.1025 

1.02470 

3.24037 

1.65 

2.7225 

1.28452 

4.06202 

2.25 

5.0625 

1.50000 

4.74342 

1.06 

1.1236 

1.02956 

3.25576 

1.66 

2.7556 

1.28841 

4.07431 

2.26 

5.1076 

1.50333 

4.75395 

1;07 

1.1449 

1.03441 

3.27109 

1.67 

2.7889 

1.29228 

4.08656 

2.27 

5.1529 

1.50665 

4.76445 

1.08 

1.1664 

1.03923 

3.28634 

1.68 

2.8224 

1.29615 

4.09878 

2.28 

5.1984 

1.50997 

4.77493 

1.09 

1.1881 

1.04403 

3.30151 

1.69 

2.8561 

1.30000 

4.11096 

2.29 

5.2441 

1.51327 

4.78539 

1.10 

1.2100 

1.04881 

3.31662 

1.70 

2.8900 

1.30384 

4.12311 

2.30 

5.2900 

1.51658 

4.79583 

1.11 

1.2321 

1.05357 

3.33167 

1.71 

2.9241 

1.30767 

4.13521 

2.31 

5.3361 

1.51987 

4.80625 

1.12 

1.2544 

1.05830 

3.34664 

1.72 

2.9584 

1.31149 

4.14729 

2.32 

5.3824 

1.52315 

4.81664 

1.13 

1.2769 

1.06301 

3.36155 

1.73 

2.9929 

1.31529 

4.15933 

.2.33 

5.4289 

1.52643 

4.82701 

1.14 

1.2996 

1.06771 

3.37639 

1.74 

3.0276 

1.31909 

4.17133 

2.34 

5.4756 

1.52971 

4.83735 

1.15 

1.3225 

1.07238 

3.39116 

1.75 

3.0625 

1.32288 

4.18330 

2.35 

5.5225 

1.53297 

4.84768 

1.16 

1.3456 

1.07703 

3.40588 

1.76 

3.0976 

1.32665 

4.19524 

2.36 

5.5696 

1.53623 

4.85798 

1.17 

1.3689 

1.08167 

3.42053 

1.77 

3.1329 

1.33041 

4.20714 

2.37 

5.6169 

1.53948 

4.86826 

1.18 

1.3924 

1.08628 

3.43511 

1.78 

3.1684 

1.33417 

4.21900 

2.38 

5.6644 

1.54272 

4.87852 

1.19 

1.4161 

1.09087 

3.44964 

1.79 

3.2041 

1.33791 

4.23084 

2.39 

5.7121 

1.64596 

4.88876 

1.20 

1.4400 

1.09545 

3.46410 

1.80 

3.2400 

1.34164 

4.24264 

2.40 

5.7600 

1.54919 

4.89898 

1.21 

1.4641 

1.10000 

3.47851 

1.81 

3.2761 

1.34536 

4.25441 

2.41 

5.8081 

1.55242 

4.90918 

1.22 

1.4884 

1.10454 

3.49285 

1.82 

3.3124 

1.34907 

4.26615 

2.42 

5.8564 

1.65563 

4.91935 

1.23 

1.5129 

1.10905 

3.50714 

1.83 

3.3489 

1.35277 

4.27785 

2.43 

5.9049 

1.55885 

4.92950 

1.24 

1.5376 

1.11355 

3.52136 

1.84 

3.3856 

1.35647 

4.28952 

2.44 

5.9536 

1.56205 

4.93964 

1.25 

1.5625 

1.11803 

3.53553 

1.85 

3.4225 

1.36015 

4.30116 

2.45 

6.0025 

1.66525 

4.94975 

1.26 

1.5876 

1.12250 

3.54965 

1.86 

3.4596 

1.36382 

4.31277 

2.46 

6.0516 

1.66844 

4.95984 

1.27 

1.6129 

1.12694 

3.56371 

1.87 

3.4969 

1.36748 

4.32435 

2.47 

6.1009 

1.57162 

4.96991 

1.28 

1.6384 

1.13137 

3.57771 

1.88 

3.5344 

1.37113 

4.33590 

2.48 

6.1504 

1.67480 

4.97996 

1.29 

1.6641 

1.13578 

3.59166 

1.89 

3.5721 

1.37477 

4.34741 

2.49 

6.2001 

1.57797 

4.98999 

1.30 

1.6900 

1.14018 

3.60555 

1.90 

3.6100 

1.37840 

4.35890 

2.50 

6.2500 

1.58114 

5.00000 

1.31 

1.7161 

1.14455 

3.61939 

1.91 

3.6481 

1.38203 

4.37035 

2.51 

6.3001 

1.58430 

5.00999 

1.32 

1.7424 

1.14891 

3.63318 

1.92 

3.6864 

1.38564 

4.38178 

2.52 

6.3504 

1.58745 

5.01996 

1.33 

1.7689 

1.15326 

3.64692 

1.93 

3.7249 

1.38924 

4.39318 

2.53 

6.4009 

1.59060 

5.02991 

1.34 

1.7956 

1.15758 

3.66060 

1.94 

3.7636 

1.39284 

4.40454 

2.54 

6.4516 

1.59374 

5.03984 

1.35 

1.8225 

1.16190 

3.67423 

1.95 

3.8025 

1.39642 

4.41588 

2.55 

6.5025 

1.59687 

5.04975 

1.36 

1.8496 

1.16619 

3.68782 

1.96 

3.8416 

1.40000 

4.42719 

2.56 

6.5536 

1.60000 

5.05964 

1.37 

1.8769 

1.17047 

3.70135 

1.97 

3.8809 

1.40357 

4.43847 

2.57 

6.6049 

1.60312 

5.06952 

1.38 

1,9044 

1.17473 

3.71484 

1.98 

3.9204 

1.40712 

4.44972 

2.58 

6.6564 

1.60624 

5.07937 

1.39 

1.9321 

1.17898 

3.72827 

1.99 

3.9601 

1.41067 

4.46094 

2.59 

6.7081 

1.60935 

5.08920 

1.40 

1.9600 

1.18322 

3.74166 j 

2.00 

4.0000 

1.41421 

4.47214 

2.60 

6.7600 

1.61245 

5.09902 

1.41 

1.9881 

1.18743 

3.75500 

2.01 

4.0401 

1.41774 

4.48330 

2.61 

6.8121 

1.61555 

5.10882 

1.42 

2.0164 

1.19164 

3.76829 : 

2.02 

4.0804 

1.42127 

4.49444 

2.62 

6.8644 

1.61864 

5.11859 

1.43 

2.0449 

1.19583 

3.78153 

2.03 

4.1209 

1.42478 

4.50555 

2.63 

6.9169 

1.62173 

5.12835 

1.44 

2.0736 

1.20000 

3.79473 ! 

2.04 

4.1616 

1.42829 

4.51664 

2.64 

6.9696 

1.62481 

5.13809 

1.45 

2.1025 

1.20416 

3.80789 

2.05 

4.2025 

1.43178 

4.52769 

2.65 

7.0225, 

1.62788 

5.14782 

1.46 

2.1316 

1.20830 

3.82099 

2.06 

4.2436 

1.43527 

4.53872 

2.66 

7.0756 

1.63095 

5.15752 

1.47 

2.1609 

1.21244 

3.83406 

2.07 

4.2849 

1.43875 

4.54973 

2.67 

7.1289 

1.63401 

5.16720 

1.48 

2.1904 

1.21655 

3.84708 

2.08 

4.3264 

1.44222 

4.56070 

2.68 

7.1824 

1.63707 

5.17687 

1.49 

2.2201 

1.22066 

3.86005 

2.09 

4.3681 

1.44568 

4.57165 

2.69 

7.2361 

1.64012 

5.18652 

1.50 

2.2500 

1.22474 

3.87298 

2.10 

4.4100 

1.44914 

4.58258 

2.70 

7.2900 

1.64317 

5.19615 

1.51 

2.2801 

1.22882 

3.88587 

2.11 

4.4521 

1.45258 

4.59347 

2.71 

7.3441 

1.64621 

5.20577 

1.52 

2.3104 

1.23288 

3.89872 

2.12 

4.4944 

1.45602 

4.60435 

2.72 

7.3984 

1.64924 

5.21536 

1.53 

2.3409 

1.23693 

3.91152 

2.13 

4.5369 

1.45945 

4.61519 

2.73 

7.4529 

1.65227 

5.22494 

1.54 

2.3716 

1.24097 

3.92428 

2.14 

4.5796 

1.46287 

4.62601 

2.74 

7.5076 

1.65529 

5.23450 

1.55 

2.4025 

1.24499 

3.93700 

2.15 

4.6225 

1.46629 

4.63681 

2.75 

7.5625 

1.65831 

5.24404 

1.56 

2.4336 

1.24900 

3.94968 

2.16 

4.6656 

1.46969 

4.64758 

2.76 

7.6176 

1.66132 

5.25357 

1.57 

2.4649 

1.25300 

3.96232 

2.17 

4.7089 

1.47309 

4.65833 

2.77 

7.6729 

1.66433 

5.26308 

1.58 

2.4964 

1.25698 

3.97492 

2.18 

4.7524 

1.47648 

4.66905 

2.78 

7.7284 

1.66733 

5.27257 

1.59 

2.5281 

1.26095 

3.98748 

2.19 

4.7961 

1.47986 

4.67974 

2.79 

7.7841 

1.67033 

5.28205 

1.60 

2.5600 

1.26491 

4.00000, 

2.20 

4.8400 

1.48324 

4.69042 

2.80 

7.8400 

1.67332 

5.29150 

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36 


SQUARES AND SQUARE ROOTS 


N 


Vn 

VlON 

N 


Vn 

Vlim 

N 

N ^ 

Vn 

VlOiV 

2.60 

7.8400 

1.67332 

5.29150 

3.40 

11.5600 

1.84391 

5.83095 

4.00 

16.0000 

2.00000 

6.32456 

2.81 

7.8961 

1.67631 

5.30094 

3.41 

11.6281 

1.84662 

5.83952 

4.01 

16.0801 

2.00250 

6.33246 

2.82 

7.9524 

1.67929 

5.31037 

3.42 

11.6964 

1.84932 

5.84808 

4.02 

16.1604 

2.00499 

6.34035 

2.82 

8.0089 

1.68226 

5.31977 

3.43 

11.7649 

1.85203 

5.85662 

4.03 

16.2409 

2.00749 

6.34823 

2.84 

8.0656 

1.68523 

5.32917 

3.44 

11.8336 

1.85472 

5.86515 

4.04 

16.3216 

2.00998 

6.35610 

2.85 

8.1225 

1.68819 

5.33854 

3.45 

11.9025 

1.85742 

5.87367 

4.05 

16.4025 

2.01246 

6.36396 

2.86 

8.1796 

1.69115 

5.34790 

3.46 

11.9716 

1.86011 

5.88218 

4.06 

16.4836 

2.01494 

6.37181 

2.87 

8.2369 

1.69411 

5.35724 

3.47 

12.0409 

1.86279 

5.89067 

4.07 

16.5649 

2.01742 

6.37966 

2.88 

8.2944 

1.69706 

5.36656 

3.48 

12.1104 

1.86548 

5.89915 

4.08 

16.6464 

2.01990 

6.38749 

2.89 

8.3521 

1.70000 

5.37587 

3.49 

12.1801 

1.86815 

5.90762 

4.09 

16.7281 

2.02237 

6.39531 

2.90 

8.4100 

1.70294 

5.38516 

3.50 

12.2500 

1.87083 

5.91608 

4.10 

16.8100 

2.02485 

6.40312 

2.91 

8.4681 

1.70587 

5.39444 

3.51 

12.3201 

1.87350 

5.92453 

4.11 

16.8921 

2. 027^1 

6.41093 

2.92 

8.5264 

1.70880 

5.40370 

3.52 

12.3904 

1.87617 

5.93296 

4.12 

16.9744 

2.02978 

6.41872 

2.93 

8.5849 

1.71172 

5.41295 

3.53 

12.4609 

1.87883 

5.94138 

4.13 

17.0569 

2.03224 

6.42651 

2.94 

8.6436 

1.71464 

5.42218 

3.54 

12.5316 

1.88149 

5.94979 

4.14 

17.1396 

2.03470 

6.43428 

2.95 

8.7025 

1.71756 

5.43139 

3.55 

12.6025 

1.88414 

5.95819 

4.15 

17.2225 

2.03715 

6.44205 

2.96 

8.7616 

1.72047 

5.44059 

3.56 

12.6736 

1.88680 

5.96657 

4.16 

17.3056 

2.03961 

6.44981 

2.97 

8.8209 

1.72337 

5.44977 

3.57 

12.7449 

1.88944 

5.97495 

4.17 

17.3889 

2.04206 

6.45755 

2.98 

8.8804 

1.72627 

5.45894 

3.58 

12.8164 

1.89209 

5.98331 

4.18 

17.4724 

2.04450 

6.46529 

2.99 

8.9401 

1.72916 

5.46809 

3.59 

12.8881 

1.89473 

5.99166 

4.19 

17,5561 

2.04695 

6.47302 

3.00 

9.0000 

1.73205 

5.47723 

3.60 

12.9600 

1.89737 

6.00000 

4.20 

17.6400 

2.04939 

6.48074 

3.01 

9.0601 

1.73494 

5.48635 

3.61 

13.0321 

1.90000 

6.00833 

4.21 

17.7241 

2.05183 

6.48845 

3.02 

9.1204 

1.73781 

5.49545 

3.62 

13.1044 

1.90263 

6.01664 

4.22 

17.8084 

2.05426 

6.49615 

3.03 

9.1809 

1.74069 

5.50454 

3.63 

13.1769 

1.90526 

6.02495 

4.23 

17.8929 

2.05670 

6.50384 

3.04 

9.2416 

1.74356 

5.51362 

3.64 

13.2496 

1.90788 

6.03324 

4.24 

17.9776 

2.05913 

6.51153 

3.05 

9.3025 

1.74642 

5.52268 

3.65 

13.3225 

1.91050 

6.04152 

4.25 

18.0625 

2.06155 

C .51920 

3.06 

9.3636 

1.74929 

5.53173 

3.66 

13.3956 

1.91311 

6.04979 

4.26 

18.1476 

2.06398 

6.52687 

3.07 

9.4249 

1.75214 

5.54076 

3.67 

13.4689 

1.91572 

6.05805 

4.27 

18.2329 

2.06640 

6.53452 

3.08 

9.4864 

1.75499 

5.54977 

3.68 

13.5424 

1.91833 

6.06630 

4.28 

18.3184 

2.06882 

6.54217 

3.09 

9.5481 

1.75784 

5.55878 

3.69 

13.6161 

1.92094 

6.07454 

4.29 

18.4041 

2.07123 

6.54981 

3.10 

9.6100 

1.76068 

5.56776 

3.70 

13.6900 

1.92354 

6.08276 

4.30 

18.4900 

2.07364 

6.55744 

3.11 

9.6721 

1.76352 

5.57674 

3.71 

13.7641 

1.92614 

6.09098 

4.31 

18.5761 

2.07605 

6.56506 

3.12 

9.7344 

1.76635 

5.58570 

3.72 

13.8384 

1.. 92873 

6.09918 

4.32 

18.6624 

2.07846 

6.57267 

3.13 

9.7969 

1.76918 

5.59464 

3.73 

13.9129 

1.93132 

6.10737 

4.33 

18.7489 

2.08087 

6.58027 

3.14 

9.8596 

1.77200 

5.60357 

3.74 

13.9876 

1.93391 

6.11555 

4.34 

18.8356 

2.08327 

6.58787 

3.15 

9.9225 

1.77482 

5.61249 

3.75 

14.0625 

1.93649 

6.12372 

4.35 

18.9225 

2.08567 

6.59545 

3.16 

9.9856 

1.77764 

5.62139 

3.76 

14.1376 

1.93907 

6.13188 

4.36 

19.0096 

2.08806 

6.60303 

3.17 

10.0489 

1.78045 

5.63028 

3.77 

14.2129 

1.94165 

6.14003 

4.37 

19.0969 

2.09045 

6.61060 

3.18 

10.1124 

1.78326 

5.63915 

3.78 

14.2884 

1.94422 

6.14817 

4.38 

19.1844 

2.09284 

6.61816 

8.19 

10.1761 

1.78606 

5.64801 

3.79 

14.3641 

1.94679 

6.15630 

4.39 

19.2721 

2.09523 

6.62571 

3.20 

10.2400 

1.78885 

5.65685 

3.80 

14.4400 

1.94936 

6.16441 

4.40 

19.3600 

2.09762 

6.63325 

3.21 

1 C .3041 

1.79165 

5.66569 

3.81 

14.5161 

1.95192 

6.17252 

4.41 

19.4481 

2.10000 

6.64078 

3.22 

10.3384 

1.79444 

5.67450 

3.82 

14.5924 

1.95448 

6.18061 

4.42 

19.5364 

2.10238 

6.64831 

3.23 

10.4329 

1.79722 

5.68331 

3.83 

14.6689 

1.95704 

6.18870 

4.43 

19.6249 

2.10476 

6.65582 

3.24 

10.4976 

1.80000 

5.69210 

3.84 

14.7456 

1.95959 

6.19677 

4.44 

19.7136 

2.10713 

6.66333 

3.25 

10.5625 

1.80278 

5.70088 

3.85 

14.8225 

1.96214 

6.20484 

4.45 

19.8025 

2.10950 

6.67083 

3.26 

10.6276 

1.80555 

5.70964 

3.86 

14.8996 

1.96469 

6.21289 

4.46 

19.8916 

2.11187 

6.67832 

3.27 

10.6929 

1. 80 S 31 

5.71839 

3.87 

14.9769 

1.96723 

6.22093 

4.47 

19.9809 

2.11424 

6.68581 

3.28 

10.7584 

1.81108 

5.72713 

3.88 

15.0544 

1.96977 

6.22896 

4.48 

20.0704 

2.11660 

6.69328 

3.29 

10.8241 

1.81384 

5.73585 

3.89 

15.1321 

1.97231 

6.23699 

4.49 

20.1601 

2.11896 

6.70075 

3.30 

10.8900 

1.81659 

5.74456 

3.90 

15.2100 

1.97484 

6.24500 

4.50 

20.2500 

2.12132 

6.70820 

3.31 

10.9561 

1.81934 

5.75326 

3.91 

15.2881 

1.97737 

6.25300 

4.51 

20.3401 

2.12368 

().71 565 

3.32 

11.0224 

1.82209 

5.76194 

3.92 

15.3664 

1.97990 

6.26099 

4.52 

20.4304 

2.12603 

6.72309 

3.33 

11.0889 

1.82483 

5.77062 

3.93 

15.4449 

1.98242 

6.26897 

4.53 

20.5209 

2.12838 

6.7:9 (.53 

3.34 

11.1556 

1.82757 

5.77927 

3.94 

15.5236 

1.98494 

6.27694 

4.54 

20.6116 

2.13073 

6.73795 

3.35 

11.2225 

1.83030 

5.78792 

3.95 

15.6025 

1.98746 

6.28490 

4.55 

20.7025 

2.13307 

6.745.37 

3.36 

11.2896 

1.83303 

5.79655 

3.96 

15.6816 

1.98997 

6.29285 

4.56 

20.7936 1 

2. 1.3542 

6.7527V 

3.37 

11 3569 

1.83576 

5.80517 

3.97 

15.7609 

1.99249 

6.30079 

4.57 

20.8849 1 

2.13776 

f,.7)>nls 

3.38 

11.4244 

1.83848 

5.81378 

3.98 

15.8404 

1.99499 

6.30872 

4.58 

20.9764 

2.14009 

6.7 6)7 .57 

3.39 

11.4921 

1.84120 

5.82237 

3.99 

15.9201 

1.99750 

6.31664 

4.59 

21.0681 

2.14243 

6, 77495 

3.40 

11.5600 

1.84391 

5.83095 

4.00 

16.0000 

2.00000 

6.32456 

4.60 

21.1600 

2.14476 

6.7VJ33 

N 


Vn 

VlON 

N 

^2 

Vn 

VlOA^ 

N 

N '- 

Vn ! 

VlON 


a? 


SQUARES AND SQUARE ROOTS 


N 

iV* 

Vn 

VlOiV 

N 

N ^ 

Vn 

VlOAT 

N 

iV* 

Vn 

VlON 

4.60 

21.1600 

2.14476 

6.78233 

5.20 

27.0400 

2.28035 

7.21110 

5.80 

33.6400 

2.40832 

7.61577 

4.61 

21.2521 

2.14709 

6.78970 

5.21 

27.1441 

2.28254 

7.21803 

5.81 

33.7561 

2.41039 

7.62234 

4.62 

21.3444 

2.14942 

6.79706 

5.22 

27.2484 

2.28473 

7.22496 

5.82 

33.8724 

2.41247 

7.62889 

4.63 

21.4369 

2.15174 

6.80441 

5.23 

27.3529 

2.28692 

7.23187 

5.83 

33.9889 

2.41454 

7.63544 

4.64 

21.5296 

2.15407 

6.81175 

5.24 

27.4576 

2.28910 

7.23878 

5.84 

34.1056 

2.41661 

7.64199 

4.65 

21.6225 

2.15639 

6.81909 

5.25 

27.5625 

2.29129 

7.24569 

6.85 

34.2225 

2.41868 

7.64853 

4.66 

21.7156 

2.15870 

6.82642 

5.26 

27.6676 

2.29347 

7.25259 

5.86 

34.3396 

2.42074 

7.65506 

4.67 

21.8089 

2.16102 

6.83374 

5.27 

27.7729 

2.29565 

7.25948 

5.87 

34.4569 

2.42281 

7.66159 

4.68 

21.9024 

2.16333 

6.84105 

&.28 

27.8784 

2.29783 

7.26636 

5.88 

34.5744 

2.42487 

7.66812 

4.69 

21.9961 

2.16564 

6.84836 

5.29 

27.9841 

2.30000 

7.27324 

5.89 

34.6921 

2.42693 

7.67463 

4.70 

22.0900 

2.16795 

6.85565 

5.30 

28.0900 

2.30217 

7.28011 

5.90 

34.8100 

2.42899 

7.68115 

4.71 

22.1841 

2.17025 

6.86294 

5.31 

28.1961 

2.30434 

7.28697 

5.91 

34.9281 

2.43105 

7.68765 

4.72 

22.2784 

2.17256 

6.87023 

5.32 

28.3024 

2.30651 

7.29383 

5.92 

35.0464 

2.43311 

7.69415 

4.73 

22.3729 

2.17486 

6.87750 

5.33 

28.4089 

2.30868 

7-.30068 

5.93 

35.1649 

2.43516 

7.70065 

4.74 

22.4676 

2.17715 

6.88477 

5.34 

28.5156 

2.31084 

7.30753 

5.94 

35.2836 

2.43721 

7.70714 

4.75 

22.5625 

2.17945 

6.89202 

5.35 

28.6225 

2.31301 

7.31437 

5.96 

35.4025 

2.43926 

7.71362 

4.76 

22.6576 

2.18174 

6.89928 

5.36 

28.7296 

2.31517 

7.32120 

5.96 

35.5216 

2.44131 

7.72010 

4.77 

22.7529 

2.18403 

6.90652 

5.37 

28.8369 

2.31733 

7.32803 

5.97 

35.6409 

2.44336 

7.72658 

4.78 

22.8484 

2.18632 

6.91375 

5.38 

28.9444 

2.31948 

7.33485 

5.98 

35.7604 

2.44540 

7.73305 

4.79 

22.9441 

2.18861 

6.92098 

5.39 

29.0521 

2.32164 

7.34166 

5.99 

35.8801 

2.44745 

7.73951 

4.80 

23.0400 

2.19089 

6.92820 

5.40 

29.1600 

2.32379 

7.34847 

6.00 

36.0000 

2.44949 

7.74597 

4.81 

23.1361 

2.19317 

6.93542 

5.41 

29.2681 

2.32594 

7.35527 

6.01 

36.1201 

2.45153 

7.75242 

4.82 

23.2324 

2.19545 

6.94262 

5.42 

29.3764 

2.32809 

7.36206 

6.02 

36.2404 

2.45357 

7.75887 

4.83 

23.3289 

2.19773 

6.94982 

5.43 

29.4849 

2.33024 

7.36885 

6.03 

36.3609 

2.45561 

7.76531 

4.84 

23.4256 

2.20000 

6.95701 

5.44 

29.5936 

2.33238 

7.37564 

6.04 

36.4816 

2.45764 

7.77174 

4.85 

23.5225 

2.20227 

6.96419. 

5.45 

29.7025 

2.33452 

7.38241 

6.06 

36.6025 

2.45967 

7.77817 

4.86 

23.6196 

2.20454 

6.97137 

5.46 

29.8116 

2.33666 

7.38918 

6.06 

36.7236 

2.46171 

7.78460 

4.87 

23.7169 

2.20681 

6.97854 

5.47 

29.9209 

2.33880 

7.39594 

6.07 

36.8449 

2.46374 

7.79102 

4.88 

23.8144 

2.20907 

6.98570 

5.48 

30.0304 

2.34094 

7.40270 

6.08 

36.9664 

2.46577 

7.79744 

4.89 

23.9121 

2.21133 

6.99285 

5.49 

30.1401 

2.34307 

7.40945 

6.09 

37.0881 

2.46779 

7.80385 

4.90 

24.0100 

2.21359 

7.00000 

5.50 

30.2500 

2.34S21 

7.41620 

6.10 

37.2100 

2.46982 

7.81025 

4.91 

24.1081 

2.21585 

7.00714 

5.51 

30.3601 

2.34734 

7.42294 

6.11 

37.3321 

2.47184 

7.81665 

4.92 

24.2064 

2.21811 

7.01427 

5.52 

30.4704 

2.34947 

7.42967 

6.12 

37.4,544 

2.47386 

7.82304 

4.93 

24.3049 

2.22036 

^7.02140 

5.53 

30.5809 

2.35160 

7.43640 

6.13 

37.5769 

2.47588 

7.82943 

4.94 

24.4036 

2.22281 

7.02851 

5.54 

30.6916 

2.35372 

7.44312 

6.14 

37.6996 

2.47790 

7.83582 

4.95 

24.5025 

2.22486 

7.03562 

5.55 

30.8025 

2.35584 

7.4^:983 

6.16 

37.8225 

2.47992 

7.84219 

4.96 

24.6016 

2.22711 

7.04^73 

5.56 

30.9136 

2.35797 

7.45654 

6.16 

37.9456 

2.48193 

7.84857 

4.97 

24.7009 

2.22935 

7.04982 

5.57 

31.0249 

2.36008 

7.46324 

6.17 

38.0689 

2.48395 

7.85493 

4.98 

24.8004 

2.23159 

7.05691 

5.58 

31.1364 

2.36220 

7.46994 

6.18 

38.1924 

2.48596 

7.86130 

4.99 

24.9001 

2.23383 

7.06399 

5.59 

31.2481 

2.36432 

7.47663 

6.19 

38.3161 

2.48797 

7.86766 

5.00 

25.0000 

2.23607 

7.07107 

5.60 

31.3600 

2.36643 

7.48331 

6.20 

38.4400 

2.48998 

7.87401 

5.01 

25.1001 

2.23830 

7.07814 

5.61 

31.4721 

2.36854 

7.48999 

‘6.21 

38.5641 

2.49199 

7.88036 

5.02 

25.2004 

2.24054 

7.08520 

5.62 

31.5844 

2.37065 

7.49667 

6.22 

38.6884 

2.49399 

7.88670 

5.03 

25.3009 

2.24277 

7.09225 

5.63 

31.6969 

2.37276 

7.50333 

6.23 

38.8129 

2.49600 

7.89303 

5.04 

25.4016 

2.24499 

7.09930 

5.64 

31.8096 

2.37487 

7.50999 

6.24 

38.9376 

2.49800 

7.89937 

5.05 

25.5025 

2.24722 

7.10634 

5.66 

31.9225 

2.37697 

7.51665 

6.26 

39.0625 

2.50000 

7.90569 

5.06 

25.6036 

2.24944 

7.11337 

5.66 

32.0356 

2.37908 

7.52330 

6.26 

39.1876 

2.50200 

7.91202 

5.07 

25.7049 

2.25167 

7.12039 

5.67 

32.1489 

2.38118 

7.52994 

6.27 

39.3129 

2.50400 

7.91833 

5.08 

25.8064 

2.25389 

7.12741 

5.68 

32.2624 

2.38328 

7.53658 

6.28 

39.4384 

•2.50599 

7.92465 

5.09 

25.9081 

2.25610 

7.13442 

5.69 

32.3761 

2.38537 

7.54321 

6.29 

39.5641 

2.50799 

7.93095 

5.10 

26.0100 

2.25832 

7.14143 

5.70 

32.4900 

2.38747 

7.54983 

6.30 

39.6900 

2.50998 

7.93725 

5.11 

26.1121 

2.26053 

7.14843 

5.71 

32.6041 

2.38956 

7.55645 

6.31 

39.8161 

2.51197 

7.94355 

5.12 

26.2144 

2.26274 

7.15542 

5.72 

32.7184 

2.39165 

7.56307 

6.32 

39.9424 

2.51396 

7.94984 

5.13 

26.3169 

2.26495 

7.16240 

5.73 

32.8329 

2.39374 

7.56968 

6.33 

40.0689 

2.51595 

7,95613 

5.14 

26.4196 

2.26716 

7.16938 

5.74 

32.9476 

2.39583 

7.57628 

6.34 

40.1956 

2.51794 

7.96241 

5.15 

26.5225 

2.26936 

7.17635 

5.75 

33.0625 

2.39792 

7.58288 

6.36 

40.3225 

2.51992 

7.96869 

5.16 

26.6256 

2.27156 

7.18331 

5.76 

33.1776 

2.40000 

7.58947 

6.36 

40.4496 

2.52190 

7.97496 

5.17 

26.7?89 

2.27376 

7.19027 

5.77 

33.2929 

2.40208 

7.59605 

6.37 

40.5769 

2.52389 

7.98123 

5.18 

26.8324 

2.27596 

7.19722 

5.78 

33.4084 

2.40416 

7.60263 

6.38 

40.7044 

2.52587 

7.98749 

5.19 

26.9361 

2.27816 

7.20417 

5.79 

33.5241 

2.40624 

7.60920 

6.39 

40.8321 

2.52784 

7.99375 

5.20 

27.0400 

2.28035 

7.21110 

5.80 

33.6400 

2.40832 

7.61577 

6.40 

40.9600 

2.52982 

8.00000 

N 

iV* 

Vn 

VlON 

N 

N * 

Vn 

VlON 

N 

AP 

Vn 

VlOiV 


38 


SQUARES AND SQUARE ROOTS 


N 


Vn 

VlON 

N 


Vn 

VlQN 

N 

hP 

Vn 

VlQN 

6.40 

40.9600 

2.52982 

8.00000 

7.00 

49.0000 

2.64575 

8.36660 

7.60 

57.7600 

2.75681 

8.71780 

6.41 

41.0881 

2.53180 

8.00625 

7.01 

49.1401 

2.64764 

8.37257 

7.61 

57.9121 

2.75862 

8.72353 

6.42 

41.2164 

2.53377 

8.01249 

7.02 

49.2804 

2.64953 

8.37854 

7.62 

58.0644 

2.76043 

8.72926 

6.43 

41.3449 

2.53574 

8.01873 

7.03 

49.4209 

2.65141 

8.38451 

7.63 

58.2169 

2.76225 

8.73499 

6.44 

41.4736 

2.53772 

8.02496 

7.04 

49.5616 

2.65330 

8.39047 

7.64 

58.3696 

2.76405 

8.74071 

6.46 

41.6025 

2.53969 

8.03119 

7.06 

49.7025 

2.65518 

8.39643 

7.65 

58.5225 

2.76586 

8.74643 

6.46 

41.7316 

2.54165 

8.03741 

7.06 

49.8436 

2.65707 

8.40238 

7.66 

58.6756 

2.76767 

8.75214 

6.47 

41.8609 

2.54362 

8.04363 

7.07 

49.9849 

2.65895 

8.40833 

7.67 

58.8289 

2.76948 

8.75785 

6.48 

41.9904 

2.54558 

8.04984 

7.08 

50.1264 

2.66083 

8.41427 

7.68 

58.9824 

2.77128 

8.76356 

6.49 

42.1201 

2.54755 

8.05605 

7.09 

50.2681 

2.66271 

8.42021 

7.69 

59.1361 

2.77308 

8.76926 

6.60 

42.2500 

2.54951 

8.06226 

7.10 

50.4100 

2.66458 

8.42615 

7.70 

59.2900 

2.77489 

8.77496 

6.51 

42.3801 

2.55147 

8.06846 

7.11 

50.5521 

2.66646 

8.43208 

7.71 

59.4441 

2.77669 

8.78066 

6.52 

42.5104 

2.55343 

8.07465 

7.12 

50.6944 

2.66833 

8.43801 

7.72 

59.5984 

2.77849 

8.78635 

6.53 

42.6409 

2.55539 

8.08084 

7.13 

50.8369 

2.67021 

8.44393 

7.73 

59.7529 

2.78029 

8.79204 

6.54 

42.7716 

2.55734 

8.08703 

7.14 

50.9796 

2.67208 

8.44985 

7.74 

59.9076 

2.78209 

8.79773 

6.66 

42.9025 

2.55930 

8.09321 

7.15 

51.1225 

2.67395 

8.45577 

7.75 

60.0625 

2.78388 

8.80341 

6.56 

43.0336 

2.56125 

8.09938 

7.16 

51.2656 

2.67582 

8.46168 

7.76 

60.2176 

2.78568 

8.80909 

6.57 

43.1649 

2.56320 

8.10555 

7.17 

51.4089 

2.67769 

8.46759 

7.77 

60.3729 

2.78747 

8.81476 

6.58 

43.2964 

.2.56515 

8.11172 

7.18 

51.5524 

2.67955 

8.47349 

7.78 

60.5284 

2.78927 

8.82043 

6.59 

43.4281 

2.56710 

8.11788 

7.19 

51.6961 

2.68142 

8.47939 

7.79 

60.6841 

2.79106 

8.82610 

6.60 

43.5600 

2.56905 

8.12404 

7.20 

51.8400 

2.68328 

8.48528 

7.80 

60.8400 

2.79285 

8.83176 

6.61 

43.6921 

2.57099 

8.13019 

7.21 

51.9841 

2.68514 

8.49117 

7.81 

60.9961 

2.79464 

8.83742 

6.62 

43.8244 

2.57294 

8.13634 

7.22 

52.1284 

2.68701 

8.49706 

7.82 

61.1524 

2.79643 

8.84308 

6.63 

43.9569 

2.57488 

8.14248 

7.23 

52.2729 

2.68887 

8.50294 

7.83 

61.3089 

2.79821 

8.84873 

6.64 

44.0896 

2.57682 

8.14862 

7.24 

52.4176 

2.69072 

8.50882 

7.84 

61.4656 

2.80000 

8.85438 

6.66 

44.2225 

2.57876 

8.15475 

7.25 

52.5625 

2.69258 

8.51469 

7.85 

61.6225 

2.80179 

8.86002 

6.66 

44.3556 

2.58070 

8.16088 

7.26 

52.7076 

2.69444 

8.52056 

7.86 

61.7796 

2.80357 

8.86566 

6.67 

44.4889 

2.58263 

8.16701 

7.27 

52.8529 

2.69629 

8.52643 

7.87 

61.9369 

2.80535 

8.87130 

6.68 

44.6224 

2.58457 

8.17313 

7.28 

52.9984 

2.69815 

8.53229 

7.88 

62.0944 

2.80713 

8.87694 

6.69 

44.7561 

2.58650 

8.17924 

7.29 

53.1441 

2.70000 

8.63815 

7.89 

62.2521 

2.80891 

8.88257 

6.70 

44.8900 

2.58844 

8.18535 

7.30 

53.2900 

2.70185 

8.54400 

7.90 

62.4100 

2.81069 

8.88819 

6.71 

45.0241 

2.59037 

8.19146 

7.31 

53.4361 

2.70370 

8.54985 

7.91 

62.5681 

2.81247 

8.89382 

6.72 

45.1584 

2.59230 

8.19756 

7.32 

53.5824 

2.70555 

8.55570 

7.92 

62.7264 

2.81425 

8.89944 

6.73 

45.2929 

2.59422 

8.20366 

7.33 

53.7289 

2.70740 

8.56154 

7.93 

62.8849 

2.81603 

8.90505 

6.74 

45.4276 

2.59615 

8.20975 

7.34 

53.8756 

2.70924 

8.56738 

7.94 

63.0436 

2.81780 

8.91067 

6.75 

45.5625 

2.59808 

8.21584 

7.35 

54.0225 

2.71109 

8.57321 

7.95 

63.2025 

2.81957 

8.91628 

6.76 

45.6976 

2.60000 

8.22192 

7.36 

54.1696 

2.71293 

8.57904 

7.96 

63.3616 

2.82135 

8.92188 

6.77 

45.8329 

2.60192 

8 22800 

7.37 

54.3169 

2.71477 

8.58487 

7.97 

63.. 5209 

2.82312 

8.92749 

6.78 

45.9684 

2.60384 

8.23408 

7..38 

54.4644 

2.71662 

8.59069 

7.98 

63.6804 

2.82489 

8.93308 

6.79 

46.1041 

2.60576 

8.24015 

7.39 

54.6121 

2.71846 

8.59651 

7.99 

63.8401 

2.82666 

8.93868 

6.80 

46.2400 

2.60768 

8.24621 

7.40 

54.7600 

2.72029 

8.60233 

8.00 

64.0000 

2.82843 

8.94427 

6.81 

46.3761 

2.60960 

8.25227 

7.41 

54.9081 

2.72213 

8.60814 

8.01 

64.1601 

2.83019 

8.94986 

6.82 

46.5124 

2.61151 

8.25833 

7.42 

55.0564 

2.72397 

8.61394 

8.02 

64.3204 

2.83196 

8.95545 

6.83 

46.6489 

2.61343 

8.26438 

7.43 

55.2049 

2.72580 

8.61974 

8.03 

64.4809 

2.83373 

8.96103 

6.84 

46.7856 

2.61534 

8.27043 

7.44 

55.3536 

2.72764 

8.62554 

8.04 

64.6416 

2.83549 

8.96660 

6.85 

46.9225 

2.61725 

8.27647 

7.45 

55.5025 

2.72947 

8.63134 

8.05 

64.8025 

2.83725 

8.97218 

6.86 

47.0596 

2.61916 

8.28251 

7.46 

55.6516 

2.73130 

8.63713 

8.06 

64.9636 

2.83901 

8.97775 

6.87 

47.1969 

2.62107 

8.28855 

7.47 

55.8009 

2.73313 

8.64292 

8.07 

65.1249 

2. S 4077 

8.98332 

6.88 

47.3344 

2.62298 

8.29458 

7.48 

55.9504 

2.73496 

8.64870 

8.08 

65.2864 

2.84253 

8.98888 

6.89 

47.4721 

2.62488 

8.30060 

7.49 

56.1001 

2.73679 

8.65448 

8.09 

65.4481 

2.84429 

8.99444 

6.90 

47.6100 

2.62679 

8.30662 

7.60 

56.2500 

2.73861 

8.66025 

8.10 

65.6100 

2.84605 

9.00000 

6.91 

47.7481 

2.62869 

8.31264 

7.51 

56.4001 

2.74044 

8.66603 

8.11 

65.7721 

2.84781 

9.00555 

6.92 

47.8864 

2.63059 

8.31865 

7.52 

56.5504 

2.74226 

8.67179 

8.12 

65.9344 

2.84956 

9.01110 

6.93 

48.0249 

2.63249 

8.32466 

7.53 

56.7009 

2.74408 

8.67756 

8.13 

66.0969 

2.85132 

9.01 tit i.'-j 

6.94 

48.1636 

2.63439 

8.33067 

7.54 

56.8516 

2.74591 

8.68332 

8.14 

66.2596 

2.85307 

9.02219 

6.95 

48.3025 

2.63629 

8.33667 

7.65 

57.0025* 

2.74773 

8.68907 

8.15 

66.4225 

2.85482 

9.02774 

6.96 

48.4416 

2.63818 

8.34266 

7.56 

57.1536 

2.74955 

8.69483 

8.16 

66.5856 

2.85657 

9.03.327 

6.97 

48.5809 

2.64008 

8.34865 

7.57 

57.3049 

2.75136 

8.70057 

8.17 

66.7489 

2.858.32 

9 ():^^^l 

6.98 

48.7204 

2.64197 

8.35464 

7.58 

57.4564 

2.75318 

8.70632 

8.18 

66.9124 

2.86007 

9.1)4431 

6.99 

48.8601 

2.64386 

8.36062 

7.59 

57.6081 

2.75500 

8.71206 

8.19 

67.0761 

2.861.82 

9 h 19 mp 

7.00 

49.0000 

2.64575 

8.36660 

7.60 

57.7600 

2.75681 

8.71780 

8.20 

67.2400 

2.86356 

9.11.', .5.39 

N 


Vn 

VlOiV 

N 

N^ 

Vn 

V\0N 

N 

N^ 

Vn 

VlON 


SQUARES AND SQUARE ROOTS 


N 

N2 

Vn 

VlON 

N 

N^ 

Vn 

VlON 

N 

N^ 

Vn 

VlON 

8.20 

67.2400 

2.86356 

9.05539 

8.80 

77.4400 

2.96648 

9.38083 

9.40 

88.3600 

3.06594 

9.69536 

8.21 

67.4041 

2.86531 

9.06091 

8.81 

77.6161 

2.96816 

9.38616 

9.41 

88.5481 

3.06757 

9.70052 

8.22 

67.5684 

2.86705 

9.06642 

8.82 

77.7924 

2.96985 

9.39149 

9.42 

88.7364 

3.06920 

9.70567 

8.23 

67.7329 

2.86880 

9.07193 

8.83 

77.9689 

2.97153 

9.39681 

9.43 

88.9249 

3.07083 

9.71082 

8.24 

67.8976 

2.87054 

9.07744 

8.84 

78.1456 

2.97321 

9.40213 

9.44 

89.1136 

3.07246 

9.71597 

8.25 

68.0625 

2.87228 

9.08295 

8.85 

78.3225 

2.97489 

9.40744 

9.45 

89.3025 

3.07409 

9.72111 

8.26 

, 68.2276 

2.87402 

9.08845 

8.86 

78.4996 

2.97658 

9.41276 

9.46 

89.4916 

3.07571 

9.72625 

8.27 

68.3929 

2.87576 

9.09395 

8.87 

78.6769 

2.97825 

9.41807 

9.47 

89.6809 

3.07734 

9.73139 

8.28 

68.5584 

2.87750 

9.09945 

8.88 

78.8544 

2.97993 

9.42338 

9.48 

89.8704 

3.07896 

9.73653 

8.29 

68.7241 

2.87924 

9.10494 

8.89 

79.0321 

2.98161 

9.42868 

9.49 

90.0601 

3.08058 

9.74166 

8.30 

68.8900 

2.88097 

9.11043 

8.90 

79.2100 

2.98329 

9.43398 

9.50 

90.2500 

3.08221 

9.74679 

8.31 

69.0561 

2.88271 

9.11592 

8.91 

79..3881 

2.98496 

9.43928 

9.51 

90.4401 

3.08383 

9.75192 

8.32 

69.2224 

2.88444 

9.12140 

8.92 

79.5664 

2.98664 

9.44458 

9.52 

90.6304 

3.08545 

9.75705 

8.33 

69.3889 

2.88617 

9.12688 

8.93 

79.7449 

2.98831 

9.44987 

9.53 

90.8209 

3.08707 

9.76217 

8.34 

69.5556 

2.88791 

9.13236 

8.94 

79.9236 

2.98998 

9.45516 

9.54 

91.0116 

3.08869 

9.76729 

8.35 

69.7225 

2.88964 

9.13783 

8.95 

80.1025 

2.99166 

9.46044 

9.55 

91.2025 

3.09031 

9.77241 

8.36 

69.8896 

2.89137 

9.14330 

8.96 

80.2816 

2.99333 

9.46573 

9.56 

91.3936 

3.09192 

9.77753 

8.37 

70.0569 

2.89310 

9.14877 

8.97 

80.4609 

2.99500 

9.47101 

9.57 

91.5849 

3.09354 

9.78264 

8.38 

70.2244 

2.89482 

9.15423 

8.98 

80.6404 

2.99666 

9.47629 

9.58 

91.7764 

3.09516 

9.78775 

8.39 

70.3921 

2.89655 

9.15969 

8.99 

80.8201 

2*99833 

9.48156 

9.59 

91.9681 

3.09677 

9.79285 

8.40 

70.5600 

2.89828 

9.16515 

9.00 

81.0000 

3.00000 

9.48683 

9.60 

92.1600 

3.09839 

9.79796 

8.41 

70.7281 

2.90000 

9.17061 

9.01 

81.1801 

3.00167 

9.49210 

9.61 

92.3521 

3.10000 

9.80306 

8.42 

70.8964 

2.90172 

9.17606 

9.02 

81.3604 

3.00333 

9.49737 

9.62 

92.5444 

3.10161 

9.80816 

8.43 

71.0649 

2.90345 

9.18150 

9.03 

81.5409 

3.00500 

9.50263 

9.63 

92.7369 

3.10322 

9.81326 

8.44 

71.2336 

2.90517 

9.18695 

9.04 

81.7216 

3.00666 

9.50789 

9.64 

92.9296 

3.10483 

9.81835 

8.45 

71.4025 

2.90689 

9.19239 

9.05 

81.9025 

3.00832 

9.51315 

9.65 

93.1225 

3.10644 

9.82344 

8.46 

71.5716 

2.90861 

9.19783 

9.06 

82.0836 

3.00998 

9.51840 

9.66 

93.3156 

3.10805 

9.82853 

8.47 

71.7409 

2.91033 

9.20326 

9.07 

82.2649 

3.01164 

9.52365 

9.67 

93.5089 

3.10966 

9.83362 

8.48 

71.9104 

2.91204 

9.20889 

9.08 

82.4464 

3.01330 

9.52890 

9.68 

93.7024 

3.11127 

9.83870 

8.49 

72.0801 

2.91376 

9.21412 

9.09 

82.6281 

3.01496 

9.53415 

9.69 

93.8961 

3.11288 

9.84378 

8.50 

72.2500 

2.91548 

9.21954 

9.10 

82.8100 

3.01662 

9.53939 

9.70 

94.0900 

3.11448 

9.84886 

8.51 

72.4201 

2.91719 

9.22497 

9.11 

82.9921 

3.01828 

9.54463 

9.71 

94.2841 

3.11609 

9.85393 

8.52 

72.5904 

2.91890 

9.23038 

9.12 

83.1744 

3.01993 

9.54987 

9.72 

94.4784 

3.11769 

9.85901 

8.53 

72.7609 

2.92082 

9.23580 

9.13 

83.3569 

3.02159 

9.55510 

9.73 

94.6729 

3.11929 

9.86408 

8.54 

72.9316 

2.92233 

9.24121 

9.14 

83.5396 

3.02324 

9.56033 

9.74 

94.8676 

3.12090 

9.86914 

8.55 

73.1025 

2.92404 

9.24662 

9.15 

83.7225 

3.02490 

9.56556 

9.75 

95.0625 

3.12250 

9.87421 

8.56 

73.2736 

2.92575 

9.25203 

9.16 

83.9056 

3.02655 

9.57079 

9.76 

95.2576 

3.12410 

9.87927 

8.57 

73.4449 

2.92746 

9.25743 

9.17 

84.0889 

3.02820 

9.57601 

9.77 

95.4529 

3.12570 

9.88433 

8.58 

73.6164 

2.92916 

9.26283 

9.18 

84.2724 

3.02985 

9.58123 

9.78 

95.6484 

3.12730 

9.88939 

8.59 

73.7881 

2.93087 

9.26823 

9.19 

84.4561 

3.03150 

9.58645 

9.79 

95.8441 

3.12890 

9.89444 

8.60 

73.9600 

2.93258 

9.27362 

9.20 

84.6400 

3.03315 

9.59166 

9.80 

96.0400 

3.13050 

9.89949 

8.61 

74.1321 

2.93428 

9.27901 

9.21 

84.8241 

3.03480 

9.59687 

9.81 

96.2361 

3.13209 

9.90454 

8.62 

74.3044 

2.93598 

9.28440 

9.22 

85.0084 

3.03645 

9.60208 

9.82 

96.4324 

3.13369 

9.90959 

8.63 

74.4769 

2.93769 

9.28978 

9.23 

85.1929 

3.03809 

9.60729 

9.83 

96.6289 

3.13528 

9.91464 

8.64 

74.6496 

2.93939 

9.29516 

9. 24 ' 

85.3776 

3.03974 

9.61249 

9.84 

96.8256 

3.13688 

9.91968 

8.65 

74.8225 

2.94109 

9.30054 

9.25 

85.5625 

3.04138 

9.61769 

9.85 

97.0225 

3.13847 

9.92472 

8.66 

74.9956 

2.94279 

9.30591 

9.26 

85.7476 

3.04302 

9.62289 

9.86 

97.2196 

3.14006 

9.92975 

8.67 

75.1689 

2.94449 

9.31128 

9.27 

85.9329 

3.04467 

9.62808 

9.87 

97.4169 

3.14166 

9.93479 

8.68 

75.3424 

2.94618 

9.31665 

9.28 

86 1184 

3.04631 

9.63328 

9.88 

97.6144 

3.14325 

9.93982 

8.69 

75.5161 

2.94788 

9.32202 

9.29 

86.3041 

3.04795 

9.63846 

9.89 

97.8121 

3.14484 

9.94485 

8.70 

75.6900 

2.94958 

9.32738 

9.30 

86.4900 

3.04959 

9.64365 

9.90 

98.0100 

3.14643 

9.94987 

8.71 

75.8641 

2.95127 

9.33274 

9.31 

86.6761 

3.05123 

9.64883 

9.91 

98.2081 

3.14802 

9.95490 

8.72 

76.0384 

2.95296 

9.33809 

9.32 

86.8624 

3.05287 

9.65401 

9.92 

98.4064 

3.14960 

9.95992 

8.73 

76.2129 

2.95466 

9.34345 

9.33 

87.0489 

3.05450 

9.65919 

9.93 

98.6049 

3.15119 

9.96494 

8.74 

76.3876 

2.95635 

9.34880 

9.34 

87.2356 

3.05614 

9.66437 

9.94 

98.8036 

3.15278 

9.96995 

8.75 

76.5625 

2.95804 

9.35414 

9.35 

87.4225 

3.05778 

9.66954 

9.95 

99.0025 

3.15436 

9.97497 

8.76 

76.7376 

2.95973 

9.35949 

9.36 

87.6096 

3.05941 

9.67471 

9.96 

99.2016 

3.15595 

9.97998 

8.77 

76.9129 

2.96142 

9.36483 

9.37 

87.7969 

3.06105 

9.67988 

9.97 

99.4009 

3.15753 

9.98499 

8.78 

77.0884 

2.96311 

9.37017 

9.38 

87.9844 

3.06268 

9.68504 

9.98 

99.6004 

3.15911 

9.98999 

8.79 

77.2641 

2.96479 

9.37550 

9.39 

88.1721 

3.06431 

9.69020 

9.99 

99.8001 

3.16070 

9.99500 

8.80 

77.4400 

2.96648 

9.38083 

9.40 

88.3600 

3.06594 

9.69536 

10.00 

100.000 

3.16228 

10.0000 

N 

Ni 

Vn 

VlON 

N 

N^ 

Vn 

VlOiV 

N 

AT* 

Vn 

VlON 


40 



VALUES AND LOGARITHMS OF EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS 


Note; If 0 < X < .01 the value for e can be found by the use of 
(1-x) or the value for e^ can be found by the use of (1 + x). 


X 


Q-X 

Value 

■ 

- 

X 


Value 

Value 

Logio 

Value 

Logic 

0 00 

1. 0000 

.00000 

1 .00000 


0.50 

1. 6487 

.21715 

.60653 

0.01 

1 .0101 

.00434 

.99005 


0.51 

1. 6653 

.22149 

.60050 

0.02 

1 .0202 

.00869 

.98020 


0.52 

1. 6820 

.22583 

.59452 

0.03 

1 .0305 

.01303 

.97045 


0.53 

1. 6989 

.23018 

. 58860 

0.04 

1 .0408 

.01737 

.96079 


0.54 

1.7160 

. 23452 

.58275 

0.05 

1 .0513 

.02171 

.95123 


0.55 

1. 7333 

.23886 

.57695 

0.06 

1 .0618 

.02606 

.94176 


0.56 

1.7507 

. 24320 

.57121 

0.07 

1.0725 

.03040 

.93239 


0.57 

1 .7683 

.24755 

. 56553 

0.08 

1 .0833 

.03474 

.92312 


0.58 

1. 7860 

.25189 

. 55990 

0.09 

1 .0942 

,03909 

.91393 


0.59 

1. 8040 

.25623 

. 55433 

0.10 

1 .1052 

.04343 

.90484 


0.60 

1 .8221 

.26058 

.54881 

0.11 

1.1163 

.04777 

.89583 


0.61 

1 .8404 

.26492 

.54335 

0.12 

1.1275 

.05212 

.88692 


0.62 

1 .8589 

.26926 

. 53794 

0.13 

1 .1388 

.05646 

.87809 


0.63 

1. 8776 

.27361 

. 53259 

0.14 

1 .1503 

. 06080 

.86936 


0.64 

1 .8965 

.27795 

. 52729 

0.15 

1 .1618 

.06514 

.86071 


0.65 

1.9155 

.28229 

. 52205 

0.16 

1.1735 

.06949 

.85214 


0.66 

1 .9348 

. 28664 

.51 685 

0.17 

1. 1 853 

.07383 

. 84366 


0.67 

1.9542 

.29098 

.51171 

0.18 

1. 1 972 

.07817 

.83527 


0.68 

1. 9739 

.29532 

.50662 

0.19 

1.2092 

.08252 

.82696 


0.69 

1. 9937 

.29966 

.50158 

0.20 

1 .2214 

.08686 

.81873 


0.70 

2.0138 

. 30401 

.49659 

0.21 

1 .2337 

.09120 

.81058 


0.71 

2.0340 

.30835 

.49164 

0.22 

1 .2461 

.09554 

.80252 


0.72 

2.0544 

.31269 

.48675 

0.23 

1.2586 

.09989 

.79453 


0.73 

2.0751 

.31703 

.48191 

0.24 

1 .2712 

.10423 

.78663 


0.74 

2.0959 

.32138 

.47711 

0.25 

1 .2840 

.10857 

.77880 


0.75 

2.1170 

.32572 

.47237 

0.26 

1.2969 

.11292 

.77105 


0.76 

2.1383 

. 33006 

.46767 

0.27 

1 .3100 

.11726 

.76338 


0.77 

2.1598 

.33441 

.46301 

0.28 

1.3231 

.12160 

.75578 


0.78 

2.1815 

.33875 

.45841 

0.29 

1.3364 

.12595 

.74826 


0.79 

2.2034 

. 34309 

.45384 

0.30 

1.3499 

. 1 3029 

.74082 


0.80 

2.2255 

. 34744 

.44933 

0.31 

1. 3634 

.13463 

.73345 


0.81 

2.2479 

.35178 

.44486 

0.32 

1.3771 

.13897 

.72615 


0.82 

2.2705 

. 3561 2 

.44043 

0.33 

1 .3910 

.14332 

.71892 


0.83 

2.2933 

. 36046 

.43605 

0.34 

1 .4049 

.14766 

.71177 


0.84 

2.31 64 

. 36481 

.43171 

0.35 

1 .4191 

. 1 5200 

.70469 


0.85 

2.3396 

. 3691 5 

.42741 

0.36 

1 .4333 

.15635 

.69768 


0.86 

2.3632 

.37349 

.42316 

0.37 

1 .4477 

.16069 

.69073 


0.87 

2.3869 

. 37784 

.41895 

0.38 

1.4623 

.16503 

.68386 


0.88 

2.4109 

.38218 

.41478 

0.39 

1 .4770 

.16937 

.67706 


0.89 

2.4351 

. 38652 

.41066 

0.40 

1 .4918 

.17372 

.67032 


0.90 

2.4596 

. 39087 

. 40657 

0.41 

1 .5068 

.17806 

.66365 


0.91 

2.4843 

. 39521 

.40252 

0.42 

1. 5220 

.18240 

.65705 


0.92 

2.5093 

. 39955 

. 39852 

0.43 

1. 5373 

.18675 

.65051 


0.93 

2.5345 

. 40389 

.39455 

0.44 

1. 5527 

• .19109 

. 64404 


0.94 

2.5600 

. 40824 

. 39063 

0.45 

1. 5683 

.19543 

.63763 


0.95 

2. 5857 

.41258 

.38674 

0.46 

1. 5841 

.19978 

.63128 


0.96 

2.6117 

.41692 

. 38289 

0.47 

1. 6000 

.20412 

.62500 


0.97 

2. 6379 

.42127 

. 37908 

0.48 

1 .6161 

.20846 

.61878 


0.98 

2.6645 

.42561 

.37531 

0.49 

1.6323 

.21280 

.61263 


0.99 

2.6912 

.42995 

.37158 

0.50 

1. 6487 

.21715 

.60653 


1 .00 

2.7183 

.43429 

.36788 


373-062 O 70 - 4 



X 


erx 

Value 

X 

C* 

er* 

Value 

Value 

Log,o 

Value 

Logic 

1 .00 

2.7183 

.43429 

.36788 

1.50 

4.4817 

.65144 

.22313 

1.01 

2.7456 

.43864 

.36422 

1.51 

4. 5267 

.65578 

.22091 

1.02 

2.7732 

.44298 

.36060 

1.52 

4.5722 

.66013 

.21871 

1.03 

2.8011 

.44732 

.35701 

1.53 

4.6182 

.66447 

.21654 

1.04 

2.8292 

.45167 

.35345 

1.54 

4.6646 

.66881 

.21438 

1.05 

2.8577 

.45601 

.34994 

1.55 

4.7115 

.67316 

.21225 

1.06 

2.8864 

.46035 

.34646 

1 56 

4.7588 

.67750 

.21014 

1 .07 

2.9154 

.46470 

.34301 

1.57 

4.8066 

.68184 

.20805 

1.08 

2.9447 

.46904 

.33960 

1.58 

4.8550 

.68619 

.20598 

1.09 

2.9743 

.47338 

.33622 

1.59 

4.9037 

.69053 

.20393 

1 .10 

3.0042 

.47772 

.33287 

1.60 

4.9530 

.69487 

.20190 

1.11 

3.0344 

.48207 

. 32956 

1.61 

5.0028 

.69921 

.19989 

1.12 

3.0649 

.48641 

.32628 

1 .62 

5.0531 

.70356 

.19790 

1. 13 

3.0957 

.49075 

.32303 

1.63 

5.1039 

.70790 

.19593 

1.14 

3.1268 

.49510 

.31982 

1 .64 

5.1552 

.71224 

.19398 

1.15 

3.1582 

.49944 

.31664 

1.65 

5.2070 

.71659 

.19205 

1.16 

3.1899 

. 50378 

.31349 

1.66 

5.2593 

.72093 

.19014 

1 .17 

3.2220 

.50812 

.31037 

1 .67 

5.3122 

. 72527 

.18825 

1.18 

3.2544 

.51247 

.30728 

1.68 

5.3656 

.72961 

.18637 

1.19 

3.2871 

.51681 

. 30422 

1.69 

5.4195 

.73396 

.18452 

1.20 

3.3201 

.52115 

.30119 

1.70 

5.4739 

.73830 

.18268 

1 .21 

3.3535 

.52550 

.29820 

1.71 

5.5290 

.74264 

.18087 

1 .22 

3.3872 

.52984 

.29523 

1.72 

5.5845 

.74699 

. 1 7907 

1 .23 

3.4212 

.53418 

.29229 

1.73 

5.6407 

.75133 

.17728 

1 .24 

3.4556 

.53853 

.28938 

1.74 

5.6973 

.75567 

.17552 

1 .25 

3.4903 

. 54287 

.28650 

1.75 

5.7546 

.76002 

.17377 

1 .26 

3.5254 

.54721 

.28365 

1.76 

5.8124 

.76436 

.17204 

1 .27 

3.5609 

. 551 55 

.28083 

1.77 

5.8709 

.76870 

.17033 

1.28 

3.5966 

.55590 

.27804 

1.78 

5.9299 

.77304 

.16864 

1.29 

3.6328 

. 56024 

.27527 

1.79 

5.9895 

.77739 

.16696 

1 .30 

3.6693 

.56458 

.27253 

1.80 

6.0496 

.78173 

.16530 

1.31 

3.7062 

.56893 

.26982 

1.81 

6.1104 

.78607 

.16365 

1.32 

3.7434 

. 57327 

.26714 

1.82 

6.1719 

.79042 

.16203 

1.33 

3.7810 

.57761 

.26448 

1.83 

6.2339 

.79476 

.16041 

1.34 

3.8190 

.58195 

.26185 

1 .84 

6.2965 

.79910 

. 1 5882 

1.35 

3.8574 

. 58630 

.25924 

1 .85 

6.3598 

.80344 

. 1 5724 

1.36 

3.8962 

. 59064 

.25666 

1 .86 

6.4237 

.80779 

. 1 5567 

1.37 

3.9354 

.69498 

.25411 

1.87 

6.4883 

.81213 

.15412 

1.38 

3.9749 

. 59933 

.25158 

1 .88 

6. 5535 

.81647 

, 1 5259 

1.39 

4.0149 

. 60367 

.24908 

1.89 

6.6194 

.82082 

. 1 51 07 

1 .40 

4.0552 

.60801 

.24660 

1.90 

6.6859 

.82516 

.14957 

1.41 

4.0960 

.61236 

.24414 

1 .91 

6.7531 

.82950 

.14808 

1.42 

4.1371 

.61670 

.24171 

1.92 

6.8210 

.83385 

14661 

1.43 

4.1787 

.62104 

.23931 

1.93 

6.8895 

.83819 

.'14515 

1 .44 

4.2207 

.62538 

.23693 

1 .94 

6.9588 

.84253 

. 14370 

1 .45 

4.2631 

.62973 

.23457 

1.95 

7.0287 

.84687 

.14227 

1 .46 

4.3060 

. 63407 

.23224 

1.96 

7.0993 

.85122 

.14036 

1.47 

4.3492 

.63841 

. 22993 

1.97 

7.1707 

. 85556 

. 1 3946 

1 .48 

4.3929 

.64276 

.22764 

1 .98 

7.2427 

. 85990 

.13807 

1 .49 

4.4371 

.64710 

.22537 

1.99 

7.3155 

.86425 

.13670 

1 .50 

4.4817 

.65144 

.22313 

2.00 

7.3891 

. 86859 

.13534 


X 



r-* 

Value 

X 

e* 

erx 

Value 

Value 


Value 

Logic 

2.00 

7.3891 

.86859 

.13534 

2.50 

12.182 

1 .08574 

.08208 

2.01 

7.4633 

.87293 

.13399 

2.51 

12.305 

1 .09008 

.08127 

2.02 

7. 5383 

.87727 

.13266 

2.52 

12.429 

1 .09442 

.08046 

2.03 

7.6141 

.88162 

.13134 

2.53 

12.554 

1 .09877 

.07966 

2.04 

7.6906 

. 88596 

.13003 

2.54 

12.680 

1 .10311 

.07887 

2.05 

7.7679 

.89030 

.12873 

2.55 

12.807 

1 .10745 

.07808 

2.06 

7.8460 

. 89465 

.12745 

2.56 

12.936 

1 .11179 

.07730 

2.07 

7. 9248 

.89899 

.12619 

2.57 

13.066 

1 .11614 

.07654 

2.06 

8.0045 

.90333 

.12493 

2.58 

13.197 

1 .12048 

.07577 

2.09 

8.0849 

.90768 

.12369 

2.59 

13.330 

1 .12482 

.07502 

2.10 

8.1662 

.91202 

.12246 

2.60 

13.464 

1 .12917 

.07427 

2.11 

8.2482 

.91636 

.12124 

2.61 

13.599 

1 .13351 

.07353 

2.12 

8.3311 

. 92070 

.12003 

2.62 

13.736 

1 .13785 

.07280 

2.13 

8.4149 

.92505 

.11884 

2.63 

13.874 

1 .14219 

.07208 

2.14 

8.4994 

.92939 

.11765 

2.64 

14.013 

1 .14654 

.07136 

2.15 

8.5849 

.93373 

.11648 

2.65 

14.154 

1. 1 5088 

.07065 

2.16 

8.6711 

.93808 

.11533 

2.66 

14.296 

1. 1 5522 

.06995 

2.17 

8.7583 

.94242 

.11418 

2.67 

14.440 

1. 1 5957 

.06925 

2.18 

8.8463 

.94676 

.11304 

2.68 

14.585 

1 .16391 

.06856 

2.19 

8.9352 

.95110 

.11192 

2.69 

14.732 

1.16825 

.06788 

2.20 

9.0250 

.95545 

.11080 

2.70 

14.880 

1 .17260 

.06721 

2.21 

9.1157 

. 95979 

.10970 

2.71 

15.029 

1 .17694 

.06654 

2.22 

9.2073 

.96413 

.10861 

2.72 

15.180 

1 .18128 

.06587 

2.23 

9.2999 

. 96848 

.10753 

2.73 

15.333 

1 .18562 

.06522 

2.24 

9.3933 

. 97282 

.10646 

2.74 

15.487 

1.18997 

.06457 

2.25 

9.4877 

.97716 

.10540 

2.75 

15.643 

1 .19431 

.06393 

2.26 

9.5831 

.98151 

.10435 

2.76 

15.800 

1 .19865 

.06329 

2.27 

9.6794 

. 98585 

.10331 

2.77 

15.959 

1 .20300 

.06266 

2.28 

9.7767 

.99019 

.10228 

2.78 

16.119 

1 .20734 

.06204 

2.29 

9. 8749 

. 99453 

.10127 

2.79 

16.281 

1 .21168 

.06142 

2.30 

9. 9742 

. 99888 

.10026 

2.80 

16.445 

1 .21602 

.06081 

2.31 

10.074 

1. 00322 

.09926 

2.81 

16.610 

1 .22037 

.06020 

2.32 

10.176 

1 .00756 

.09827 

2.82 

16.777 

1 .22471 

.05961 

2.33 

10.278 

1 .01191 

.09730 

2.83 

16.945 

1 .22905 

.05901 

2.34 

10.381 

1 .01625 

. 09633 

2.84 

17.116 

1 .23340 

.05843 

2.35 

10.486 

1 .02059 

.09537 

2.85 

17.288 

1 .23774 

.05784 

2.36 

10.591 

1 .02493 

. 09442 

2.86 

17.462 

1 .24208 

.05727 

2.37 

10.697 

1 .02928 

. 09348 

2.87 

17.637 

1 .24643 

.056 70 

2.38 

10.805 

1. 03362 

. 09255 

2.88 

17.814 

1 .25077 

.05613 

2.39 

10.913 

1 .03796 

.09163 

2.89 

17.993 

1 .25511 

.05558 

2.40 

11.023 

1 .04231 

.09072 

2.90 

18.174 

1 .25945 

.05502 

2.41 

1 1. 1 34 

1 .04665 

.08982 

2.91 

18.357 

1 .26380 

.05448 

2.42 

11.246 

1 .05099 

. 08892 

2.92 

18.541 

1 .26814 

.05393 

2.43 

11.359 

1 .05534 

. 08804 

2.93 

18.728 

1 .27248 

.05340 

2.44 

11 .473 

1. 05968 

.08716 

2.94 

18.916 

1 .27683 

.05287 

2.45 

11.588 

1. 06402 

. 08629 

2.95 

19.106 

1 .28117 

.05234 

2.46 

11.705 

1. 06836 

.08543 

2.96 

19.298 

1 .28551 

.05182 

2.47 

11.822 

1 .07271 

.08458 

2.97 

19.492 

1 .28985 

.05130 

2.48 

11.941 

1 .07705 

.08374 

2.98 

19.688 

1 .29420 

.05079 

2.49 

12.061 

1. 081 39 

.08291 

2.99 

19.886 

1 .29854 

.05029 

2.50 

12.182 

1. 08574 

. 08208 

3.00 

20.086 

1. 30288 

.04979 


X 

C* 

Value 

Value 

Log 10 

3.00 

20.086 

1. 30288 

.04979 

3.05 

21.115 

1. 32460 

. 04736 

3.10 

22.198 

1. 34631 

. 04505 

3.15 

23.336 

1. 36803 

.04285 

3.20 

24.533 

1 .38974 

.04076 

3.25 

25.790 

1 .41146 

.03877 

3.30 

27.113 

1 .43317 

.03688 

3.35 

28.503 

1. 45489 

.03508 

3.40 

29.964 

1 .47660 

.03337 

3.45 

31.500 

1 .49832 

.03175 

3.50 

33.115 

1. 52003 

.03020 

3.55 

34.813 

1.54175 

.02872 

3.60 

36. 598 

1. 56346 

.02732 

3.65 

38.475 

1 .58517 

.02599 

3.70 

40.447 

1 .60689 

.02472 

3.75 

42.521 

1 .62860 

.02352 

3.80 

44.701 

1 .65032 

. 02237 

3.85 

46.993 

1 .67203 

.02128 

3.90 

49.402 

1 .69375 

.02024 

3.95 

51.935 

1 .71546 

.01925 

4.00 

54. 598 

1 .73718 

.01832 

4.10 

60.340 

1 .78061 

.01657 

4.20 

66.686 

1 .82404 

.01500 

4.30 

73.700 

1 .86747 

.01357 

4.40 

81 .451 

1 .91090 

.01227 

4.50 

90.017 

1 .95433 

.01111 

4.60 

99.484 

1 .99775 

.01005 

4.70 

109.95 

2.04118 

.00910 

4.80 

121 .51 

2.08461 

. 00823 

4.90 

134.29 

2.12804 

.00745 

5.00 

148.41 

2.17147 

.00674 

5.10 

164.02 

2.21490 

.00610 

5.20 

181 .27 

2.25833 

.00552 

5.30 

200.34 

2.30176 

.00499 

5.40 

221.41 

2.34519 

.00452 

5.50 

244.69 

2.38862 

.00409 

5.60 

270.43 

2.43205 

.00370 

5.70 

298. 87 

2.47548 

.00335 

5.80 

330.30 

2.51891 

.00303 

5.90 

365.04 

2.56234 

. 00274 

6.00 

403.43 

2.60577 

.00248 

6.25 

518.01 

2.71434 

.00193 

6.50 

665.14 

2.82291 

.00150 

6.75 

854.06 

2.93149 

.00117 

7.00 

1096.6 

3.04006 

.00091 

7.50 

1808.0 

3.25721 

.00055 

8.00 

2981.0 

3.47436 

.00034 

8.50 

4914.8 

3.69150 

.00020 

9.00 

8103.1 

3.90865 

.00012 

9.50 

13360. 

4.12580 

.00007 

10.00 

22026. 

4.34294 

.00005 


THREE-PLACE VALUES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 

AND 

DEGREES IN RADIAN MEASURE 


Rad. 

Deg. 

Sin 

Tan 

Sec 

Csc 

Cot 

Cos 

Deg. 

Rad. 

.000 

0° 

.000 

.000 

1.000 



1.000 

90° 

1.571 

.017 

1° 

.017 

.017 

1.000 

57.30 

57.29 

1.000 

89° 

1.553 

.0.'35 

2° 

.035 

.035 

1.001 

28.65 

28.64 

0.999 

88° 

1.536 

.052 

3° 

.052 

.052 

1.001 

19.11 

19.08 

.999 

87° 

1.518 

.070 

4° 

.070 

.070 

1.002 

14.34 

14.30 

.998 

86° 

1.501 

.087 

5° 

.087 

.087 

1.004 

11.47 

11.43 

.996 

85° 

1.484 

.105 

6° 

.105 

.105 

1.006 

9.567 

9.514 

.995 

84° 

1.466 

.122 

7° 

.122 

.123 

1.008 

8.206 

8.144 

.993 

83° 

1.449 

.140 

8° 

.139 

.141 

1.010 

7.185 

7.115 

.990 

82° 

1.431 

.157 

9° 

.156 

.158 

1.012 

6.392 

6.314 

.988 

81° 

1.414 

.175 

10° 

.174 

.176 

1.015 

5.759 

5.671 

.985 

80° 

1.396 

.192 

11° 

.191 

.194 

1.019 

5.241 

5.145 

.982 

79° 

1.379 

.209 

12° 

.208 

.213 

1.022 

4.810 

4.705 

.978 

78° 

1.361 

.227 

13° 

.225 

.231 

1.026 

4.445 

4.331 

.974 

77° 

1.344 

.244 

14° 

.242 

.249 

1.031 

4.134 

4.011 

.970 

76° 

1.326 

.262 

15° 

.259 

.268 

1.035 

3.864 

3.732 

.966 

75° 

1.309 

.279 

16° 

.276 

.287 

1.040 

3.628 

3.487 

.961 

74° 

1.292 

.297 

17° 

.292 

.306 

1.046 

3.420 

3.271 

.956 

73° 

1.274 

.314 

18° 

.309 

.325 

1.051 

3.236 

3.078 

.951 

72° 

1.257 

.332 

19° 

.326 

.344 

1.058 

3.072 

2.904 

.946 

71° 

1.239 

.349 

20° 

.342 

.364 

1.064 

2.924 

2.747 

.940 

70° 

1.222 

.367 

21° 

.358 

.384 

1.071 

2.790 

2.605 

.934 

69° 

1.204 

.384 

22° 

.375 

.404 

1.079 

2.669 

2.475 

.927 

68° 

1.187 

.401 

23° 

.391 

.424 

1.086 

2.559 

2.356 

.921 

67° 

1.169 

.419 

24° 

.407 

.445 

1.095 

2.459 

2.246 

.914 

66° 

1.152 

.436 

25° 

.423 

.466 

1.103 

2.366 

2.145 

.906 

65° 

1.134 

.454 

26° 

.438 

.488 

1.113 

2.281 

2.050 

.899 

64° 

1.117 

.471 

27° 

.454 

.510 

1.122 

2.203 

1.963 

.891 

63° 

1.100 

.489 

28° 

.469 

.532 

1.133 

2.130 

1.881 

.883 

62° 

1 .082 

.506 

29° 

.485 

.554 

1.143 

2.063 

1.804 

.875 

61° 

1 .065 

.524 

30° 

.500 

.577 

1.155 

2.000 

1.732 

.866 

60° 

1.047 

.541 

31° 

.515 

.601 

1.167 

1.942 

1.664 

.857 

59° 

1 .030 

.559 

32° 

.530 

.625 

1.179 

1.887 

1.600 

.848 

58° 

1.012 

.576 

33° 

.545 

.649 

1.192 

1.836 

1.540 

.839 

57° 

0.995 

.593 

34° 

.559 

.675 

1.206 

1.788 

1.483 

.829 

56° 

0.977 

.611 

35° 

.574 

.700 

1.221 

1.743 

1.428 

.819 

55° 

0.960 

.628 

36° 

.588 

.727 

1.236 

1.701 

1.376 

.809 

54° 

0.942 

.646 

37° 

.602 

.754 

1.252 

1.662 

1.327 

.799 

53° 

0.925 

.663 

38° 

.616 

.781 

1.269 

1.624 

1.280 

.788 

52° 

0.90S 

.681 

39° 

.629 

.810 

1.287 

1.589 

1.235 

.777 

51° 

0..S90 

.698 

40° 

.643 

.839 

1.305 

1.556 

1.192 

.766 

50° 

0.H73 

.716 

41° 

.656 

.869 

1.325 

1.524 

1.150 

.755 

49° 

0.H.').5 

.733 

42° 

.669 

.900 

1.346 

1.494 

1.111 

.743 

48° 

0..S3S 

.750 

43° 

.682 

.933 

1.367 

1.466 

1.072 

.731 

47° 

O.SL’O 

.768 

44° 

.695 

0.966 

1.390 

1.440 

1.036 

.719 

46° 

0.K03 

.785 

45° 

.707 

1.000 

1.414 

1.414 

1.000 

.707 

45° 

0.7S5 

Rad. 

Deg. 

Cos 

Cot 

Csc 

Sec 

Tan 

Sin 

Deg. 

Rad. 



NATURAL (NAPIERIAN) LOGARITHMS 


The natural logarithm of a number is the index of the power to which the 
base e (2.7182818) must be raised in order to equal the number. 

Example: logg 4.12 = In 4.12 = 1.4159. 

The table gives the natural logarithms of numbers from 1.00 to 9.99 di- 
rectly, and permits finding logarithms of numbers outside that range by 
the addition or subtraction of the natural logarithms of powers of 10. 

Example: In 679. = In 6.79 + In 10^ = 1.9155 + 4.6052 = 6.5207 

In 0.0679 = In 6.79 - In 10^ = 1.9155 - 4.6052 = - 2.6897 

Natural Logarithms of 10^ 

In 10 = 2.302585 In 10^ = 9.210340 In 10 = 16.118096 

In 10^ = 4.605170 In 10® = 11.512925 In 10® = 18.420681 

In 10® = 6.907755 In 10® = 13.815511 In 10® = 20.723266 

To obtain the common logarithm, the natural logarithm is multiplied by 
logio which is 0.434294, or logio A' = 0.434294 In M. 


.V 

0 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

1.0 

0 

0000 

0 0100 

0 

0198 

0 0296 

0 0392 

0.0488 

0 0583 

0.0677 

0. 0770 

0 0862 

1. 1 

0 

0953 

0. 1044 

0 

1 133 

0. 1222 

0,1310 

0 1398 

0. 1484 

0.1570 

0. 1655 

0.1740 

1. 2 

0 

1823 

0 1906 

0 

1989 

0 2070 

0 2151 

0 2231 

0. 231 1 

0.2390 

0.2469 

0.2546 

1.3 

0 

2624 

0. 2700 

0 

2776 

0.2852 

0.2927 

0.3001 

0. 3075 

0,3148 

0. 3221 

0.3293 

1.4 

0 

3365 

0 3436 

0 

3507 

0 3577 

0,3646 

0.3716 

0.3784 

0.3853 

0.3920 

0 3988 

1. 5 

0 

4055 

0 4121 

0 

4187 

0.4253 

0.4313 

0 4383 

0. 4447 

0.4511 

0. 4574 

0 4637 

1.6 

0 

4700 

0 4762 

0 

4824 

0.4886 

0.4947 

0. 5008 

0.5068 

0.5128 

0.5188 

0.5247 

1 7 

0 

5306 

0 5365 

0 

5423 

0.5481 

0, 5539 

0 5596 

0 5653 

0.5710 

0 5766 

0.5822 

1. 8 

0 

5878 

0. 5933 

0 

598.8 

0 6043 

0 6098 

0 6152 

0.6206 

0.6259 

0.6313 

0.6366 

1.9 

0 

6419 

0.6471 

0 

6523 

0.6575 

0.6627 

0.6678 

0. 6729 

0.6780 

0.6831 

0.6881 

2 0 

0 

6931 

0 6981 

0 

7031 

0.7080 

0.7129 

0.7178 

0.7227 

0.7275 

0.7324 

0.7372 

2 1 

0 

7419 

0 7467 

0 

7514 

0.7561 

0 7608 

0.7655 

0 7701 

0.7747 

0.7793 

0.7839 

2.2 

0 

7885 

0 7930 

0 

7975 

0.8020 

0. 8065 

0.8109 

0.8154 

0,8198 

0.8242 

0.8286 

2.3 

0 

8329 

0 8372 

0 

8416 

0.8459 

0.8502 

0. 8544 

0.8587 

0.8629 

0.8671 

0.8713 

2.4 

0 

8755 

0.8796 

0 

8838 

0 8879 

0 8920 

0 8961 

0.9002 

0.9042 

0.9083 

0.9123 

2 5 

0 

9163 

0.9203 

0 

9243 

0 9282 

0 9322 

0.9361 

0 9400 

0.9439 

0.9478 

0.9517 

2.6 

0 

9555 

0.9594 

0 

9632 

0.9670 

0.9708 

0.9746 

0.9783 

0.9821 

0.9858 

0.9895 

2 7 

0 

9933 

0 9969 

1 

0006 

1.0043 

1. 0080 

1.0116 

1,0152 

1.0188 

1.0225 

1.0260 

2 8 

1 

0296 

1,0332 

1 

0367 

1, 0403 

1.0438 

1.0473 

1.0508 

1,0543 

1.0578 

1,0613 

2.9 

1 

0647 

1.0682 

1 

0716 

1.0750 

1.0784 

1.0818 

1.0852 

1.0886 

1.0919 

1.0953 

SO 

1 

0986 

1 1019 

1 

1053 

1.1086 

1.1119 

1.1151 

1.1184 

1.1217 

1. 1249 

1. 1282 

3. 1 

1 

1314 

1. 1346 

1 

1378 

1.1410 

1.1442 

1.1474 

1.1506 

1. 1537 

1.1569 

1.1600 

3.2 

1 

1632 

1.1663 

1 

1694 

1. 1725 

1. 175 b 

1, 1787 

1.1817 

1.1848 

1.1878 

1.1909 

3.3 

1 

1939 

1.1969 

1 

2000 

1. 2030 

1. 2060 

1.2090 

1.2119 

1.2149 

1.2179 

1.2208 

3.4 

1 

2238 

1. 2267 

1 

2296 

1. 2326 

1.2355 

1. 2384 

1, 2413 

1.2442 

1.2470 

1. 2499 

3.5 

1 

2528 

1.2556 

1 

2585 

1.2613 

1. 2641 

1.2669 

1.2698 

1.2726 

1.2754 

1,2782 

3.6 

1 

2809 

1.2837 

1 

2865 

1.2892 

1.2920 

1.2947 

1.2975 

1.3002 

1.3029 

1. 3056 

3.7 

1 

3083 

1.3110 

1 

3137 

1.3164 

1.3191 

1.3218 

1.3244 

1.3271 

1.3297 

1.3324 

3.8 

1. 

3350 

1.3376 

1 

3403 

1.3429 

1.3455 

1.3481 

1.3507 

1.3533 

1.3558 

1.3584 

3.9 

1. 

3610 

1.3635 

1 

3661 

1. 3686 

1.3712 

1.3737 

1.3762 

1.3788 

1.3813 

1.3838 

4.0 

1. 

8863 

1.3888 

1 

3913 

1. 3938 

1.3962 

1.3987 

1.4012 

1.4036 

1.4061 

1.4086 

4. 1 

1. 

41 10 

1.4134 

1 

4159 

1.4183 

1.4207 

1.4231 

1.4255 

1.4279 

1.4303 

1.4327 

4.2 

1. 

4351 

1.4375 

1 

4398 

1.4422 

1.4446 

1. 4469 

1.4493 

1.4516 

1.4540 

1.4563 

4.3 

I. 

4586 

1. 4609 

1 

4633 

1.4656 

1. 4679 

1.4702 

1.4725 

1.4748 

1.4770 

1.4793 

4.4 

1. 

4816 

1.4839 

1 

4861 

1. 4884 

I. 4907 

1. 4929 

1.4951 

1. 4974 

1. 4996 

1.5019 

4.5 

1. 

5041 

1.5063 

1. 

5085 

1.5107 

1.5129 

I.5I5I 

1.5173 

1.5195 

1.5217 

1.5239 

4.6 

1. 

5261 

1.5282 

1. 

5304 

1.5326 

1.5347 

1. 5369 

1.5390 

1.5412 

1.5433 

1.5454 

4.7 

1 

5476 

1.5497 

1. 

5518 

1.5539 

1.5560 

1.5581 

1. 5602 

1.5623 

1. 5644 

1. 5665 

4.6 

1 

5686 

1.5707 

1. 

5728 

1.5748 

1.5769 

1.5790 

1.5810 

1.5831 

1.5851 

1.5872 

4.9 

1. 

5892 

1.5913 

I. 

5933 

1.5953 

1.5974 

1.5994 

1.6014 

1.6034 

1.6054 

I. 6074 


46 


N 

0 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

6 0 

1 6094 

1.6114 

1.6134 

1. 6164 

1.6174 

1. 6194 

1.6214 

1.6233 

1.6853 

1.6278 

5. 1 

1 6292 

1.6312 

1.6332 

1.6351 

1.6371 

1.6390 

1. 6409 

1.6429 

1.6448 

1.6467 

5 2 

1.6487 

1.6506 

1.6525 

1.6544 

1.6563 

1.6582 

1.6601 

1.6620 

1.6639 

1.6658 

5.3 

1.6677 

1. 6696 

1.6715 

1.6734 

1.6752 

1.6771 

1.6790 

1.6808 

1.6827 

1.6845 

5 4 

1.6864 

1.6882 

1.6901 

1.6919 

1.6938 

1.6956 

1.6974 

1.6993 

1.701 1 

1.7029 

5.5 

1.7047 

1. 7066 

1.7084 

1.7102 

1.7120 

1.7138 

1.7156 

1. 7:74 

1.7192 

1.7210 

5.6 

1.7228 

1.7246 

1.7263 

1.7281 

1.7299 

1.7317 

1.7334 

1.7352 

1.7370 

1.7387 

5 7 

1.7405 

1.7422 

1.7440 

1.7457 

1.7475 

1.7492 

1.7509 

1.7527 

1.7544 

I. 7561 

5.8 

1.7579 

1.7596 

1.7613 

1.7630 

1.7647 

1.7664 

1.7681 

1. 7699 

1.7716 

1.7733 

5.9 

1.7750 

1.7766 

1.7783 

1.7800 

1.7817 

1.7834 

1.7851 

1.7867 

1.7884 

1.7901 

6.0 

1.7918 

1.7934 

1.7961 

1.7967 

1.7984 

1.8001 

1. 8017 

1.8034 

1.8050 

1.8066 

6 1 

1.8083 

1.8099 

1.8116 

1.8132 

1.8148 

1.8165 

1.8181 

1.8197 

1.8213 

1.8229 

6 2 

1.8245 

1. 8262 

1.8278 

1.8294 

1.8310 

1.8326 

1.8342 

1.8358 

1.8374 

1.8390 

6.3 

1.8405 

1.8421 

1.8437 

1.8453 

1.8469 

1.8485 

1.8500 

1.8516 

1.8532 

1.8547 

6 4 

1.8563 

1.8579 

1.8594 

1.8610 

1.8625 

1.8641 

1. 8656 

1.8672 

1.8687 

1.8703 

6 5 

1.8718 

1.8733 

1.8749 

1.8764 

1.8779 

1.8795 

1.8810 

1. 8825 

1.8840 

1.8856 

0.6 

1.8871 

I. 8886 

1.8901 

1.8916 

1.8931 

1.8946 

1.8961 

1.8976 

1.8991 

1.9006 

6 7 

1.9021 

1.9036 

1.9051 

1.9066 

1.9031 

1.9095 

1.9110 

1.9125 

1.9140 

1.9155 

6.8 

1.9169 

1.9184 

1.9199 

1.9213 

1.9228 

1.9242 

1.9257 

1.9272 

1.9286 

1.9301 

0.9 

1.9315 

1.9330 

1.9344 

1.9359 

1.9373 

1.9387 

1.9402 

1.9416 

1.9430 

1.9445 

7.0 

1.3469 

1.9473 

1.9488 

1.9602 

1.9616 

1.9530 

1. 9644 

1.9559 

1.9673 

1.9587 

7. 1 

1.9601 

I. 9615 

1.9629 

1.9643 

1.9657 

1.9671 

1.9685 

1.9699 

1.9713 

1.9727 

7 2 

1.9741 

1.9755 

1.9769 

1.9782 

1.9796 

1.9810 

1.9824 

1.9338 

1.9851 

1.9865 

7.3 

1.9879 

1.9892 

1.9906 

1.9920 

1.9933 

1.9947 

1.9961 

1.9974 

1.9988 

2.0001 

7.4 

2.0015 

2.0028 

2.0042 

2,0055 

2.0069 

2.0082 

2.0096 

2.0109 

2.0122 

2.0136 

7.5 

2.0149 

2,0162 

2.0176 

2,0189 

2.0202 

2.0215 

2.0229 

2.0242 

2.0235 

2.0263 

7.6 

2. 02^1 

2.0295 

2.0308 

2.0321 

2.0334 

2.0347 

2.0360 

2.0373 

2.0386 

2.0399 

7.7 

2.0412 

2.0425 

2.0438 

2.0451 

2.0464 

2.0477 

2.0490 

2.0503 

2.0516 

2.0528 

7.8 

2.0541 

2.0554 

2 0567 

2.0580 

2.0592 

2.0605 

2.0618 

2.0631 

2.0643 

2.0656 

7.9 

2.0669 

2.0631 

2.0694 

2.0707 

2.0719 

2.0732 

2.0744 

2.0757 

2.0769 

2.0782 

8.0 

2.0794 

2.0807 

2.0819 

2.0832 

2.0844 

2.0857 

2. 0869 

2.0882 

2.0894 

2.0906 

8. 1 

2.0919 

2.0931 

2.0943 

2.0956 

2.0968 

2.0980 

2.0992 

2. 1005 

2. 1017 

2. 1029 

8.2 

2. 1041 

2. 1054 

2. 1066 

2. 1078 

2. 1090 

2. 1 102 

2.1114 

2.1126 

2. 1 138 

2.1150 

8.3 

2. 1163 

2. 1175 

2. 1187 

2. 1199 

2. 121 1 

2. 1223 

2.1235 

2. 1247 

2. 1258 

2. 1270 

8.4 

2. 1232 

2.1294 

2. 1306 

2. 1318 

2.1330 

2. 1342 

2. 1353 

2. 1365 

2.1377 

2.1389 

8.5 

2. 1401 

2. 1412 

2. 1424 

2. 1436 

2. 1448 

2. 1459 

2. 1471 

2. 1483 

2. 1494 

2. 1506 

6.6 

2. 1518 

2. 1529 

2. 1541 

2. 1552 

2. 1564 

2. 1576 

2. 1587 

2. 1599 

2. 1610 

2. 1622 

8.7 

2. 1633 

2. 1645 

2. 1656 

2. 1668 

2. 1679 

2. 1691 

2. 1702 

2. 1713 

2. 1725 

2. 1736 

8.8 

2. 1748 

2. 1759 

2. 1770 

2. 1782 

2. 1793 

2. 1804 

2. 1815 

2. 1327 

2. 1838 

2. 1849 

8.9 

2. 1861 

2. 1872 

2. 1883 

2. 1894 

2. 1905 

2. 1917 

2. 1928 

2. 1939 

2. 1950 

2. 1961 

9.0 

2.1972 

2.1983 

2.1994 

2.2006 

2.2017 

2.2028 

2. 2039 

2.2050 

2.2061 

2.2072 

9. 1 

2.2083 

2.2094 

2.2105 

2.2116 

2.2127 

2.2138 

2.2148 

2.2159 

2.2170 

2.2181 

9.2 

2.2192 

2.2203 

2.2214 

2.2225 

2.2235 

2.2246 

2.2257 

2.2263 

2. 2279 

2.2289 

9.3 

2.2300 

2.2311 

2.2322 

2.2332 

2.2343 

2.2354 

2.2364 

2.2375 

2.2380 

2.2396 

9.4 

2.2407 

2.2418 

2.2428 

2.2439 

2.2450 

2.2460 

2. 2471 

2. 2'*81 

2.2492 

2.2502 

9.5 

2.2513 

2.2523 

2.2534 

2.2544 

2.2555 

2. 2565 

2. 2576 

2. 2586 

2,2597 

2.2607 

9.6 

2.2618 

2.2628 

2.2638 

2.2649 

2.2659 

2.2670 

2.2680 

2. 2 o 90 

2.2701 

2.271 1 

9.7 

2.2721 

2.2732 

2.2742 

2.2752 

2.2762 

2.2773 

2.2763 

2.2793 

2.2803 

2.2814 

9.8 

2.2824 

2.2834 

2.2844 

2.2854 

2.2865 

2.2875 

2.2885 

2.2895 

2.2905 

2.2915 

9.9 

2.2925 

2.2935 

2.2946 

2.2956 

2.2966 

2.2976 

2.2986 

2. 2996 

2.3006 

2.3016 


47 


LOGARITHMS TO BASE 10 


N 

0 

1 

2 

8 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

1 

2 3 

4 

6 

6 

7 8 9 

10 

0000 

0043 

0086 

0128 

0170 

0212 

0253 

0294 

0334 

0374 

4 

812 

17 2125 

29 33 37 

11 

0414 

0453 

0492 

0531 

0569 

0607 

0645 

0682 

0719 

0755 

4 

8 11 

15 19 23 

26 30 34 

12 

0792 

0828 

0864 

0899 

0934 

0969 

1004 

1038 

1072 

1106 

3 

7 10 

14 17 21 

24 28 31 

13 

1139 

1173 

1206 

1239 

1271 

1303 

1335 

1367 

1399 

1430 

3 

610 

13 16 19 

23 26 29 

14 

1461 

1492 

1523 

1553 

1584 

1614 

1644 

1673 

1703 

1732 

3 

6 

9 

12 15 18 

21 24 27 

15 

1761 

1790 

1818 

1847 

1875 

1903 

1931 

1959 

1987 

2014 

3 

6 

8 

11 14 17 

20 22 25 

16 

2041 

2068 

2095 

2122 

2148 

2175 

2201 

2227 

2253 

2279 

3 

5 

8 

11 13 16 

18 21 24 

17 

2304 

2330 

2355 

2380 

2405 

2430 

2455 

2480 

2504 

2529 

2 

5 

7 

10 12 15 

17 20 22 

18 

2553 

2577 

2601 

2625 

2648 

2672 

2695 

2718 

2742 

2765 

2 

5 

7 

9 

12 14 

16 19 21 

19 

2788 

2810 

2833 

2856 

2878 

2900 

2923 

2945 

2967 

2989 

2 

4 

7 

9 

11 13 

16 18 20 

20 

3010 

3032 

3054 

3075 

3096 

3118 

3139 

3160 

3181 

3201 

2 

4 

6 

8 

11 13 

15 17 19 

21 

3222 

3243 

3263 

3284 

3304 

3324 

3345 

3365 

3385 

3404 

2 

4 

6 

8 

10 12 

14 16 18 

22 

3424 

3444 

3464 

3483 

3502 

3522 

3541 

3560 

3579 

3598 

2 

4 

6 

8 

10 12 

14 16 17 

23 

3617 

3636 

3655 

3674 

3692 

3711 

3729 

3747 

3766 

3784 

2 

4 

6 

7 

9 11 

13 15 17 

24 

3802 

3820 

3838 

3856 

3874 

3892 

3909 

3927 

3946 

3962 

2 

4 

6 

7 

9 

11 

12 14 16 

25 

3979 

3997 

4014 

4031 

4048 

4065 

4082 

4099 

4116 

4133 

2 

4 

5 

7 

9 

10 

12 14 16 

26 

4150 

4166 

4183 

4200 

4216 

4232 

4249 

4265 

4281 

4298 

2 

3 

5 

7 

8 

10 

11 13 15 

27 

4314 

4330 

4346 

4362 

4378 

4393 

4409 

4425 

4440 

4456 

2 

3 

5 

6 

8 

9 

11 12 14 

28 

4472 

4487 

4502 

4518 

4533 

4548 

4564 

4579 

4594 

4609 

2 

3 

5 

6 

8 

9 

11 12 14 

29 

4624 

4639 

4654 

4669 

4683 

4698 

4713 

4728 

4742 

4757 

1 

3 

4 

6 

7 

9 

10 12 13 

30 

4771 

4786 

4800 

4814 

4829 

4843 

4857 

4871 

4886 

4900 

1 

3 

4 

6 

7 

9 

10 11 13 

31 

4914 

4928 

4942 

4955 

4969 

4983 

4997 

5011 

5024 

5038 

1 

3 

4 

5 

7 

8 

lO 11 12 

32 

5051 

5065 

5079 

5092 

5105 

5119 

5132 

5145 

5159 

5172 

1 

3 

4 

6 

7 

8 

911 12 

33 

5185 

5198 

5211 

5224 

5237 

5250 

5263 

5276 

5289 

5302 

1 

3 

4 

5 

7 

8 

9 11 12 

34 

5315 

5328 

5340 

5353 

5366 

5378 

6391 

5403 

5416 

5428 

1 

2 

4 

5 

6 

8 

910 11 

35 

5441 

5453 

5465 

5478 

5490 

5502 

5514 

5527 

5539 

5551 

1 

2 

4 

6 

6 

7 

910 11 

36 

5563 

5575 

5587 

5599 

5611 

6623 

5635 

5647 

5658 

6670 

1 

2 

4 

6 

6 

7 

810 11 

37 

5682 

5694 

6705 

6717 

5729 

6740 

6752 

5763 

6775 

*6786 

1 

2 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 911 

38 

5798 

5809 

5821 

6832 

5843 

5855 

5866 

5877 

5888 

5899 

1 

2 

3 

5 

6 

7 

8 9 10 

39 

5911 

59^ 

5933 

5944 

5955 

5966 

5977 

5988 

5999 

6010 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

7 

8 910 

40 

6021 

6031 

6042 

6053 

6064 

6075 

6085 

6096 

6107 

6117 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

8 910 

41 

6128 

6138 

6149 

6160 

6170 

6180 

6191 

6201 

6212 

6222 

1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 8 9 

42 

6232 

6243 

6253 

6263 

6274 

6284 

6294 

6304 

6314 

6325 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 8 9 

43 

6335 

6345 

6355 

6365 

6375 

6385 

6395 

6405 

6415 

6425 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 8 9 

44 

6435 

6444 

6454 

6464 

6474 

6484 

6493 

6503 

6513 

6522 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 8 9 

45 

6532 

6542 

6551 

6561 

6571 

6580 

6590 

6599 

6609 

6618 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 8 9 

46 

6628 

6637 

6646 

6656 

6665 

6675 

6684 

6693 

6702 

6712 

1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 7 8 

47 

6721 

6730 

6739 

6749 

6758 

6767 

6776 

6785 

6794 

6803 

1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 7 8 

48 

6812 

6821 

6830 

6839 

6848 

6857 

6866 

6875 

6884 

6893 

1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 7 8 

49 

6902 

6911 

6920 

6928 

6937 

6946 

6955 

6964 

6972 

6981 

1 

2 

3 

4 

4 

6 

6 7 8 

50 

6990 

6998 

7007 

7016 

7024 

7033 

7042 

7050 

7059 

7067 

1 

2 

3 

3 

4 

6 

6 7 8 

51 

7076 

7084 

7093 

7101 

7110 

7118 

7126 

7135 

7143 

7152 

1 

2 

3 

3 

4 

6 

6 7 8 

52 

7160 

7168 

7177 

7185 

7193 

7202 

7210 

7218 

7226 

7235 

1 

2 

3 

3 

4 

6 

6 7 7 

53 

7243 

7251 

7259 

7267 

7275 

7284 

7292 

7300 

7308 

7316 

1 

2 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 6 7 

54 

7324 

7332 

7340 

7348 

7356 

7364 

7372 

7380 

7388 

7396 

1 

2 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 6 7 

N 

0 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

1 

2 

2 

4 

5 

6 

7 8 9 


The proportional parts are stated in full for every tenth at the right-hand side. 
The logarithm of any number of four significant figures can be read directly by add- 


48 



{continued)— WGARYTm/L^ TO BASE 10 


N 

0 

1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

65 

7404 

7412 

7419 

7427 

7435 

7443 

7451 

7459 

7466 

7474 

1 

2 

2 

3 

4 

5 

5 

6 

7 

66 

7482 

7490 

7497 

7505 

7513 

7520 

7528 

7536 

7543 

7551 

1 

2 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

6 

7 

57 

7669 

7566 

7574 

7582 

7589 

7597 

7604 

7612 

7619 

7627 

1 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

5 

6 

7 

58 

7634 

7642 

7649 

7657 

7664 

7672 

7679 

7686 

7694 

7701 

1 

1 

2 

3 

4 

4 

5 

6 

7 

59 

7709 

7716 

7723 

7731 

7738 

7745 

7752 

7760 

7767 

7774 

1 

1 

2 

3 

4 

4 

5 

6 

7 

60 

7782 

7789 

7796 

7803 

7810 

7818 

7825 

7832 

7839 

7846 

1 

1 

2 

3 

4 

4 

5 

6 

6 

61 

7853 

7860 

7868 

7875 

7882 

7889 

7896 

7903 

7910 

7917 

1 

1 

2 

3 

3 

4 

5 

6 

6 

02 

7924 

7931 

7938 

7945 

7952 

7959 

7966 

7973 

7980 

7987 

1 

1 

2 

3 

3 

4 

5 

5 

6 

63 

7993 

8000 

8007 

8014 

8021 

8028 

8035 

8041 

8048 

8055 

1 

1 

2 

3 

3 

4 

5 

5 

6 

64 

8062 

8069 

8075 

8082 

8089 

8096 

8102 

8109 

8116 

8122 

1 

1 

2 

3 

3 

4 

5 

6 

6 

65 

8129 

8136 

8142 

8149 

8156 

8162 

8169 

8176 

8182 

8189 

1 

1 

2 

3 

3 

4 

5 

5 

6 

66 

8195 

8202 

8209 

8215 

8222 

8228 

8235 

8241 

8248 

8254 

1 

1 

2 

3 

3 

4 

6 

6 

6 

67 

8261 

8267 

8274 

8280 

8287 

8293 

8299 

8306 

8312 

8319 

1 

1 

2 

3 

3 

4 

5 

6 

6 

68 

8325 

8331 

8538 

8344 

8351 

8357 

8363 

8370 

8376 

8382 

1 

1 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

6 

6 

69 

8388 

8395 

8401 

8407 

8414 

8420 

8426 

8432 

8439 

8445 

1 

1 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

5 

6 

70 

8451 

8457 

8463 

8470 

8476 

8482 

8488 

8494 

8500 

8506 

1 

1 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

5 

6 

71 

8513 

8519 

8525 

8531 

8537 

8543 

8549 

8555 

8561 

8567 

1 

1 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

5 

6 

72 

8573 

8579 

8585 

8591 

8597 

8603 

8609 

8615 

8621 

8627 

1 

1 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

5 

6 

73 

8633 

8639 

8645 

8651 

8657 

8663 

8669 

8675 

8681 

8686 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

4 

4 

5 

5 

74 

8692 

8698 

8704 

8710 

8716 

8722 

8727 

8733 

8739 

8745 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

4 

4 

5 

6 

75 

8751 

8756 

8762 

8768 

8774 

8779 

8785 

8791 

8797 

8802 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

5 

5 

76 

8808 

8814 

8820 

8825 

8831 

8837 

8842 

8848 

8854 

8859 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

5 

77 

8865 

8871 

8876 

8882 

8887 

8893 

8899 

8904 

8910 

8915 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

6 

78 

8921 

8927 

8932 

8938 

8943 

8949 

8954 

8960 

8965 

8971 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

5 

79 

8976 

8982 

8987 

8993 

8998 

9004 

9009 

9015 

9020 

9025 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

5 

80 

9031 

9036 

9042 

9047 

9053 

9058 

9063 

9069 

9074 

9079 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

5 

81 

9085 

9090 

9096 

9101 

9106 

9112 

9117 

9122 

9128 

9133 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

5 

82 

9138 

9143 

9149 

9154 

9159 

9165 

9170 

9175 

9180 

9186 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

5 

83 

9191 

9196 

9201 

9206 

9212 

9217 

9222 

9227 

9232 

9238 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

5 

84 

9243 

9248 

9253 

9258 

9263 

9269 

9274 

9279 

9284 

9289 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

6 

85 

9294 

9299 

9304 

9309 

9315 

9320 

9325 

9330 

9335 

9340 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

5 

86 

9345 

9350 

9355 

9360 

9365 

9370 

9375 

9380 

9385 

9390 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

5 

87 

9395 

9400 

9405 

9410 

9415 

9420 

9425 

9430 

9435 

9440 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

5 

88 

9445 

9450 

9455 

9460 

9465 

9469 

9474 

9479 

9484 

9489 

0 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

89 

9494 

9499 

9504 

9509 

9513 

9518 

9523 

9528 

9533 

9538 

0 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

90 

9542 

9547 

9552 

9557 

9562 

9566 

9571 

9576 

9581 

9586 

0 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

91 

9590 

9595 

9600 

9605 

9609 

9614 

9619 

9624 

9628 

9633 

0 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

92 

9638 

9643 

9647 

9652 

9657 

9661 

9666 

9671 

9675 

9680 

0 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

93 

9685 

9689 

9694 

9699 

9703 

9708 

9713 

9717 

9722 

9727 

0 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

94 

9731 

9736 

9741 

9745 

9750 

9754 

9759 

9763 

9768 

9773 

0 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

95 

9777 

9782 

9786 

9791 

9795 

9800 

9805 

9809 

9814 

9818 

0 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

96 

9823 

9827 

9832 

9836 

9841 

9845 

9850 

9854 

9859 

9863 

0 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

97 

9868 

9872 

9877 

9881 

9886 

9890 

9894 

9899 

9903 

9908 

0 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

98 

9912 

9917 

9921 

9926 

9930 

9934 

9939 

9943 

9948 

9952 

0 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

3 

4 

99 

9956 

9961 

9965 

9969 

9974 

9978 

9983 

9987 

9991 

9996 

0 

1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

3 

4 

TS 

0 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 


ing the proportional part corresponding to the fourth figure to the tabular number 
corresponding to the first three figures. There may be an error of 1 in the last place. 


THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM 


WAVELENGTH 
( meters ) 






FREQUENCY 

( hertz ) 

i'6' 

3X10 


3X10 


22 


3X10 


18 


3X10 


14 


3X10 


10 


3X10 


3X10 


ENERGY 

(eV) 

12 



Type of 
Radiation 

Wavelength Range* 
(meters) 

Frequency Range 
(hertz) 

Energy Range 
(eV) 

Electric Power 

00 

- 3 XlO^ 

0 - 10^ 

0 

4.1X10"^^ 

Radio Waves 

3 XI 0^ 

- 3 XIO^ 

10“^ - 10^^ 

4.1X10“^^ - 

4.1X10"® 

Infrared 

3 XlO"^ 

- 7.6X10”’^ 

10^^ - 4 XlO^^ 

4.1X10"^ - 

1.6 

Visible 

y.exio""^ 

- 3.8X10"’' 

4 XlO^^ - 7.9X10^^ 

1.6 

3.3 

UltravioTet 

3.8X10"'^ 

- 3 XlO"® 

7.9X10^^ - 10^’ 

3.3 

410 

X Rays 

1.2x10"'^ 

- 4.1X10"^’ 

2.5X10^^ - 7.3X10^^ 

10 

3 X10^° 

Gamma Rays 

1.5X10"^'^ 

- 1.2X10"^^ 

2 XlO^® - 2.5X10®^ 

8 XlO^ 

lO’ 

Cosmic Rays 

1.2X10"^ 

— 

2.5X10^^ - 

10 

— 


50 ^Ranges are approximate; no exact end points exist 


Atomic Mass Table 
(unified mass scale) 


A 

El. 

Atomic 

Mass 

(u) 

Mass 

Error* 

Binding 

Energyt 

(MeV) 

A 

El. 

Atomic 

Mass 

(u) 

Mass 

Error* 

Binding 

Energyt 

(MeV) 

electron 

0.000 

549 

<1 


13 

B 

13.017 

780 

4 

84.455 

proton 

1.007 

277 

<1 



C 

13.003 

354 

1 

97.109 

neu 

tron 

1.008 

665 

<1 



N 

13.005 

738 

1 

94. 106 

1 

H 

1.007 

825 

<1 


14 

C 

14.003 

242 

<1 

105.286 








N 

14.003 

074 

<1 

104.659 

2 

H 

2.014 

102 

<1 

2.225 


0 

14.008 

597 

<1 

98.733 

3 

H 

3.016 

050 

<1 

8.482 

15 

C 

15.010 

600 

1 

106.504 


He 

3.016 

030 

<1 

7.718 


N 

15.000 

108 

1 

115.494 








0 

15.003 

070 

1 

111.952 

4 

H 

4.030 

300 

1830 

3.280 








He 

4.002 

603 

<1 

28.296 

16 

C 

16.014 

700 

17 

110.756 








N 

16.006 

103 

4 

117.981 

5 

H 

5.031 

620 

1610 

10.120 


0 

15.994 

915 

<1 

127.620 


He 

5.012 

297 

20 

27.338 


F 

16.011 

706 

13 

111.197 


Li 

5.012 

538 

40 

26.331 













17 

N 

17.008 

450 

16 

123.867 

6 

He 

6.018 

893 

4 

29.266 


0 

16.999 

133 

1 

131.763 


Li 

6.015 

124 

1 

31.993 


F 

17.002 

096 

1 

128.220 


Be 

6.019 

717 

13 

26.932 













18 

0 

17.999 

160 

<1 

139.809 

7 

Li 

7.016 

004 

1 

39.245 


F 

18.000 

937 

1 

137.371 


Be 

7.016 

929 

1 

37.601 


Ne 

18.005 

711 

5 

132.142 

8 

He 

8.037 

520 

2150 

28.060 

19 

0 

19.003 

578 

3 

143.765 


Li 

8.022 

487 

2 

41.278 


F 

18.998 

405 

1 

147.801 


Be 

8.005 

308 

1 

56.498 


Ne 

19.001 

881 

2 

143.781 


B 

8.024 

609 

2 

37.736 













20 

0 

20.004 

079 

9 

151.370 

9 

Li 

9.026 

802 

22 

45.330 


F 

19.999 

987 

5 

154.399 


Be 

9.012 

186 

1 

58.163 


Ne 

19.992 

441 

1 

160.646 


B 

9.013 

332 

1 

56.312 


Na 

20.008 

880 

320 

144.550 

10 

Be 

10.013 

534 

2 

64.978 

21 

F 

20.999 

951 

8 

162.504 


B 

10.012 

939 

1 

64.750 


Ne 

20.993 

849 

2 

167.406 


C 

10.016 

810 

14 

60.361 


Na 

20.997 

655 

9 

163.078 

11 

Be 

11.021 

666 

16 

65.475 

22 

Ne 

21.991 

385 

1 

177.772 


B 

11.009 

305 

<1 

76.206 


Na 

21.994 

437 

3 

174.147 


C 

11.011 

432 

1 

73.443 


Mg 

21.999 

850 

90 

168.320 

12 

B 

12.014 

354 

1 

79.575 

23 

Ne 

22.994 

473 

4 

182.967 


C 

12.000 

000 

0 

92.163 


Na 

22.989 

771 

2 

186. 5b5 


N 

12.018 

641 

8 

74.017 


Mg 

22.994 

125 

3 

181.72b 


*Errors are standard errors (one standard deviation) in the last digits of the reported atomic mab.c 
Binding energy errors are not given, but are generally proportional to the atomic mass errors. 
tBinding energies are for the entire atom and include the binding energies of the electrons. 


Source; Mattauch, J.H.E., Thiele, W., Wapstra, A.H., "1964 Atomic Mass Table," Nuclear Phy Vol. b, 

No. 1 (1965), pp. 1-31. 


A 

El. 

Atomic 

Mass 

(u) 

Mass 

Error* 

Bind ing 
Energyt 
(MeV) 

A 

El. 

Atomic 

Mass 

(u) 

Mass 

Error* 

Binding 

Energyt 

(MeV) 

24 

Ne 

23.993 

613 

10 

191.839 

36 

S 

35.967 

090 

9 

308.707 


Na 

23.990 

962 

4 

193.526 


Cl 

35.968 

309 

4 

306.790 


Mg 

23.985 

542 

2 

198.258 


Ar 

35.967 

545 

2 

306.719 


A1 

24.000 

100 

100 

183.450 


K 

35.982 

040 

1070 

292.440 

25 

Na 

24.989 

955 

9 

202.535 

37 

S 

36.971 

010 

80 

313.130 


Mg 

24.985 

839 

2 

205.587 


Cl 

36.965 

899 

1 

317.106 


A1 

24.990 

412 

7 

200.545 


Ar 

36.966 

772 

1 

315.510 








K 

36.973 

365 

48 

308.587 

26 

Na 

25.991 

740 

320 

208.940 








Mg 

25.982 

593 

2 

216.682 

38 

S 

37.971 

230 

160 

321.000 


A1 

25.986 

891 

2 

211.896 


Cl 

37.968 

005 

9 

323.216 


Si 

25.992 

343 

14 

206.036 


Ar 

37.962 

728 

3 

327.349 








K 

37.969 

097 

10 

320.634 

27 

Mg 

26.984 

345 

4 

223.122 


Ca 

37.976 

720 

1070 

312.750 


A1 

26.981 

539 

2 

224.953 








Si 

26.986 

703 

3 

219.361 

39 

Cl 

38.968 

008 

20 

331.284 








Ar 

38.964 

317 

6 

333.940 

28 

Mg 

27.983 

875 

6 

231.631 


K 

38.963 

710 

3 

333.723 


A1 

27.981 

904 

4 

232.684 


Ca 

38.970 

691 

25 

326.437 


Si 

27.976 

929 

3 

236.536 








P 

27.991 

780 

300 

221.920 

40 

Cl 

39.970 

400 

500 

337.100 








Ar 

39.962 

384 

1 

343.812 

29 

A1 

28.980 

442 

7 

242.118 


K 

39.964 

000 

1 

341.524 


Si 

28.976 

496 

4 

245.011 


Ca 

39.962 

589 

4 

342.056 


P 

28.981 

808 

6 

239.280 


Sc 

39.977 

5 70 

210 

327.320 

30 

A1 

29.981 

590 

270 

249.120 

41 

Ar 

40.964 

500 

5 

349.912 


Si 

29.973 

762 

4 

255.628 


K 

40.961 

832 

4 

351.615 


P 

29.978 

317 

8 

250.603 


Ca 

40.962 

275 

8 

350.420 


S 

29.984 

873 

29 

243.714 


Sc 

40.969 

247 

10 

343.143 

31 

Si 

30.975 

349 

6 

262.222 

42 

Ar 

41.963 

048 

43 

359.337 


P 

30.973 

765 

2 

262.916 


K 

41.962 

406 

11 

359.152 


S 

30.979 

611 

12 

256.688 


Ca 

41.958 

625 

4 

361.891 








Sc 

41.965 

495 

13 

354.710 

32 

Si 

31.974 

020 

50 

271.530 


Ti 

41.974 

903 

16 

345.164 


P 

31.973 

910 

2 

270.852 








S 

31.972 

074 

1 

271.880 

43 

K 

42.960 

730 

12 

368.784 


Cl 

31.986 

240 

410 

257.800 


Ca 

42.958 

780 

4 

369.819 








Sc 

42.961 

165 

9 

366.815 

33 

P 

32.971 

728 

4 

280.955 


Ti 

42.968 

500 

160 

359.200 


S 

32.971 

462 

3 

280.421 








Cl 

32.977 

440 

13 

274.070 

44 

K 

43.962 

040 

210 

375.640 








Ca 

43.955 

491 

4 

380.954 

34 

P 

33.973 

340 

210 

287.530 


Sc 

43.959 

406 

6 

376,525 


S 

33.967 

864 

3 

291.843 


Ti 

43.959 

572 

13 

375.587 


Cl 

33.973 

750 

6 

285.578 








Ar 

33.980 

620 

1070 

278.400 

45 

K 

44.960 

680 

210 

384.980 








Ca 

44.956 

190 

4 

388.374 

35 

S 

34.969 

031 

1 

298.828 


Sc 

44.955 

919 

3 

387.843 


Cl 

34.968 

851 

1 

298.213 


Ti 

44.958 

129 

5 

385.003 


Ar 

34.975 

254 

18 

291.467 








52 


A 

El. 

Atomic 

Mass 

(u) 

Mass 

Error* 

Binding 

Energyt 

(MeV) 

A 

El. 

Atomic 

Mass 

(u) 

Mass 

Error* 

Binding 

Energyt 

(MeV) 

46 

K 

45.962 

060 

1070 

391.760 

55 

Cr 

54.940 

833 

7 

480.263 


Ca 

45.953 

689 

10 

398.775 


Mn 

54.938 

050 

4 

482.073 


Sc 

45.955 

173 

4 

396.611 


Fe 

54.938 

299 

4 

481.059 


Ti 

45.952 

632 

2 

398.195 


Co 

54.942 

013 

11 

476.817 


V 

45.960 

214 

10 

390.350 

56 

Cr 

55.940 

640 

160 

488.520 

47 

K 

46.961 

090 

320 

400.740 


Mn 

55.938 

910 

5 

489.343 


Ca 

46.954 

538 

6 

406.056 


Fe 

55.934 

936 

4 

492.262 


Sc 

46.952 

413 

3 

407.253 


Co 

55.939 

847 

8 

486.905 


Ti 

46.951 

769 

3 

407.070 


Ni 

55.942 

116 

16 

484.010 


V 

46.954 

899 

9 

403.372 

57 

Mn 

56.938 

300 

320 

497.990 

48 

Ca 

47.952 

531 

10 

415.996 


Fe 

56.935 

398 

5 

499.904 


Sc 

47.952 

221 

8 

415.503 


Co 

56.936 

296 

5 

498.285 


Ti 

47.947 

950 

2 

418.698 


Ni 

56.939 

769 

17 

494.267 


V 

47.952 

259 

4 

413.903 








Cr 

47.953 

760 

210 

411.720 

58 

Mn 

57.940 

260 

1070 

504.230 








Fe 

57.933 

282 

5 

509.946 

49 

Ca 

48.955 

675 

12 

421.140 


Co 

57.935 

761 

6 

506.855 


Sc 

48.950 

026 

6 

425.619 


Ni 

57.935 

342 

5 

506.462 


Ti 

48.947 

870 

2 

426. 844 


Cu 

57.944 

541 

8 

497.111 


V 

48. 948 

523 

5 

425.454 








Cr 

48.951 

271 

12 

422.112 

59 

Fe 

58.934 

878 

5 

516.531 








Co 

58.933 

189 

4 

517.321 

50 

Sc 

49.951 

730 

210 

432.100 


Ni 

58.934 

342 

4 

515.465 


Ti 

49.944 

786 

4 

437.789 


Cu 

58.939 

496 

22 

509.882 


V 

49.947 

164 

4 

434.791 








Cr 

49.946 

055 

4 

435.042 

60 

Fe 

59.933 

964 

33 

525.454 


Mn 

49.954 

215 

29 

426.659 


Co 

59.933 

813 

5 

524.812 








Ni 

59.930 

787 

5 

526.848 

51 

Ti 

50.946 

603 

7 

444. 168 


Cu 

59.937 

362 

9 

519.941 


V 

50.943 

961 

3 

445. 846 








Cr 

50.944 

768 

3 

444.312 

61 

Fe 

60.936 

520 

1070 

531.140 


Mn 

50.948 

190 

50 

440.340 


Co 

60.932 

440 

43 

534. 162 








Ni 

60.931 

056 

7 

534.669 

52 

Ti 

51.946 

820 

1070 

452.040 


Cu 

60.933 

457 

7 

531.651 


V 

51.944 

780 

5 

453.155 


Zn 

60.939 

250 

210 

525.470 


Cr 

51.940 

513 

3 

456.347 








Mn 

51.945 

568 

6 

450.856 

62 

Co 

61.933 

946 

43 

540.831 


Fe 

51.948 

117 

14 

447.699 


Ni 

61.928 

342 

5 

545.269 








Cu 

61.932 

566 

11 

540.552 

53 

V 

52.943 

980 

1070 

461.970 


Zn 

61.934 

380 

14 

538.079 


Cr 

52.940 

653 

3 

464.288 








Mn 

52.941 

295 

7 

462.907 

63 

Co 

62.933 

530 

210 

549.290 


Fe 

52.945 

572 

48 

458.141 


Ni 

62.929 

640 

5 

552.108 








Cu 

62.929 

592 

5 

551.393 

54 

V 

53.946 

720 

1070 

467.490 


Zn 

62.933 

206 

6 

547.24a 


Cr 

53.938 

882 

4 

474.009 


Ga 

62.939 

110 

1070 

540.960 


Mn 

53.940 

362 

6 

471.848 








Fe 

53.939 

617 

5 

471.760 

64 

Ni 

63.927 

958 

6 

561. 769 


Co 

53.948 

475 

7 

462.726 


Cu 

63.929 

759 

5 

5 59. Uj9 








Zn 

63.929 

145 

5 

559.09^ 








Ga 

63.936 

737 

33 

551. 


s } 


A 

El. 

Atomic 

Mass 

Mass 

Error* 

Binding 

Energyt 

A 

El. 

Atomic 

Mass 

Mass 

Error* 

Binding 

Energyt 




(u) 


(MeV) 




(u) 


(MeV) 

65 

Ni 

64 

930 

072 

8 

567.872 

75 

Ge 

74 

922 

883 

20 

652.152 


Cu 

64 

927 

786 

6 

569.219 


As 

74 

921 

596 

4 

652.568 


Zn 

64 

929 

234 

6 

567.087 


Se 

74 

922 

525 

4 

650.921 


GS- 

64 

93? 

733 

17 

563.045 


Br 

74 

925 

447 

22 

647.416 


Ge 

64 

939 

600 

1070 

555.860 


Kr 

74 

930 

920 

1070 

641.530 

66 

Ni 

65 

929 

085 

33 

576.862 

76 

Ge 

75 

921 

405 

2 

661.600 


Nu 

65 

928. 

871 

9 

576.279 


As 

75 

922 

397 

12 

659.894 


Zn 

65 

926 

052 

6 

578.123 


Se 

75 

919 

207 

7 

662.083 


Ga 

65 

931 

607 

7 

572.165 


Br 

75 

924 

180 

60 

656.670 


Ge 

65 

934 

800 

160 

568.410 


Kr 

75 

925 

470 

1080 

654. 690 

67 

Cu 

66 

.927 

759 

13 

585.386 

77 

Ge 

76 

923 

600 

50 

667. 630 


Zn 

66 

927 

145 

10 

585.175 


As 

76 

920 

646 

11 

669.597 


Ga 

66 

928 

216 

11 

583.395 


Se 

76 

919 

911 

5 

669.498 


Ge 

66 

932 

940 

110 

578.210 


Br 

76 

921 

376 

6 

667.351 









Kr 

76 

924 

480 

90 

663.680 

68 

Cu 

67 

929 

770 

60 

591.580 









Zn 

67 

924 

857 

6 

595.378 

78 

As 

77 

921 

900 

210 

676.500 


Ga 

67 

927 

992 

7 

591.676 


Se 

77 

917 

314 

3 

679.989 


Ge 

67 

928 

530 

1070 

590.390 


Br 

77 

921 

150 

6 

675.634 









Kr 

77 

920 

403 

5 

675.547 

69 

Zn 

68 

926 

541 

7 

601.881 









Ga 

68 

925 

574 

4 

602.000 

79 

As 

78 

920 

890 

60 

685.510 


Ge 

68 

.927 

963 

5 

598.992 


Se 

78 

918 

494 

5 

686.961 


As 

68 

932 

150 

320 

594.310 


Br 

78 

918 

329 

3 

686.333 









Kr 

78 

920 

068 

6 

683.930 

70 

Zn 

69 

.925 

334 

6 

611.077 









Ga 

69 

.926 

035 

6 

609.642 

80 

As 

79 

.922 

970 

210 

691.650 


Ge 

69 

.924 

252 

2 

610.520 


Se 

79 

.916 

527 

3 

696.865 


As 

69 

.930 

946 

32 

603.502 


Br 

79 

,918 

536 

4 

694.212 









Kr 

79 

.916 

380 

6 

695.437 

71 

Zn 

70 

.927 

510 

50 

617.120 


Rb 

79 

.921 

900 

600 

689.600 


Ga 

70 

.924 

706 

5 

618.951 









Ge 

70 

.924 

956 

6 

617.935 

81 

Se 

80 

.917 

984 

7 

703.579 


As 

70 

.927 

113 

9 

615.144 


Br 

80 

.916 

292 

5 

704.373 


Se 

70 

.931 

840 

320 

609.960 


Kr 

80 

.916 

610 

110 

703.290 









Rb 

80 

.919 

020 

110 

700.270 

72 

Zn 

71 

.926 

843 

10 

625.814 









Ga 

71 

.926 

372 

7 

625.471 

82 

Se 

81 

.916 

707 

7 

712.840 


Ge 

71 

.922 

082 

2 

628.684 


Br 

81 

.916 

802 

5 

711.970 


As 

71 

.926 

763 

11 

623.542 


Kr 

81 

.913 

482 

5 

714.279 


Se 

71 

.927 

410 

1070 

622.160 


Rb 

81 

.917 

959 

33 

709.327 









Sr 

81 

.918 

390 

1070 

708.140 

73 

Ga 

72 

.925 

126 

43 

634.702 









Ge 

72 

.923 

463 

2 

635.470 

83 

Br 

82 

.915 

168 

17 

721.562 


As 

72 

.923 

861 

32 

634.316 


Kr 

82 

.914 

131 

5 

721.746 


Se 

72 

.926 

814 

34 

630.783 


Rb 

82 

.914 

730 

1070 

720.400 


Br 

72 

.931 

860 

1070 

625.300 


Sr 

82 

.917 

200 

1520 

717.320 

74 

Ga 

73 

.927 

190 

50 

640.850 

84 

Br 

83 

.916 

550 

50 

728.350 


Ge 

73 

.921 

181 

2 

645.667 


Kr 

83 

.911 

503 

4 

732.265 


As 

73 

.923 

933 

4 

642.321 


Rb 

83 

.914 

381 

5 

728.803 


Se 

73 

.922 

476 

5 

642.895 


Sr 

83 

.913 

430 

4 

728.906 


Br 

73 

.929 

780 

1070 

635.310 


Y 

83 

.920 

190 

110 

721.820 


Kr 

73 

.933 

100 

1520 

631.430 









A 

El. 

Atomic 

Mass 

(u) 

Mass 

Error* 

Bind ing 
Energyt 
(MeV) 

A 

El. 

Atomic 

Mass 

(u) 

Mass 

Error* 

Bind ing 
Energyt 
(MeV) 

85 

Br 

84.915 

530 

110 

737.370 

93 

Sr 

92.914 

710 

110 

800.360 


Kr 

84.912 

523 

7 

739.387 


Y 

92.909 

552 

22 

804.378 


Rb 

84.911 

800 

5 

739.278 


Zr 

92.906 

450 

5 

806.486 


Sr 

84.912 

989 

33 

737.388 


Nb 

92.906 

382 

5 

805.767 


Y 

84.916 

489 

34 

733.346 


Mo 

92.906 

830 

14 

804.566 








Tc 

92.910 

251 

20 

800.598 

86 

Br 

85.918 

200 

500 

742.900 








Kr 

85.910 

616 

4 

749.235 

94 

Sr 

93.915 

380 

240 

807.800 


Rb 

85.911 

193 

7 

747.915 


Y 

93.911 

680 

210 

810.470 


Sr 

85.909 

285 

5 

748.910 


Zr 

93.906 

313 

4 

814.684 


Y 

85.914 

946 

18 

742.854 


Nb 

93.907 

303 

15 

812.980 


Zr 

85.916 

230 

1070 

740.870 


Mo 

93.905 

090 

3 

814.259 








Tc 

93.909 

663 

7 

809.216 

87 

Kr 

86.913 

365 

10 

754.745 








Rb 

86.909 

187 

3 

757.855 

95 

Y 

94.912 

540 

1070 

817.730 


Sr 

86.908 

892 

4 

757.347 


Zr 

94.908 

035 

5 

821.152 


Y 

86.910 

740 

210 

754.850 


Nb 

94.906 

832 

3 

821.490 


Zr 

86.914 

490 

220 

750.560 


Mo 

94.905 

839 

3 

821.633 








Tc 

94.907 

620 

23 

819.191 

88 

Kr 

87.914 

270 

240 

761.970 


Ru 

94.909 

801 

40 

816.377 


Rb 

87.911 

270 

100 

763.990 








Sr 

87.905 

641 

6 

768.447 

96 

Y 

95.915 

690 

1070 

822.870 


Y 

87.909 

528 

8 

764.044 


Zr 

95.908 

286 

5 

828.990 


Zr 

87.910 

060 

1070 

762.760 


Nb 

95.908 

056 

27 

828.422 


Nb 

87.917 

790 

1520 

754.780 


Mo 

95.904 

674 

3 

830.789 








Tc 

95.907 

830 

50 

827.070 

89 

Kr 

88.916 

600 

500 

767.900 


Ru 

95.907 

598 

6 

826.501 


Rb 

88.911 

650 

50 

771.700 








Sr 

88.907 

442 

7 

774.840 

97 

Zr 

96.910 

966 

23 

834.565 


Y 

88.905 

872 

5 

775.521 


Nb 

96.908 

096 

8 

836.455 


Zr 

88.908 

914 

6 

771.905 


Mo 

96.906 

022 

3 

837.606 


Nb 

88.913 

080 

100 

767.240 


Tc 

96.906 

340 

1070 

836.520 








Ru 

96.907 

630 

1520 

834.540 

90 

Kr 

89.919 

720 

110 

773.040 


Rh 

96.911 

380 

1520 

830.270 


Rb 

89.914 

820 

110 

776.820 








Sr 

89.907 

747 

9 

782.628 

98 

Zr 

97.911 

960 

1520 

841 .710 


Y 

89.907 

163 

8 

782.390 


Nb 

97.910 

350 

1070 

842.430 


Zr 

89.904 

700 

4 

783.902 


Mo 

97.905 

409 

3 

846.248 


Nb 

89.911 

259 

11 

777.009 


Tc 

97.907 

110 

210 

843.880 


Mo 

89.913 

940 

110 

773.730 


Ru 

97.905 

289 

4 

844.795 








Rh 

97.909 

800 

320 

839.810 

91 

Rb 

90.916 

070 

1070 

783.730 








Sr 

90.910 

161 

16 

788.451 

99 

Nb 

98.911 

050 

1070 

849.850 


Y 

90.907 

295 

12 

790.338 


Mo 

98.907 

720 

10 

852. 166 


Zr 

90.905 

642 

5 

791.096 


Tc 

98.906 

249 

6 

852.754 


Nb 

90.906 

860 

70 

789.180 


Ru 

98.905 

936 

4 

852.264 


Mo 

90.911 

650 

60 

783.930 


Rh 

98.908 

190 

22 

849. 181 








Pd 

98.912 

270 

220 

844.800 

92 

Rb 

91.919 

140 

1080 

788.940 








Sr 

91.910 

980 

80 

795.760 

100 

Nb 

99.914 

020 

1070 

85 ). r>o 


Y 

91.908 

926 

22 

796.890 


Mo 

99.907 

475 

4 

860. .6b 


Zr 

91.905 

031 

3 

799.736 


Tc 

99.907 

840 

60 

859. 3‘.0 


Nb 

91.907 

211 

10 

796.922 


Ru 

99.904 

218 

5 

861 1. 


Mo 

91.906 

810 

3 

796.514 


Rh 

99.908 

126 

22 

8. 7. 1 / 


Tc 

91.915 

460 

150 

787.670 


Pd 

99.908 

770 

1070 

856. 13() 


55 


A 

El. 

Atomic 

Mass 

(u) 

Mass 

Error* 

B ind ing 
Energyt 
(MeV) 

A 

El. 

Atomic 

Mass 

(u) 

Mass 

Error* 

Bind ing 
Energyt 
(MeV) 

101 

Mo 

100.910 

353 

20 

865.857 

109 

Ag 

108.904 

75 6 

5 

931.729 


Tc 

100.907 

326 

27 

867.893 


Cd 

108.904 

928 

7 

930.787 


Ru 

100.905 

577 

3 

868.741 


In 

108.907 

096 

13 

927.985 


Rh 

100.906 

178 

19 

867.398 








Pd 

100.908 

070 

60 

864.860 

110 

Rh 

109.911 

100 

500 

935.500 








Pd 

109.905 

164 

14 

940.204 

102 

Mo 

101.910 

250 

1520 

874.020 


Ag 

109.906 

095 

7 

938.553 


Tc 

101.909 

180 

1070 

874.240 


Cd 

109.903 

012 

4 

940.643 


Ru 

101.904 

348 

5 

877.957 


In 

109.907 

231 

43 

935.931 


Rh 

101.906 

842 

9 

874.851 








Pd 

101.905 

609 

11 

875.217 

111 

Pd 

110.907 

670 

50 

945.940 


Ag 

101.911 

300 

1070 

869.130 


Ag 

110.905 

316 

11 

947.351 








Cd 

110.904 

188 

4 

947.618 

103 

Tc 

102.908 

830 

110 

882.640 


In 

110.905 

360 

210 

945.750 


Ru 

102.906 

306 

21 

884.204 


Sn 

110.908 

060 

220 

942.440 


Rh 

102.905 

511 

5 

884.162 








Pd 

102.906 

107 

22 

882.825 

112 

Pd 

111.907 

386 

33 

954.276 


Ag 

102.908 

890 

110 

879.450 


Ag 

111.907 

064 

25 

953.794 








Cd 

111.902 

763 

3 

957.018 

104 

Tc 

103.911 

710 

110 

888.020 


In 

111.905 

544 

10 

953.645 


Ru 

103.905 

430 

5 

893.092 


Sn 

111.904 

835 

10 

953.523 


Rh 

103.906 

659 

7 

891.164 








Pd 

103.904 

Oil 

11 

892.848 

113 

Ag 

112.906 

556 

43 

962.339 


Ag 

103.908 

596 

16 

887.796 


Cd 

112.904 

409 

4 

963.556 


Cd 

103.909 

880 

1070 

885.810 


In 

112.904 

089 

9 

963.071 








Sn 

112.905 

187 

18 

961.266 

105 

Tc 

104.911 

330 

220 

896.450 


Sb 

112.909 

986 

47 

956.914 


Ru 

104.907 

679 

17 

899.068 








Rh 

104.905 

671 

13 

900.156 

114 

Ag 

113.908 

300 

430 

968.790 


Pd 

104.905 

064 

12 

899.939 


Cd 

113.903 

360 

3 

972.604 


Ag 

104.906 

460 

1070 

897.860 


In 

113.904 

905 

9 

970.383 


Cd 

104.909 

470 

1520 

894.270 


Sn 

113.902 

773 

9 

971.587 








Sb 

113.909 

510 

210 

964.520 

106 

Ru 

105.907 

322 

12 

907.472 








Rh 

105.907 

279 

12 

906.729 

115 

Ag 

114.908 

930 

180 

976.270 


Pd 

105.903 

479 

6 

909.487 


Cd 

114.905 

431 

10 

978.747 


Ag 

105.906 

661 

9 

905.740 


In 

114.903 

871 

8 

979.417 


Cd 

105.906 

463 

4 

905.143 


Sn 

114.903 

346 

7 

979.124 


In 

105.913 

440 

320 

897.860 


Sb 

114.906 

599 

23 

975.311 

107 

Ru 

106.910 

130 

320 

912.920 

116 

Ag 

115.911 

310 

1070 

982.120 


Rh 

106.906 

753 

43 

915.292 


Cd 

115.904 

762 

3 

987.442 


Pd 

106.905 

132 

5 

916.019 


In 

115.905 

317 

26 

986. 142 


Ag 

106.905 

094 

5 

915.272 


Sn 

115.901 

745 

5 

988.687 


Cd 

106.906 

615 

6 

913.072 


Sb 

115.906 

630 

50 

983.350 


In 

106.910 

360 

160 

908.800 


Te 

115.908 

300 

120 

981.010 

108 

Ru 

107.910 

100 

700 

921.000 

117 

Cd 

116.907 

239 

15 

993.205 


Rh 

107.908 

700 

600 

921.500 


In 

116.904 

534 

10 

994.943 


Pd 

107.903 

891 

8 

925.246 


Sn 

116.902 

958 

3 

995.628 


Ag 

107.905 

949 

8 

922.547 


Sb 

116.904 

912 

32 

993.026 


Cd 

107.904 

187 

4 

923.406 


Te 

116.908 

670 

60 

988.740 


In 

107.909 

720 

90 

917.470 













118 

Cd 

117.906 

970 

1160 

1 001.520 

109 

Rh 

108.908 

640 

1070 

929.680 


In 

117.906 

110 

430 

1 001.540 


Pd 

108.905 

954 

5 

931.396 


Sn 

117.901 

606 

4 

1 004.959 


56 


A 

El. 

Atomic 

Mass 

Mass 

Error* 

Binding 

Energyt 

A 

El. 

Atomic 

Mass 

Mass 

Error* 

Binding 

Energyt 




(u) 



(MeV) 




(u) 



(MeV) 

118 

Sb 

117 

.905 

574 

8 

1 

000, 

481 

127 

Sn 

126 

.910 

260 

1070 

1 

069 

550 


Te 

117 

.905 

900 

1070 


999. 

400 


Sb 

126 

.906 

927 

33 

1 

071 

863 











Te 

126 

.905 

209 

9 

1 

072 

681 

119 

Cd 

118 

.909 

740 

350 

1 

007. 

020 


I 

126 

.904 

470 

4 

1 

072 

587 


In 

118 

.905 

990 

130 

1 

009. 

730 


Xe 

126 

.905 

220 

380 

1 

071 

100 


Sn 

118 

.903 

313 

3 

1 

Oil. 

440 


Cs 

126 

.907 

480 

380 

1 

068 

220 


Sb 

118 

.903 

935 

22 

1 

010. 

079 


Ba 

126 

.911 

340 

1140 

1 

063 

840 


Te 

118 

.906 

398 

22 

1 

007. 

002 



















128 

Sn 

127 

.910 

470 

230 

1 

077 

420 

120 

In 

119 

.908 

000 

1070 

1 

015. 

930 


Sb 

127 

,909 

070 

160 

1 

077 

940 


Sn 

119 

.902 

198 

4 

1 

020. 

550 


Te 

127 

.904 

476 

6 

1 

081 

435 


Sb 

119 

.905 

081 

8 

1 

017. 

082 


I 

127 

.905 

838 

9 

1 

079 

384 


Te 

119 

.904 

023 

14 

1 

017. 

285 


Xe 

127 

.903 

540 

6 

1 

080 

742 


I 

119 

.909 

820 

1070 

1 

Oil. 

100 


Cs 

127 

,907 

759 

33 

1 

076 

029 











Ba 

127 

.908 

510 

1070 

1 

074 

550 

121 

In 

120 

.908 

090 

1070 

1 

023. 

910 











Sn 

120 

.904 

227 

6 

1 

026. 

732 

129 

Sb 

128 

.909 

260 

1070 

1 

085 

830 


Sb 

120 

.903 

816 

3 

1 

026. 

332 


Te 

128 

.906 

575 

9 

1 

087 

551 


Te 

120 

.905 

199 

48 

1 

024, 

262 


I 

128 

.904 

987 

7 

1 

088 

249 


I 

120 

.907 

730 

70 

1 

021, 

120 


Xe 

128 

.904 

784 

5 

1 

087 

655 


Xe 

120 

.911 

800 

130 

1 

016. 

550 


Cs 

128 

.905 

960 

1070 

1 

085 

770 











Ba 

128 

.908 

590 

1070 

1 

082 

540 

122 

In 

121 

.910 

600 

900 

1 

029. 

600 


La 

128 

.912 

890 

1520 

1 

077 

760 


Sn 

121 

.903 

441 

4 

1 

035. 

536 











Sb 

121 

.905 

183 

7 

1 

033. 

130 

130 

Sb 

129 

.912 

040 

1070 

1 

091 

320 


Te 

121 

.903 

066 

6 

1 

034. 

320 


Te 

129 

.906 

238 

6 

1 

095 

937 


I 

121 

.907 

511 

43 

1 

029. 

397 


I 

129 

.906 

676 

33 

1 

094 

747 











Xe 

129 

.903 

509 

6 

1 

096 

914 

123 

In 

122 

.910 

570 

1070 

1 

037. 

750 


Cs 

129 

.906 

720 

22 

1 

093 

141 


Sn 

122 

,905 

738 

11 

1 

041. 

467 


Ba 

129 

.906 

245 

23 

1 

092 

800 


Sb 

122 

.904 

213 

3 

1 

042. 

106 


La 

129 

.912 

260 

1070 

1 

086 

420 


Te 

122 

.904 

277 

6 

1 

041. 

263 











I 

122 

.905 

730 

1070 

1 

039. 

130 

131 

Te 

130 

.908 

575 

22 

1 

101 

832 


Xe 

122 

.908 

730 

1080 

1 

035. 

550 


I 

130 

.906 

127 

4 

1 

103 

329 











Xe 

130 

.905 

085 

4 

1 

103 

517 

124 

In 

123 

.913 

200 

500 

1 

043. 

400 


Cs 

130 

.905 

466 

8 

1 

102 

380 


Sn 

123 

.905 

272 

5 

1 

049. 

973 


Ba 

130 

.906 

716 

18 

1 

100 

433 


Sb 

123 

.905 

973 

6 

1 

048. 

539 


La 

130 

.909 

890 

60 

1 

096 

690 


Te 

123 

.902 

842 

6 

1 

050. 

671 


Ce 

130 

.915 

500 

360 

1 

090 

690 


I 

123 

.906 

246 

33 

1 

046. 

719 











Xe 

123 

.906 

120 

150 

1 

046. 

050 

132 

Te 

131 

.908 

523 

18 

1 

109 

951 











I 

131 

.907 

981 

7 

1 

109 

67^ 

125 

Sn 

124 

.907 

746 

13 

1 

055. 

740 


Xe 

131 

.904 

161 

5 

1 

112 

.50 


Sb 

124 

.905 

232 

9 

1 

057. 

299 


Cs 

131 

.906 

393 

27 

1 

109 

588 


Te 

124 

.904 

418 

6 

1 

057. 

275 


Ba 

131 

.905 

120 

300 

1 

109 

• -0 


I 

124 

.904 

578 

6 

1 

056. 

343 


La 

131 

.910 

300 

320 

1 

1 0» 

■4t. 


Xe 

124 

.906 

620 

1070 

1 

053. 

660 


Ce 

131 

.911 

590 

1120 

1 

102 

Ul 


Cs 

124 

.909 

910 

1070 

1 

049. 

810 



















133 

I 

132 

.907 

750 

70 

1 

1 1 -■ 

-01. 

126 

Sn 

125 

.907 

640 

1090 

1 

063. 

910 


Xe 

132 

.905 

815 

39 

J 

1 



Sb 

125 

.907 

320 

160 

1 

063. 

420 


Cs 

132 

.905 

355 

38 

1 

1 18 



Te 

125 

.903 

322 

5 

1 

066. 

367 


Ba 

132 

.905 

8 79 

39 

1 

! 1 

- f, 


I 

125 

.905 

631 

7 

1 

063. 

434 


La 

132 

.908 

240 

220 

i 

! ! 

' i 


Xe 

125 

.904 

288 

9 

1 

063. 

903 


Ce 

132 

.911 

250 

1 IOC 

1 

! 1 ' 



Cs 

125 

,909 

440 

430 

1 

058. 

320 











373-062 0 - 70 -5 


A 

El. 

Atomic 

Mass 

(u) 

Mass 

Error* 


Binding 

Energyt 

(MeV) 

A 

El. 

Atomic 

Mass 

(u) 

Mass 

Error* 


Binding 

Energyt 

(MeV) 

134 

I 

133.909 

850 

60 

1 

124.070 

142 

Ba 

141.916 

350 

120 

1 

180.250 


Xe 

133.905 

397 

5 

1 

127.441 


La 

141.913 

980 

60 

1 

181.670 


Cs 

133.906 

823 

41 

1 

125.331 


Ce 

141.909 

140 

50 

1 

185.393 


Ba 

133.904 

612 

41 

1 

126.607 


Pr 

141.909 

978 

17 

1 

183.833 


La 

133.908 

660 

70 

1 

122.050 


Nd 

141.907 

663 

16 

1 

185.207 


Ce 

133.908 

810 

90 

1 

121.130 


Pm 

141.912 

820 

320 

1 

179.620 

135 

I 

134.910 

020 

1080 

1 

131.980 

143 

La 

142.915 

870 

90 

1 

187.980 


Xe 

134.907 

020 

110 

1 

134.000 


Ce 

142.912 

327 

19 

1 

190.499 


Cs 

134.905 

770 

110 

1 

134.380 


Pr 

142.910 

781 

16 

1 

191.157 


Ba 

134.905 

550 

110 

1 

133.810 


Nd 

142.909 

779 

15 

1 

191.307 


La 

134.906 

890 

1080 

1 

131.780 


Pm 

142.910 

990 

330 

1 

189.400 


Ce 

134.909 

140 

1520 

1 

128.890 


Sm 

142.914 

550 

90 

1 

185.300 

136 

I 

135.914 

740 

110 

1 

135.670 

144 

La 

143.919 

600 

1070 

1 

192.580 


Xe 

135.907 

221 

6 

1 

141.885 


Ce 

143.913 

591 

19 

1 

197.393 


Cs 

135.907 

340 

90 

1 

140.990 


Pr 

143.913 

248 

16 

1 

196.930 


Ba 

135.904 

300 

80 

1 

143.040 


Nd 

143.910 

039 

15 

1 

199.137 


La 

135.907 

380 

110 

1 

139.390 


Pm 

143.912 

510 

1070 

1 

196.050 


Ce 

135.907 

100 

500 

1 

138.880 


Sm 

143.911 

989 

15 

1 

195.755 

137 

Xe 

136.911 

100 ; 

110 

1 

146.340 

145 

Ce 

144.917 

270 

1070 

1 

202.040 


Cs 

136.906 

770 

80 

1 

149.600 


Pr 

144.914 

476 

19 

1 

203.858 


Ba 

136.905 

500 

80 

1 

149.990 


Nd 

144.912 

538 

15 

1 

204.881 


La 

136.906 

040 

1080 

1 

148.710 


Pm 

144.912 

691 

18 

1 

203.955 


Ce 

136.907 

330 

1520 

1 

146.730 


Sm 

144.913 

394 

18 

1 

202.519 


Pr 

136.910 

360 

1520 

1 

143.120 


Eu 

144.916 

390 

60 

1 

198.950 

138 

Xe 

137.913 

810 

1100 

1 

151.890 

146 

Ce 

145.918 

670 

240 

1 

208.810 


Cs 

137.910 

800 

1080 

1 

153.910 


Pr 

145.917 

590 

220 

1 

209.020 


Ba 

137.905 

000 

60 

1 

158.530 


Nd 

145.913 

086 

15 

1 

212.442 


La 

137.906 

910 

60 

1 

155.970 


Pm 

145.914 

632 

28 

1 

210.219 


Ce 

137.905 

830 

60 

1 

156.200 


Sm 

145.912 

992 

23 

1 

210.964 


Pr 

137.910 

460 

120 

1 

151.100 


Eu 

145.917 

138 

37 

1 

206.320 









Gd 

145.918 

320 

1070 

1 

204.440 

139 

Xe 

138.917 

840 

390 

1 

156.210 









Cs 

138.912 

900 

330 

1 

160.030 

147 

Pr 

146.918 

800 

1070 

1 

215.970 


Ba 

138.908 

600 

60 

1 

163.250 


Nd 

146.916 

074 

19 

1 

217.729 


La 

138.906 

140 

50 

1 

164.760 


Pm 

146.915 

108 

15 

1 

217.847 


Ce 

138.906 

430 

50 

1 

163.710 


Sm 

146.914 

867 

15 

1 

217.290 


Pr 

138.908 

580 

120 

1 

160.920 


Eu 

146.916 

800 

330 

1 

214.700 


Nd 

138.911 

580 

1080 

1 

157.340 


Gd 

146.919 

170 

1120 

1 

211.720 

140 

Cs 

139.917 

110 

1070 

1 

164. 170 

148 

Pr 

147.921 

910 

1070 

1 

221.140 


Ba 

139.910 

565 

23 

1 

169.491 


Nd 

147.916 

869 

15 

1 

225.061 


La 

139.909 

438 

20 

1 

169.758 


Pm 

147.917 

421 

26 

1 

223.764 


Ce 

139.905 

392 

19 

1 

172.745 


Sm 

147.914 

791 

15 

1 

225.432 


Pr 

139.909 

007 

27 

1 

168.595 


Eu 

147.918 

110 

60 

1 

221.560 


Nd 

139.909 

330 

1070 

1 

167.510 


Gd 

147.918 

101 

19 

1 

220.783 









Tb 

147.924 

130 

320 

1 

214.380 

141 

Ba 

140.914 

050 

110 

1 

174.320 









La 

140.910 

828 

37 

1 

176.535 

149 

Nd 

148.920 

122 

18 

1 

230.102 


Ce 

140.908 

219 

19 

1 

178.182 


Pm 

148.918 

330 

15 

1 

230.989 


Pr 

140.907 

596 

18 

1 

177.981 


Sm 

148.917 

180 

14 

1 

231.278 


Nd 

140.909 

528 

21 

1 

175.398 


Eu 

148.918 

000 

1070 

1 

229.740 


Pm 

140.913 

410 

220 

1 

171.000 1 


Gd 

148.919 

300 

160 

1 

227.730 







' 


Tb 

148.923 

350 

60 

1 

223.180 


58 


A 

El. 

Atomic 

Mass 

(u) 

Mass 

Error* 

Binding 

Energyt 

(MeV) 

A 

El. 

Atomic 

Mass 

(u) 

Mass 

Error* 

Binding 

Energyt 

(MeV) 

150 

Nd 

149.920 

915 

15 

1 

237.435 

158 

Eu 

157.927 

940 

220 

1 

293.120 


Pm 

149.920 

960 

70 

1 

236.610 


Gd 

157.924 

178 

19 

1 

295.837 


Sm 

149.917 

276 

14 

1 

239.260 


Tb 

157.925 

464 

29 

1 

293.857 


Eu 

149.919 

689 

24 

1 

236.229 


Dy 

157.924 

449 

30 

1 

294.020 


Gd 

149.918 

605 

24 

1 

236.457 


Ho 

157.928 

790 

31 

1 

289.193 


Tb 

149.923 

748 

38 

1 

230.884 









Dy 

149.925 

590 

1070 

1 

228.390 

159 

Eu 

158.928 

840 

220 

1 

300.350 









Gd 

158.926 

368 

27 

1 

301.868 

151 

Nd 

150.923 

770 

110 

1 

242.840 


Tb 

158.925 

351 

26 

1 

302.033 


Pm 

150,921 

198 

22 

1 

244.460 


Dy 

158.925 

759 

34 

1 

300.871 


Sm 

150.919 

919 

21 

1 

244.869 


Ho 

158.927 

690 

1070 

1 

298.290 


Eu 

150.919 

838 

21 

1 

244.162 









Gd 

150.920 

270 

1070 

1 

242.980 

160 

Eu 

159.931 

000 

500 

1 

306.400 


Tb 

150.923 

150 

330 

1 

239.510 


Gd 

159.927 

115 

20 

1 

309.244 


Dy 

150.926 

250 

1120 

1 

235.850 


Tb 

159.927 

146 

25 

1 

308.433 









Dy 

159.925 

202 

21 

1 

309.461 

152 

Pm 

151.923 

510 

1070 

1 

250.370 


Ho 

159.928 

740 

60 

1 

305.380 


Sm 

151.919 

756 

15 

1 

253.093 









Eu 

151.921 

749 

15 

1 

250.453 

161 

Gd 

160.929 

720 

80 

1 

314.890 


Gd 

151.919 

794 

16 

1 

251.492 


Tb 

160.927 

572 

21 

1 

316.107 


Tb 

151.924 

280 

160 

1 

246.530 


Dy 

160.926 

945 

20 

1 

315.909 


Dy 

151.924 

729 

28 

1 

245.330 


Ho 

160.927 

800 

1070 

1 

314.330 


Ho 

151.931 

560 

330 

1 

238.180 


Er 

160.929 

950 

1080 

1 

311.540 









Tm 

160.933 

730 

1080 

1 

307.240 

153 

Pm 

152.924 

030 

110 

1 

257.960 









Sm 

152.922 

102 

17 

1 

258.978 

162 

Gd 

161.930 

880 

1520 

1 

321.880 


Eu 

152.921 

242 

18 

1 

258.997 


Tb 

161.929 

810 

1070 

1 

322.100 


Gd 

152.921 

503 

18 

1 

257.971 


Dy 

161.926 

803 

19 

1 

324.113 


Tb 

152.923 

490 

1070 

1 

255.340 


Ho 

161.929 

122 

38 

1 

321.170 


Dy 

152.925 

740 

160 

1 

252.460 


Er 

161.928 

740 

90 

1 

320.740 


Ho 

152.930 

270 

60 

1 

247.460 


Tm 

161.933 

990 

140 

1 

315.070 

154 

Sm 

153.922 

282 

15 

1 

266.882 

163 

Tb 

162.930 

5 60 

60 

1 

329.470 


Eu 

153.923 

053 

20 

1 

265.382 


Dy 

162.928 

755 

19 

1 

330.366 


Gd 

153.920 

929 

20 

1 

266.577 


Ho 

162.928 

766 

22 

1 

329.574 


Tb 

153.924 

580 

1070 

1 

262.400 


Er 

162.930 

065 

23 

1 

327.581 


Dy 

153.924 

350 

60 

1 

261.820 


Tm 

162.932 

502 

40 

1 

324.529 


Ho 

153.930 

260 

1080 

1 

255.540 









Er 

153.932 

760 

1070 

1 

252.420 

164 

Tb 

163.933 

280 

1070 

1 

335.010 









Dy 

163.929 

200 

19 

1 

338.023 

155 

Sm 

154.924 

701 

18 

1 

272.701 


Ho 

163.930 

390 

41 

1 

336. 132 


Eu 

154.922 

930 

19 

1 

273.568 


Er 

163.929 

287 

43 

1 

336.377 


Gd 

154.922 

664 

18 

1 

273.033 


Tm 

163.933 

541 

48 

1 

331. 632 


Tb 

154.923 

630 

1070 

1 

271.350 









Dy 

154.925 

880 

1070 

1 

268.470 

165 

Dy 

164.931 

816 

20 

1 

343.658 









Ho 

164.930 

421 

21 

1 

344.175 

156 

Sm 

155.925 

569 

30 

1 

279.963 


Er 

164.930 

819 

22 

1 

343.021 


Eu 

155.924 

802 

25 

1 

279.896 


Tm 

164.932 

540 

1070 

1 

340. 5^*0 


Gd 

155.922 

175 

19 

1 

281.560 


Yb 

164.935 

440 

1520 

1 

337. 160 


Tb 

155.924 

750 

1070 

1 

278.380 









Dy 

155.923 

930 

180 

1 

278.360 

166 

Dy 

165.932 

807 

30 

1 

350.80b 









Ho 

165.932 

289 

30 

1 

350. 0- 

157 

Eu 

156.925 

390 

60 

1 

287.420 


Er 

165.930 

307 

29 

1 

351. ' 


Gd 

156.924 

025 

19 

1 

287.908 


Tm 

165.933 

510 

60 

1 

34 .8i‘ 


Tb 

156.924 

090 

22 

1 

287.065 


Yb 

165.933 

850 

110 

1 

0 


Dy 

156.925 

270 

1070 

1 

285.180 









SQ 


A El. 


Atomic 

Mass 

(u) 


Mass 

Error* 


Binding 

Energyt 

(MeV) 


167 

Ho 

166, 

.933 

130 

110 

1 

357, 

.790 


Er 

166, 

.932 

060 

29 

1 

358, 

.008 


Tm 

166, 

.933 

030 

1070 

1 

356, 

.330 


Yb 

166, 

.935 

130 

1070 

1 

353, 

.580 


Lu 

166, 

.938 

390 

1080 

1 

349, 

.760 

168 

Ho 

167, 

,935 

930 

110 

1 

363, 

.260 


Er 

167, 

.932 

383 

32 

1 

365, 

.779 


Tm 

167, 

,934 

230 

50 

1 

363, 

.279 


Yb 

167, 

,934 

160 

160 

1 

362, 

.560 


Lu 

167, 

.939 

090 

1090 

1 

357, 

. 180 

169 

Ho 

168, 

,936 

860 

110 

1 

370, 

.460 


Er 

168, 

,934 

610 

34 

1 

371, 

,776 


Tm 

168. 

.934 

245 

34 

1 

371, 

,334 


Yb 

168. 

,935 

530 

1070 

1 

369, 

,350 


Lu 

168, 

,937 

960 

1080 

1 

366, 

,310 

170 

Ho 

169. 

,940 

070 

130 

1 

375, 

,540 


Er 

169. 

,935 

560 

70 

1 

378, 

,960 


Tm 

169. 

,936 

060 

60 

1 

377. 

.720 


Yb 

169. 

,935 

020 

60 

1 

377, 

.900 


Lu 

169. 

,938 

830 

70 

1 

373, 

,570 

171 

Er 

170. 

,938 

130 

70 

1 

384, 

, 640 


Tm 

170. 

,936 

530 

70 

1 

385. 

.350 


Yb 

170. 

,936 

430 

70 

1 

384. 

,660 


Lu 

170. 

,938 

140 

1080 

1 

382. 

,280 

172 

Er 

171. 

,939 

330 

80 

1 

391. 

,590 


Tm 

171. 

,938 

380 

80 

1 

391. 

, 700 


Yb 

171. 

,936 

360 

70 

1 

392. 

,800 


Lu 

171. 

,939 

260 

1080 

1 

389. 

,320 

173 

Tm 

172. 

,939 

480 

80 

1 

398. 

, 740 


Yb 

172. 

,938 

060 

70 

1 

399. 

,280 


Lu 

172. 

,938 

800 

80 

1 

397. 

,810 

174 

Tm 

173. 

,941 

970 

120 

1 

404. 

,500 


Yb 

173. 

,938 

740 

60 

1 

406. 

,720 


Lu 

173. 

,940 

350 

70 

1 

404. 

,440 


Hf 

173. 

,940 

360 

70 

1 

403. 

,640 

175 

Tm 

174. 

,943 

830 

1080 

1 

410. 

,840 


Yb 

174. 

,941 

140 

60 

1 

412. 

,550 


Lu 

174. 

,940 

640 

60 

1 

412. 

,240 


Hf 

174. 

,941 

610 

1080 

1 

410. 

,560 

176 

Tm 

175. 

,947 

190 

130 

1 

415. 

,770 


Yb 

175. 

,942 

680 

70 

1 

419. 

, 190 


Lu 

175. 

,942 

660 

60 

1 

418. 

,430 


Hf 

175. 

,941 

570 

60 

1 

418. 

,660 

177 

Yb 

176. 

,945 

410 

90 

1 

424. 

,720 


Lu 

176. 

,943 

930 

80 

1 

425. 

,320 


Hf 

176. 

.943 

400 

80 

1 

425. 

030 


Ta 

176. 

,944 

650 

80 

1 

423. 

080 


178 

Yb 

177, 

.947 

370 

1080 

1 

430, 

.970 


Lu 

177, 

.946 

300 

90 

1 

431, 

. 180 


Hf 

177, 

.943 

880 

80 

1 

432, 

.650 


Ta 

177, 

.945 

930 

130 

1 

429, 

.960 

179 

Lu 

178, 

.947 

470 

100 

1 

438, 

.160 


Hf 

178, 

.946 

030 

90 

1 

438, 

. 720 


Ta 

178, 

.946 

160 

90 

1 

437, 

.820 

180 

Lu 

179, 

.950 

370 

150 

1 

443, 

.540 


Hf 

179, 

.946 

820 

100 

1 

446, 

.050 


Ta 

179, 

.947 

544 

48 

1 

444, 

.602 


W 

179, 

.947 

000 

50 

1 

444, 

.320 

181 

Hf 

180, 

.949 

105 

42 

1 

452, 

.001 


Ta 

180, 

.948 

007 

42 

1 

452, 

.242 


W 

180, 

.948 

211 

47 

1 

451, 

.269 

182 

Hf 

181, 

.950 

700 

220 

1 

458, 

.580 


Ta 

181, 

,950 

167 

42 

1 

458, 

.301 


W 

181, 

.948 

301 

41 

1 

459, 

.257 


Re 

181, 

.951 

372 

47 

1 

455, 

,614 

183 

Hf 

182, 

.953 

830 

220 

1 

463, 

.740 


Ta 

182, 

,951 

470 

43 

1 

465, 

, 159 


W 

182, 

,950 

324 

41 

1 

465, 

,444 


Re 

182, 

.951 

260 

1070 

1 

463, 

.790 

184 

Ta 

183. 

.953 

980 

50 

1 

470, 

,900 


W 

183, 

,951 

025 

43 

1 

472, 

,863 


Re 

183, 

,952 

780 

1080 

1 

470. 

,450 


Os 

183, 

,952 

750 

70 

1 

469, 

,690 

185 

Ta 

184, 

,955 

560 

70 

1 

477. 

,490 


W 

184, 

,953 

519 

43 

1 

478. 

,611 


Re 

184. 

,953 

059 

43 

1 

478. 

,257 


Os 

184. 

,954 

113 

43 

1 

476. 

,493 

186 

Ta 

185. 

,958 

410 

330 

1 

482. 

,910 


W 

185, 

,954 

440 

45 

1 

485. 

,824 


Re 

185. 

,955 

020 

70 

1 

484. 

,500 


Os 

185, 

,953 

870 

70 

1 

484. 

,790 


Ir 

185. 

,957 

990 

80 

1 

480. 

,170 

187 

W 

186. 

,957 

244 

45 

1 

491. 

284 


Re 

186. 

,955 

833 

44 

1 

491. 

815 


Os 

186, 

,955 

832 

44 

1 

491. 

034 


Ir 

186. 

,957 

5 60 

1070 

1 

488. 

640 

188 

W 

187. 

958 

816 

48 

1 

497. 

891 


Re 

187. 

,958 

353 

47 

1 

497. 

540 


Os 

187, 

956 

081 

47 

1 

498. 

873 


Ir 

187. 

959 

122 

49 

1 

495. 

259 


Pt 

187. 

,959 

670 

70 

1 

493. 

970 


A El. 


Atomic 

Mass 

(u) 


Mass 

Error* 


Binding 

Energyt 

(MeV) 


60 


A 

El. 

Atomic 

Mass 

(u) 

Mass 

Error* 

Binding 

Energyt 

(MeV) 

A 

El. 

Atomic 

Mass 

(u) 

Mass 

Error* 

Binding 

Energyt 

(MeV) 

189 

Re 

188.959 

370 

90 

1 

504.660 

198 

Ir 

197.972 

620 

320 

1 

563.400 


Os 

188.958 

300 

90 

1 

504.880 


Pt 

197.967 

895 

23 

1 

567.019 


Ir 

188.958 

910 

1080 

1 

503.530 


Au 

197.968 

231 

7 

1 

565.923 


Pt 

188.960 

610 

1520 

1 

501.160 


Hg 

197.966 

756 

7 

1 

566.515 









T1 

197.970 

470 

90 

1 

562.270 

190 

Re 

189.961 

960 

440 

1 

510.330 


Pb 

197.972 

410 

1080 

1 

559.680 


Os 

189.958 

630 

80 

1 

512.640 


Bi 

197.980 

370 

1520 

1 

551.490 


Ir 

189.960 

830 

180 

1 

509.810 









Pt 

189.959 

950 

70 

1 

509.840 

199 

Pt 

198.970 

580 

29 

1 

572.589 


Au 

189.964 

710 

1080 

1 

504.630 


Au 

198.968 

773 

13 

1 

573.490 









Hg 

198.968 

279 

7 

1 

573.168 

191 

Os 

190.960 

970 

60 

1 

518.530 


T1 

198.969 

460 

320 

1 

571.290 


Ir 

190.960 

640 

60 

r 

518.060 


Pb 

198.972 

860 

1120 

1 

567.330 


Pt 

190.961 

450 

1080 

1 

516.520 


Bi 

198.978 

440 

1090 

1 

561.350 


Au 

190.963 

550 

1520 

1 

513.790 















200 

Pt 

199.971 

430 

1080 

1 

579.870 

192 

Os 

191.961 

450 

60 

1 

526. 160 


Au 

199.970 

700 

100 

1 

579.770 


Ir 

191.962 

700 

60 

1 

524.210 


Hg 

199.968 

327 

6 

1 

581.194 


Pt 

191.961 

150 

60 

1 

524.880 


T1 

199.970 

962 

8 

1 

577.958 


Au 

191.964 

620 

80 

1 

520.860 


Pb 

199.971 

970 

1070 

1 

576.240 


Hg 

191.966 

160 

1080 

1 

518.640 


Bi 

199.978 

940 

1520 

1 

568.960 









Po 

199.982 

820 

1090 

1 

564.570 

193 

Os 

192.964 

227 

35 

1 

531.643 









Ir 

192.963 

012 

35 

1 

531.993 

201 

Pt 

200.974 

770 

120 

1 

584.830 


Pt 

192.963 

060 

31 

1 

531.165 


Au 

200.971 

920 

110 

1 

586.700 


Au 

192.964 

240 

1070 

1 

529.280 


Hg 

200.970 

308 

7 

1 

587.421 


Hg 

192.966 

750 

1070 

1 

526.160 


T1 

200.970 

750 

60 

1 

586.230 









Pb 

200.972 

860 

1080 

1 

583.480 

194 

Os 

193.965 

229 

25 

1 

538.781 


Bi 

200.977 

370 

1520 

1 

578.490 


Ir 

193.965 

125 

25 

1 

538.096 


Po 

200.983 

020 

1090 

1 

572.450 


Pt 

193.962 

725 

23 

1 

539.549 









Au 

193.965 

418 

28 

1 

536.258 

202 

Au 

201.974 

120 

1070 

1 

592.720 


Hg 

193.965 

790 

1070 

1 

535.130 


Hg 

201.970 

642 

7 

1 

595.181 


T1 

193.971 

570 

1520 

1 

528.960 


T1 

201.971 

950 

25 

1 

593.180 









Pb 

201.972 

003 

40 

1 

592.348 

195 

Os 

194.968 

000 

500 

1 

544.200 


Bi 

201.977 

880 

1070 

1 

586. 100 


Ir 

194.965 

890 

110 

1 

545.460 


Po 

201.981 

130 

1080 

1 

582.280 


Pt 

194.964 

813 

18 

1 

545.675 


At 

201.989 

800 

1520 

1 

573.420 


Au 

194.965 

051 

19 

1 

544.672 









Hg 

194.966 

620 

1070 

1 

542.430 

203 

Au 

202.975 

130 

1070 

1 

599.850 


T1 

194.969 

840 

1090 

1 

538.650 


Hg 

202.972 

880 

8 

1 

601. 168 









T1 

202.972 

353 

8 

1 

600.876 

196 

Ir 

195.968 

250 

1070 

1 

551.330 


Pb 

202.973 

229 

13 

1 

599.278 


Pt 

195.964 

967 

15 

1 

553.604 


Bi 

202.976 

650 

60 

1 

595.310 


Au 

195.966 

555 

14 

1 

551.342 


Po 

202.981 

470 

1120 

1 

590.040 


Hg 

195.965 

820 

14 

1 

551.244 


At 

202.987 

710 

1090 

1 

583. 4u0 


T1 

195.970 

760 

160 

1 

545.860 









Pb 

195.973 

800 

1090 

1 

542.250 

204 

Hg 

203.973 

495 

7 

1 

608. » f 









T1 

203.973 

865 

8 

1 

607. ^ 

197 

Ir 

196.969 

490 

220 

1 

558.240 


Pb 

203.973 

044 

8 

1 

60^. 


Pt 

196.967 

347 

13 

1 

559.458 


Bi 

203.977 

810 

1070 

1 

60.’. V 


Au 

196.966 

541 

10 

1 

559.426 


Po 

203.980 

460 

1070 

1 

59Q.< ( 


Hg 

196.967 

360 

44 

1 

557.881 


At 

203.988 

060 

1520 

1 

5^^!. I'i' 


T1 

196.969 

720 

170 

1 

554.900 


Rn 

203.992 

300 

1090 

1 

58'.. - 1 


Pb 

196.974 

090 

1090 

1 

550.050 









h\ 


A 

El. 

Atomic 

Mass 

(u) 

Mass 

Error* 

Binding 

Energyt 

(MeV) 

A 

El. 

Atomic 

Mass 

(u) 

Mass 

Error* 

Binding 

Energyt 

(MeV) 

205 

Hg 

204.976 

210 

110 

1 

614.210 

212 

Pb 

211.991 

892 

9 

1 

654.537 


T1 

204.974 

442 

8 

1 

615.073 


Bi 

211.991 

276 

8 

1 

654.328 


Pb 

204.974 

480 

9 

1 

614.256 


Po 

211.988 

865 

6 

1 

655.792 


Bi 

204.977 

382 

13 

1 

610.769 


At 

211.990 

723 

23 

1 

653.278 


Po 

204.981 

200 

1080 

1 

606.430 


Rn 

211.990 

707 

13 

1 

652.511 


At 

204.986 

440 

1520 

1 

600.770 


Fr 

211.996 

230 

1080 

1 

646.580 


Rn 

204,992 

560 

1530 

1 

594.290 


Ra 

211.999 

950 

1070 

1 

642.330 

206 

Hg 

205.977 

513 

23 

1 

621.067 

213 

Pb 

212.996 

580 

1070 

1 

658.240 


T1 

205.976 

104 

8 

1 

621.597 


Bi 

212.994 

377 

14 

1 

659.511 


Pb 

205.974 

468 

7 

1 

622.338 


Po 

212.992 

849 

10 

1 

660.152 


Bi 

205.978 

389 

28 

1 

617.904 


At 

212.993 

070 

210 

1 

659.170 


Po 

205.980 

324 

41 

1 

615.318 


Rn 

212.993 

935 

24 

1 

657.576 


At 

205.986 

790 

1070 

1 

608.510 


Fr 

212.996 

184 

17 

1 

654.698 


Rn 

205.990 

580 

1080 

1 

604.200 


Ra 

213.000 

420 

1080 

1 

649.970 


Fr 

205.999 

840 

1520 

1 

594.790 


Ac 

213.007 

050 

1520 

1 

643.010 

207 

T1 

206.977 

450 

11 

1 

628.414 

214 

Pb 

213.999 

844 

12 

1 

663.272 


Pb 

206.975 

903 

7 

1 

629.073 


Bi 

213.998 

726 

15 

1 

663.532 


Bi 

206.978 

438 

8 

1 

625,929 


Po 

213.995 

204 

6 

1 

666.029 


Po 

206.981 

558 

11 

1 

622.240 


At 

213.996 

332 

12 

1 

664. 196 


At 

206.985 

5 60 

60 

1 

617.730 


Rn 

213.995 

380 

1070 

1 

664.300 


Rn 

206.990 

760 

1120 

1 

612.100 


Fr 

213.998 

980 

40 

1 

660.160 


Fr 

206.997 

730 

1090 

1 

604.830 


Ra 

213.999 

990 

50 

1 

658.440 









Ac 

214.007 

100 

1080 

1 

651.040 

208 

T1 

207.982 

013 

9 

1 

632.235 









Pb 

207.976 

650 

7 

1 

636.448 

215 

Bi 

215.001 

850 

100 

1 

668. 690 


Bi 

207.979 

731 

9 

1 

632.796 


Po 

214.999 

449 

11 

1 

670.147 


Po 

207.981 

243 

12 

1 

630.605 


At 

214.998 

656 

14 

1 

670.103 


At 

207.986 

610 

1080 

1 

624.830 


Rn 

214.998 

690 

110 

1 

669.290 


Rn 

207.989 

790 

1070 

1 

621.080 


Fr 

215.000 

400 

30 

1 

666.910 


Fr 

207.997 

950 

1520 

1 

612.700 


Ra 

215.002 

765 

26 

1 

663.930 

209 

T1 

208.985 

296 

37 

1 

637.249 

216 

Bi 

216.006 

310 

1070 

1 

672.610 


Pb 

208.981 

082 

11 

1 

640.391 


Po 

216.001 

908 

9 

1 

675.928 


Bi 

208.980 

394 

8 

1 

640.250 


At 

216.002 

416 

11 

1 

674.672 


Po 

208.982 

426 

13 

1 

637.575 


Rn 

216.000 

272 

12 

1 

675.887 


At 

208.986 

167 

13 

1 

633.307 


Fr 

216.003 

100 

1070 

1 

672.470 


Rn 

208.990 

420 

1080 

1 

628.570 


Ra 

216.003 

490 

30 

1 

671.330 


Fr 

208.996 

320 

1520 

1 

622.280 















217 

Po 

217.006 

340 

1070 

1 

679.870 

210 

T1 

209.990 

054 

29 

1 

640.888 


At 

217.004 

708 

14 

1 

680.609 


Pb 

209.984 

187 

7 

1 

645.571 


Rn 

217.003 

920 

11 

1 

680.560 


Bi 

209.984 

121 

7 

1 

644.849 


Fr 

217.004 

750 

300 

1 

679.000 


Po 

209.982 

876 

7 

1 

645.227 


Ra 

217.006 

390 

40 

1 

676.700 


At 

209.987 

036 

28 

1 

640.569 









Rn 

209.989 

540 

42 

1 

637.454 

218 

Po 

218.009 

009 

12 

1 

685.456 


Fr 

209.996 

570 

1070 

1 

630,120 


At 

218.008 

710 

15 

1 

684.953 









Rn 

218.005 

606 

12 

1 

687.062 

211 

Pb 

210.988 

742 

22 

1 

649.399 


Fr 

218.007 

521 

16 

1 

684.496 


Bi 

210.987 

300 

11 

1 

649.960 


Ra 

218.007 

170 

1520 

1 

684.040 


Po 

210.986 

657 

8 

1 

649.777 









At 

210.987 

462 

8 

1 

648.244 

219 

At 

219.011 

320 

90 

1 

690.600 


Rn 

210.990 

566 

11 

1 

644.570 


Rn 

219.009 

508 

11 

1 

691.499 


Fr 

210,995 

330 

60 

1 

639,350 


Fr 

219.009 

250 

26 

1 

690.956 


Ra 

211.000 

950 

1550 

1 

633.330 


Ra 

219.010 

050 

150 

1 

689.430 


62 


El, 


Atomic 

Mass 

(u) 


Mass 

Error* 


Binding 

Energyt 

(MeV) 


El. 


Atomic Binding 

Error* 

(u) (MeV) 


220 

At 

220, 

.015 

140 

1070 

1 

695. 

. 100 


Rn 

220, 

.011 

387 

9 

1 

697, 

.819 


Fr 

220, 

.012 

318 

13 

1 

696, 

. 170 


Ra 

220, 

.011 

026 

16 

1 

696, 

.591 

221 

Rn 

221, 

.015 

390 

1520 

1 

702, 

.170 


Fr 

221, 

,014 

244 

15 

1 

702, 

,447 


Ra 

221, 

.013 

913 

12 

1 

701, 

,973 


Ac 

221, 

,015 

680 

370 

1 

699, 

,550 

222 

Rn 

222, 

,017 

610 

12 

1 

708, 

, 166 


Fr 

222, 

,017 

550 

30 

1 

707. 

,440 


Ra 

222. 

,015 

375 

16 

1 

708, 

.683 


Ac 

222, 

,017 

779 

20 

1 

705, 

,661 

223 

Fr 

223. 

,019 

760 

11 

1 

713. 

,452 


Ra 

223. 

.018 

527 

11 

1 

713. 

,818 


Ac 

223. 

,019 

133 

26 

1 

712. 

,470 


Th 

223. 

,020 

920 

190 

1 

710. 

,030 

224 

Fr 

224, 

,023 

320 

1070 

1 

718, 

, 210 


Ra 

224. 

,020 

203 

9 

1 

720. 

,328 


Ac 

224, 

,021 

701 

15 

1 

718. 

, 150 


Th 

224, 

021 

470 

20 

1 

717. 

,583 

225 

Ra 

225. 

023 

630 

13 

1 

725 

208 


Ac 

225. 

023 

214 

15 

1 

724. 

,813 


Th 

225. 

023 

945 

14 

1 

723. 

,349 


Pa 

225. 

026 

230 

1140 

1 

720. 

,430 

226 

Ra 

226. 

025 

438 

12 

1 

731. 

,594 


Ac 

226, 

026 

101 

21 

1 

730. 

,195 


Th 

226. 

024 

900 

20 

1 

730. 

,531 


Pa 

226. 

027 

882 

22 

1 

726. 

971 

227 

Ra 

227. 

029 

180 

24 

1 

736. 

181 


Ac 

227, 

027 

774 

11 

1 

736. 

,708 


Th 

227. 

027 

727 

11 

1 

735. 

969 


Pa 

227. 

028 

801 

27 

1 

734. 

190 


U 

227. 

031 

200 

1090 

1 

731. 

170 

228 

Ra 

228, 

031 

096 

13 

1 

742. 

468 


Ac 

228. 

031 

037 

13 

1 

741. 

740 


Th 

228. 

028 

733 

9 

1 

743. 

103 


Pa 

228. 

030 

990 

16 

1 

740. 

219 


U 

228. 

031 

377 

22 

1 

739. 

076 

229 

Ra 

229, 

034 

870 

1520 

1 

747, 

020 


Ac 

229. 

032 

940 

1070 

1 

748. 

040 


Th 

229. 

031 

781 

12 

1 

748. 

336 


Pa 

229. 

032 

081 

16 

1 

747. 

274 


U 

229. 

033 

496 

14 

1 

745. 

173 

230 

Ra 

230. 

037 

130 

1520 

1 

752. 

990 


Ac 

230. 

036 

270 

1070 

1 

753. 

010 


Th 

230. 

033 

159 

12 

1 

755. 

124 


230 

Pa 

230, 

.034 

541 

21 

1 

753, 

.054 


U 

230, 

.033 

935 

20 

1 

752, 

.836 


Np 

230, 

.037 

750 

1070 

1 

748, 

.500 

231 

Ac 

231, 

.038 

570 

110 

1 

758, 

.930 


Th 

231, 

.036 

318 

11 

1 

760, 

. 252 


Pa 

231, 

.035 

903 

11 

1 

759, 

.857 


U 

231, 

.036 

290 

50 

1 

758, 

, 720 


Np 

231, 

.038 

270 

60 

1 

756, 

.080 

232 

Th 

232, 

.038 

079 

12 

1 

766, 

,683 


Pa 

232, 

.038 

592 

24 

1 

765 

.423 


U 

232, 

.037 

148 

10 

1 

765. 

.986 


Np 

232, 

.039 

950 

1070 

1 

762. 

.600 


Pu 

232, 

,041 

170 

60 

1 

760, 

,670 

233 

Th 

233, 

,041 

604 

12 

1 

771, 

,472 


Pa 

233. 

,040 

268 

12 

1 

771, 

,934 


U 

233. 

,039 

654 

12 

1 

771, 

, 723 


Np 

233. 

,040 

830 

1070 

1 

769, 

.850 


Pu 

233, 

,042 

987 

26 

1 

767. 

.050 

234 

Th 

234. 

,043 

636 

13 

1 

777. 

,651 


Pa 

234. 

,043 

354 

13 

1 

777. 

, 131 


U 

234. 

,040 

976 

12 

1 

778. 

,564 


Np 

234. 

,042 

908 

20 

1 

775. 

,981 


Pu 

234, 

,043 

313 

20 

1 

774. 

,822 

235 

Pa 

235. 

,045 

450 

110 

1 

783. 

,250 


U 

235. 

,043 

943 

11 

1 

783. 

871 


NP 

235. 

,044 

075 

11 

1 

782. 

965 


Pu 

235. 

,045 

290 

60 

1 

781. 

050 

236 

Pa 

236. 

,048 

700 

1070 

1 

788. 

290 


U 

236. 

,045 

591 

12 

1 

790. 

407 


NP 

236. 

,046 

605 

15 

1 

788. 

680 


Pu 

236. 

,046 

049 

11 

1 

788. 

416 


Am 

236. 

,049 

310 

1520 

1 

784. 

590 

237 

Pa 

237. 

.051 

220 

60 

1 

794. 

020 


U 

237. 

,048 

750 

12 

1 

795. 

536 


NP 

237. 

,048 

195 

12 

1 

795. 

271 


Pu 

237. 

,048 

434 

13 

1 

794. 

266 


Am 

237. 

,050 

060 

1520 

1 

791. 

Q"0 

238 

U 

238. 

050 

819 

12 

1 

801. 

o80 


NP 

238. 

,050 

970 

14 

1 

800. 

75’ 


Pu 

238. 

,049 

582 

12 

1 

801. 

2< 8 


Am 

238. 

,052 

010 

1070 

1 

798. 

7 30 


Cm 

238. 

,053 

030 

40 

1 

796. 

-.90 

239 

U 

239. 

,054 

328 

13 

1 

806. 

<*8^ 


Np 

239. 

,052 

951 

12 

1 

806. 

98^ 


Pu 

239. 

,052 

175 

12 

1 

80b. 

9. 'a 


Am 

239. 

,053 

042 

24 

1 

805. 

^ ‘0 


Cm 

239. 

,054 

900 

1070 

1 

802, 

8.‘- 


6J 


A 

El. 

Atomic 

Mass 

(u) 

Mass 

Error* 

Binding 

Energyt 

(MeV) 

A 

El. 

Atomic 

Mass 

(u) 

Mass 

Error* 

Binding 

Energyt 

(MeV) 

240 

U 

240.056 

633 

17 

1 

812.408 

248 

Es 

248.075 

500 

1520 

1 

853.930 


Np 

240.056 

080 

70 

1 

812.140 


Fm 

248.077 

190 

30 

1 

851.570 


Pu 

240.053 

836 

12 

1 

813.448 









Am 

240.055 

340 

1070 

1 

811.270 

249 

Cm 

249.075 

985 

17 

1 

863.895 


Cm 

240.055 

518 

11 

1 

810.316 


Bk 

249.075 

005 

12 

1 

864.026 









Cf 

249.074 

870 

12 

1 

863.369 

241 

Np 

241.058 

330 

110 

1 

818 110 


Es 

249.076 

380 

30 

1 

861.180 


Pu 

241.056 

873 

12 

1 

818 691 


Fm 

249.078 

960 

1070 

1 

857.990 


Am 

241.056 

850 

12 

1 

817.929 









Cm 

241.057 

679 

13 

1 

816.375 

250 

Cm 

250.078 

420 

1070 

1 

869.700 


Bk 

241.060 

240 

1070 

1 

813.200 


Bk 

250.078 

337 

16 

1 

868.993 









Cf 

250.076 

432 

14 

1 

869.985 

242 

Np 

242.061 

780 

1070 

1 

822.980 


Es 

250.078 

650 

1070 

1 

867.130 


Pu 

242.058 

769 

12 

1 

824.996 


Fm 

250.079 

550 

40 

1 

865.520 


Am 

242.059 

573 

14 

1 

823.465 


Md 

250.084 

430 

1860 

1 

860.190 


Cm 

242.058 

860 

12 

] 

823.347 









Bk 

242.062 

080 

1070 

1 

819.560 

251 

Bk 

251.080 

810 

1520 

1 

874.760 


Cf 

242.063 

670 

40 

1 

817.300 


Cf 

251.079 

591 

18 

1 

875.114 









Es 

251.079 

970 

50 

1 

873.980 

243 

Pu 

243.062 

031 

15 

1 

830.029 


Fm 

251.081 

620 

1320 

1 

871.660 


Am 

243.061 

393 

12 

1 

829.840 


Md 

251.084 

870 

1070 

1 

867.850 


Cm 

243.061 

400 

12 

1 

829.052 


No 

251.088 

860 

2150 

1 

863.350 


Bk 

243.063 

022 

25 

1 

826.760 









Cf 

243.065 

330 

1520 

1 

823.830 

252 

Bk 

252.084 

340 

1070 

1 

879.540 









Cf 

252.081 

657 

17 

1 

881.261 

244 

Pu 

244.064 

235 

17 

1 

836.047 


Es 

252.082 

870 

1070 

1 

879.350 


Am 

244.064 

310 

12 

1 

835.196 


Fm 

252.082 

500 

40 

1 

878.910 


Cm 

244.062 

775 

12 

1 

835.842 


Md 

252.086 

530 

1860 

1 

874.380 


Bk 

244.065 

220 

1070 

1 

832.780 


No 

252.088 

970 

40 

1 

871.320 


Cf 

244.065 

988 

11 

1 

831.284 















253 

Cf 

253.085 

140 

60 

1 

886.090 

245 

Pu 

245.067 

800 

1070 

1 

840.800 


Es 

253.084 

850 

14 

1 

885.576 


Am 

245.066 

477 

13 

1 

841.249 


Fm 

253.085 

200 

1070 

1 

884.470 


Cm 

245.065 

511 

12 

1 

841.366 


Md 

253.087 

250 

1070 

1 

881.780 


Bk 

245.066 

393 

13 

1 

839.762 


No 

253.090 

580 

1520 

1 

877.890 


Cf 

245.068 

071 

13 

1 

837.416 









Es 

245.071 

330 

1520 

1 

833.600 

254 

Cf 

254.087 

390 

1070 

1 

892.060 









Es 

254.088 

053 

17 

1 

890.663 

246 

Pu 

246.070 

120 

60 

1 

846.710 


Fm 

254.086 

883 

15 

1 

890.972 


Am 

246.069 

720 

60 

1 

846.300 


Md 

254.089 

630 

1520 

1 

887.630 


Cm 

246.067 

250 

13 

1 

847.817 


No 

254.090 

990 

40 

1 

885.580 


Bk 

246.068 

820 

1070 

1 

845.570 









Cf 

246.068 

837 

16 

1 

844.774 

255 

Es 

255.090 

290 

1520 

1 

896.650 


Es 

246.072 

970 

1520 

1 

840.140 


Fm 

255.089 

970 

19 

1 

896. 168 


Fm 

246.075 

260 

50 

1 

837.230 


Md 

255.091 

100 

1070 

1 

894.330 









No 

255.093 

270 

1700 

1 

891.520 

247 

Am 

247.072 

100 

1070 

1 

852.160 









Cm 

247.070 

380 

15 

1 

852.973 

256 

Es 

256.093 

710 

1520 

1 

901.540 


Bk 

247.070 

290 

30 

1 

852.280 


Fm 

256.091 

730 

40 

1 

902.600 


Cf 

247.071 

180 

760 

1 

850.660 


Md 

256.093 

790 

1520 

1 

899.900 


Es 

247.073 

620 

40 

1 

847.600 


No 

256.094 

280 

40 

1 

898.650 


Fm 

247.076 

740 

1860 

1 

843.920 


Lw 

256.098 

570 

1070 

1 

893.880 

248 

Am 

248.075 

710 

1070 

1 

856.860 

257 

Fm 

257.095 

110 

60 

1 

907.520 


Cm 

248.072 

379 

16 

1 

859.182 


Md 

257.095 

610 

1070 

1 

906.270 


Bk 

248.073 

020 

1070 

1 

857.800 


No 

257.096 

930 

1520 

1 

904.260 


Cf 

248.072 

220 

30 

1 

857.770 


Lw 

257.099 

510 

1520 

1 

901.070 


64 


DENSITY OF ELEMENTS AND COMMON MATERIALS 


Ele- 

ment 

At. 
No. 

At. 
Wt. 

MIP* 

Density 

Ele- 

ment 

At. 

No. 

At. 

Wt. 

MIP* 

Density 

H 

1 

1.00797 

18.0 

0.0586 

I 

53 

126.9044 

4.93 

He 

2 

4.0026 

40.0 

0.126 

Xe 

54 

131.30 

757.52 

3.52 

Li 

3 

6.939 

39.032 

0.534 

Cs 

55 

132.905 

1.873 

Be 

4 

9.0122 

56.0 

1.8 

Ba 

56 

137.34 

3.5 

B 

5 

10.811 


2.34 

La 

57 

138.91 

6.155 

C 

6 

12.01115 

79.0 

2.25 

Ce 

58 

140.12 

3.92 

N 

7 

14.0067 

92.0 

0.808 

Pr 

59 

140.907 

6.5 

0 

8 

15.9994 

105.0 

1.14 

Nd 

60 

144.24 

6.95 

F 

9 

18.9984 


1.11 

Pm 

61 

147 


Ne 

10 

20.183 

130.016 

1.2 

Sm 

62 

150.35 

7.8 

Na 

11 

22.9898 


0.971 

Eu 

63 

151.96 

5.24 

Mg 

12 

24.312 

156.4 

1.74 

Gd 

64 

157.25 


A1 

13 

26.9815 

163 

2.699 

Tb 

65 

158.924 


Si 

14 

28.086 


2.42 

Dy 

66 

162.50 

8.56 

P 

15 

30.9738 


1.82 

Ho 

67 

164.930 


S 

16 

32.064 


2.07 

Er 

68 

167.26 

4.77 

Cl 

17 

35.453 


1.56 

Tm 

69 

168.934 


Ar 

18 

39.948 

240.0 

1.40 

Yb 

70 

173.04 


K 

19 

39.102 


0.87 

Lu 

71 

174.97 


Ca 

20 

40.08 

200 

1.55 

Hf 

72 

178.49 

13.3 

Sc 

21 

44.956 


3.02 

Ta 

73 

180.948 

720 

16.6 

Ti 

22 

47.90 

225 

4.5 

W 

74 

183.85 

740 

19.3 

V 

23 

50.942 

254 

5.96 

Re 

75 

186.2 

20.53 

Cr 

24 

51.996 


7.1 

Os 

76 

190.2 

22.48 

Mn 

25 

54.9380 


7.20 

Ir 

77 

192.2 

760 

22.42 

Fe 

26 

55.847 

273 

7.86 

Pt 

78 

195.09 

777 

21.37 

Co 

27 

58.9332 

298 

8.9 

Au 

79 

196.967 

786 

19.32 

Ni 

28 

58.71 

312 

8.90 

Hg 

80 

200.59 

13.546 

Cu 

29 

63.54 

322 

8.94 

Tl 

81 

204.37 

11.85 

Zn 

30 

65.37 

331 

7.14 

Pb 

82 

207.19 

818 

11.35 

Ga 

31 

69.72 


5.91 

Bi 

83 

208.980 

826 

9.747 

Ge 

32 

72.59 


5.36 

Po 

84 

210 


As 

33 

74.9216 


5.73 

At 

85 

210 


Se 

34 

78.96 


4.8 

Rn 

86 

222 

9.73 

Br 

35 

79.909 


3.12 

Fr 

87 

223 


Kr 

36 

83.80 

493.68 

2.6 

Ra 

88 

226 


Rb 

37 

85.47 


1.53 

Ac 

89 

227 


Sr 

38 

87.62 


2.54 

Th 

90 

232.038 

11.3 

Y 

39 

88.905 


5.51 

Pa 

91 

231 


Zr 

40 

91.22 


6.4 

U 

92 

238.03 

908 

18.68 

Nb 

41 

92.906 

410 

8.4 

Np 

93 



Mo 

42 

95.94 

420 

10.2 

Pu 

94 



Tc 

43 

99 



Am 

95 



Ru 

44 

101.07 


12.2 

Cm 

96 



Rh 

45 

102.905 

450 

12.5 

Bk 

97 



Pd 

46 

106.4 

460 

12.16 

Cf 

98 



Ag 

47 

107.870 

485 

10.50 

Es 

99 



Cd 

48 

112.40 

468.0 

8.65 

Fm 

100 



In 

49 

114.82 

490 

7.28 

Md 

101 



Sn 

50 

118.69 

500 

7.31 

No 

102 



Sb 

51 

121.75 


6.691 

Lw 

103 



Te 

52 

127.60 


6.24 

Ku 

104 




■*Mean ionization potential. 


63 


Material 

Density 

(gm/cm^) 

Air 

0.001293 

Asbestos 

2.0 - 

2.8 

Asphalt 

1.1 - 

1.5 

Bone 

1.7 - 

2.0 

Brick 

1.4 - 

2.5 

Cement 

2.7 - 

3.0 

Clay 

1.8 - 

2.6 

Concrete, siliceous 

2.25 - 

2.40 

Ebonite 

1.15 


Gelatin 

1.27 


Glass (common) 

2.4 - 

2.8 

Glass (flint) 

2.9 - 

5.9 

Granite 

2.60 - 

2.76 

Graphite 

2.30 - 

2.72 

Gypsum 

2.31 - 

2.33 

Limestone 

1.87 - 

2.76 

Linoleum 

1.18 


Marble 

2.47 - 

2.86 

Paraffin 

0.87 - 

0.91 

Plaster, sand 
Pressed wood: 

1.54 


Pulp Board 

0.19 


Sandstone 

1.90 


Slate 

2.6 - 

3.3 

Tile 

1.6 - 

2.5 

Water 

1.000 


Water (heavy) 
Wood : 

1.105 


Oak 

0.60 - 

0.90 

White Pine 

0.35 - 

0.50 

Yellow Pine 

0.37 - 

0.60 


Source: "Medical X-Ray Protection up to Three Million Volts," National Bureau of 

Standards Handbook No. 76, 1961; 

"Handbook of Chemistry and Physics," Chemical Rubber Co., 48th ed., 1967- 
1968; and 

Trout, E. Dale,, "Conventional Building Materials as Protective 

Barriers," Radiology, Vol. 76, No. 2 (Feb. 1961), pp. 237-244. 


66 


PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS 


s 3 

la 


! a>:- 

I - 


jdr. 


2 • > 

} 

_k 


.u 

'm 


OHi 


Zl! 


Ui 


I? t 


u 

< 




u! 


M 




•I "I 

jUs 


S =3 


1 = i 

o n i 


Oi 

s 


 w 

s II 


Ih Sf 

- "0 
00 


° 2 b 
m o o 

§i'§~ 

d 5 +1 S 

Ai 2 00 o 
tl CO }?J o 
o> 9 54 o 
S w 9., 

S “ +1 


E II 

I =■: 


6 ^ II 2 ° -5 
II z ” +1 -g 

f llrSi 


iSK 

» O OI 

I o o 
> o o 
: ^ o 


J 2 00 

2 i - 

< o ; 


Z 

0 ^ 

u ^ 

1 ^ 

O R 

H- § 
< 

< 


*0 ~ '5 C ^ ^ 

c a oi E ^ ^ \o 

« I II I Jl Jl 

boo 


E « 8 
; 5 9 p ^ 


c >, 

■5 -S 


E E E 


. (/> 


§ 8 § 8 § 

8 §§§i 

O o O O 
+I ° +1 II O 

(X, +1 in in +1 

5 §§qS 

in o X CM ^ 


>" 2 : 8 § 
; X ? 9 +1 
•s ? o O '-• 

) O o II fO 


Ol 




*>0 •■■i. 


0 >J 


Oi 


0 )i 

O] 


0 i 




. 0)1 


iSi 


I g • > 


Oi 
Q.I 






c. 




c 

N 




3 i 




o, 

u 


O: 


Cl 

m 


UI 

Ui 


M 


UI 

^ 


Dj 

u 


M 


"Oi 

u 


O). 

l«s 

:2 


"Oi 


a- 


.= II! 5 




\ 

;—; =3 1 ; i 


3 _, 




Ml 


Oi 


^2 




N! 






® oi. 


/ 

®5 / 

s / 


Jii 




s' 

S' 


3 


'S 3|V| 

^ 1 
° ^ii 

r>) 

70 173.04 

Yb 

Ytterbium 

7.01 

i or'; 

21 i 

i Eiu 

i 

.^1 

68 / 67.26 

Er 

Erbium 

K. r 

r> 'i 

= El. 

!“■ 

67 / 64.97 

Ho 

Holmium 

k::: 

V li, 

= Ml 

lUi ‘ 

0. = 

O' 

66 162.50 

Dy 

Dysprosium 

^ Dll 
00 “ 

65 158.92 

Tb 

Terbium 

^:z 

^ -^r'i 

^car! 

0^ 

Cm 

»< "O" 

sa ^ = 2 ii 

^ E^i 

-u= * 

63 152.0 

|u 

1 ^ 3.34 

a- ” 

i= Cl?l 

= 3r'. 

,Q.r-< 

0* 

* Er', 

. 0.1 

e 0 s-'- 

Zi- 

CO, 

' Zt' ^ 

1 

'’Djl! 

es ,: 

1 

^ E 

0 ■ » 

' i*-'” < 

Qii' 

a 

s. !T5 

= Or^ 

i ®:.| 
^ ^ 

s ^ 

^ ^ B 

~ P= 

s 

57 138.91 

La 

k-Sd 

15 ^ 

s y. ^ 

■ &9029Si 


■ Percent Abundance 


- Mass 

‘ nssion Product, Slow Neutron Fission of U235 


Radiooctive Upper Isomer Stable Lower Isomer 


Two Isomeric States 
Both Radiooctive 


Mo 103 

?5.3h 

66s 

0' 

0' 

r-S4,l26. 

L7I.C3.L46 

4 


Symbol, Moss Number 
Half Lives, ? Indicates Uncertointy 
‘ Modes of Decoy and Energy In Mev 
In Order of Intensity; ”Indicotes 
Additional Low Intensity Transitions; 
.—Indicates Severol Energies Included 


Radiooctive Upper Isomer 


Rodlooctive Lower Isomer 


Displacements Caused by Nuclear 
Bombordment Reactions 



a, 3n 

a, 2n 
3 

He ,n 

a, n 



P, n 

p. r 

d, n 
3 

He, np 

a, np 
t, n 
3 

He ,p 



r. n 
n, 2n 

Original 

Nucleus 

d, p 

n. r 

t, np 

t. p 


r. np 

7. P 

n, p 



n, a 

n. He* 



Relative Locations of the Products 
of Various Nuclear Processes 





He^ in 

a in 


0~ out 

p in 

d in 

t in 


n out 

Original 

Nucleus 

n in 


t out 

d out 

p out 

0'^ out 
€ 


a out 

He^ out 

n = neutron 
p = proton 



d = deuteron 
t = triton (H*) 
a = alpha particit 
0 - negative electron 
0*- positron 
< ■ electran capture 


SYMBOLS 



TIME 


RADIATIONS 

AND 

DECAY 

ms 

milliseconds (lO'^s) 






microseconds (IO“®s) 

a 

alpha particle 

( 

electron capture 

s 

seconds 


negative electron 

IT 

isomeric transition 

m 

minutes 


positron 

0 

radiation deloyed 

h 

hours 

r 

gamma ray 

SF 

spontaneous fission 

d 

days 

n 

neutron 

E 

disintegration energ' 

y 

years 

P 

proton 

e" 

conversion electron 



16 

15 

s 

32.064 

Ob. 52 

P 

30.9738 

Ob. 19 


14 

Si 

28.086 

C6.I6 


Si 25 

0.220s 
8 + 

(0)4.25, 185347 
.82-5.90 


13 

A1 

26.9815 

0*0 234mb 


AI23 

'+A12 

0.129s ' 

IT.44 

rl.J727^ 
£14.4 " 

>44+ 

rm 

(•j'-Z 

EI4.0 

12 

Mg 

24.305 

Cq 63 mb 



Mg 21 

O.I2!s 

0* 

((*3.44,4.03. 

4.81, 6.45.--- 
EI3 

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El. 29 

M7d 

1T0885 

7.1590 

0.87 

n2»io^ 

Iy440 

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2290428 

58d 
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7 0350 

6.99 

<’71.6 

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60 

ite - Te ; 

62 64 66 

Incomplete here, complete below. 


68 


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127.60 

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2.2s 

8 + 

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a 3.08 
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(P) 


Telll? 

19.3s' 

(p) 



Tell4 

17m 

8 + (40.2,7) 
y(89il30) 

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O.IOs 

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115 

6m 

8+26,12, 
21.- « 
772.1.28, 

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2.5h 

€.8+(2.3.") 

7 .094.- (1 29. 
93,.97.2,22.-) 
El, 6 *“ ( 

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64 m 
€.8+175 
7 720.172.109. 

57-2.30 

1350 

Te 118 

6,00d 

€ 

(8 + 2-6) 
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’^-Te 

4.7d 

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a089 

<7y(.34♦^0) 

((9.9040 

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121.75 

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0.9m 

8+.€ 

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6.7m 

8 + 2.42,185 
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7.3-1.5,(079) 

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3.4 m 
8+4.0. 2 .7 
7.69,1 30 

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3l,9m ( 

€.8+151 ' 

7.499.114-222 » 
£303 

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50.4m 
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42696 
10-106 

116" 
16 m 
f*a3i5. 
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93-222 

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280h 

t.0*37 
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£182 

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38.lh 

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7.0240 

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9m 

y 20. 42 

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l.5m 

8+ 

109 

18-lm 

€,8*-vl6 
y 34,1.12. 
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(8+2.25) 

7.2B3,(.66) 

Sn III 

35.1m 

«,8»i.5i 
yU5.0 76,1.91, 
.373-2.32 
E2.52 

Snll2 

a96 
<77(3* 8) 
MI.9048 

20m 

JT.079 

113"'’' 

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7255. 

(.392) 

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113.9028 1 

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22.3m 

8-I.54.- 
r.l044..246.J4l 
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4.4 Ih 

€,8*l.09 

,1.347.1631,255. 

L376.I32-202 

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3.39 m 

8*232.--.e 

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100 

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MO. 9076 A 

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14.6rm !9.2h 
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8-.931 

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Pr 1440 - 
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8*2 99..8t,230- 

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5.98h 

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£27 A 

PrW 8 

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97m ^ l^h 

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7^ •.■191 
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72h 

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139.907 i 

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82.76 * 

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92 ms 

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40.23h 

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24 m 

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Fr 209 

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15,4m 

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44m 

£ 

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£ 

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Hg 198 
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197.96676 

43m 

rT.370 

y.ise 
1 

199*^ 

t&84 

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104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 


- Hg incomplete here, complete on previous page. 


Note 



TH220 

Th22l 

l.7mt 

at 15.9 47 

Th222 

2.8ms 

0 7.96 

Th2Z3 

0.6s 

a 7.5 

223.0209 

Th224 

Us 

0717.6-99. 

y.)77.-- 

.24.0215 

1(1225™ 

8m 

a 646, 6.31 -680 
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225.0239 

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31m 

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7.III..242..I31,-- 

226.0249 

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2flf»WlS.72d 

060375.958. 

5.755," 
7-236, .006-443 
af~450 
227.0277 

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a5.42,&34,-- 

yOe4,.216..l3,.17 

Oy~l23,<7j<.3 

228.0288 

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7340y 

04.84,4.81.-- 

70I7-.27 

0-^33 

229.0317 

Th230. 

ai78xlO*y 

04.68.4.62.-- 
7.(36e,.ll-.25 
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TH233 

22.2 m 
8-I.24." 

7.029-.90 
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Short 

2 ia.oor 

Fr 217 

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217005 

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0 746,690 
y.465 

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29s 

S66I0,&758, 

r089iJ92.J76,- 

221.0139 

Ra222 

38s 

06.56.-- 

r.325,-- 

222.0154 

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i^3ll.43d 

OS7I4.5.605.-- 
7.270,031-580 
al30.o$- 

22f.0l42 

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0- 

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22m 

g*M5 / 

r05a0ea06l-dl 
0 5 34 
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223.0197 

Fr 224 

2.7m 

0- 

£~3.l 

Fr225 

3.9m 

0- 

Fr226 

i.4m 

0- 





144 


130 132 134 136 136 140 142 


Fr 211 

306m 

0 6 53 
2:u 9953 

Fr 212 

^ 19m 

0026036041 

634. 

7 

2,2 00 

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34.7s 

06.77 

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212 9962 

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3.4ms 

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646 

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5.0ms 

0042, 

8.36,- 

2159990 

Fr2l5 

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a"9.36.- 

215,0004 

Fr2l6 

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O9.0I 

216.00 

Fr 217 

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217005 

Fr 218 

5ms 
a 7.85. •• 

218.0075 

Fr 219 

21 ms 
a 730,-- 

219.0093 

Fr 220 

28s 

o 6.68,6.64,-' 
220,0123 

Fr 221 

4.8m 

a 6.34. 6.12.-- 

7.2I8..063-.4I2 

no8" 

221.0142 

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0- 

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S 3 22 m 
fl-n5 / 

7060.060.061-81 
0 5-34 
EI.I49 
223.0197 

Fr 224 

2.7m 

8- 

E~3.l 

Fr225 

3.9m 

8' 

Fr226 

1.4m 

8’ 


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2 4h 

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4 

209 9095 

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I5h 

7 032*1 80 
□ 576585.562 
r069, 17. 23 
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25m 

0 6,27 

2m 9907 

Rn2l3 

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0 0.09 

212.9939 

Rn2l4 

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0 9.04 

214.00 

Rn2l5 
~ 1^8 
0 8.67 

214.999 

Rn 216 

.05ms 

a 0.05 
216.0003 

Rn 2I7 ^h 

.5ms 

O 7 74 
217.0039 

Rn2l8 

35ms 

0 713,6.54 
7-61 

210.0056 

Rn 219 

rtM3.96s 

06.817,6.551, 

6.423,-- 

y.27l,.40l,-- 

219.0095 

Rn2^ 

06.288,5.747 

7.542 

0V<-2 

220.0114 

Rn22l 

25m 

0- 

E'^I.O 

Rn 222 

S3 3.82^ 

05.486. 

7.51 

(T_~,72 

222.0175 

Rn 223 

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0- 

Rn224 

l.9h 

8- 

Rn225 

4.5m 

8* 

Rn226 

6m 

0- 

Af209®^’ 

55h 

r 70. 5,5. (95. 091 

0564 

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7(180.2451463 

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£.750 

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0 9,07 
212.993 

At 214 

0 0.70, •• 
213.9963 

At 215 

At 216 

,35ms 

0 7005. •• 
2160024 

At 217 

32ms 

a 707, •• 
7.260.455, .595 
no8" 

217.0046 






140 

0.12s 1 

0 762. 

700 
7-06 1 

022s 
0 766. 

7.60 

7.06? 

211.9907 

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0 8.00,7.60 
7-S..40 

214 9987 

~ 2 s 

0 6-695,6.653. 

6.757 

0' 

210.0006 

0.9 m 

0 6.27 
0~ 

219.0113 



124 126 128 130 132 134 136 138 


At 205 

26m 

a 090 
E-49 

1 At 206 i 

At 207 

1.79h 

f 

0 5.76 
£3.7 

1 At 208 

At209'^-' 

5.5h 

6 

7,7e,.55,.195,09l 
0 5.64 
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8.3 h 

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0536-5,52 

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7.2 Ih 

y.67 

(oTtMayi.oe.Bg^ 
05.86 ■•) 

E.750 

1 At 212 

At 213 

Short 
0 9.07 

212.993 

At 214 

0 0.78. •• 
213.9963 

At2l5 

At 216 

.35ms 

0 70O5,-- 
2100024 

At 217 

32ms 

0 707, • • 

7-260, 455,.595 
no8‘ 1 

2)7.0046 ' 


2.8h 

31m 

O5.70,-- 

7.07 

E---6.0 

6.2h 

l.6h 

7685. 

-660..I77. 

loses" 

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0-l2s 

0782, 

788 

7. 06 

0.22s 

0 766, ; 

760 1 
7-06? 
211.9907 

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0 8.00,7.60 
7~.40 

214.9987 

2s 1 

0 6.695.6653. 

6 757 

8‘ 

216.0086 

0.9 m 
o6 27 
0' 

2i90iii 

Po204 

3.5h 

0 S38 
r 00. 27 - - 
C'2 5 

Po2 

.64ms 

IT.16 

7-71 

05 

l.8h 

e 

0 5.22 
£•>.36 

Rd206 

lOd 

7.060,063-1320 
0 5.22 
£(.80 

2.6s 

1T.26 

7.82410 

IT.31 r 

^07^ 

5.7h 

f.0*-89." 

7.10-206 

05.12 

£2,91 

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P 02 O 8 

2.896y 

0 5.11 
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207.9812 

Po209‘^ 

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7.261, .263 

2088824 

PO 2 IO 

2ai3a40d 

o 5,305, - 
7-803 

^<.5mb ■♦^<03) 
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20.98666 

»9*Po2I^ 

aii.7,-- &30^is 
x2|.5ja 6.785, 
121196887 

Po2l3 

4/is 

O 0.38,7.62 
2)2.9928 

Po2l4 

SfSi 164^5 

O 7688.6.69 

7.792 
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Po2l5 

1.78ms 

O 7384.-- 
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7.443 

2)4.9994 

P 02 I 6 

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6.243d 

r. 8*98 
r 803,881 
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Bi 2 

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7.119-.97 

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30y 

y570, 
1.0630. 
1.770, •• 
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257ms 

IT.921 

7-5(0, 

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D8‘^' 

366x 

IO=y 

72.615 

E^7 

61209=^ 
100 „ 

>axlO y 
c^(i5mb + I9mb) 

208.98039 

®->Bi2IO 

[gBia S.OId 

aA.9S,4.9l, q4£5, 

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2.14m 

06.622,0278,- 

7.351 

0-.6O 

210.9873 

Bi 212 

7.727.785-1.80 

(08.79-10.55) 

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Bi 213®'-' 

46m 

8" 1,42,), 02 
7.440.” 
05.07,5.55 
EI.42 

Bi 214"-' 

p.609.L76«.rr3-SC« 
0908.8.95-10.50 
I5«755ii.4.900i2e7 
r063..i9l £5.26 

Bi2l5 



»Pb 202 

PJML.MB. Ml- 490 


’-Pb204 

”«Pb205‘'- 

”Pb206 

D.I26ms |23£ 

11.510.203^30 

7.803,-881,- 

wPb 2 

07l^ 

Pb20e 

52.3 

oy,«'(5mb 

207.97665 

Pb209a^ 

3,3lh 

8“.64 
E 64 

Pb2IO 

TBfSl 22 y 

8'.0I5, .061 

7,0465 

03.72 

£.061 

Pb 2 l|i’'’i 

2021 36.1m 

fl-).37,.55.-- 

7405,-832.427. 

^L3^,065-).270 

Pb2l2 

IBRI I0.64h 
8" 34..58.-- 
7.239..300..I15- 
4)5 

E.56 

Pb213 

I0.2m 

0- 

£~).8 

Pb2l4 
SS 26.Sm 

8-.69,.74.)03.-- 

7-352..295,053- 

777 

£104 



6. 2 s ! 

IT.025 < 

52. Ih 

r279. 

401,66 

:.82 

6&9rd 

rr.912 
7-289- 
889 J 

1.48 
a 2.6 

OyST 

jJsjsg 

44ms 

IT.0262 

r-saa- 

3xl0^y 

E~035 

O.0Os| 2ZQ 

IT 1.06 
7-570 (^.7) 

12(^97590 

9mti20I''+ 

l.9ms I 73h 

IT.22. € 

S0 7.167, 
r-331,-- .130031 

Wi -166 

2022 - 

a5amsll2.2d 

IT.460 € 

7.490 7.44, 

1 -96, 
fTL22-52 

TIS 

29 

O^LO 

202. 

.50 

97235 

1 2042 - 

62/18 1 3,0Oy 

7,41. .71 jP'.763 

ja-yZZ 

£-.763 £■^35 

Tl 205'^ 

70.50 

 

tr^ 84.77.4,72,- 

y '2-98 

91 

Pa 

Pa224 

0.6s 

a 

Pa 225 

~ Is 

Q725 

22&03 

Pa 226 

l.8m 

0 6.86.6.82,- - 

E2.78 

226.028 

Pa227<5^ 

3a3m 

o 647.642.- - 
y.065, 

EI.OO 

227.0288 

Po 2280+) 

26h 

y.058-1.89 

0608,5.^-614 

r.J3-.35 

E2.I0 

228.0310 

Pa229<5/-) 

l.4d 

r.0424 

°5m% 

y.026-.07l 

E.35 

Pa 230 

I7.7d 

t.055- 1.03 

^.41 

r052 

a4-T6-5.34 

0501 .450-505 
y.OI9-.38 
c^20I, 

l!EB25.52h 
19’ 30.-- 

y.0842D, .017- 
.268 
E.306 


130 


132 


134 


136 


138 


140 


142 


Note - Th incomplete here, complete on previous page. 


84 


105 





260.2 
> lOms 
0 9.7 

261? 
0. 1 -3s 
0 9.4 




104 



257 

''-'4.5s 

a 9.00,8.95878 
8.70 

258? 

1 Ims 

SF 

259 

~3s 

0 677.0.86 

260? 

0.3s 

SF 

261? 
*v im 
a 0.2-63 



103 

Lr 




Lr 256 

35s 

0 8. 4, •• 

Lr257 

? 

a 65-8.6 
25710 

Lr258 
or 259 

8s 





102 

No 

No 251 
0. 8 s 

ae. 60. 8.66 

No 252 

2.4s 

0 8.41 
SF 

No 253 

1.6m 
o 8.01 

253.091 

No 254 

56 s 

O 61 
SF 

254.091 

No 255 

3.0m 
o e.oe 

255.09 

No 256 

3.2s 

Q 6.43 
SF 

No257 

23s 

0 8.23,8.27 





101 

Md 




Md252 

8m 

€ 



Md 255 

28m 

€ 

0 734 
E-V.85 
2550906 

Md256 

l.3h 

€ 

O 710 

Md 257 

~ 5h 

€ 

0 700 
SF 

Md258 

54d 

0 6.73.6 78 


Fm 

Fm244 

~ 3.3ms 

SF 

Fm245 

4s 
0 6.15 

Fm246 

l.3s 

a 8.24 
SF 

hm 

9s 

o8.ie 

24/ 

35 s 

0 7.87. 
7.93 

Fm248 

•61m 

O 7.87, 7.83 
SF 

248.0771 

Fm249 

'^2.6m 

O 7.53 
249.079 

Fm250 

30m 

a 7.43 
250.0795 

Fm25l 

7h 

€ 

a 69 
y.4l 
E-vl.2 

Fm252 

23h 

O 7.04,7.00 
SF 

252.0826 

Fm253 

2.6d 

€ 

a 6.95.6.66 - 

y.145,.272 

E.I9 

Fm254 

3.24h 

a 720.7.16.7.06 
7.04I..098..I5 
SF ■ 

254.0866 

Fm255^'‘ 
20. Ih 

0702.697,641- 
y. 081,. 059." 

SF 

255.09 

Fm256 

2.63h 

SF 
0 69 

Fm 25719'’- 

80 d 

r.062, 18, 
.24." 

SF 

Fm258 

<0.2s 

SF 

Es 



Es245 

, l.3m 
a 7.70 

E-V2.9 

Es246 

7.7 m 

0 7.33 
E~3.4 

Es247 

5.0m 

€ 

a 7.33 
£^-2.3 

Es248 

25m 

6 

O 6.88 
E'\<2.8 

Es249 

2h 

€ 

0 6.77 
E 1.41 

249.0763 

Es250 

8h 

€ 

E-va.i 

Es25l 

l.5d 

€ 

a 6.48 
E'X/ .6 

251.0799 

Es252(7+) 

~ I40d 
a 6.64.5.9- 
6.6 

y.40,. 07-57 
252.0828 

Es253^^^ 

20.5d 

o6M5.73-6.63 
7.04l6X)0e8-.9O 
SF oysso 

o-„(180-H4) 
’^253.0847 

^s254'" 

39.3h 1 2764 

ff-.44.Ul..- 36 44. 
>646,044-606- 

Es255 

39d 

0-.I9 

0 631.627.622 
SF 

oy~ 40 

Es256 

22m 

0- 

Es257 

<20h 

0- 

' Cf24l 
? 

a 7,31 

Cf242 

3.4m 

0 7.36 

Cf243 

lim 

€ 

0 7.06,7.17 

Cf244 

20m 
0 7.21 

244.0670 

Cf245 

44m 

€ 

0 7.14 
£1.52 

Cf246 

36h 

0 676,6.72.-- 
7.042, .096, .146 
SF 

246.0688 

Cf247 

2.5h 

€ 

7.295-42..46 

E-V.8 

Cf248 

350d 

O 6.27,-- 
SF 

2460723 

Cf249^ 

352 y 

05SX590A93. 

6,20," 
7388,.333,.253," 
SF9y 

0" 

SF 

k248'^ 

I6h 

0-.6S 

E".65 

E+~.7 

Bk249^^ 

.3ms 31 Id 

0-.125 
0 541." 
7-327307 

™Bk 

2lms 

7-043 

(4i) 

2Sfts 

7.036 

250^^ 

3.22h 

0 .73,1.76 
7. 99 .IJO 3 ," 
0j~lOOO 
EI.76 

BK25I 

57m 

0~.5,~I.O 

y,037.094..l40. 

.184 

En,l.4 





Cm239 

2.9h 

< 

f.(e0 

eA,r.7 

Cm 240 

26.8d 

Q629.-- 

SF 

240.0555 

Cm24li'^i 

35d 

7.47. .60 

05l94,S73-6O8 

7.149 

E.77 

Cm242 

I63d 

06. 1 1.607.- • 

7.0440..I02-.94 

SF 

0L'''25.(r,<5 

^242.0S88 

Cm 243^ 

32y 

35.78,574,527- 
7 28,.23A- 6.07 

aJSO O', 700 
’^243.0614 

Cm244 

34ms 16.1y 

nT75,90,- 0541. 

'5.-- rO*29. 
SF 0-43 

Cm 245" 

8.3xl0^y 

0 536.530.-- 
y.l73,.l3 
C^~270 Of 2000 
2450654 

Cm246 

4.71 X lo’y 
0 539.5.34 
SF 
0-^9 

246.0672 

Cr 

25^4 

r-22 

n247 

I.6xl0> 

o 

o-yieo 

Of 108 

247.07 

Cm2A8 

3,52xl0’y 

O 5.08.5,04 
SF 

V 

248.07 

Cm 249 

64m 

0~.S 

E.9 

Cm250 

l.l X lo“y 
SF 


Cm 252 

<2d 



Am238 

06msll.9h 

SF |< 
7.98,. 96. ,36. 
.95,1.39 
£'^2.3 

Am239«^ 

12. Ih 

°^E8, 

Am240 

Q,9ms| 5lh 

SF l< 
“ 7. 043. .099, 
.99. 89.- • 

E*^l.3 

Am 241^ 

433 y 

0 549.460-555 
70596,0264-77 
SF Oy(<-3mb+90 
-3 + 620) 

' 241.0567 

Am242‘- 

16m3| 5Hll6.0lh 
SF 1 l52]Hfl-.63. 
ITJM9 r -67 

a 5.21.5.1*, -h-042 

-i5S^ff,23ro 

Am243^ 

7370y 

0526 523.4.x- 
5.35 
7-075, - 

[^95+ 5),<7, <07 
>^243.0614' 

Am244®"* 

.9ms| [l-)| lO.lh 
Sf_j26m|g-49 
e’-5.-[7?^.£k43- 
y,0*3 .90 

e IT, 2000 

e^-wSOO E, 429 

Am245<5/+) 
2.04h 
0-.9O,"- 
y.036,.252, 
.240^96," •• 

E.903 

An 

39m 

154,- 

IT? 

•- 

12462^ 

25.0m 

fl3l.L60. 

2.10 

7l.0e,.80, 

.17-1.74 

E2.29 

Am247 

22m 

0- 

ya285.0.226 

E~l.7 






i 

1 

Pu237^'- 

aiSsI 45.6d 

IT.I45 k 

'yX)33*09< 

1537.966 

•''2100 

237,0403 

Pu238 

874 y 

05.50.9.46. •• 
y.044..100-.8t 
SF 

0^540. o-,f7 
^238.0499 

Pu239 

24,390y 

0516,5.15,5.11, •• 
r.052,.039-.77 
SF ff271 

O', 742 7 
^ 239iB2l 

Pu240 

6600y 

a5l7,512.-- 
7. 045. .I04-.688 
SF 

OL 20 O ov9iIoM 22h 
$’ ? P0~5Z 

%o44-I.(0 
O', 2070 
EI.29 

Np239^ 

^35d 

/9’.44,-- 
7.045- 504 
(^+25X0-, <1 
E.724 

|i-'Np240 

75m \65m 

0-2.18, \0:89 
y043,.55;^89' 
26-M.62T 1.16 
•- 

E2.18 Ie2.I 

Np24l 

16.0m 

0-1.3 
7.13,. 18 
EI.4 







156 158 

|Bli^ 

2bJm|339 

IT30*v 1079 
7.lilCfjr SF 

U236, 

2.42 X lO^y 

a 4.49.- • 

7^05 

*^^'136.0456 

U237''^ 

6.75d 

0*.23,.25.-- 
7.0595, 208,014- 
.371 

3y480.o;<.35 

E^.514 

rtW^w 

SF «HtO*x 

H4.20," 

y.048 

ov2.73.0',<.5mb 
^ 23e!0509 

U239'^^' 

23.5m 

7.07470435.031- 

99 

oy22.o-,l5 

EI.26 

U240 

14. Ih 

0“.36 

y.044 

E.48 





154 


UTTn^^leeh 

9*2.29. b-.5(, ■ 
>.0*3- ^0*3-L3« 
rT<3?''®^«( 

Cu®5 Ga72 8,76 
1130 P,I42 5plS9 
Pt'93 Np236 a„242 

1-3 d 

HoI 66 Lu' 7» Ta'” 
TI)23I 

As 2 i ZpT2 Ba'35 Ce'” Sm'®® 

Tb'53 71,231 Pa232 0p238 

Cp67 Br37 Br®3 Ho*® 
//i"5 Sn'3i 7e'3i »I87 
71200 Pa232 0p239 

$c ®8 Cu®3 Go®® Ca32 
As72 As 33 Rh'«® 
Cd"5 Te'3' Ce'*3 

SP,I53 *187 Os 193 0p239 

3-5 d 

/yo' 6 « Yb'Z5 

7(,I32 0 yl 66 71,175 ppISe P7I93 

Au's® 

Sc53 7bl35 Au'99 BIS'" 

Sc**7 Ca'*7 Y87 1129 

Tal83 p(,2U 

5-10 d 

Xjiaa 71,156 

Cs'3l 73,167 Lul7l l_pl72 Lpl77 
1/237 

Spl26 1131 Xe'33 7bl6l 

Er'69 Lu'33 

Hn52 a^ 32 Agi" 
|I3I Cs'32 7b'«' 
p/,209 

10-13 d 

Nd'*z ifiso 

Ba' 3i odiFZ 

|I26 Cs'36 Bai'5 Nd"'3 
/>b 2 ll 

CS'3® 

13-15 d 



Ra325 


15-20 d 


Os'91 

£^156 Pa230 

V48 As7® 

20-30 d 


Pa233 71,234 Pg234 

Pa233 po234 

po234 

30-40 d 


0b95 Ru'os re' 2 » 

Ce'5' 

Ce'5i 

40-50 d 


Pj 59 Hg203 

Fe59 HI"' 


50-100 d 


$35 »/,95 51,124 7„I6B 

Sc'® Co58 Zr®5 7bl60 
Tm '«8 »i®5 

Sbl24 7bl60 1,192 

103-153 d 

Gd'51 

0181 

Ta'«3 

Ta'»2 

150-200 d 


Ca’5 Lu'31 


Lu'3» 

200-250 d 



Zn«5 


250 d-1 y 

Ru'»« Agi"> 

Ce""* 

Co®3 Ce'"* 

Agi.o 

t-2 y 

Tm'yi 

Eu'55 

Sni3i 


2-3 y 

Cs'” 

Sb'35 Pmi*7 


Na32 Sb'35 Cs'3’ 

3-5 y 


Zi/122 



5-10 y 

Ra ”8 


Co ®0 AC328 

Cd"3 Ac328 

10-20 y 

H3 pb2i0 pu2»l 

Eu'52 Eu'5* 1/237 

Eu'53 

K,8 S EuI 52 Epl54 

20-30 y 

Hc227 



Sr*® Cs'33 

30-50 y 





50-100 y 

Sm'5' 




>100 y 

R|63 PJIO? 

/)C^27 Da228 ^^23, 

C"> Rb*2 Tc53 I 139 Cs'35 
r/|33l Pfl233 7/|234 77,238 


Be'® ln"5 Am3»2 


90 


BETA EMITTERS BY ENERGY AND HALF-LIFE* 


0 7 0 9 

0 911 

I.1-I.3 

1 3-1.5 

1.5-17 

1.7-1. 9 

1.9- 

2.1 

2.1- 

2.3 

2.3- 

2.5 

2.5-27 

2.7- 

2.9 

2.9- 

3.1 

3.1- 

3.5 

3.5- 

3.7 

3.7- 

3.9 

3.9- 

4.2 

f,si 6»« 

6«” flb" Te'” 

S,is» T.no 

Sr»i |i” *b'” 

E,17I 

Ac 228 Pa23" 

S023 Ge22 Sr®' I'®® 
Er'7i 

Ac228 

Ep'52 

8,208 

Ac228 

Tm '®® 

Ge77 

Pcjioi 

fil212 

Ac228 


to52 Sr®' 

Y93 

fU®2 




Ga®® 

K<) 2n«a 0f7« 

Nb** ce'>‘ 

Co^s Ga'2 Pd'o* 

4^112 |I30 ful57 

Gd'5» lr'9* 

0r26 

*6®2 

Rh'®“ 

Na2® Co55 |I33 

Ga22 Nb®0 

Tb'5» Eu'57 

Br26 

K»2 
Zr®7 
Rh'oo 
Re '88 
Ir'®® 

Pr'®2 

Re '88 

lr'94 


Ga22 

Rh'oo 

48" 2 

Tb'5® 


Ga22 

K®2 

0r®6 

48"2 


48" 2 

N|S' Aj'i 
U'* o Sffl'” 
Ho'“ Os'” 
Np”« 

Co22 Pin"'® Pm' 51 

Os'93 4 uI98 2|200 

Ge«® Bo®9 
Cd"5 La'5' 

Ce'43 0s'®2 
Pa232 Np23a 

■Sc®’ Sb '22 La'®o 

Ce'*3 *187 J|200 

CU®® ff(l22 

Zp22 Te'3i 

La 180 

As22 As 2® 
Ho'®® 

Sb'22 

ySO 

Te'3' 

La'®o 

A$76 

Cu®® Co22 
As22 


As2® 

to® 2 
As®2 




fgin sb'” 
,132 ,^1” 

Zr«9 Re'»« Sf®'" 

R/i'OO 

Sb'27 

/I32 

|I2V 

Sb'27 7'32 
Sf2l® 

to'®® 

Sf2l® 

Ca®2 

ff/i'oo 

1 1 24 
/I32 
^^140 
ffl-2'2 


to '00 



fff2i® 




S6'"> 

Jglll J,213 

01210 

8,2 r 3 


>)sZ2 



Sn'25 

Pm'»8 

As22 


5b"8 

a,7 2 




l'“ ifli'iONd'” 

llb’2 0a"» 

|i26 Laiwo 

io'OO r,207 88211 

Za'80 



i<7'®0 










P,I43 




p32 











Rb«« 

As” 


As2® 

As2® 

Rp8® 



Eu'5® 









Ta^7B 

Po234 






Po234 








Rb” 

Rb®'* 7e'2® 


re' 29 

Rb8® 
















Cd"5 


/n'l® 










Tb'fio 

Sb'25 


Cp56 Sr*® 

V®I Sb'2® 




Sb'2® 








To' 2' Tm'20 

Tlb'2® 


Sn'23 





























Rh">2 


Rh'02 



















ffO®8 



to'O® 



Pf'"® 

to'O® 

to'O® 










fii2l2 

























T|20U 














1 



bc228 


Ac228 

Ac228 


9|2I2 

4c228 








— 

Eu'S" 

Eu'52 

8,210 

Eu'®2 


Eu'5» 












Cs'32fr223 





^0 






i 




























• Tl 

1 

ill cKoft ii o r ■. 

C|3S 


A126 

Np238 

K®0 8c»’ 




0(2'2 




originoi cy • ** 

Broncl', — A. C. 


91 


AVERAGE AND MAXIMUM BETA ENERGY BY RADIONUCLIDE 


Nuclide 

Energy 

in MeV 

Nuclide 

Energy 

in MeV 

Nuclide 

Energy 

in MeV 

(av) 

(max) 

(av) 

(max) 

(av) 

(max) 

n - 

1 

0.301 

— 

Mn- 

57 

1.099 

2.600 

Rb- 87 

0.079 

0.274 

H - 

3 

0.005 

0.018 

Fe- 

59 

0.116 

1.560 

Kr- 88 

0.367 

2.600 

He- 

6 

1.571 

3.515 

Fe- 

60 

0.069 

0.240 

Rb- 88 

2.084 

5.177 

Be- 

10 

0.229 

0.555 

Co- 

60 

0.094 

1.478 

Kr- 89 

1.395 

3.920 

C - 

14 

0.049 

0.158 

Co- 

60A 

0.604 

1.545 

Rb- 89 

0.596 

3.920 

C - 

15 

2.871 

9.775 

Fe- 

61 

1.193 

2.800 

Sr- 89 

0.583 

1.470 

0 - 

19 

1.708 

4.601 

Co- 

61 

0.463 

1.231 

Sr- 90 

0.200 

0.544 

0 - 

20 

1.242 

2.850 

Co- 

62 

0.983 

2.831 

Y - 90 

0.931 

2.245 

F - 

20 

2.486 

5.403 

Co- 

63 

1.577 

3.600 

Kr- 91 

1.561 

3.600 

F - 

21 

2.624 

5.683 

Ni- 

63 

0.017 

0.066 

Rb- 91 

1.849 

4.200 

Ne- 

23 

1.903 

4.372 

Cu- 

64 

0.188 

0.573 

Rb- 91A 

1.271 

3.000 

Ne- 

24 

0.794 

1.980 

Ni- 

65 

0.667 

2.100 

Sr- 91 

0.624 

2.665 

Na- 

24 

0.553 

4.170 

Ni- 

66 

0.064 

0.224 

Y - 91 

0.615 

1.548 

Na- 

25 

1.510 

3.801 

Cu- 

66 

1.062 

2.630 

Sr- 92 

0.213 

1.500 

Na- 

26 

3.124 

6.700 

Cu- 

67 

0.146 

0.577 

Y - 92 

1.454 

3.600 

Mg- 

27 

0.689 

1.763 

Cu- 

68 

1.284 

3.000 

Y - 93 

1.185 

2.890 

Mg- 

28 

0.155 

0.457 

Zn- 

69 

0.324 

0.913 

Zr- 93 

0.015 

0.063 

Al- 

28 

1.244 

2.868 

Ca- 

70 

0.644 

1.650 

Y - 94 

2.368 

5.320 

Al- 

29 

1.034 

2.500 

Zn- 

71 

0.921 

2.240 

Nb- 94 

0.156 

0.500 

Al- 

30 

2.307 

5.050 

Zn- 

71A 

0.580 

1.500 

Nb- 94A 

0.480 

1.300 

Si- 

31 

0.588 

1.476 

Zn- 

72 

0.116 

1.600 

Zr- 95 

0.115 

1.130 

Si- 

32 

0.028 

0.100 

Ca- 

72 

0.429 

3.166 

Nb- 95 

0.046 

0.930 

P - 

32 

0.694 

1.709 

Ca- 

73 

0.433 

1.480 

Y - 96 

1.507 

3.500 

P - 

33 

0.076 

0.248 

Ca- 

74 

1.021 

4.300 

Nb- 96 

0.244 

0.'707 

P - 

34 

2.075 

5.100 

As- 

74 

0.405 

1.355 

Zr- 97 

0.713 

1.910 

S - 

35 

0.048 

0.167 

Ca- 

75 

1.425 

3.300 

Nb- 97 

0.464 

1.267 

Cl- 

36 

0.252 

0.714 

Ge- 

75 

0.404 

1.137 

Tc- 98 

0.086 

0.300 

S - 

37 

0.795 

4.750 

Ca- 

76 

2.741 

6.000 

Nb- 99 

1.359 

3.200 

S - 

38 

0.463 

3.000 

As- 

76 

1.085 

2.970 

Mo- 99 

0.398 

1.215 

Cl- 

38 

1.515 

4.924 

Ge- 

77 

0.637 

2.270 

Tc- 99 

0.085 

0.295 

Cl- 

39 

0.847 

3.450 

Ge- 

77A 

1.198 

2.880 

Nb-IOOA 

1.450 

4.200 

Ar- 

39 

0.219 

0.565 

As- 

77 

0.221 

0.684 

Mo-101 

0.419 

2.230 

K - 

40 

0.541 

1.322 

Ge- 

78 

0.317 

0.900 

Tc-101 

0.478 

1.320 

Ar- 

41 

0.479 

2.515 

As- 

78 

1.471 

4.270 

Mo-102 

0.436 

1.200 

K - 

42 

1.446 

3.559 

As- 

79 

0.945 

2.300 

Tc-102 

1.835 

4.200 

K - 

43 

0.301 

1.838 

Se- 

79 

0.058 

0.158 

TC-102A 

0.792 

2.000 

Ca- 

45 

0.076 

0.254 

Br- 

80 

0.748 

2.000 

Rh-102 

0.144 

0.470 

Sc- 

46 

0.112 

1.465 

As- 

81 

1.663 

3.800 

Tc-103 

1.025 

2.500 

Ca- 

47 

0.341 

2.000 

Se- 

81 

0.531 

1.400 

Ru-103 

0.062 

0.710 

Sc- 

47 

0.160 

0.601 

Br- 

82 

0.137 

0.444 

Tc-104 

0.978 

2.400 

Sc- 

48 

0.220 

0.643 

Se- 

83A 

1.379 

3.400 

Rh-104 

0.988 

2.441 

Ca- 

49 

0.758 

1.984 

Br- 

83 

0.335 

0.960 

Rh-104A 

0.451 

1.240 

Sc- 

49 

0.826 

2.011 

Br- 

84 

1.221 

4.680 

Ru-105 

0.415 

1.870 

Sc- 

50 

1.538 

3.500 

Br- 

84A 

0.709 

3.200 

Rh-105 

0.167 

0.563 

Ti- 

51 

0.870 

2.142 

Rb- 

84 

0.582 

1.648 

Ru-106 

0.009 

0.039 

V - 

52 

1.069 

2.532 

Br- 

85 

1.037 

2.500 

Rh-106 

1.415 

3.541 

V - 

53 

1.068 

2.530 

Kr- 

85 

0.249 

0.672 

Rh-106A 

0.345 

1.620 

V - 

54 

1.438 

3.300 

Kr- 

85A 

0.284 

0.826 

Ru-107 

1.637 

4.008 

Cr- 

55 

1.220 

2.850 

Rb- 

86 

0.622 

1.777 

Rh-107 

0.425 

1.201 

Cr- 

56 

0.587 

1.500 

Br- 

87 

1.872 

8.000 

Pd-107 

0.013 

0.035 

Mn- 

56 

0.860 

2.850 

Kr- 

87 

1.334 

3.800 

Ru-108 

0.466 

1.320 


A = First excited state. 


92 


AVERAGE AND MAXIMUM BETA ENERGY' BY RADIONUCLIDE --Continued 


Nuc 1 ide 

Energy 

in MeV 

Nuclide 

Energy 

in MeV 

Nuclide 

Energy 

in MeV 

(av) 

(max) 

(av) 

(max) 

(av) 

(max) 

Rh-108 

1.821 

4.500 

I -126 

0.298 

1.250 

Pr-146 

1.292 

3.780 

Ag-108 

0.624 

1.650 

Sb-127 

0.375 

1.500 

Pm-146 

0.233 

0.725 

Pd-109 

0.359 

1.025 

Te-127 

0.223 

0.695 

Nd-147 

0.227 

0.810 

Ag-110 

1.176 

2.869 

Te-127A 

0.263 

0.730 

Pm-147 

0.062 

0.225 

Ag-llOA 

0.070 

0.530 

Sb-128 

0.199 

2.900 

Pm-148 

0.682 

2.450 

Pd-111 

0.848 

2.130 

Sb-128A 

0.346 

1.000 

Pm-148A 

0.150 

0.680 

Ag-111 

0.360 

1.050 

I -128 

0.791 

2.120 

Nd-149 

0.428 

1.500 

Pd-112 

0.078 

0.277 

Sb-129 

0.729 

1.870 

Pm-149 

0.364 

1.071 

Ag-112 

1 .438 

4.040 

Te-129 

0.498 

1.590 

Pm-150 

0.762 

3.122 

In-112 

0.211 

0.656 

I -129 

0.040 

0.150 

Eu-150 

0.309 

1.070 

Pd-113 

1.397 

3.300 

I -130 

0.276 

1.020 

Nd-151 

0.617 

1.995 

Ag-113A 

0.787 

2.000 

Cs-130 

0.132 

0.442 

Pm-151 

0.312 

1.200 

Cd-113A 

0.181 

0.575 

Te-131 

0.723 

2.141 

Sm-151 

0.019 

0.077 

Pd-114 

0.519 

1.400 

Te-131A 

0.183 

2.457 

Pm-152 

0.858 

2.200 

Ag-114 

2.018 

4.600 

I -131 

0.180 

0.810 

Eu-152 

0.288 

1.840 

In-114 

0.776 

1.984 

Te-132 

0.047 

0.220 

EU-152A 

0.696 

1.876 

Ag-115 

1.249 

2.900 

I -132 

0.512 

2.920 

Pm-153 

0.614 

1.650 

Cd-115 

0.318 

1.110 

Te-133 

0.964 

2.400 

Sm-153 

0.233 

0.804 

Cd-115A 

0.605 

1.631 

Te-133A 

0.567 

2.400 

Pm-154 

0.995 

2.500 

In-115 

0.201 

0.630 

I -133 

0.418 

1.540 

Eu-154 

0.228 

1.850 

In-115A 

0.281 

0.838 

Xe-133 

0.099 

0.343 

Sm-155 

0.558 

1.530 

Ag-116 

2.211 

5.000 

I -134 

0.663 

2.410 

Eu-155 

0.044 

0.247 

In-116 

1.387 

3.290 

Cs-134 

0.152 

1.453 

Sm-156 

0.175 

0.730 

In-116A 

0.294 

1.000 

CS-134A 

0.170 

0.550 

Eu-156 

0.425 

2.447 

Cd-117A 

0.348 

1.000 

I -135 

0.319 

1.433 

Tb-156A 

0.037 

0.140 

In-117 

0.245 

0.745 

Xe-135 

0.307 

0.919 

Eu-157 

0.366 

1.270 

In-117A 

0.641 

1.764 

Cs-135 

0.057 

0.210 

Eu-158 

0.060 

2.650 

Cd 7 ll 8 

0.267 

0.800 

Cs-136 

0.108 

0.657 

Tb-158 

0.271 

0.845 

In-118 

1.754 

4.250 

Xe-137 

1.522 

3.600 

Eu-159 

0.855 

2.200 

In-118A 

0.560 

1.500 

Cs-137 

0.195 

1.167 

Gd-159 

0.294 

0.948 

In-119 

0.605 

1.600 

Xe-138 

0.961 

2.400 

Eu-160 

1.499 

3.600 

In-119A 

1.061 

2.650 

Cs-138 

1.095 

3.400 

Tb-160 

0.189 

1.700 

In-120 

0.876 

2.200 

La-138 

0.056 

0.205 

Gd-161 

0.584 

1.599 

In-121 

1.202 

2.900 

Cs-139 

1.600 

4.000 

Tb-161 

0.155 

0.577 

In-121A 

1.582 

3.700 

Ba-139 

0.910 

2.340 

Ho-164 

0.319 

0.990 

Sn-121 

0.111 

0.383 

Ba-140 

0.282 

1.010 

Dy-165 

0.440 

1.280 

Sn-121A 

0.150 

0.420 

La-140 

0.490 

2.200 

Dy-165A 

0.275 

0.840 

Sb-122 

0.527 

1.971 

Ba-141 

1.158 

2.833 

Dy-166 

0.060 

0.400 

In-123 

1.391 

3.300 

La-141 

0.958 

2.430 

Ho-166 

0.610 

1.852 

In-123A 

2.013 

4.600 

Ce-141 

0.144 

0.580 

H 0 -I 66 A 

0.088 

1.100 

Sn-123 

0.455 

1.260 

La-142 

1.823 

4.250 

Ho-168 

0.716 

1.900 

Sn-123A 

0.540 

1.420 

Pr-142 

0.829 

2.153 

Er-169 

0.096 

0.340 

Sb-124 

0.385 

2.313 

La-143 

1.374 

3.300 

Ho-170 

1.257 

3.100 

Sb-124A 

1.340 

3.200 

Ce-143 

0.371 

1.380 

Tm-170 

0.315 

0.967 

Sb-124B 

1.012 

2.500 

Pr-143 

0.314 

0.933 

Er-171 

0.355 

1 .490 

Sn-125 

0.914 

2.330 

Ce-144 

0.081 

0.320 

Tm-171 

0.025 

0.098 

Sn-125A 

0.788 

2.040 

Pr-144 

1.208 

2.984 

Tm-172 

0.511 

1.830 

Sb-125 

0.084 

0.612 

Ce-145 

0.773 

2.000 

Tm-173 

0.296 

0.900 

Sb-126 

0.737 

1.900 

Pr-145 

0.682 

1.799 

Tm-174 

0.980 

2.500 

St-126A 

0.737 

1.900 

Ce-146 

0.224 

0.700 

Tm-175 

0.757 

2.000 


A - First excited state. B = Second excited state. 




AVERAGE AND MAXIMUM BETA ENERGY BY RADIONUCLIDE --Continued 


Nuclide 

Energy 

in MeV 

Nuclide 

Energy 

in MeV 

Nuclide 

Energy 

in MeV 

(av) 

(max) 

(av) 

(max) 

(av) 

(max) 

Yb-175 

0.125 

0.467 

Os-195 

0.746 

2.000 

Ra-228 

0.014 

0.055 

Tm-176 

1.761 

4.200 

Ir-195 

0.297 

1.000 

Ra-230 

0.401 

1.200 

Lu-176 

0.104 

0.362 

Au-196 

0.071 

0.259 

Ac-230 

0.807 

2.200 

Yb-177 

0.465 

1.380 

Ir-197 

0.642 

2.000 

Pa-230 

0.117 

0.410 

Lu-177 

0.140 

0.497 

Pt-197 

0.303 

0.670 

Ac-231 

0.765 

2.100 

Lu-178 

0.886 

2.300 

Ir-198 

1.457 

3.600 

Th-231 

0.059 

0.305 

LU-178A 

0.539 

1.500 

Au-198 

0.315 

1.371 

Th-233 

0.410 

1.230 

Lu-179 

0.476 

1.350 

Au-199 

0.084 

0.460 

Pa-233 

0.063 

0.568 

Lu-180 

1.339 

3.300 

Au-200 

0.669 

2.210 

Th-234 

0.046 

0.193 

Ta-180A 

0.201 

0.705 

Au-201 

0.519 

1.500 

Pa-234 

0.146 

0.500 

H£-181 

0.119 

1.050 

Au-203 

0.698 

1.900 

Pa-234A 

0.515 

1.500 

Hf-182 

0.149 

0.500 

Hg-203 

0.057 

0.212 

Pa-234 

0.476 

1.400 

Ta-182 

0.094 

0.524 

Tl-204 

0.267 

0.765 

Np-236A 

0.149 

0.518 

Hf-183 

0.496 

1.400 

Hg-205 

0.590 

1.650 

U -237 

0.067 

0.248 

Ta-183 

0.191 

0.776 

Tl-206 

0.557 

1.571 

Np-238 

0.206 

1.240 

Ta-184 

0.419 

1.360 

Tl-207 

0.503 

1.441 

U -239 

0.401 

1.210 

Ta-185 

0.624 

1.718 

Tl-208 

0.562 

2.380 

Np-239 

0.135 

0.723 

W -185 

0.124 

0.427 

Tl-209 

0.733 

1.990 

U -240 

0.101 

0.360 

Ta-186 

0.838 

2.200 

Pb-209 

0.195 

0.637 

Np-240 

0.280 

0.890 

Re-186 

0.941 

1.066 

Pb-210 

0.005 

0.061 

Np-240A 

0.662 

2.156 

W -187 

0.236 

1.307 

Bi-210 

0.390 

1.161 

Np-241 

0.458 

1.360 

W -188 

0.256 

0.800 

Pb-211 

0.443 

1.390 

Pu-241 

0.005 

0.021 

Re-188 

0.776 

2.116 

Bi-211 

0.181 

0.600 

Am-242 

0.188 

0.630 

Re-189 

0.237 

0.750 

Pb-212 

0.106 

0.586 

Am-244 

0.510 

1.500 

Re-190 

0.556 

1.700 

Bi-212 

0.783 

2.255 

Am-244A 

0.107 

0.380 

Re-191 

0.661 

1.800 

Pb-214 

0.214 

0.980 

Am-245 

0.287 

0.910 

Os-191 

0.036 

0.139 

Fr-223 

0.382 

1.150 

Pu-246 

0.053 

0.330 

Ir-192 

0.175 

0.670 

Ra-225 

0.089 

0.320 

Bk-248 

0.194 

0.650 

Ir-192A 

0.431 

1.500 

Ac-226 

0.400 

1.200 

Cm-249 

0.282 

0.900 

Os-193 

0.350 

1.127 

Ra-227 

0.444 

1.310 

Bk-249 

0.026 

0.102 

Ir-194 

0.755 

2.233 

Ac-227 

0.010 

0.043 

Cf-253 

ES-254A 

0.073 

0.331 

0.270 

1.040 


A = First excited state. 


Source: 0. H. Hogan, P. E. Zigman, and J, L. Mackin, II. Spectra of Indi - 

vidual Negatron Emitters (Beta Spectra, USNRDL-TR-802 [San Francisco: 
U.S. Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory, Dec. 16, 1964]). 


94 


SELECTED GAMMA EMITTERS BY INCREASING ENERGY 


MeV 

Nuc 1 ide 

Half-Life 

Production 
cross sec- 
tion* (barns) 
or fission 
yield (%) 

Yieldt 

(%) 

Daughter 

0.008 

Er-169 

9.4d 

2b 

0.3 

Tm-169+ 

0.022 

Stn-151 

87y 

100b 

4 

Eu-151:j: 

0.024 

Sn-119m 

250d 

.01b 

16 

Sn-119t 

0.030 

Ba-140 

12. 8d 

6.3% 

11 

La-140 

0.031 

Mg- 28 

21h 

— 

96 

Al- 28 

0.035 

I -125 

60d 

— 

7 

Te-125+ 

0.035 

Te-125m 

58d 

5b 

7 

Te-125+ 

0.037 

Br- 80m 

4.38h 

2.9b 

36 

Br- 80 

0.040 

Rh-103m 

57m 

2.9% 

0.4 

Rh-103+ 

0.040 

I -129 

1.7Xl0'^y 

1.0% 

9 

Xe-129+ 

0.047 

Pb-210 

21y 

— 

4 

Bi-210 

0.051 

Rh-104m 

4 .41m 

12.8b 

47 

Rh-104 

0.053 

Te-132 

78h 

414% 

17 

I -132 

0.058 

Gd-159 

18. Oh 

3.5b 

3 

Tb-159+ 

0.058 

Dy-159 

144d 

100b 

4 

Tb-1594: 

0.059 

Te-127m 

109d 

0.09b 

0.19 

Te-127 

0.060 

Am-241 

458y 

— 

36 

Np-237 

0.063 

Yb-169 

32d 

11,000b 

45 

Tm-169+ 

0.063 

Th-234 

24. Id 

— 

3.5 

Pa-234m 

0.068 

Ta-182 

115d 

21b 

42 

W -182+ 

0.068 

Ti- 44 

48h 

— 

90 

Sc- 44 

0.070 

Sm-153 

47h 

210b 

5.4 

EU-153+ 

0.077 

Pt-197 

18h 

1.0b 

20 

AU-197+ 

0.077 

Hg-197 

65h 

— 

18 

AU-197+ 

0.078 

Ti- 44 

48h 

— 

98 

Sc - 44 

0.080 

Ba-133 

7.2y 

7b 

36 

CS-133+ 

0.081 

Ho-166 

26. 9h 

64b 

5.4 

Er-166+ 

0.081 

Xe-133 

5.27d 

6.5% 

37 

CS-133+ 

0.084 

Tm-170 

130d 

130b 

3.3 

Yb-170+ 

0.084 

Th-228 

1.90y 

— 

1.6 

Ra-224 

0.087 

Eu-155 

1.81y 

— 

32 

Gd-1 55+ 

0.088 

Pd-109-- 

Ag-109ra 

13.47h 

40s 

10b 

5 

Ag-109+ 


9 *^ 


SELECTED GAMMA EMITTERS BY INCREASING ENERGY --Continued 


MeV 

Nuclide 

Half-Life 

Production 
cross sec- 
tion* (barns) 
or fission 
yield (7o) 

Yieldt 

(%) 

Daughter 

0.088 

Cd-109-- 

Ag-109m 

453d 

40s 

3b 

5 

Ag-109:|: 

0.088 

Lu-176m 

3.7h 

35b 

10 

Hf-176:|: 

0.091 

Nd-147 

11. Id 

2.6% 

28 

Pm-147 

0.093 

Th-234 

24. Id 

— 

4 

Pa-234m 

0.095 

Dy-165 

139.2m 

800b 

4 

Ho -1654= 

0.099 

Gd-153 

242d 

< 125b 

55 

EU-153+ 

0.099 

Au-195 

183d 

— 

10 

Pt-1954: 

0.100 

Pa-234 

6.75h 

— 

50 

U -234 

0.103 

Sm-153 

47h 

210b 

28 

Eu-1534: 

0.104 

Sm-155 

23m 

5.5b 

73 

Eu-155 

0.105 

Eu-155 

1.81y 

— 

20 

Gd-1554: 

0.113 

Lu-177 

6.7d 

2100b 

2.8 

Hf-177+ 

0.122 

Co- 57 

270d 

— 

87 

Fe- 57+ 

0.122 

Eu-152 

12y 

5900b 

37 

Gd-152-- 

Sm-152+ 

0.123 

Eu-154 

16y 

390b 

38 

Gd-154+ 

0.124 

Ba-131 

12d 

8.8b 

28 

Cs-131 

0.128 

Cs-134m 

2.9h 

2.6b 

14 

Cs-134 

0.129 

Os-191 

15d 

6b 

25 

Ir-191+ 

0.133 

Hf-181 

42. 5d 

10b 

48 

Ta-181+ 

0.134 

Ce-144 

284d 

6.1% 

11 

Pr-144 

0.134 

Hg-197m 

24h 

— 

42 

Hg-197 

0.136 

Se- 75 

120. 4d 

30b 

57 

As- 75+ 

0.137 

Re-186 

9 Oh 

110b 

9 

OS-186+ 

0.140 

Tc- 99m 

6. Oh 

5.4% 

90 

Tc- 99 

0.143 

U -235 

7.1Xl0®y 

— 

11 

Th-231 

0.145 

Ce-141 

33d 

6.0% 

48 

Pr-I4l+ 

0.147 

Ta-182m 

16.5m 

0.07b 

40 

Ta-182 

0.150 

Te-131 

25m 

2.9% 

68 

I -131 

0.150 

Cd-lllm 

48.6m 

0.2b 

30 

Cd-lll+ 

0.150 

Kr- 85m 

4 .4h 

1.57% 

74 

Kr- 85-- 
Rb- 85+ 


96 


SELECTED GAMMA EMITTERS BY INCREASING ENERGY --Continued 


MeV 

Nuclide 

Half-Life 

Production 
cross sec- 
tion* (barns) 
or fission 
yield (7o) 

Yieldt 

a) 

Daughter 

0.155 

Re-188 

16. 7h 

73b 

10 

OS-188+ 

0.158 

Au-199 

75. 6h 

— 

37 

Hg-199+ 

0.163 

Ba-140 

12. 8d 

6.37o 

6 

La-140 

0.164 

Xe-131m 

11. 8d 

0.027o 

2 

Xe-131+ 

0.166 

Ba-139 

82.9tn 

6.07o 

23 

La-139+ 

0.172 

Ta-182m 

16.5m 

0.07b 

40 

Ta-182 

0.185 

U -235 

7.lXl0®y 

— 

54 

Th-231 

0.186 

Ra-226 

1602y 

— 

4 

Rn-222 

0.191 

Mo-101 

14. 6m 

5.07o 

25 

Tc-101 

0.191 

Pt-197 

18h 

1.0b 

6 

Au-1974: 

0.192 

In-ll4m 

50. Od 

8b 

17 

Cd-1144: 

0.198 

Yb-169 

32d 

11,000b 

35 

Tm-1694: 

0.208 

Lu-177 

6.7d 

2100b 

6.1 

Hf-177+ 

0.21 

Ge- 77 

11. 3h 

0.1b 

61 

As- 77 

0.215 

Hf-180m 

5.5h 

0.34b 

82 

Hf-180+ 

0.215 

Ru- 97 

2.9d 

0.2b 

91 

Tc- 97 

0.230 

Te-132 

78h 

4.47o 

90 

I -132 

0.233 

Xe-133m 

2.26d 

0.167o 

14 

Xe-133 

0.239 

Pb-212 

10.64h 

— 

47 

Bi-212 

0.239 

As- 77 

38. 7h 

— 

2.5 

Se- 77m 

0.246 

Sm-155 

23m 

5b 

4 

Eu-155 

0.247 

Cd-lllm 

48. 6m 

0.1b 

94 

Cd-lllt 

0.250 

Xe-135 

9.2h 

6.2% 

91 

Cs-135 

0.255 

Sn-113 

115d 

0.9b 

1.8 

In-1 1 3m 

0.263 

Ge- 77 

11. 3h 

0.1b 

45 

As- 77 

0.265 

Ge- 75 

82m 

0.3b 

11 

As- 75* 

0.265 

Se- 75 

120. 4d 

30b 

60 

As- 75* 

0.279 

Hg-203 

46. 9d 

4b 

77 

Tl-203* 

0.284 

I -131 

8.05d 

2.9% 

5.4 

Xe-1 3!m 

0.286 

Pm-149 

53. Ih 

1.3% 

2 

Sm-149* 

0.293 

Ce-143 

33h 

6.2% 

46 

Pr-143 

0.295 

Pb-214 

26.8m 

— 

19 

Bi-214 


q 


SELECTED GAMMA EMITTERS BY INCREASING ENERGY --Continued 


MeV 

Nuclide 

Half-Life 

Production 
cross sec- 
tion* (barns) 
or fission 
yield (%) 

Yieldt 

(7c) 

Daughter 

0.299 

Tb-160 

72. Id 

46b 

30 

Dy-160^ 

0.305 

Kr- 85m 

4.4h 

l.57o 

13 

Kr- 85-- 
Rb- 85^ 

0.307 

Tc-101 

14. Om 

5.07c 

91 

Ru-1014: 

0.308 

Er-171 

7.52h 

9b 

63 

Tm-171 

0.31 

Pa-233 

27. Od 

7.4b 

44 

U -233 

0.317 

Tr-192 

74. 2d 

750b 

81 

Pt-192+ 

0.319 

Nd-147 

11. Id 

2.67o 

3 

Pm-147 

0.320 

Cr- 51 

27. 8d 

17b 

9 

V - 51+ 

0.325 

Sn-125m 

9.7m 

0.1b 

97 

Sb-125 

0.328 

Ir-194 

17. 4h 

110b 

10 

Pt-194+ 

0.333 

Hf-180m 

5.5h 

0.34b 

93 

Hf-180+ 

0.335 

Cd-115-- 

In-115m 

53. 5h 
4.5h 

1.1b 

50 

In-115 

0.342 

Ag-111 

7.5d 

— 

6 

Cd-lll+ 

0.344 

Eu-152 

12y 

5900b 

27 

Gd-152-- 

Sm-152+ 

0.351 

Bi-211 

2.15m 

— 

14 

Tl-207 

0.352 

Pb-214 

26.8m 

— 

36 

Bi-214 

0.356 

Ba-133 

7.2y 

7b 

69 

CS-133+ 

0.36 

Se- 83 

25m 

0.004b 

69 

Br- 83 

0.362 

Pd-103 

17d 

4.8b 

0.06 

Rh-103m 

0.363 

Gd-159 

18. Oh 

3.4b 

9 

Tb-159+ 

0.364 

I -131 

8.05d 

2.97o 

82 

Xe-131-- 

Xe-131+ 

0.368 

Ni- 65 

2.56h 

1.5b 

4.5 

Cu- 65+ 

0.388 

Sr- 87m 

2.83h 

1.3b 

80 

Sr- 87+ 

0.393 

Sn-113 

115d 

0.9b 

64 

In-113+ 

0.393 

In-113m 

100m 

— 

64 

In-113+ 

0.403 

Kr- 87 

7 6m 

2.77o 

84 

Rb- 87 

0.405 

Pb-211 

36.1m 

— 

3.4 

Bi-211 

0.412 

Au-198 

2.698d 

98.8b 

95 

Hg-198+ 

0.427 

Sb-125 

2.7y 

— 

31 

Sn-125 

0.439 

Zn- 69m 

13. 8h 

0.1b 

95 

Zn- 69 


98 


SELECTED GAMMA EMITTERS BY INCREASING ENERGY --Continued 


MeV 

Nuclide 

Half-Life 

Production 
cross sec- 
tion* (barns) 
or fission 
yield (7o) 

Yieldt 

(%) 

Daughter 

0.441 

I -128 

25. Om 

6.3b 

14 

Xe-1284: 

0.444 

Hf-180m 

5.5h 

0.34b 

80 

Hf-1804: 

0.468 

Ir-192 

74. 2d 

750b 

49 

Pt-192t 

0.477 

Be- 7 

53d 

— 

10.3 

Li- 7+ 

0.479 

W -187 

23. 9h 

38b 

23 

Re-187 

0.482 

Hf-181 

42. 5h 

10b 

81 

Ta-181+ 

0.487 

La-140 

40.22h 

6.3% 

40 

Ce-140+ 

0.49 

Cd-115 

53. 5h 

1.1b 

10 

In-115m 

0.496 

Ba-131 

12d 

8.8b 

48 

Cs-131 

0.497 

Ru-103 

39. 6d 

2.9% 

88 

Rh-103m 

0.511 

Cu- 64 

12. 8h 

4.5b 

38 

Ni- 64+-- 
Zn- 64+ 

0.511 

Ga- 68 

68. 3m 

— 

176 

Zn- 68+ 

0.511 

As- 74 

17. 9d 

— 

59 

Ge- 74+-- 
Se- 74+ 

0.511 

Na- 22 

2.60y 

— 

180 

Ne- 22+ 

0.512 

Ru-106-- 

367d 

0.38% 

— 

— 


Rh-106 

30s 

— 

21 

Pd-106+ 

0.514 

Sr- 85 

64d 

0.8d 

100 

Rb- 85+ 

0.514 

Kr- 85 

10.76y 

0.3% 

0.41 

Rb- 85+ 

0.52 

Se- 83 

25m 

0.004b 

59 

Br- 83 

0.527 

Xe-135m 

15.6m 

1.8% 

80 

Xe-135 

0.53 

I -133 

21h 

6.5% 

90 

Xe-133-- 

Xe-133m 

0.53 

Cd-115 

53. 5h 

1.1b 

26 

In - 1 1 5m 

0.533 

Nd-147 

11. Id 

2.6% 

13 

Pm-147 

0.537 

Ba-140 

12. 8d 

6.3% 

34 

La-140 

0.538 

I -130 

12. 4h 

28b 

99 

Xe-130+ 

0.554 

Br- 82 

35.34h 

3b 

66 

Kr- 82+ 

0.559 

As- 76 

26. 5h 

4.5b 

43 

Se- 76+ 

0.564 

Sb-122 

67h 

6b 

66 

Te-122+ 

0.570 

Bi-207 

30y 

— 

98 

Pb-207+ 

0.583 

Tl-208 

3.10m 

— 

86 

Pb-208* 


SELECTED GAMMA EMITTERS BY INCREASING ENERGY --Continued 


MeV 

Nuclide 

Half-Life 

Production 
cross sec- 
tion* (barns) 
or fission 
yield (%) 

Yieldt 

(7c) 

Daughter 

0.596 

As - 74 

17. 9d 

— 

61 

Ge- 74+-- 
Se- 74+ 

0.599 

Sb-125 

2.7y 

— 

24 

Sn-125 

0.603 

Sb-125 

60d 

3.3b. 

97 

Te-124+ 

0.605 

Cs-134 

2.05y 

28b 

98 

Ba-134+ 

0.609 

Bi-214 

19.7m 

— 

47 

Po-214 

0.619 

Br- 82 

35.34h 

3b 

41 

K4- 82+ 

0.622 

Ru-106-- 

367d 

0.387o 

— 

— 


Rh-106 

30s 

— 

11 

Pd-106+ 

0.637 

I -131 

8.05d 

2.97o 

6.8 

Xe-131-- 

Xe-131m 

0.658 

Ag-1 lOtn 

253d 

3b 

96 

Cd-110+ 

0.658 

Ag-110 

24.4s 

89b 

4.5 

Cd-110+ 

0.662 

Cs-137-- 

30y 

5.97o 

85 

— 


Ba-137m 

2.55m 

— 

— 

Ba-137+ 

0.669 

I -130 

12. 4h 

28b 

100 

Xe-130+ 

0.67 

I -132 

2.3h 

4.47o 

144 

Xe-132+ 

0.686 

W -187 

23. 9h 

38b 

27 

Re-187 

0.695 

Pr-144 

17.3m 

6.17o 

1.5 

Nd-144 

0.697 

Te-129tn 

34d 

0. 347o 

6 

Te-129 

0.724 

Zr- 95 

65d 

6.47o 

49 

Nb- 95 

0.726 

Ru-105 

4.44h 

0.97o 

48 

Rh-105m-- 

Rh-105 

0.727 

Bi-212 

60. 6m 

— 

7 

T1-208-- 

Po-212 

0.740 

Mo- 99 

67h 

6.17o 

12 

Tc- 99-- 
Tc- 99m 

0.743 

I -130 

12. 4h 

28b 

87 

Xe-130+ 

0.747 

Zr- 97-- 

17. Oh 

6.27c 

92 

— 


Nb- 97m 

60s 

— 

— 

Nb- 97 

0.748 

Sr- 91 

9.67h 

5.97o 

27 

Y - 91-- 

Y - 91m 

0.756 

Zr- 95 

65d 

6.47o 

49 

Nb- 95 

0.765 

Nb- 95 

35d 

6.47c 

100 

Mo- 95+ 

0.773 

I -132 

2.3h 

4.47c 

89 

Xe-132+ 


100 


SELECTED GAMMA EMITTERS BY INCREASING ENERGY--Continued 


MeV 

Nuclide 

Half-Life 

Production 
cross sec- 
tion* (barns) 
or fission 
yield (%) 

Yieldt 

(%) 

Daughter 

0.777 

Br- 82 

35.34h 

3b 

83 

Kr- 82# 

0.78 

Te-131m 

3 Oh 

0.44% 

60 

Te-131 
I -131 

0.796 

Cs-134 

2.05y 

28b 

99 

Ba-134# 

0.810 

Co- 58 

71.3d 

— 

99. 

Fe- 58# 

0.832 

Pb-211 

36.1m 

— 

3.4 

Bi-211 

0.835 

Ga- 72 

14.10h 

5.0b 

96 

Ge- 72# 

0.835 

Mn- 54 

303d 

— 

100 

Cr- 54# 

0.847 

Mn- 56 

2.58h 

13.3b 

99 

Fe- 56# 

0.85 

Te-131m 

3 Oh 

0.44% 

31 

Te-131-- 
I -131 

0.879 

Tb-160 

72. Id 

46b 

31 

Dy-160# 

0.885 

Ag-llOtn 

253d 

3b 

71 

Cd-110# 

0.889 

Sc- 46 

83. 9d 

13b 

100 

Ti- 46# 

0.898 

Rb- 88 

17.8m 

3.7% 

13 

Sr- 88# 

0.90 

Pa-234 

6.75h 

— 

70 

U -234 

0.935 

Cd-115m 

43d 

0.14b 

1.9 

Cd-115 

0.966 

Tb-160 

72. Id 

46b 

31 

Dy-160# 

1.02 

Mo-101 

14. 6m 

5.0% 

25 

Tc-101 

1.025 

Sr- 91 

9.67h 

5.9% 

30 

Y - 91m-- 

Y - 91 

1.063 

Bi-207 

30y 

— 

77 

Pb-207# 

1.078 

Ga- 68 

68. 3m 

— 

3.5 

Zn- 68# 

1.078 

Rb- 86 

18.66d 

0.7b 

8.8 

Sr- 86# 

1.095 

Fe- 59 

45d 

1.1b 

56 

Co- 59# 

1.115 

Zn- 65 

245d 

0.45h 

49 

Cu- 65# 

1.115 

Ni- 65 

2.56h 

1.5b 

16 

Cu- 65# 

1.120 

Sc- 46 

83. 9d 

13b 

100 

Ti- 46# 

1.120 

Bi-214 

19.7m 

— 

17 

Po-214 

1.122 

Ta-182 

115d 

21b 

34 

W -182# 

1.14 

I -135 

6.7h 

5.9% 

37 

Xe-135m-- 

Xe-135 

1.173 

Co- 60 

5.26y 

19b 

100 

Ni- 60# 

1.21 

Y - 91 

58. 8d 

5.9% 

0. 3% 

Zr- 91# 

1.275 

Na- 22 

2.60y 

— 

100 

Ne- 22# 


SELECTED GAMMA EMITTERS BY INCREASING ENERGY --Continued 


MeV 

Nuclide 

Half-Life 

Production 
cross sec- 
tion* (barns) 
or fission 
yield (7o) 

Yieldt 

(%) 

Daughter 

1.278 

Eu-154 

16y 

390b 

37 

Gd-154+ 

1.28 

I -135 

6.7h 

5.9% 

34 

Xe-135m-- 

Xe-135 

1.292 

Fe- 59 

45d 

1.1b 

44 

Co- 59+ 

1.293 

In-116m 

54. Om 

154b 

80 

Sn-116+ 

1.293 

Ar- 41 

1.83h 

.61b 

99 

K - 41+ 

1.308 

Ca- 47 

4.53d 

0.3b 

74 

Sc- 47 

1.332 

Co- 60 

5.26y 

19b 

100 

Ni- 60+ 

1.35 

Mg- 28 

21h 

— 

70 

Al- 28 

1.369 

Na- 24 

15. Oh 

0.53b 

100 

Mg- 24+ 

1.380 

Ho-166 

26. 9h 

64b 

0.9 

Er-166+ 

1.408 

Eu-152 

12y 

5900b 

22 

Gd-152-- 

Sm-152+ 

1.426 

Cs-138 

32.2m 

5.8% 

73 

Ba-138+ 

1.434 

V - 52 

3.76m 

4.9b 

100 

Cr- 52+ 

1.460 

K - 40 

1.26XlO®y 

— 

11 

Ca- 40+ -- 
Ar- 40+ 

1 .481 

Ni- 65 

2.56h 

1.5b 

25 

Cu- 65+ 

1.524 

K - 42 

12. 4h 

1.2b 

18 

Ca- 42+ 

1.57 

Pr-142 

19. 2h 

12b 

3.7 

Nd-142+ 

1.596 

La-140 

40.22h 

6.3% 

96 

Ce-140+ 

1.60 

Cl- 38 

37.3m 

0.4b 

38 

Ar- 38+ 

1.692 

Sb-124 

60d 

3.3b 

50 

Te-124+ 

1.764 

Bi-214 

19.7m 

— 

17 

Po-214 

1.780 

Al- 28 

2.31m 

0.23b 

100 

Si- 28+ 

1.811 

Mn- 56 

2.58h 

13.3b 

29 

Fe- 56+ 

1.863 

Rb- 88 

17.8m 

3.7% 

21 

Sr- 88+ 

2.614 

Tl-208 

3.10m 

— 

100 

Pb-208+ 

6.13 

N - 16 

7.2s 

— 

69 

0 - 16+ 

7.11 

N - 16 

7.2s 

— 

5 

0 - 16+ 


^Thermal neutron cross-section of target atom for nuclide of interest. 
tPhoton yield per disintegration. 

^Stable element. 


102 


ACTIVITY MASS RELATIONSHIP - SPECIFIC ACTIVITY 


The specific activity (SpA) of a radioactive nuclide (disintegrations per unit 
time)/(unit mass), is calculated from the basic equation: 


SpA = XN = 


Where: N = number of radioactive atoms per unit mass, and 


T, = half-life. 

h 

This basic equation can be transformed as follows: 
by definition: N = 6.0225 X 10^^/atomic mass 


Ci = 3.7 X 10 


10 


Substituting : SpA = 


0.69315 N 0.69315, 6.0225 X 10 


S3 


T^ (secs) 


Tu 


atomic mass 


3.7 X 10^‘ 


= Ci/gm. 


This equation is satisfactory when the half-life of the nuclide is expressed in 
seconds. If, however, the half-life is expressed in other units (such as 
minutes, hours, days, or years), a separate time conversion is required for 
each. By substituting the appropriate time conversion factors the following 
five equations can be obtained. 


curies/ gram 

or 

SpA 

(T^ 

^2 

in 

secs) 

curies/ gram 

or 

SpA 

(T^ 

'a 

in 

mins) 

curies/ gram 

or 

SpA 

(T^ 

^2 

in 

hrs) 

curies/ gram 

or 

SpA 

(T^ 

^2 

in 

days) 

curies/ gram 

or 

SpA 

(T^ 

in 

yrs) 


1 


1.128 X 10^^ 
(T^) (atomic mass) 

1.880 X 10^^ 

(T, ) (atomic mass) 

3.134 X 10^ 

(Ti ) (atomic mass) 

1.306 X 10^ 

(Tj^ ) (atomic mass) 
' 2. 

3.578 X 10^ 
(Tj^) (atomic mass) 


( 1 ) 

( 2 ) 

(3) 

(4) 

(5) 


X 3 1 

Example: Calculate the specific activity of I whose half-life is 8.05d. 

Using equation (4) and the mass number as the atomic mass, make the 
appropriate substitutions: 


1.306 X 10^ 
P 8.05 X 131 


1.24 X 10^ 


The following specific activities were calculated from the above equations, using 
half-lives from The Table of Isotopes .^ Integer mass numbers were used rather 
than actual masses, except for where the exact mass was used. (It should be 
noted that these specific activities are for pure forms of the nuclides only.) 
More extensive tables of specific activities are available.^ 


^Lederer, C. M., Hollander, J. M., and Perlman, I., The Table of Isotopes, (6th 
ed. ; New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1967). 

2 

Goldstein, G., and Reynolds, S. A., "Specific Activities and Half-Lives of C-^mmo 
Radionuclides," Nuclear Data A, Vol. 1, No. 5 (July 1966), pp. 435-452. 

’ 1 


373-062 0 - 70 -8 


SPECIFIC ACTIVITY 


Radionuclide 

Half-Life 

Curies 
per gram 

Radionuclide- 

Half-Life 

Curies 
per gram 

Hydrogen-3 

12, 3y 

9.64X10^ 

Molybdenum-99 

67h 

4.72X10® 

Carbon-14 

5730y 

4.46 

Technetium-99m 

6. Oh 

5.28X10® 

Nitrogen-16 

7.2s 

9.79X10^° 

Ruthenium-106 

367d 

3.36X10® 

Sodiutn-22 

2.60y 

6.25X10^ 

Iodine-125 

60d 

1.74X10^ 

Sodium-24 

15. Oh 

8.71X10® 

Iodine-130 

12. 4h 

1,94X10® 

Phosphorus -32 

14.3d 

2.85X10® 

Iodine-131 

8.05d 

1.24X10® 

Sulfur-35 

88d 

4.24X10^ 

Barium-133 

7.2y 

374 

Chlorine-36 

3.1Xl0^y 

3.21X10“^ 

Cesium-134 

2.05y 

1.30X10® 

Argon-41 

1.83h 

4.18x10’^ 

Cesium-137 

30. Oy 

87.0 

Potassium-42 

12. 4h 

6.02X10® 

Barium-140 

12. 8d 

7.29X10^ 

Calcium-45 

165d 

1.76X10^ 

Lanthanum-140 

40.22h 

5.57X10® 

Chromium-51 

27. 8d 

9.21X10^ 

Cerium-141 

33d 

2.81X10^ 

Manganese -54 

303d 

7.98X10® 

Cerium-144 

284d 

3.19X10® 

Iron-55 

2.6y 

2.50X10® 

Praseodymium- 144 

17.3m 

7.55X10'^ 

Manganese-56 

2.576h 

2.17X10’^ 

Promethium- 14 7 

2.62y 

929 

Cobalt-57 

270d 

8,48X10® 

Tantalum-182 

115d 

6,24X10® 

Iron-59 

45d 

4.92X10^ 

Tungsten-185 

75d 

9.41X10® 

Nickel -59 

8Xl0^y 

7.58X10"® 

Iridium-192 

74. 2d 

9.17X10® 

Cobalt -60 

5.26y 

1.13X10® 

Gold-198 

64. 8h 

2.44X10® 

Nickel -63 

92y 

61.7 

Gold-199 

75. 6h 

2.08X10® 

Copper-64 

12. 8h 

3.83X10® 

Mercury-203 

46. 9d 

1.37X10^ 

Zinc -65 

245d 

8.20X10® 

Thallium-204 

3.8y 

462 

Gallium-72 

14. Ih 

3.09x10® 

Polonium-210 

138. 4d 

4.49X10® 

Arsenic-76 

26. 5h 

1.56X10® 

Polonium-212 

304ns 

1.75X10^’^ 

Bromine-82 

35.34h 

1.08X10® 

Radium-226 

1602y 

0.988 

Rubidium-86 

18.66d 

8.14x10^ 

Thorium-232 

1.41XlO^°y 

1 .09X10"'^ 

Strontium-89 

52d 

2.82X10^ 

Uranium-233 

1.62xl0®y 

9.48X10"® 

Strontium-90 

28. ly 

141 

Thorium-234 

24. Id 

2.32X10^ 

Yttrium-90 

64h 

5.44X10® 

Uranium-234 

7.1Xl0®y 

2.14X10"® 

Yttrium-91 

58. 8d 

2.44x10“^ 

Uranium-238 

4.51XlO®y 

3.33X10"'^ 




Plutonium-239 

2.44xl0^y 

6.13X10"® 


104 


UNIVERSAL DECAY TABLE 


The following table gives the fraction of activity of a nuclide remaining, 
from .001 half-life to 1.000 half-life. 

To use this table: 

1. Divide elapsed time by half-life (t/T^^). Time must be in the same 

units. ^ 

2. With the answer obtained in Step 1, enter appropriate row along the 
side and the column at the top. The number obtained is the fraction 
of original activity remaining. 

3. Multiply original activity by this figure to obtain present activity 
(or the amount remaining). 


Example : 

What is the strength of a 210 mCi PoBe source after 180 days? (T^ for 
PoBe = 138.2 days.) ^ 

1. The source has gone 42 days past 1.000 half-life, therefore 42/138.2 
= .303. 

2. Entering the .300 row from the left and the .003 column from the top 
gives .81060 as the fraction remaining. 

3. Therefore, 210/2 = 105 mCi for 1.000 half-life and 105 mCi X .81060 
= 85.11 mCi for the amount remaining at the end of 180 days. 


UNIVERSAL DECAY TABLE 


ACTIVITY REMAINING FOR t/T, FROM .001 TO 1.00 

% 



.000 

.001 

.002 

.003 

.004 

.005 

.006 

.007 

.008 

.009 

.000 

.00000 

.99969 

.99862 

.99793 

.99723 

.99645 

.99586 

.99516 

.99446. 

.99379 

.010 

.99309 

.99238 

.99172 

.99103 

.99034 

.98966 

.98898 

.98828 

.98759 

.98693 

.020 

.98623 

.98554 

.98487 

.98419 

.98350 

.98243 

.98214 

.98146 

.98076 

.98010 

.030 

.97942 

.97874 

.97807 

.97740 

.97671 

.97603 

.97517 

.97446 

.97399 

.97333 

.040 

.97262 

.97299 

.97132 

.97065 

.96997 

.96930 

.96880 

.96795 

.96726 

.96662 

.050 

.96594 

.96527 

.96461 

.96393 

.96326 

.96260 

.96190 

.96125 

.96058 

.95994 

.060 

.95928 

.95862 

.95795 

.95728 

.95661 

.95596 

.95529 

.95452 

.95395 

.95331 

.070 

.95264 

.95199 

.95133 

.95067 

.95000 

.94936 

.94870 

.94800 

.94738 

.94673 

.080 

.94587 

.94522 

.94457 

.94392 

.94326 

.94261 

.94196 

.94130 

.94063 

.94000 

.090 

.93926 

.93888 

.93833 

.93759 

.93693 

.93628 

.93564 

.93499 

.93434 

.93370 

. 100 

.93304 

.93240 

.93175 

.93112 

.93046 

.92982 

.92906 

.92853 

.92887 

.92725 

. 110 

.92660 

.92596 

.92532 

.92468 

.92403 

.92340 

.92276 

.92216 

.92152 

.92085 

. 120 

.92020 

.91956 

.91893 

.91785 

.91766 

.91702 

.91639 

.91575 

.91511 

.91448 

. 130 

.91339 

.91321 

.91265 

.91196 

.91132 

.91069 

.91008 

.90939 

.90841 

.90817 

.140 

.90747 

.90691 

.90629 

.95066 

.90502 

.90440 

.90378 

.90314 

.90250 

.90190 

. 150 

.90127 

.90064 

.90002 

.89931 

.89840 

.89816 

.89754 

.89690 

.89627 

.89566 

. 160 

.89504 

.89442 

.89381 

.89319 

.89257 

.89195 

.89133 

.89071 

.89008 

.88949 

.170 

.88888 

.88825 

.88763 

.88702 

.88650 

.88579 

.88518 

.88456 

.88393 

.88334 

.180 

.88272 

.88211 

.88150 

.88098 

.88030 

.87967 

.87905 

.87885 

.87852 

.87724 

.190 

.87663 

.87602 

.87542 

.87481 

.87420 

.87320 

.87300 

.87216 

.87178 

.87118 

.200 

.87057 

.86997 

.86937 

.86877 

.86816 

.86756 

.86697 

.86636 

.86576 

.86517 

.210 

.86456 

.86396 

.86337 

.86277 

. .86217 

.86157 

.86082 

.86037 

.85978 

.85919 

.220 

.85859 

.85800 

.85741 

.85681 

.85621 

.85579 

.85503 

.85443 

.85384 

.85326 

.230 

.85266 

.85207 

.85148 

.85097 

.85030 

.84975 

.84914 

.84853 

.84794 

.84736 

.240 

.84677 

.84619 

.84561 

.84502 

.84443 

.84384 

.84326 

.84268 

.84210 

.84152 

.250 

.84092 

.84034 

.83976 

.83918 

.83860 

.83802 

.83744 

.83685 

.83628 

.83570 

.260 

.83511 

.83454 

.83396 

.83339 

.83283 

.83223 

.83208 

.83166 

.83050 

.829^3 

.270 

.82935 

.82875 

.82820 

.82763 

.82705 

.82648 

.82591 

.82533 

.82476 

.82419 

.280 

.82362 

.82313 

.82248 

.82191 

.82136 

.82077 

.8202] 

.81962 

.81907 

.81850 

.290 

.81792 

.81736 

.81681 

.81624 

.81567 

.81511 

.81454 

.81397 

.81341 

.81300 

.300 

.81228 

.81172 

.81116 

.81060 

.81004 

.80948 

.80892 

.80819 

.80779 

.80702 

.310 

.80667 

.80609 

.80556 

.80500 

.80444 

.80489 

.80333 

.80277 

.80222 

.80166 

.320 

.80110 

.80055 

.80000 

.79944 

.79888 

.79834 

.79779 

.79731 

.79668 

.79613 

.330 

.79557 

.79502 

.79447 

.79392 

.79337 

.79282 

.79227 

.79172 

.79118 

.79063 

.340 

.79007 

.78953 

.78899 

.78844 

.78789 

.78735 

.78681 

.78625 

.78571 

.78517 

.350 

.78462 

.78408 

.78354 

.78300 

.78245 

.78191 

.78137 

.78082 

.78028 

.77974 

.360 

.77920 

.77866 

.77813 

.77759 

.77704 

.77648 

.77597 

.77543 

.77489 

.77436 

.370 

.77383 

.77329 

,77275 

.77222 

.77168 

.77115 

.77062 

.77007 

.76593 

.76901 

.380 

.76848 

.76795 

.76742 

.76689 

.76635 

.76582 

.76529 

.76476 

.76423 

.76370 

.390 

.76317 

.76272 

.76212 

.76159 

.76106 

.76053 

.76001 

.75948 

.75895 

.75843 

.400 

.75790 

.75737 

.75685 

.75633 

.75580 

.75528 

.75476 

.75423 

.75371 

.75319 

.410 

.75266 

.75215 

.75163 

.75111 

.75058 

.75006 

.74955 

.74902 

.74856 

.74799 

.420 

.74747 

.74695 

.74644 

.74592 

.74540 

.74488 

.74437 

.74385 

.74334 

.74282 

.430 

.74231 

.74179 

.74128 

.74077 

.74025 

.73974 

.73923 

.73871 

.73820 

.73762 

.440 

.73718 

. 73667 

.73616 

.73568 

. 73514 

.73463 

.7*3413 

.73361 

.73311 

.73260 

.450 

.73208 

.73258 

.73108 

.73057 

.73006 

.72956 

.72958 

.72854 

.72804 

.72754 

.460 

.72708 

.72653 

.72603 

.72545 

. 72527 

.72452 

.72402 

.72351 

.72302 

. 72252 

.470 

.72201 

. 72151 

.72102 

.72052 

.72001 

.71952 

.71902 

.71852 

.71802 

.71753 

.480 

.71702 

.71653 

.71604 

.71554 

.71504 

.71455 

. 71405 

.71355 

.71306 

.71257 

.490 

. 71207 

.71158 

.71109 

.71060 

.71010 

.70961 

.70912 

.70863 

.70814 

.70765 

.500 

.70715 

.70666 

. .70618 

.70569 

.70520 

.70471 

.70423 

.70373 

.70325 

.70276 


TOE 


UNIVERSAL DECAY TABLE --Continued 


ACTIVITY REMAINING FOR t/T, FROM .001 TO 1.00 

% 



.000 

.001 

.002 

.003 

.004 

.005 

.006 

.007 

.008 

.009 

.510 

. 70227 

. 70179 

.70130 

. 70082 

.70033 

.69984 

.69936 

.69887 

.69839 

.69791 

.520 

.69742 

.69694 

.69646 

.69598 

.69549 

.69501 

. 69453 

.69404 

.69356 

.69309 

.530 

.69261 

.69213 

.69165 

.69117 

.69069 

.69021 

.68973 

.68925 

.68871 

.68830 

.540 

.68796 

.68735 

.68687 

.68640 

.68593 

.68545 

.68497 

.68450 

.68395 

.68348 

.550 

.68307 

.68260 

.68213 

.68166 

.68118 

.68071 

.68024 

.67976 

.67913 

.67882 

.560 

.66835 

.67782 

.67742 

.67695 

. 67646 

.67601 

.67554 

.67507 

. 67461 

.67414 

.570 

.67367 

.67320 

.67274 

.67227 

.67181 

.67134 

.67088 

.67041 

.66995 

.66948 

.580 

.66902 

.66856 

.66810 

.66764 

.66718 

.66671 

.66624 

.66578 

.66532 

.66486 

.590 

. 66440 

.66394 

.66348 

.66302 

.66256 

. 66210 

. 66164 

.66118 

.66053 

.66027 

.600 

.65981 

.65935 

.65890 

.65846 

.65798 

.65753 

.65707 

.65661 

.65616 

.65571 

.610 

.65525 

.65480 

.65435 

.65390 

.65344 

.65299 

.65244 

.65208 

.65163 

.65118 

.620 

.65073 

.65028 

.64983 

.64938 

.6489? 

.64848 

.64803 

.64758 

.64713 

. 64669 

.630 

.64623 

.64598 

.64534 

.64489 

. 64448 

.64400 

.64356 

.64310 

.64273 

. 64222 

.640 

.64178 

.64133 

.64089 

. 64044 

.64000 

.63955 

.63911 

.63886 

.63822 

.63778 

.650 

.63764 

.63690 

.63646 

.63602 

.63558 

.63514 

.63470 

.63425 

.63382 

.63338 

.660 

.63293 

.63250 

.63206 

.63163 

.63118 

.63075 

.63032 

.62987 

.62944 

.62900 

. 670 

.62856 

. 62813 

.62770 

.62727 

.62683 

.62639 

.62588 

. 62552 

.62509 

.62466 

.680 

. 62422 

.62379 

.62336 

.62293 

.62250 

.62207 

.62164 

.62120 

.62077 

.62035 

.690 

.61991 

.61936 

.61906 

.61863 

.61820 

.61777 

.61736 

.61691 

.61649 

.61606 

.700 

.61563 

.61520 

.61478 

.61436 

.61393 

.61350 

.61308 

.61265 

.61223 

. 61181 

.710 

.61138 

.61096 

.61054 

.61012 

.60969 

.60927 

.60885 

.60842 

. 60800 

.60758 

.720 

.60716 

.60674 

.60632 

.60572 

.60548 

.60506 

.60464 

.60422 

. .60380 

.60339 

.730 

.60296 

.60255 

.60213 

.60172 

. 60130 

. 60088 

.60047 

.60005 

.59963 

.59922 

.740 

.59880 

.59838 

.59797 

.59756 

.59717 

.59673 

.59632 

.59590 

.59549 

.59508 

.750 

.59466 

.59426 

.59385 

.59344 

.59302 

.59261 

.59220 

.59179 

.59144 

.59097 

.760 

.59053 

.59015 

.58974 

.58934 

.58892 

.58852 

.58811 

.58770 

.58730 

.58690 

.770 

.58648 

.58608 

.58567 

.58527 

.58485 

.58477 

.58405 

.58364 

.58324 

.58271 

.780 

.58243 

.58202 

.58163 

.58122 

.58082 

.58042 

.58002 

.57961 

.57921 

.57910 

.790 

.57841 

.57801 

.57761 

.57721 

.57681 

.57641 

.57601 

.57561 

.57579 

.57438 

.800 

.57441 

.57402 

.59362 

.57317 

.57282 

.57243 

.57204 

.57163 

.57124 

.57085 

.810 

.57045 

.57005 

.56966 

.56904 

.56886 

.56847 

.56808 

.56768 

.56729 

.56690 

.820 

.56645 

.56611 

.56572 

.56533 

.56494 

.5 6455 

.56416 

.56377 

.56338 

.56299 

.830 

.56359 

.56320 

.56282 

.56243 

.56203 

.56165 

.56126 

.56087 

.56049 

.56010 

.840 

.55899 

.55832 

.55794 

.55755 

.55716 

.55678 

.55640 

.55601 

.55562 

.55524 

.850 

.55485 

.55447 

.55408 

.55370 

.55328 

.55293 

.55255 

.55217 

.55179 

.55140 

.860 

.55102 

.55064 

.55026 

.54988 

.54950 

.54912 

.54874 

.54841 

.54797 

.54760 

.870 

.54721 

.54683 

.54646 

.54605 

.54565 

.54532 

.54495 

.54457 

.54419 

.54382 

.880 

.54344 

.54306 

.54269 

.54231 

.54193 

.54156 

.54118 

.54081 

.54043 

.54006 

.890 

.53968 

.53931 

.53894 

.53856 

.53819 

.53782 

.53745 

.53702 

.53670 

.53633 

.900 

.53595 

.53558 

.53538 

.53485 

.53447 

.53410 

.53373 

.53336 

.53299 

. 53262 

.910 

.53225 

.53188 

.53152 

.53115 

.53078 

.53043 

.53005 

.52968 

.52931 

. 52895 

.920 

.52858 

.52821 

.52785 

.52748 

.52711 

.52675 

.52638 

.52600 

.52566 

.5252^ 

.930 

.52493 

.52456 

.52420 

.52384 

.52347 

.52311 

.52275 

.52239 

.52203 

.52168 

.940 

.52130 

.52094 

.52058 

.52022 

.51986 

.51950 

.51916 

.51898 

.51842 

, 5180f 

.950 

.51770 

.51734 

.51698 

.51641 

.51627 

.51591 

.51556 

.51520 

.51484 

. > 14-.8 

.960 

.51402 

.51377 

.51342 

.51306 

.51270 

.51235 

.51200 

.51164 

.51129 

.51093 

.970 

.51057 

.51027 

.50987 

.50952 

.50918 

.50881 

.50846 

.50810 

. 50775 

.507ul 

.980 

.50715 

.50670 

.50635 

.50600 

.50570 

.50530 

.50495 

.50460 

.50426 

.503^- 

.990 

.50355 

.50320 

.50285 

.50256 

.50216 

.50181 

.50141 

.50111 

.50077 

. LO = 

1.000 

.50000 

.49973 

.49938 

.49904 

.49869 

.49838 

.49860 

.49765 

.49731 

. 4 


’0 


A/Aq, Fraction of Activity Remaining 



108 


A/Aq, Fraction of Activity Remaining 


Radioactive Decay, Semi -Log Plot 



.0002 


.0001 


8.749 10 

Number of Half-Lives 


109 


Thorium Series (4n)* 


Nuclide 


3 33 'T'Vi 
230Pa 


338 

89 


Ac 


338 

90 


Th 


334 

88 


Ra 


330 

86 


Rn 


216p« 

84 ^° 

313pu 



Historical 

name 

Half-life 


Major 

radiation energies 
and intensitiest 

(MeV) 


a 

P 

Y 

Thorium 

1.41X10^°y 

3.95 

(24%) 


__ 

_ 




4.01 

(76%) 





Mesothorium I 

6. 7y 


... 

0.055 

(100%) 

- 

-- 

Mesothorium II 

6.13h 



1.18 

(35%) 

0.34cl 

(15%) 





1.75 

(12%) 

0.908 

(25%) 





2.09 

(12%) 

0.96c 

(20%) 

Radiothorium 

1.910y 

5.34 

(28%) 

- 

-- 

0.084 

(1.6%) 



5.43 

(71%) 



0.214 

(0.3%) 

Thorium X 

3.64d 

5.45 

(6%) 

. 



0.241 

(3.7%) 



5.68 

(94%) 





Emanation 

55s 

6.29 

(100%) 

. 

.. 

0.55 

(0.07%) 

Thoron (Tn) 








Thorium A 

0.15s 

6.78 

(100%) 

- 

- 

- 

- 

Thorium B 

10.64h 



0.346 

(81%) 

0.239 

(47%) 





0.586 

(14%) 

0.300 

(3.2%) 

Thorium C 

60. 6m 

6.05 

(25%) 

1.55 

(5%) 

0.040 

(2%) 



6.09 

(10%) 

2.26 

(55%) 

0.727 

(7%) 







1.620 

(1.8%) 

Thorium C 

304ns 

8.78 

(100%) 

- 

-- 

- 

-- 

Thorium C" 

3.10m 



1.28 

(25%) 

0.511 

(23%) 





1.52 

(21%) 

0.583 

(86%) 





1.80 

(50%) 

0.860 

(12%) 







2.614 

(100%) 

Thorium D 

Stable 


— 

■ 





*This expression describes the mass number of any member in this series, where n is an integer. 

Example: ®|^Th (4n) 4(58) = 232 

tintensities refer to percentage of disintegrations of the nuclide itself, not to original parent of series. 

^Complex energy peak which would be incompletely resolved by instruments of moderately low resolving power such as scintillators. 


Data taken from: 


Lederer, C. 
Inc., 1967) 
U.S. Atomic 


M., Hollander, J. M., and Perlman, I., Table of Isotopes (6th ed.; New York: John Wiley & Sons, 
and Hogan, 0. H., Zigman, P. E., and Mackin, J. L., Beta Spectra (USNRDL-TR-802 [Washington, D.C.: 
Energy Commission, 1964]). 


110 


Neptunium Series (4n + 1)* 


Nuclide 


94rU 





239 

90 


Th 


226 

88 


Ra 


226 

89 


Ac 


221 

87 


Fr 


217 

85 


At 



209 

83 


Bi 


Element 

name 

Half-life 


Major 

radiation energies 
and intensitiest 

(MeV) 


CH 

e 

Y 

Plutonium 

13. 2y 

4.85 

(0.0003%) 

0.021 

(-100%) 

0.145 (.00016%) 



4.90 

(0.0019%) 





Americium 

458y 

5.44 

(13%) 

_ 



0.060 

(36%) 



5.49 

(85%) 



O.lOlct (p.04%) 

Uranium 

6.75d 




0.248 

(96%) 

0.060 

(36%) 







0.208 

(23%) 

Neptunium 

2.14XlO®y 

4. 65c 

(12%) 

_ 



0.030 

(14%) 



4.78c 

(75%) 



0.086 

(14%) 







0.145 

( 1 %) 

Protactinium 

27. Od 


— 

0.145 

(37%) 

0.31c 

( 44 %) 





0.257 

(58%) 







0.568 

(5%) 



Uranium 

1.62XlO®y 

4.78 

(15%) 

_ 


0.042 

(?) 



4.82 

(83%) 



0.097 

(?) 

Thorium 

7340y 

4.84 

(58%) 

_ 



0.137c 

(-3%) 



4.90 

(11%) 



0.20c 

(- 10 %) 



5.05 

(7%) 





Radium 

14. 8d 


... 

0.32 

(100%) 

0.040 

(33%) 

Actinium 

10. Od 

5.73c 

(10%) 



0.099 

(?) 



5.79 

(28%) 



0.150 

(?) 



5.83 

(54%) 



0.187 

(?) 

Francium 

4. 8m 

6.12 

(15%) 

- 

-- 

0.218 

( 14 %) 



6.34 

(82%) 





Astatine 

0.032s 

7.07 

(-100%) 

- 

-- 

- 

-- 

Bismuth 

47m 

5.87 

(-2.2%) 

1.39 

(-97.8%) 

0.437 

(?) 

Polonium 

4. 2p,s 

8.38 

(-100%) 

- 

-- 

- 

-- 

Thallium 

2.2m 



1.99 

(100%) 

0.12 

( 50 %) 







0.45 

( 100 %) 







1.56 

( 100 %) 

Lead 

3.30h 


... 

0.637 

( 100 %) 

- 

-- 

Bismuth 

Stable 








(>2X10^®y) 








*This expression describes the mass number of any member in this series, where n is an integer. 

Example: ®||Th (4n + 1) 4(57) + 1 = 229 

The (4n + 1) series is included here for completion. It is not found as a naturally-occurring series, 
tintensities refer to percentage of disintegrations of the nuclide itself, not to original parent of series. 

^Complex energy peak which would be incompletely resolved by instruments of moderately low resolving power such as tntlPator 
Data taken from: Table of Isotopes and USNRDL-TR-802. 


Ill 


Uranium Series (4n + 2)* 


Nuclide 


2 38 
92 


U 


334 

90 


Th 


234 

91 


Pa 


m 



^Th 


2l8p 

84 ^° 




Historical 

name 

Half-life 


Major 

radiation energies 
and intensitiest 

(MeV) 


a 

P 

Y 

Uranium I 

4.51X10®y 

4.15 

(25%) 

_ 

__ 

_ 





4.20 

(75%) 





Uranium 

24. Id 




0.103 

(21%) 

0.063cj: (3.5%) 





0.193 

(79%) 

0.093c 

(4%) 

Uranium Xg 

1.17m 




2.29 

(98%) 

0.765 

(0.30%) 







1.001 

(0.60%) 

Uranium Z 

6.75h 




0.53 

(66%) 

0.100 

(50%) 





1.13 

(13%) 

0.70 

(24%) 







0.90 

(70%) 

Uranium II 

2.47xl0^y 

4.72 

(28%) 

_ 

__ 

0.053 

(0.2%) 



4.77 

(72%) 





Ionium 

8.0 XlO^y 

4.62 

(24%) 

_ 

_ _ 

0.068 

(0.6%) 



4.68 

(76%) 



0.142 

(0.07%) 

Radium 

1602y 

4.60 

(6%) 

_ 



0.186 

(4%) 



4.78 

(95%) 





Emanation 

3.823d 

5.49 

(100%) 

_ 



0.510 

(0.07%) 

Radon (Rn) 








Radium A 

3.05m 

6.00 

(-100%) 

0.33 ( 

-0.019%) 

- 

-- 

Radium B 

26.8m 



0.65 

(50%) 

0.295 

(19%) 





0.71 

(40%) 

0.352 

(36%) 





0.98 

(6%) 



Astatine 

~2s 

6.65 

(6%) 

? 

(-0.1%) 

- 

-- 



6.70 

(94%) 





Radium C 

19.7m 

5.45 

(0.012%) 

1.0 

(23%) 

0.609 

(47%) 



5.51 

(0.008%) 

1.51 

(40%) 

1.120 

(17%) 





3.26 

(19%) 

1.764 

(17%) 

Radium C 

164p,s 

7.69 

(100%) 

- 

-- 

0.799 

(0.014%) 

Radium C" 

1. 3m 



1.3 

(25%) 

0.296 

(80%) 





1.9 

(56%) 

0.795 

(100%) 





2.3 

(19%) 

1.31 

(21%) 

Radium D 

21y 

3.72 (.000002%) 

0.016 

(85%) 

0.047 

(4%) 





0.061 

(15%) 



Radium E 

5. Old 

4.65 

(.00007%) 

1.161 

(-100%) 

_ 





4.69 

(.00005%) 





Radium F 

138. 4d 

5.305 

(100%) 

- 

- 

0.803 (0.0011%) 

Radium E" 

4.19m 


... 

1.571 

(100%) 

- 

-- 

Radium G 

Stable 


... 

- 

-- 

- 

-- 


*This expression describes the mass number of any member in this series, where n is an integer. 

Example: ^gl?h (4n + 2) 4(51) + 2 = 206 

tintensities refer to percentage of disintegrations of the nuclide itself, not to original parent of series. 

^Complex energy peak which would be incompletely resolved by instruments of moderately low resolving power such as scintillators. 


112 


Data taken from: Table of Isotopes and USNRDL-TR-802. 


Actinium Series (4n + 3)* 


Nuclide 


Historical 

name 

Half-life 

Actinouranium 

7.1 X10®y 

Uranium Y 

25. 5h 

Protoactinium 

3.25xl0-y 

Actinium 

21. 6y 

Radioactinium 

18. 2d 

Actinium K 

22m 

Actinium X 

11.43d 

Emanation 
Actinon (An) 

4.0s 

Actinium A 

1 .78ms 

Actinium B 

36.1m 

Astatine 

~0. 1ms 

Actinium C 

2.15m 

Actinium C 

0.52s 

Actinium C" 

4.79m 

Actinium D 

Stable 


Major radiation energies (MeV) 
and intensitiest 


O' 

8 

Y 

4.37 

(18%) 

_ 


0.143 

(11%) 

4.40 

(57%) 



0.185 

(54%) 

4.58c 

* (8%) 



0.204 

(5%) 


— 

0.140 

(45%) 

0.026 

(2%) 



0.220 

(15%) 

0. 084c 

(10%) 



0.305 

(40%) 



4.95 

(22%) 

- 

-- 

0.027 

(6%) 

5.01 

(24%) 



0.29c 

(6%) 

5.02 

(23%) 





4.86c 

(0.18%) 

0.043 

(-99%) 

0.070 

(0.08%) 

4.95c 

(1.2%) 





5.76 

(21%) 

_ 


0.050 

(8%) 

5.98 

(24%) 



0.237c 

(15%) 

6.04 

(23%) 



0.31c 

(8%) 

5.44 

(-0.005%) 

1.15 

(-100%) 

0.050 

(40%) 





0.080 

(13%) 





0.234 

(4%) 

5.61 

(26%) 

- 

-- 

0.149c 

(10%) 

5.71 

(54%) 



0.270 

(10%) 

5.75 

(9%) 



0.33c 

(6%) 

6.42 

(8%) 

- 

-- 

0.272 

(9%) 

6.55 

(11%) 



0.401 

(5%) 

6.82 

(81%) 





7.38 

(-100%) 

0.74 (- 

.00023%) 

- 

-- 



0.29 

(1.4%) 

0.405 

(3.4%) 



0.56 

(9.4%) 

0.427 

(1.8%) 



1.39 

(87.5%) 

0.832 

(3.4%) 

8.01 

(-100%) 

- 

-- 

- 

-- 

6.28 

(16%) 

0.60 

(0.28%) 

0.351 

(14%) 

6.62 

(84%) 





7.45 

(99%) 

_ 



0.570 

(0.5%) 





0.90 

(0.5%) 



1.44 

(99.8%) 

0.897 

(0.16%) 

eries. 

where n is an 

Integar. 





335. 
93 ^ 


331th 

90 in 


331 

91 


337 

39 


Ac 



319 

86 


Rn 


315p 



Exaniple: al?h (4n + 3) 4(51) + 3 = 207 

tintensities refer to percentage of disintegrations of the nuclide itself, not to original parent of series. 

iComplex energy peak which would be incompletely resolved by instruments of moderately low resolving power such as scintillator^ 


Data taken from: Table of Isotopes and USNRDL-TR-802. 


113 


Total Number of Counts 


ERROR IN COUNTS PER MINUTE AS A FUNCTION OF TOTAL 
COUNT AND LENGTH OF COUNT. (95% CONFIDENCE LEVEL) 



Error^^^ in counts per minute 


114 




H,/t 

~T 


% 

i2 


0.9 ERROR 096 ERROR 
OFNs'Nfe OFNs-Nb 

SO— 1_ 9.5 




12 


T* 




_8.5 


7.0_ 

_8.0 



6.5 - 

-7.5 


6lO_ 

_7.0 



5.5 _ 


-6.5 


6 

0.9 Error and 0.95 Error :: 

OF * :: 

Low Counting Rates -- 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE 

Draw a straight line 
from a point on the 
left scale that cor- 
responds to the quo- 
tient Ng/tg through 
the point on the right 
scale that corresponds 
to the quotient 
the point where this 
line crosses the center 
scale will correspond 
to the 0.9 and the 
0.95 error of the de- 
termination Ng-N^. 


5i0_ 


_60 


4.5 _ 


4.0 _ 


3i5_ 


3.0_ 


2. 0 _ 


-5.5 


_5.0 


-45 

_4.0 


-3.0 


_2j0 


S=L'8 



Explanation op Symbols 3 

N,- TfC CXXJffTiNG RATE OF THE SAMPLE II 

INCLUOIN6 THE BACKGROUND )W 00LNT5 
PER MINUTE 

t j- NUMBER OF MWUTES TmE SAMPLE MAS - - 

COUNTED 

N^; The colkting rats of the background 5 II 

IN COUNTS PER MINUTE ^ 

tL. Number OF lANUTES TK BACKGROUND II 
WAS COUNTED 


♦Jarrett, AECU-262 
MonP-126 


Ns/t» 


0.9 ERROR 
OF Ng-Nj, 

4.00 -i_ 


INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE 


0.95 ERROR 
OF N,-Nb 

4.75 


3.75 - 


- 4.50 


Example; 

Find 0.95 error in 
Net count 

Given: N =35 cpm 
s 


- 4.25 


3.50 — 


— 4.00 


N.^ = 15 cpm 

t = 20 m 
s 

- 20 min 


3.25 


- 3.75 


3.00 — 


2.75 


2.50- 


2.25 - 


Draw a straight line 
from a point on the 
left scale that cor- 
responds to the quo- 
tient Ng/tg through 
the point on the right 
scale that corresponds 
to the quotient N^t^j 2.00 
the point where this 
line crosses the center 
scale will correspond 1.75 
to the 0.9 and the 
0,95 error of the de- 
termination Ng-N^. 


-3. 


Nb/fb 

3.0 

2.9 ^ 

2.8 

2.7 ^ 

2.6 

2.5 ^ 
2.4 — 
2.3 

2.2 ” 

2. 1 

2.0 ^ 

1.9 

1.8 + 
1.7 

1.6 + 
1.5 
1.4 

1.3 -f- 

0.9 Error and 0.95 Error 

OF \.z-t- 

Low Counting Rates * 


Solution 
N 

s 

— = 1.75 
s 

N-h 

0.75 

Connect line between 
3-50 values and read 3.1 cpm 
on center line. 


3.25 


- 2.75 


- 2.50 


- 2.25 


explanation of symbols 


2.00 Nj: The counting rate of the sample 

INCLUDING the BACKGROUND IN COUNTS 
PER minute 

.50 — I 7 K U' Number of minutes the sample was 
I. I J counted 

N(| The counting rate of the background 
1.25 -I- 1.50 IN COUNTS PER MINUTE 

I nc *b number of minutes THE BACKGROUND 
1.25 WAS COUNTED 


1.00 

0.75 

0.50 

0.00 


- 1.00 


*Jarrett, AECU-262 
8 :S 8 MonF-126 


116 


U M I H ♦ t I H t < t * * ^ H tti M tf t M M H H - H M } > f f 4 - ♦ f M } I M h t H I |t M ♦ IIM|iin I M I | I I I I | 1 1 t M 


s,/»« 


0.12 


).ll 


).I0 


0.09 


0.08 


0.07 


0.06 


0.05 


0.04 


0.03 


0.02 


. 0.01 


0.9 ERROR 
OF Nj-Nb 

0. 80 — 1 _ 0.95 


0.95 ERROR 
OF Nj-Nb 


0. 75 - 


— 0.90 


- 0.85 


0. 70 - 


- 0.80 


0. 65 - 


_ 0.75 


0. 60 - 


— 0.70 


055 - 


0. 50 — 


IKST.-lUCTICnS ?C'l USE 

Draw a straight line 
frora a point on the 
left scale tliat cor- 
responds to the quo- 
tient UgAs “t-hrough 
the point on the right 
scale that corresponds 
to the quotient N-^/t^ 
the point where this 
line crosses the center 
scale vdll correspond 
to the 0.9 and the 
0.95 erroh of the de- 
ternination 


0. 45 - 


0. 40 - 


- 0.65 


_ 0.55 


Nb/tb 
0. 12 - 


O.ll- 


0. 10 - 


0.09 


0.9 Error and 0.95 Error 
O’" * 

Low Counting Rates 


- 0.60 


- 0.50 


Explanation of symbols 


Ns^ The counting rate of the sample 
— 0.45 INCLUDING the background IN COUNTS 

PER minute 

n IK ■ V Number of minutes tvc sample *as 

I counted 

— 0.40 Nb The counting rate of the background 

IN COUNTS PER MINUTE 

tt, Number of minutes the background 
was counted 


0. 30 - 


0. 20 - 


JUO 


0. 10. 

0 - 


- 0.30 


*Jarrett, AEGU-262 
MonP-126 


i 

c.oe-|- 

± 

0. 07 - 

006 - J - 
O.OS-I- 
0.04 JL 
0. 03 -^ 
0.02 
0 01 


- 0.20 

. 0.10 

-0 


AVERAGE 
COUNTING RATE 


■^ 100,000 


1150,000 


__ 20,000 


--IO,CXX> 


-- spoo 


__epoo 


-- 1,000 


200 


100 


.50 


__20 


10 


115 


0.9 ERROR 0.95 ERROR 
500- 

1-500 


LENGTH OF 
TIME COUNTED 


200 — 


-200 



-„5 


2_~ 


_2 


I — 




0.5. 


-_0.5 


0.2 


— 0.2 


0. 1 - 


1_0.I 


The 0.9 Error and 0.95 Error 
OF 

Counting Rate Determinations 


INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE 

Draw a straight line from a 
point on the left scale cor- 
responding to the counting 
rate of the sample through 
the point on the right scale 
corresponding to the length 
of time the sample was count- 
ed, The point where this 
line crosses the center scale 
corresponds to the 0.9 error 
and the 0,95 error of the de- 
termination. 

Example : 

The 0.9 error of a sample 
vihich averaged 1250 counts 
per minute during a four 
minute determination is 29 
counts per minute. 

*Jarrett, AEOU-262 
MonP-126 


30- _ 

40__ 

SO. 
• 0 -- 
Toll 
soil 


90. 

100. 


£ 00 __ 

500-- 

400. 

500 

600 
700. 

80C 
900. 

l.OOOJ:- 


118 


1009 



fH 


373-062 0 - 70-9 


100 1000 10,000 100,000 




Number of observations 


120 



Qpioo , 

Nov. 1961)], Appendix A, pp. 137-140. 


Flux density (cnT^sec 



132 


r Specific gamma ray constant (R m^/h Ci) or (R at Im/h Ci) 



cm^/g water 



From The Atomic Nucleus, by R. D. Evans, 
Copyright 1955, by permission of McGraw- 
Hill Book Co., Inc. 


373-062 0 - 70 -10 


Mass Attenuation Coefficients in cm^/g 



134 


(^_iu) t 1 puH 


o 

o 



o 

o 


> 

0) 

S 


txO 

V-I 

0) 

c 

w 

c 

o 

4-1 

o 

pL, 


B 

o 

CO 

c 

o 

1 


B 

o 

4J 

•H 

4J 

o 



r~< 

*r4 



a 


o 



T3 

cn 

3 


vD 

o 

TJ 

QJ 

o 

Lj 



4-) 

C 

J= 

o 

4-1 




CO 

CO 

• 

X 



ro 


•r-4 


3 


c 

O 

•• 

1— “4 

3 



CO 

O 


JO 

6C 

CO 



• 

m 

3 

c 

•I—l 


• 


o^ 

(X 

ra 



o 

B 

1— -4 


)-i 

cn 



o 


CO 


o 


o 

u 

- 

4-1 


o 


o 


cn 

CO 

3 

• 




00 

"3 

JO 



4.4 

CO 

in 


4J 

3 


CO 

4-) 


B 


o 



c 

)-i 

o 


r— 4 


!-i 

CD 

CO 

u 

)-l 

3 



•r4 

1 — 1 

U-4 

o 

JO 

• 

CO 

o 

3 


14-1 


CN 


•i—l 

u 

T3 



o 

S-4 

U-l 

)-l 

QJ 

a 3 

o 

o 

C4-I 

•r-l 

> 

c 

oo 

• 

14-1 

(U 

o 

•r4 

ri 

c 



o 




3 

LJ 


O 


QJ 

3 

Lj 

CO 

ri 


C/J 

"3 

JO 



N — ' 

c 

PQ 


H 


m 


o 

z 

3 


3 

4 

4-1 

•1-4 


!-i 


JO 


c 

4-1 


3 

• 

H 

-H 

(U 

CO 

c 

3 




•rH 

3 

•r4 


00 


'V 

o 

C 


> 

r— 1 

• 

c 

•H 

 

O 

CO 

Li 

m 

o 


•r4 

O 


CD 

1— H 

u 

(U 

M 


ro 


o 


s: 



CX) 

4-1 

o 

c 

H 

N 

o 

—1 

CO 

• 

o 


4-1 

4-» 


O 


»r^ 


c 


• 

CO 

4-> 


• 

QJ 

1—^ 

a 


CO 

CO 

> 

P4 

o 

a 

4J 



(U 

QJ 

• 


c 

o 

C 

S 

s: 



CD 

m 

q; 


o 

)-i 


Li 


4-i 

c 

u 

o 

00 

CD 

+1 

4-» 

•r^ 


14-1 

v£) 

^ r* 


CO 


s: 


CJN 

O 




4-1 


1— 1 

o 

r— 1 


bO 

•rH 

CO 

N— X 



CO 



4-1 


-o 

o 

(1) 

QJ 


c 

f— < 

c 


c 

c 


3 


CO 


•r^ 

QJ 

CO 

*r-4 

• 


4-1 

1—^ 


4J 

u 

.—1 

c 

CO 


c 

c 

•i-4 

o 

c 


’-a 

o 

CD 

U-l 

> 

4-1 

o 

c 

4-1 


u-l 


CL 

CO 

o 

u 

a 


e 

C^J 


s: 

•r4 

o 

tc 




CL ^ 

o 

c 

6 

-i| 

c 


U-l 


• r-4 



o 

CD 


'T3 

Li 

4-> 


o 

O 

c 


c 

c 

' — ^ 


CJ 

0 

O 




cn 


•rH 

•r4 


.r- 

4-1 

c 

c 

4-1 

r- 

T? 

CO 

c 

o 

o 

CL -yj 

O 


QJ 

•r^ 

•r4 

Li 




•r^ 

4-J 

4-1 

c 

c: 



u 

U 

CO 

X 


o; 



c 

D 

JO 


— 

> 

U-1 

z: 

C 

CO 

x-i 

'00 

•-I 

U-l 

U-i 

o 


CO 

CO 


o 


4-) 




• — 

0 

r. 

4-1 

Of 

'03 

•/ 

"0 

o 

CO 

CO 

L 

CO 


w 




0 


“ 

u 



■f. 

c 


. —. 

*_ 

c 

Li 

■f. 



T 




C“ 







B 





4-> 

O 


0. 


3 


Q- 




:: 



U 


0. 

— 



0 

c 

O 

Li 



,.'0 



r. 

i 



1— 


s: 

L. 


• 




7 


"? 


•* 



>. 

C 

> 





V. 

• — 

• — 





u 


u 



. 




O' 















j: 

- 






r* 



-• 


r 

1-. 






(^_ui) Ti puB “®rl 


136 



Photon Energy (MeV) 



MASS ATTENUATION COEFFICIENTS* 


Photon 

Energy 

H 

Be 

B 

C 

N 

0 

Na 

Mg 

A1 

Si 

P 

S 

keV 













10 

0.385 

0.593 

1.16 

2.28 

3.73 

5.78 

15.5 

20.8 

26.3 

34.2 

40.8 

51.0 

IS 

.376 

.300 

0.463 

0.787 

1.18 

1.74 

4.58 

6.23 

7.93 

10.3 

12.4 

15.6 

20 

.369 

.227 

.295 

.429 

0.596 

0.826 

2.01 

2.72 

3.41 

4.39 

5.31 

6.66 

30 

.357 

. 181 

.206 

.251 

.304 

.372 

0.705 

0.918 

1.12 

1.41 

1.66 

2.07 

40 

.346 

.165 

.180 

.206 

.229 

.257 

.395 

.485 

0.567 

0.696 

0.797 

0.968 

50 

.335 

.156 

.167 

.187 

.198 

.213 

.281 

.329 

.369 

.437 

.489 

.579 

60 

.326 

. 150 

.159 

. 176 

.182 

.191 

.228 

.258 

.280 

.322 

.350 

.404 

80 

.309 

. 140 

.147 

.161 

.164 

.168 

.181 

.196 

.203 

.224 

.234 

.259 

100 

.294 

.133 

.139 

.152 

.153 

.156 

.159 

.169 

.171 

.184 

.187 

.202 

150 

.265 

.119 

.124 

.135 

.135 

.136 

.134 

.140 

.138 

.145 

.144 

.151 

200 

.243 

.109 

.114 

.123 

.123 

.124 

.120 

.125 

.122 

.128 

.125 

. 130 

300 

.211 

.0945 

.0984 

.107 

.107 

.107 

.103 

.106 

.104 

.108 

.106 

.109 

400 

.189 

.0847 

.0883 

.0957 

.0954 

.0957 

.0918 

.0949 

.0927 

.0962 

.0936 

.0966 

500 

. 173 

.0773 

.0806 

.0872 

.0871 

.0873 

.0836 

.0864 

.0844 

.0875 

.0850 

.0878 

600 

. 160 

.0715 

.0745 

.0807 

.0805 

.0808 

.0774 

.0797 

.0780 

.0808 

.0784 

.0810 

800 

.140 

.0629 

.0655 

.0709 

.0708 

.0708 

.0678 

.0701 

.0684 

.0707 

.0688 

.0709 

MeV 

1.0 

.126 

.0565 

.0589 

.0637 

.0636 

.0637 

.0609 

.0628 

.0613 

.0635 

.0617 

.0638 

1.5 

.103 

.0460 

.0479 

.0519 

.0518 

.0518 

.0497 

.0512 

.0500 

.0518 

.0503 

.0518 

2.0 

.0875 

.0394 

.0411 

.0445 

.0445 

.0446 

.0428 

.0442 

.0432 

.0448 

.0436 

.0449 

3.0 

.0691 

.0314 

.0328 

.0357 

.0358 

.0360 

.0349 

.0361 

.0354 

.0368 

.0359 

.0371 

4 

.0581 

.0266 

.0280 

.0305 

.0307 

.0310 

.0304 

.0316 

.0311 

.0324 

.0317 

.0329 

5 

.0505 

.0235 

.0248 

.0271 

.0274 

.0278 

.0276 

.0287 

.0284 

.0297 

.0292 

.0304 

6 

.0450 

.0212 

.0225 

.0247 

.0251 

.0255 

.0256 

.0268 

.0266 

.0279 

.0275 

.0287 

8 

.0375 

.0182 

.0195 

.0216 

.0221 

.0226 

.0232 

.0244 

.0244 

.0257 

.0255 

.0268 

10 

.0325 

.0163 

.0175 

.0196 

.0202 

.0209 

.0218 

.0231 

.0231 

.0246 

.0245 

.0258 

15 

.0254 

.0136 

.0149 

.0170 

.0178 

.0186 

.0202 

.0216 

.0219 

.0234 

.0236 

.0251 

20 

.0215 

.0122 

.0137 

.0158 

.0167 

.0177 

.0196 

.0212 

.0216 

.0233 

.0235 

.0252 

30 

.0174 

.0110 

.0125 

.0147 

.0158 

.0170 

.0196 

.0213 

.0219 

.0238 

.0242 

.0261 

40 

.0154 

.0104 

.0121 

.0144 

.0156 

.0169 

.0199 

.0217 

.0224 

.0245 

.0250 

.0270 

50 

.0141 

.0102 

.0119 

.0142 

.0156 

.0170 

.0202 

.0222 

.0230 

.0252 

.0257 

.0278 

60 

.0133 

.0100 

.0118 

.0143 

.0157 

.0172 

.0206 

.0227 

.0235 

.0257 

.0264 

.0286 

80 

.0124 

.00991 

.0118 

.0144 

.0160 

.0175 

.0213 

.0235 

.0244 

.0267 

.0274 

.0298 

100 

.0119 

.00992 

.0119 

.0146 

.0163 

.0179 

.0218 

.0241 

.0251 

.0275 

.0283 

.0307 

150 

.0113 

.0100 

.0122 

.0150 

.0168 

.0186 

.0228 

.0253 

.0263 

.0289 

.0298 

.0324 

200 

.0112 

.0102 

.0124 

.0153 

.0172 

.0191 

.0235 

.0260 

.0271 

.0299 

.0307 

.0334 

300 

.0111 

.0104 

.0128 

.0159 

.0178 

.0198 

.0244 

.0270 

.0282 

.0310 

.0319 

.0348 

400 

.0112 

.0106 

.0130 

.0162 

.0182 

.0202 

.0249 

.0276 

.0288 

.0317 

.0327 

.0356 

500 

.0113 

.0108 

.0132 

.0164 

.0185 

.0205 

.0252 

.0280 

.0292 

.0322 

.0332 

.0361 

600 

.0113 

.0109 

.0134 

.0166 

.0187 

.0207 

.0255 

.0283 

.0295 

.0325 

.0335 

.0365 

800 

.0115 

.0111 

.0136 

.0169 

.0190 

.0210 

.0259 

.0287 

.0300 

.0330 

.0340 

.0370 

GeV 

1 

.0116 

.0112 

.0137 

.0171 

.0192 

.0212 

.0261 

.0290 

.0302 

.0333 

.0344 

.0374 

1.5 

.0117 

.0114 

.0140 

.0173 

.0195 

.0216 

.0265 

.0293 

.0307 

.0338 

.0348 

.0380 

' 2 

.0118 

.0115 

.0141 

.0175 

.0196 

.0218 

.0267 

.0296 

.0309 

.0341 

.0351 

.0383 

3 

.0120 

.0116 

.0143 

.0177 

.0199 

.0220 

.0269 

.0298 

.0312 

.0344 

.0354 

.0386 

4 

.0120 

.0117 

.0144 

.0178 

.0200 

.0221 

.0270 

.0300 

.0313 

.0345 

.0356 

.0388 

5 

.0121 

.0118 

.0144 

.0179 

.0200 

.0222 

.0271 

.0301 

.0314 

.0346 

.0357 

.0389 

6 

.0121 

.0118 

.0145 

.0179 

.0201 

.0222 

.0272 

.0302 

.0315 

.0347 

.0358 

.0390 

8 

.0122 

.0119 

.0145 

.0180 

.0202 

.0223 

.0272 

.0302 

.0316 

.0348 

.0359 

.0391 

10 

.0122 

.0119 

.0146 

.0180 

.0202 

.0223 

.0273 

.0303 

.0316 

.0348 

.0359 

.0391 

15 

.0122 

.0119 

.0146 

.0181 

.0203 

.0224 

.0274 

.0303 

.0317 

.0349 

.0360 

.039? 

20 

.0123 

.0120 

.0147 

.0181 

.0203 

.0224 

.0274 

.0304 

.0317 

.0350 

.0361 

.Oi 

30 

.0123 

.0120 

.0147 

.0182 

.0203 

.0225 

.0274 

.0304 

.0318 

.0350 

.0361 

. (J - * 1 

40 

.0123 

.0120 

.0147 

.0182 

.0203 

.0225 

.0275 

.0305 

.0318 

.0351 

.0361 


50 

.0123 

.0120 

.0147 

.0182 

.0204 

.0225 

.0275 

.0305 

.0318 

.0351 

.0362 

.or;, 

60 

.0123 

.0120 

.0147 

.0182 

.0204 

.0225 

.0275 

.0305 

.0318 

.0351 

.0:'62 

. u:; ■. 

80 

.0123 

.0120 

.0147 

.0182 

.0204 

.0225 

.0275 

.0305 

.0318 

.0351 

.0362 


100 

.0123 

.0120 

.0147 

.0182 

.0204 

.0225 

.0275 

.0305 

.0319 

.0351 

.0367 

. J 


* Coefficients are "Total with Coherent." Unit is cm^/g. 


Source: Photon Cross Sections. Attenuation Coef ficients, and Energy Absorption Coefficients From 10 kcV to 00 

(NSRDS-NBS 29), 1969. 


137 


MASS ATTENUATION COEFFICIENTS--Continued 


Photon 

Energy 

Ar 

K 

Ca 

Fe 

Cu 

Mo 

Sn 

I 

W 

Pb 

U 

HgO 

keV 













10 

64.5 

80.9 

96.5 

173. 

224. 

86.2 

141. 

161. 

95.5 

133. ^ 

178. 

5.18 

15 

19.9 

25.0 

30.1 

56.4 

74.2 

28.2 

47.0 

55.2 

142. ^ 

115. 1 

63.9^ 

1.58 

20 

8.53 

10.8 

13.0 

25.5 

33.5 

81.7* 

21.3^ 

26.0 

67.0 

85.7^ 

71.0+ 

0.775 

30 

2.62 

3.30 

3.99 

8.13 

10.9 

28.8 

41.3 

8.67 

23.0 

29.7 

41.0 

.370 

40 

1.20 

1.49 

1.78 

3.62 

4.89 

13.3 

19.4 

22.7 

10.7 

14.0 

19.7 

.267 

50 

0.687 

0.843 

0.998 

1.94 

2.62 

7.20 

10.7 

12.6 

5.91 

7.81 

11.1 

.227 

60 

.460 

.5 60 

.648 

1.20 

1.62 

4.41 

6.53 

7.78 

3.65^ 

4.87 

6.96 

.206 

80 

.275 

.324 

.365 

0.595 

0.772 

2.02 

3.02 

3.65 

7.89 

2-33* 

3.35 

.184 

100 

.204 

.233 

.256 

.370 

.461 

1.11 

1.68 

2.00 

4.43 

5.40 

1.91^ 

.171 

150 

.143 

.158 

.168 

.196 

.223 

0.428 

0.614 

0.714 

1.57 

1.97 

2.56 

.151 

200 

.121 

.132 

.138 

.146 

.157 

.245 

.328 

.372 

0.777 

0.991 

1.28- 

.137 

300 

.0996 

.108 

.112 

.110 

.112 

.139 

.164 

.178 

.320 

.404 

0.509 

.119 

400 

.0878 

.0949 

.0979 

.0940 

.0941 

.105 

.116 

.122 

.190 

.231 

.286 

.106 

500 

.0795 

.0859 

.0885 

.0840 

.0836 

.0883 

.0946 

.0976 

.136 

.161 

.193 

.0968 

600 

.0733 

.0792 

.0814 

.0769 

.0762 

.0788 

.0816 

.0835 

.108 

.125 

.146 

.0896 

800 

.0641 

.0692 

.0712 

.0669 

.0660 

.0661 

.0669 

.0676 

.0799 

.0885 

.0997 

.0786 

MeV 

1.0 

.0576 

.0621 

.0639 

.0599 

.0589 

.0583 

.0578 

.0581 

.0654 

.0708 

.0776 

.0707 

1.5 

.0470 

.0506 

.0520 

.0488 

.0480 

.0470 

.0463 

.0464 

.0497 

.0517 

.0548 

.0575 

2.0 

.0407 

.0439 

.0453 

.0425 

.0420 

.0415 

.0410 

.0411 

.0437 

.0455 

.0475 

.0494 

3.0 

.0338 

.0366 

.0378 

.0362 

.0360 

.0366 

.0367 

.0370 

.0402 

.0418 

.0438 

.0397 

4 

.0302 

.0328 

.0340 

.0331 

.0332 

.0349 

.0355 

.0359 

.0400 

.0416 

.0435 

.0340 

5 

.0280 

.0306 

.0317 

.0314 

.0318 

.0344 

.0354 

.0359 

.0407 

.0424 

.0445 

.0303 

6 

.0267 

.0291 

.0303 

.0305 

.0310 

.0343 

.0357 

.0364 

.0416 

.0435 

.0455 

.0277 

8 

.0251 

.0276 

.0289 

.0298 

.0306 

.0350 

.0369 

.0378 

.0439 

.0459 

.0480 

.0243 

10 

.0244 

.0270 

.0283 

.0298 

.0308 

.0362 

.0385 

.0395 

.0464 

.0484 

.0506 

.0222 

15 

.0244 

.0268 

.0283 

.0307 

.0323 

.0393 

.0425 

.0438 

.0524 

.0548 

.0573 

.0194 

20 

.0244 

.0273 

.0289 

.0321 

.0339 

.0470 

.0461 

.0476 

.0577 

.0606 

.0636 

.0181 

30 

.0255 

.0286 

.0305 

.0345 

.0368 

.0470 

.0517 

.0536 

.0659 

.0696 

.0733 

.0171 

40 

.0266 

.0299 

.0319 

.0365 

.0391 

.0505 

.0557 

.0578 

.0716 

.0757 

.0799 

.0167 

50 

.0275 

.0310 

.0331 

.0382 

.0410 

.0532 

.0588 

.0611 

.0760 

.0804 

.0850 

.0167 

60 

.0284 

.0319 

.0342 

.0395 

.0425 

.0553 

.0613 

.0637 

.0794 

.0841 

.0889 

.0167 

80 

.0296 

.0334 

.0358 

.0416 

.0448 

.0586 

.0651 

.0676 

.0845 

.0896 

.0948 

.0170 

100 

.0306 

.0345 

.0370 

.0432 

.0465 

.0609 

.0677 

.0704 

.0881 

.0934 

.0984 

.0172 

150 

.0325 

.0368 

.0394 

.0458 

.0494 

.0648 

.0721 

.0750 

.0939 

.0996 

.106 

.0178 

200 

.0334 

.0377 

.0405 

.0475 

.0511 

.0672 

.0748 

.0778 

.0976 

.103 

.110 

.0182 

300 

.0348 

.0393 

.0422 

.0494 

.0532 

.0700 

.0780 

.0811 

.102 

.108 

.115 

.0188 

400 

.0356 

.0402 

.0432 

.0506 

.0544 

.0716 

.0798 

.0830 

.104 

.111 

.117 

.0192 

500 

.0361 

.0408 

.0438 

.0514 

.0552 

.0727 

.0810 

.0842 

.106 

.112 

.119 

.0195 

600 

.0365 

.0412 

.0443 

.0519 

.0558 

.0735 

.0819 

.0851 

.107 

.113 

.121 

.0197 

800 

.0371 

.0419 

.0450 

.0527 

.0566 

.0745 

.0831 

.0864 

.108 

.115 

.122 

.0200 

GeV 

1 

.0375 

.0423 

.0455 

.0532 

.0572 

.0753 

.0838 

.0871 

.109 

.116 

.123 

.0202 

1.5 

.0380 

.0429 

.0461 

.0539 

.0579 

.0762 

.0849 

.0884 

.111 

.118 

.125 

.0205 

2 

.0382 

.0432 

.0464 

.0543 

.0583 

.0767 

.0856 

.0890 

.111 

.118 

.126 

.0206 

3 

.0386 

.0436 

.0468 

.0548 

.0588 

.0773 

.0862 

.0896 

.112 

.119 

.127 

.0208 

4 

.0387 

.0438 

.0470 

.0550 

.0590 

.0777 

.0865 

.0900 

.113 

.120 

.127 

.0210 

5 

.0389 

.0439 

.0472 

.0551 

.0591 

.0779 

.0867 

.0902 

.113 

.120 

.128 

.021 

6 

.0389 

.0440 

.0473 

.0552 

.0593 

.0780 

.0868 

.0904 

.113 

.120 

.128 

.0211 

8 

.0391 

.0441 

.0474 

.0554 

.0594 

.0781 

.0870 

.0905 

.113 

.120 

.128 

.0211 

10 

.0391 

.0442 

.0475 

.0555 

.0595 

.0783 

.0871 

.0906 

.114 

.121 

.128 

.0212 

15 

.0392 

.0443 

.0476 

.0556 

.0596 

.0785 

.0873 

.0908 

.114 

.121 

.129 

.0213 

20 

.0393 

.0443 

.0477 

.0556 

.0596 

.0785 

.0874 

.0910 

.114 

.121 

.129 

.0213 

30 

.0393 

.0444 

.0477 

.0557 

.0598 

.0786 

.0875 

.0911 

.114 

.121 

.129 

.0213 

40 

.0393 

.0445 

.0477 

.0557 

.0598 

.0786 

.0876 

.0911 

.114 

.121 

.129 

.0213 

50 

.0393 

.0445 

.0478 

.0558 

.0598 

.0786 

.0877 

.0911 

.114 

.121 

.129 

.0213 

60 

.0394 

.0445 

.0478 

.0558 

.0598 

.0787 

.0877 

.0912 

.114 

.121 

.129 

.0214 

80 

.0394 

.0445 

.0478 

.0558 

.0598 

.0788 

.0877 

.0912 

.114 

.121 

.129 

.0214 

100 

.0394 

.0445 

.0478 

.0555 

.0598 

.0788 

.0877 

.0912 

.114 

.121 

.129 

.0214 


* K edge, + L edge-- to 20keV 12.6, 81.7; Sn 29.2keV 7.54, 44.3; I 33.2keV 6.62, 36.4; W 10.2keV 90.7, 235.; 11.5keV 
170., 235.; 12.1keV 206., 248.; 69.5keV 2.49, 11.3; Pb 13.0keV 67.8, 166.; 15.2keV 112., 146.; 15.9keV 130., 157.; 
88.0keV 1.83, 7.45; U 17.2keV45.8, 106.; 20.9keV 62.7, 88.0; 21.8keV 79.8, 91.8; 116keV 1.34, 4.86. 


138 


MASS ATTENUATION COEFFICIENTS --Continued 


Photon 

Energy 

SlOa 

Nal 

Air 

Con - 

crete 

0. 8 N 

HsSO ^ 

Bone 

Muscle 

Poly - 

styrene 

Lucite 

Poly - 
ethyl - 
ene 

Bake - 

lite 

Pyrex 

Glass 

keV 













10 

19.0 

139. 

4.99 

26.9 

5.76 

20.3 

5.27 

2.13 

3.25 

2.01 

2.76 

17.1 

15 

5.73 

47.4 

1.55 

8.24 

1.76 

6.32 

1.63 

0.755 

1.06 

0.728 

0.923 

5.14 

20 

2.49 

22.3 

0.752 

3.59 

0.849 

2.79 

0.793 

.424 

0.551 

.420 

.492 

2.25 

30 

0.859 

7. 45 * 

.349 

1.19 

.391 

0.962 

.373 

.259 

.298 

.266 

.277 

0.786 

40 

.463 

19.3 

.248 

0.605 

.276 

.512 

.268 

.217 

.234 

.226 

.223 

.431 

50 

.318 

10.7 

.208 

.392 

.231 

.349 

.227 

.199 

.208 

.209 

.200 

.302 

60 

.252 

6.62 

.188 

.295 

.208 

.274 

.205 

.188 

.193 

. 198 

.187 

.242 

80 

. 194 

3.12 

.167 

.213 

.185 

.209 

.183 

.173 

.176 

.183 

.171 

.190 

100 

.169 

1.72 

.154 

.179 

.171 

.180 

.170 

.163 

.164 

.172 

.161 

.166 

150 

.140 

0.625 

.136 

.144 

.150 

.149 

.149 

.145 

.146 

.154 

.143 

.139 

200 

. 126 

.334 

.123 

.127 

.137 

.133 

.136 

.132 

.133 

.140 

.130 

.125 

300 

.108 

.167 

.107 

.108 

.118 

.114 

.118 

.115 

.115 

.122 

.113 

.107 

400 

.0959 

.117 

.0954 

.0963 

.106 

.102 

.105 

.103 

.103 

.109 

.101 

.0954 

500 

.0874 

.0955 

.0870 

.0877 

.0965 

.0927 

.0960 

.0938 

.0941 

.0995 

.0921 

.0870 

600 

.0808 

.0826 

.0805 

.0810 

.0893 

.0857 

.0888 

.0868 

' .0871 

.0921 

.0852 

.0804 

800 

.0707 

.0676 

.0707 

.0709 

.0783 

.0752 

.0779 

.0763 

.0765 

.0809 

.0749 

.0704 

MeV 

1.0 

.0636 

.0586 

.0636 

.0637 

.0704 

.0676 

.0700 

.0685 

.0687 

.0727 

.0673 

.0633 

1.5 

.0518 

.0469 

.0518 

.0519 

.0573 

.0550 

.0570 

.0558 

.0559 

.0592 

.0548 

.0516 

2.0 

.0447 

.0413 

.0445 

.0448 

.0492 

.0473 

.0489 

.0478 

.0480 

.0507 

.0470 

.0444 

3.0 

.0363 

.0366 

.0358 

.0365 

.0396 

.0383 

.0393 

.0383 

.0385 

.0405 

.0377 

.0361 

4 

.0317 

.0351 

.0308 

.0319 

.0340 

.0331 

.0337 

.0327 

.0329 

.0345 

.0322 

.0314 

5 

.0287 

.0346 

.0275 

.0290 

.0303 

.0297 

.0300 

.0290 

.0292 

.0305 

.0286 

.0282 

6 

.0266 

.0347 

.0252 

.0270 

.0277 

.0274 

.0274 

.0263 

.0266 

.0277 

.0260 

.0263 

8 

.0241 

.0355 

.0223 

.0245 

.0243 

.0244 

.0240 

.0228 

.0232 

.0239 

.0227 

.0237 

10 

.0226 

.0368 

.0204 

.0231 

.0222 

.0226 

.0219 

.0206 

.0211 

.0215 

.0206 

.0222 

15 

.0209 

.0402 

.0181 

.0215 

.0194 

.0204 

.0192 

.0176 

.0182 

.0182 

.0178 

.0204 

20 

.0203 

.0433 

.0170 

.0210 

.0182 

.0194 

.0179 

.0162 

.0168 

.0166 

.0164 

.0198 

30 

.0202 

.0484 

.0162 

.0210 

.0172 

.0189 

.0168 

.0149 

.0157 

.0151 

.0153 

.0195 

40 

.0204 

.0520 

.0161 

.0213 

.0169 

.0189 

.0165 

.0144 

.0153 

.0145 

.0148 

.0198 

50 

.0208 

.0548 

.0161 

.0218 

.0168 

.0190 

.0164 

.0142 

.0151 

.0142 

.0147 

.0201 

60 

.0212 

.0571 

.0162 

.0222 

.0169 

.0193 

.0165 

.0142 

.0151 

.0141 

.0147 

.0204 

80 

.0218 

.0605 

.0165 

.0229 

.0171 

.0197 

.0167 

.0142 

.0152 

.0141 

.0148 

.0210 

100 

.0224 

.0629 

.0168 

.0235 

.0174 

.0201 

.0170 

.0144 

.0154 

.0142 

.0150 

.0215 

150 

.0234 

.0670 

.0174 

.0247 

.0180 

.0210 

.0175 

.0147 

.0159 

.0145 

.0154 

.0225 

200 

.0241 

.0695 

.0179 

.0254 

.0184 

.0215 

.0179 

.0150 

.0162 

.0147 

.0157 

.0232 

300 

.0250 

.0724 

.0185 

.0264 

.0190 

.0223 

.0185 

.0155 

.0167 

.0152 

.0162 

.0240 

400 

.0256 

.0741 

.0189 

.0269 

.0194 

.0228 

.0189 

.0158 

.0171 

.0155 

.0166 

.0245 

500 

.0260 

.0752 

.0192 

.0273 

.0197 

.0231 

.0192 

.0160 

.0173 

.0157 

.0168 

.0249 

600 

.0262 

.0760 

.0194 

.0276 

.0199 

.0233 

.0194 

.0162 

.0175 

.0159 

.0170 

.0252 

800 

.0266 

.0771 

.0197 

.0281 

.0202 

.0237 

.0197 

.0165 

.0178 

.0161 

.0173 

.0256 

GeV 

1 

.0269 

.0778 

.0199 

.0283 

.0204 

.0239 

.0199 

.0166 

.0180 

.0163 

.0174 

.0258 

1.5 

.0273 

.0789 

.0202 

.0287 

.0207 

.0243 

.0202 

.0169 

.0182 

.0165 

.0177 

.0262 

2 

.0275 

.0794 

.0204 

.0290 

.0209 

.0245 

.0203 

.0171 

.0184 

.0167 

.0179 

.0264 

3 

.0278 

.0800 

.0206 

.0292 

.0211 

.0247 

.0205 

.0173 

.0186 

.0169 

.0181 

.0267 

4 

.0279 

.0803 

.0207 

.0294 

.0212 

.0249 

.0206 

.0174 

.0187 

.0170 

.0182 

.0268 

5 

.0280 

.0805 

.0208 

.0295 

.0213 

.0249 

.0207 

.0174 

.0188 

.0170 

.0183 

.0269 

6 

.0281 

.0807 

.0208 

.0295 

.0213 

.0250 

.0208 

.0175 

.0188 

.0171 

.0183 

.0269 

8 

.0281 

.0808 

.0209 

.0296 

.0214 

.0251 

.0208 

.0175 

.0189 

.0172 

.0184 

.0270 

10 

.0282 

.0809 

.0209 

.0297 

.0214 

.0251 

.0209 

.0176 

.0189 

.0172 

.0184 

. 02 ’! 

15 

.0283 

.0811 

.0210 

.0298 

.0215 

.0252 

.0209 

.0176 

.0190 

.0173 

.0185 

.'■1 

20 

.0283 

.0812 

.0210 

.0298 

.0215 

.0252 

.0210 

.0177 

.0190 

.0173 

.0185 

. o ; 

30 

.0283 

.0813 

.0211 

.0298 

.0216 

.0253 

.0210 

.0177 

.0191 

.0173 

.0185 


40 

.0284 

.0813 

.0211 

.0299 

.0216 

.0253 

.0210 

.0177 

.0191 

.0173 

.0186 


50 

.0284 

.0814 

.0211 

.0299 

.0216 

.0253 

.0210 

.0177 

.0191 

.0173 

.0186 


60 

.0284 

.0814 

.0211 

.0299 

.0216 

.0253 

.0210 

.0177 

.0191 

.0174 

.0186 


80 

.0284 

.0815 

.0211 

.0299 

.0216 

.0253 

.0210 

.0178 

.0191 

.0174 

.0186 

.. J 

100 

.0284 

.0815 

.0211 

.0299 

.0216 

.0253 

.0211 

.0178 

.0191 

.0174 

.0186 


* K edge of Iodine -- 33. 2 keV 5. 69, 30. 9. 


! 


VALUES OF THE MASS ENERGY -ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS 


Photon 

Energy 

(MeV) 

Mass Energy-Absorption Coefficient, ([J-g 

n / P), cm^ /g 

Water 

Air 

Compact 

Bone 

Muscle 

0.010 

4.89 

4.66 

19.0 

4.96 

.015 

1.32 

1.29 

5.89 

1.36 

o020 

0.523 

0.516 

2.51 

0.544 

o030 

.147 

.147 

0.743 

.154 

.040 

.0647 

.0640 

.305 

.0677 

.050 

.0394 

.0384 

.158 

.0409 

.060 

.0304 

.0292 

.0979 

.0312 

.080 

.0253 

.0236 

.0520 

.0255 

.10 

.0252 

.0231 

.0386 

.0252 

.15 

.0278 

.0251 

.0304 

.0276 

.20 

.0300 

.0268 

.0302 

.0297 

.30 

.0320 

.0288 

.0311 

.0317 

.40 

.0329 

.0296 

.0316 

.0325 

.50 

.0330 

.0297 

.0316 

.0327 

.60 

.0329 

.0296 

.0315 

.0326 

o80 

.0321 

.0289 

.0306 

.0318 

1.0 

.0311 

.0280 

.0297 

.0308 

1.5 

.0283 

.0255 

.0270 

.0281 

2.0 

.0260 

.0234 

.0248 

.0257 

3.0 

.0227 

.0205 

.0219 

.0225 

4.0 

.0205 

.0186 

.0199 

.0203 

5.0 

.0190 

.0173 

.0186 

.0188 

6.0 

.0180 

.0163 

.0178 

.0178 

8.0 

.0165 

.0150 

.0165 

.0163 

10.0 

.0155 

.0144 

.0159 

.0154 


Source: Physical Aspects of Irradiation (NBS Handbook No. 85 

[Washington, D.C.: Supt. of Docs., U.S. Government 

Printing Office, Mar. 1964]), p. 3. 


140 


e 7 8 a 1 


TOTAL XEUTROX CROSS SECTIOXS FOR IXDIU^I AXD CADAHUM 



SXHVa XI XOIXOZS SSOHO XVXOX 


10.0 100 1000 


NEUTRON CROSS SECTIONS FOR HYDROGEN AND BORON 

(eV) 


142 



SUJBg UT UOTIJOSS SSOJQ 


Neutron Energy in eV 

Cross sections for boron, Hg, and HgO taken from BNL-325; for H in paraffin from Havens and Rainwater, 
Phys. Rev., 73, 7, 733-741 (1948). 




NEUTRON CROSS SECTIONS FOR HYDROGEN AND BORON 

(MeV) 

innn' 2 3 4567S91 2 3 4567S91 2 3 4567891 2 3 4567 



> 


c 

•iH 

u 

(U 

o 

W 

c 

o 

u 

+-> 

3 

0.5 Mev) 



144 


10 15 20 T\ 

ABSORBER THICKNESS -- CM 



DOSE BUILDUP FACTORS 


I = Bloe 

where I = dose rate in back of shield 
B = buildup factor 
Iq = dose rate in back of shield 
= linear absorption coefficient 
X = shield thickness 


Dose Buildup Factor (B) for a Point Isotropic Source 


Material 

MeV 

px* 

1 

2 

4 

7 

10 

15 

20 

Water 

0.255 

3.09 

7.14 

23.0 

72.9 

166 

456 

982 


0.5 

2.52 

5.14 

14.3 

38.8 

77.6 

178 

334 


1.0 

2.13 

3.71 

7.68 

16.2 

27.1 

50.4 

82.2 


2.0 

1.83 

2.77 

4.88 

8.46 

12.4 

19.5 

27.7 


3.0 

1.69 

2.42 

3.91 

6.23 

8.63 

12.8 

17.0 


4.0 

1.58 

2.17 

3.34 

5.13 

6.94 

9.97 

12.9 


6.0 

1.46 

1.91 

2.76 

3.99 

5.18 

7.09 

8.85 


8.0 

1.38 

1.74 

2.40 

3.34 

4.25 

5.66 

6.95 


10.0 

1.33 

1.63 

2.19 

2.97 

3.72 

4.90 

5.98 

Aluminum 

0.5 

2.37 

4.24 

9.47 

21.5 

38.9 

80.8 

141 


1.0 

2.02 

3.31 

6.57 

13.1 

21.2 

37.9 

58.5 


2.0 

1.75 

2.61 

4.62 

8.05 

11.9 

18.7 

26.3 


3.0 

1.64 

2.32 

3.78 

6.14 

8.65 

13.0 

17.7 


4.0 

1.53 

2.08 

3.22 

5.01 

6.88 

10.1 

13.4 


6.0 

1.42 

1.85 

2.70 

4.06 

5.49 

7.97 

10.4 


8.0 

1.34 

1.68 

2.37 

3.45 

4.58 

6.56 

8.52 


10.0 

1.28 

1.55 

2.12 

3.01 

3.96 

5.63 

7.32 

Iron 

0.5 

1.98 

3.09 

5.98 

11.7 

19.2 

35.4 

55.6 


1.0 

1.87 

2.89 

5.39 

10.2 

16.2 

28.3 

42.7 


2.0 

1.76 

2.43 

4.13 

7.25 

10.9 

17.6 

25.1 


3.0 

1.55 

2.15 

3.51 

5.85 

8.51 

13.5 

19.1 


4.0 

1.45 

1.94 

3.03 

4.91 

7.11 

11.2 

16.0 


6.0 

1.34 

1.72 

2.58 

4.14 

6.02 

9.89 

14.7 


8.0 

1.27 

1.56 

2.23 

3.49 

5.07 

8.50 

13.0 


10.0 

1.20 

1.42 

1.95 

2.99 

4.35 

7.54 

12.4 


* px = mass absorption coefficient (p/p) X shield thickness (cm) X shield 
density (g/cm^). 

NOTE: For concrete use an average of aluminum and iron; e.g., B(cone) = 

[B(iron) + B(A1)] -r 2. 


DOSE BUILDUP FACTORS --Continued 


Point Isotropic Source--Continued 


Material 

MeV 

px* 

1 

2 

4 

7 

10 

15 

20 

Tin 

0.5 

1.56 

2.08 

3.09 

4.57 

6.04 

8.64 



1.0 

1.64 

2.30 

3.74 

6.17 

8.85 

13.7 

18.8 


2.0 

1.57 

2.17 

3.53 

5.87 

8.53 

13.6 

19.3 


3.0 

1.46 

1.96 

3.13 

5.28 

7.91 

13.3 

20.1 


4.0 

1.38 

1.81 

2.82 

4.82 

7.41 

13.2 

21.2 


6. 0 

1.26 

1.57 

2.37 

4.17 

6.94 

14.8 

29.1 


8.0 

1.19 

1.42 

2.05 

3.57 

6.19 

15.1 

34.0 


10.0 

1.14 

1.31 

1.79 

2.99 

5.21 

12.5 

33.4 

Tungsten 

0.5 

1.28 

1.50 

1.84 

2.24 

2.61 

3.12 

- - 


1.0 

1.44 

1.83 

2.57 

3.62 

4.64 

6.25 

(7.35) 


2.0 

1.42 

1.85 

2.72 

4.09 

5.27 

8.07 

(10.6) 


3.0 

1.36 

1.74 

2.59 

4.00 

5.92 

9.66 

14.1 


4.0 

1.29 

1.62 

2.41 

4.03 

6.27 

12.0 

20.9 


6.0 

1.20 

1.43 

2.07 

3.60 

6.29 

15.7 

36.3 


8.0 

1.14 

1.32 

1.81 

3.05 

5.40 

15.2 

41.9 


10.0 

1.11 

1.25 

1.64 

2.62 

4.65 

14.0 

39.3 

Lead 

0.5 

1.24 

1.42 

1.69 

2.00 

2.27 

2.65 

(2.73) 


1.0 

1.37 

1.69 

2.26 

3.02 

3.74 

4.81 

5.86 


2.0 

1.39 

1.76 

2.51 

3.66 

4.84 

6.87 

9.00 


3.0 

1.34 

1.68 

2.43 

2.75 

5.30 

8.44 

12.3 


4.0 

1.27 

1.56 

2.25 

3.61 

5.44 

9.80 

16.3 


5.1097 

1.21 

1.46 

2.08 

3.44 

5.55 

11.7 

23.6 


6.0 

1.18 

1.40 

1.97 

3.34 

5.69 

13.8 

32.7 


8.0 

1.14 

1.30 

1.74 

2.89 

5.07 

14.1 

44.6 


10.0 

1.11 

1.23 

1.58 

2.52 

4.34 

12.5 

39.2 

Uranium 

0.5 

1.17 

1.30 

1.48 

1.67 

1.85 

2.08 



1.0 

1.31 

1.56 

1.98 

2.50 

2.97 

3.67 

-- 


2.0 

1.33 

1.64 

2.23 

3.09 

3.95 

5.36 

(6.48) 


3.0 

1.29 

1.58 

2.21 

3.27 

4.51 

6.97 

9.88 


4.0 

1.24 

1.50 

2.09 

3.21 

4.66 

8.01 

12.7 


6.0 

1.16 

1.36 

1.85 

2.96 

4.80 

10.8 

23.0 


8.0 

1.12 

1.27 

1.66 

2.61 

4.36 

11.2 

28.0 


10.0 

1.09 

1.20 

1.51 

2.26 

3.78 

10.5 

28.5 


* px = mass absorption coefficient (p/ p) X shield thickness (cm) X shield 
density (g/cm^). 


146 


DOSE BUILDUP FACTORS--Continued 


Dose Buildup Factor (B) for a Plane Monodirectional Source 


Material 

MeV 

1-LX* 

1 

2 

4 

7 

10 

15 

Water 

0.5 

2.63 

4.29 

9.05 

20.0 

35.9 

74.9 


1.0 

2.26 

3.39 

6.27 

11.5 

18.0 

30.8 


2.0 

1.84 

2.63 

4.28 

6.96 

9.87 

14.4 


3.0 

1.69 

2.31 

3.57 

5.51 

7.48 

10.8 


4.0 

1.58 

2.10 

3.12 

4.63 

6.19 

8.54 


6.0 

1.45 

1.86 

2.63 

3.76 

4.86 

6.78 


8.0 

1.36 

1.69 

2.30 

3.16 

4.00 

5.47 

Iron 

0.5 

2.07 

2.94 

4.87 

8.31 

12.4 

20.6 


1.0 

1.92 

2.74 

4.57 

7.81 

11.6 

18.9 


2.0 

1.69 

2.35 

3.76 

6.11 

8.78 

13.7 


3.0 

1.58 

2.13 

3.32 

5.26 

7.41 

11.4 


4.0 

1.48 

1.90 

2.95 

4.61 

6.46 

9.92 


6.0 

1.35 

1.71 

2.48 

3.81 

5.35 

8.39 


8.0 

1.27 

1.55 

2.17 

3.27 

4.58 

7.33 


10.0 

1.22 

1.44 

1.95 

2.89 

4.07 

6.70 

Tin 

1.0 

1.65 

2.24 

3.40 

5.18 

7.19 

10.5 


2.0 

1.58 

2.13 

3.27 

5.12 

7.13 

11.0 


4.0 

1.39 

1.80 

2.69 

4.31 

6.30 

— 


6.0 

1.27 

1.57 

2.27 

3.72 

5.77 

11.0 


10.0 

1.16 

1.33 

1.77 

2.81 

4.53 

9.68 

Lead 

0.5 

1.24 

1.39 

1.63 

1.87 

2.08 

... 


1.0 

1.38 

1.68 

2.18 

2.80 

3.40 

4.20 


2.0 

1.40 

1.76 

2.41 

3.36 

4.35 

5.94 


3.0 

1.36 

1.71 

2.42 

3.55 

4.82 

7.18 


4.0 

1.28 

1.56 

2.18 

3.29 

4.69 

7.70 


6.0 

1.19 

1.40 

1.87 

2.97 

4.69 

9.53 


8.0 

1.14 

1.30 

1.69 

2.61 

4.18 

9.08 


10.0 

1.11 

1.24 

1.54 

2.27 

3.54 

7.70 

Uranium 

0.5 

1.17 

1.28 

1.45 

1.60 

1.73 




1.0 

1.30 

1.53 

1.90 

2.32 

2.70 

3.60 


2.0 

1.33 

1.62 

2ol5 

2.87 

3.56 

4.89 


3o0 

1.29 

1.57 

2.13 

3.02 

3.99 

5.94 


4.0 

1.25 

1.49 

2.02 

2.94 

4.06 

6.47 


6.0 

1.18 

1.37 

1.82 

2.74 

4.12 

7.79 


8.0 

1.13 

1.27 

1.61 

2.39 

3.65 

7.36 


10.0 

1.10 

1.21 

1.48 

2.12 

3.21 

6.58 


px - mass absorption coefficient (m-/p) X shield thickness (cm) X shield 
density (g/cm^). 


147 



Transmission through lead of gamma rays 
from radium [14]; cobalt 60, cesium 137, 
gold 198 [7]; iridium 192 [15]; tantalum 
182 and sodium 24 [29]. 


148 



1^. 

ro 


CO 

r— 1 


S-i 

e 


CO 

13 


B 

•iH 


B 

CO 


CO 

 o 
the x-ray beam and with a pulsed waveform. The curves at 50 and 70 kvp were obtained by 
interpolation and extrapolation of available data (Braestrui), 1914) [2], The filtrations were 
0.5 mm of aluminum for 50, 70, 100, and 125 kvp, aud 3 mm of aluminum for 1.50 and 200 kvp 
[26]. 


151 



Figure 18. Attenuation in concrete of x rays produced by potentials 

of 50 to 400 kv. 

% 

The measurements were made with a 90° angle between the electron beam and the axis 
of the x-ray beam. The curves for 50 to 300 kvp are for a pulsed waveform. The filtrations 
were 1 mm of aluminum for 70 kvp, 2 mm of aluminum for 100 kvp, and 3 mm of aluminum 
for 125 to 300 kvp (Trout et al., 1955 and 1959) [11]. The 400-kvcp curve was interpolated 
from data obtained with a constant potential generator and inherent filtration of approxi- 
mately 3 mm of copper (Miller and Kennedy, 1955) [8] [26]. 


152 



Figure 19. Attenuation in lead of x rays 'produced by potentials of 

250 to 400 kv. 

The moasnrcmcnts were made with a 90° angle between the electron beam and tlie axis 
of the x-ray beam. Tlie 250-kvp curve is for a pulsed v'aveform and a filtration of "A mm of 
aluminunrCHraestrup, 1944) [2|. The 400-kvcp crrve was obtained with a constant potential 
generator and inherent filtration of approximately 3 mm of copper (Miller and Kennedy. 
1955) [8]. The 300-kvp curve is for pulsed waveform and 3 mm of aluminum (Trout et al., 
1959) 111] [26j. 


^.3 



Figure 20. Attenuation in lead of x rays produced by potentials of 
500- to 3,000-kv constant potential. 

The measurements were made with a 0° angle between the electron beam and the axis of 
the x-ray beam and with a constant potential generator. The 500- and 1,000-kvcp curve 
were obtained with filtration of 2.88 mm of tungsten, 2.8 mm of copper, 2.1 mm of brass, and 
18.7 mm of water (Wyckoff et ah, 1948) [13]. The 2,000-kvcp curve was obtained by extrap- 
olating to broad -beam conditions (E.E. Smith) the data of Evans et ah, 1952 [3]. The in- 
herent filtration was equivalent to 0.8 mm of lead. The 3,000-kvcp curve has been obtained 
by interpolation of the 2,000-kvcp curve given herein, and the data of Miller and Kennedy, 
1956 [9]. 


154 



Figure 21. Attenuation in concrete of x rays ■produced by potentials of 
500- to 8,000-kv constant potential. 

The measurements were made witli a 0° angle between the electron beam and the axis of 
the x-ray beam and with a constant potential generator. The 500- and 1,000-kvcp curves 
were obtained with filtration of 2.8 mm of copper, 2.1 mm of brass, and 18.7 mm of water 
(WyckofI ct al., 1948) [13]. The 2,000-kvcp curve was obtained by extrapolating to broad- 
beam conditions (E.E. Smith) the data of Evans ct al., 1952 [3]. The inherent filtration 
was equivalent to 6.8 mm of lead. The 3,000-kvcp curve has been obtained by interpolation 
of the 2,000-kvcp curve given herein, and the data of Kim and Kennedy, 1954 [5]. 


Table 12. Half-value layer 

(Approximate half-value layers obtained at high filtration for the indicated tube potentials under broad-beam couditionsj 


.attenuating material 


hvl for various tube potentials 



50 kvp 

70 kvp 

100 kvp 

125 kvp 

150 kvp 

200 kvp 

250 kvp 

300 kvp 

400 kvcp 

500 kvcp 

1,000 kvcp 

2,000 kvcp 

3,000 kvcp 

Lead (mm) ... 

0.05 

0. 18 

0.24 

0.27 

0.3 

0.5 

0.8 

1.3 

2.2 

3.C 

8.0 

12.0 

l&.O 

Concrete (in.). 

.2 

.5 

.7 

.8 

.9 

1.0 

1. 1 

1.2 

1.3 

1.4 

1.8 

2. 45 

2 M 

Concrete (cm) 

.51 

1.27 

1.8 

2.0 

2.3 

2.5 

2.8 

3.0 

3.3 

3.C 

4.0 

6.2 

7. 5 




Note. — One tenth-value layer is equivalent to 3.33 half-value layers. 


Commercial Lead Sheets 


Thickness 

Approximate 

Weight 

mm 

in. 

lb/ft2 

0.79 

Vs 2 

2 

1.00 


2 V 2 

1.19 

%4 

3 

1.58 


4 

1.98 

5/ 

/6 4 

5 

2.38 

/S2 

6 

3.17 

Vs 

8 

4.76 

Vl6 

12 

6.35 

h ■ 

16 

8.50 


20 

10.1 

% 

24 

12.7 


30 

16.9 

% 

40 

25.4 

1 

60 


Source: Medical X-Ray Protection up to Three Million 

Volts (NBS Handbook No. 76 [Washington, D.C.: 
Supt. of Docs., U.S. Government Printing Of- 
fice, Feb. 1961]), p. 30. 


Thickness of Lead Required to Reduce 
Useful Beam to 5 Percent^ 


Beam Quality 

Required 

Lead 

Thickness 

(mm) 

Potential 

Half Value 
Layer 
(mm) 

60 kVp 

1.2 A1 

0.10 

100 kVp 

1.0 A1 

0.16 

100 kVp 

2.0 A1 

0.25 

100 kVp 

3.0 A1 

0.35 

140 kVp 

0.5 Cu 

0.7 

200 kVp 

1.0 Cu 

1.0 

250 kVp 

3.0 Cu 

1.7 

400 kVp 

4.0 Cu 

2.3 

1000 kVp 

3.2 Pb 

20.5 

2000 kVp 

6.0 Pb 

43.0 

2000 kVcp 

14.5 Pb 

63.0 

3000 kVcp 

16.2 Pb 

70.0 

6000 kV 

17.0 Pb 

74.0 

8000 kV 

15.5 Pb 

67.0 

Cobalt 60 

10.4 Pb 

47.0 


® Approximate values for broad beams. Transmission data for brass, steel and 
other material for potentials up to 2000 kVp may be found in reference [15]. 
Measurements on 1000 kVp and 2000 kVp made with resonant-type therapy units. 
Data for 6000 kV taken from reference [16], for a linear accelerator. Data for 2000 
kVcp, 3000 kVcp, and 8000 kV derived by interpolation from graph presented in 
reference [17]. The third column refers to lead or to the required equivalent lead 
thickness of lead-containing materials (e.g. lead rubber, lead glass, etc.). 

Source: Medical X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Protection for 

Energies up to 10 MeV (NCRP Report No. 33 
[Washington, D.C.: National Council on Radi- 

ation Protection and Measurements, Feb. 1968]), 
p. 45. 


156 


CONCRETE* EQUIVALENTS (mm) OF LEAD AT DIFFERENT 
X-RAY TUBE POTENTIALS 


Lead 

Thickness 

(mm) 

Tube Potential 

150 kVp 

200 kVp 

300 kVp 

400 kVp 

1 

80 

75 

56 

47 

2 

150 

140 

89 

70 

3 

220 

200 

117 

94 

4 

280 

260 

140 

112 

6 

— 

— 

200 

140 

8 

— 

— 

240 

173 

10 

— 

— 

280 

210 

15 

— 

— 

— 

280 


^Density 2.35 g/ cm^. 


IRON EQUIVALENTS (mm) OF LEAD AT DIFFERENT 
X-RAY TUBE POTENTIALS 


Lead 

Thickness 

(mm) 



Tube Potential 



150 kVp 

200 kVp 

300 kVp 

400 kVp 

600 kVp 

800 kVp 

1000 kVp 

1 

11 

12 

12 

11 

10 

9 

8 

2 

25 

27 

20 

18 

16 

14 

13 

3 

37 

40 

28 

23 

19 

17 

16 

4 

50 

55 

35 

28 

23 

20 

18 

6 

— 

— 

48 

38 

30 

26 

23 

8 

— 

— 

60 

45 

36 

31 

28 

10 

— 

— 

75 

55 

42 

36 

32 

15 

— 

— 

— 

75 

55 

48 

43 

20 

— 

— 

— 

— 

70 

60 

55 

50 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

125 

110 


Data for tables from NBS Handbook No. 50. 


Table 1. — Mean milliroentgens per milliampere-second at 12 inches by kilovolt peak 
and filtration categories for dental X-ray units 


Total fil- 
tration 


Kilovolt peak 


(milli- 
meters of 










A1 

50 

55 

60 

65 

70 

75 

80 

85 

90 

equiv- 

alent) 










0.5 

91. 11 

96. 03 

101. 44 

107. 59 

114. 73 

123. 10 

132.94 

144. 49 

158. 00 


1.0 

58.38 

63. 32 

68.54 

74. 27 

80. 75 

88.24 

96.98 

107. 20 

119. 15 

1.5 

36. 61 

41. 64 

46. 72 

52. 09 

57.99 

64. 66 

72.35 

81. 30 

91. 75 

2.0 

23. 26 

28. 45 

33. 45 

38. 52 

43. 89 

49. 81 

56. 52 

64. 25 

73. 27 

2.5 

15.79 

21. 19 

26. 19 

31. 01 

35.92 

41. 14 

46. 93 

53. 52 

61. 16 

3.0 

11. 65 

17.33 

22.37 

27. 02 

31. 52 

36. 12 

41. 04 

46. 55 

52. 88 

3.5 

8. 30 

14. 32 

19. 47 

24. 01 

28. 17 

32. 19 

36. 32 

40. 80 

45. 88 

4 0 

3. 19 

9.61 

14. 94 

19. 43 

23.30 

26. 82 

30. 21 

33.73 

37. 62 

4.5 

— 

. 67 

6. 24 

10. 73 

14.39 

17.46 

20. 18 

22. 80 

25. 56 


Table 2. — Mean milliroentgens per milliampere-second at 12 inches by kilovolt peak and 
filtration categories for nondental X-ray units 


Kilovolt peak 


Total filtration (millimeters 


of A1 equivalent) 

45 

50 

55 

60 

65 

70 

0.5 

67.02 

78. 58 

89.90 

101. 16 

112. 51 

124. 11 

1.0 

43.25 

52.83 

62. 16 

71.41 

80.74 

90.31 

1.5 

27. 62 

35.49 

43. 10 

50. 62 

58.21 

66. 03 

2.0 

18. 35 

24. 80 

30. 97 

37.04 

43. 17 

49. 52 

2.5 

13.69 

18.99 

24. 00 

28.90 

33. 84 

38.99 

3.0 

11. 87 

16. 29 

20. 42 

24.43 

28.46 

32.70 

3.5 

11. 12 

14.96 

18.48 

21. 87 

25.28 

28. 88 

4.0 

9.69 

13. 21 

16. 41 

19. 46 

22.52 

25. 76 

4.5 

5.81 

9.29 

12. 44 

15.43 

18.42 

21. 57 


Total filtration (millimeters 
of A1 equivalent) 

Kilovolt peak — Continued 

75 

80 

85 

90 

95 

100 

0.5 

136. 14 

148. 76 

162. 12 

176. 40 

191.76 

208. 36 

1.0 

100.30 

no. 86 

122. 16 

134.36 

147. 63 

162. 14 

1.5 

74.26 

83. 04 

92.56 

102. 96 

114. 42 

127. 10 

2.0 

56.25 

63.54 

71. 55 

80. 43 

90. 36 

101. 49 

2.5 

44. 52 

50. 59 

57.37 

65.01 

73.68 

83.55 

3.0 

37.30 

42.43 

48. 25 

54. 93 

62. 63 

71. 51 

3.5 

32. 83 

37. 29 

42.44 

48. 43 

55.43 

63. 61 

4.0 

29. 33 

33.41 

38. 17 

43.75 

50. 33 

58. 07 

4.5 

25. 06 

29. 03 

33. 66 

39. 12 

45. 56 

53. 15 


Tables from Population Exposure to X-Rays U.S. 1964, PHS 
NOo 1519. 


158 


EXPOSURE (mR/mAs) 


50 


10 


0.5 


0.2 


2.5mm AI-TOTAL FILTRATION 


mR/mAs vs. FSD for 
rays 



150 kVp 

125 kVp 

no kVp 
100 kVp 
90kVp 

eOkVp 

70kVp 




^ 40kVp 

J 1 ^ 

_J 1 L 


20 30 40 50 60 

FOCUS TO SKIN DISTANCE 


70 80 

(inches) 


Courtesy of Dr. J. R. Cameron, University Hospitals, University of Wisconsin 



EXPOSURE (mR/mAs) AT 40 INCHES 



160 


Courtesy of Dr. J. R. Cameron, University Hospitals, University of Wisconsin 



X-Ray Critical-Absorption and 
Emission Energies in kev 


By S. FINE and C. F. HENDEE 

Philips Laboratories 

Irvington on Hudson, New York 

Increased use of energy-proportional 
detectors for X-rays has created a need 
for a table of energy values of K and 
L absorption and emission series. 

The table presented here includes 
all elements. Most values were ob- 
tained by a conversion to kev of tabu- 
lated experimental wavelength values 
(1-3) ; some are from previous energy- 
value compilations (4, 3). Where a 
choice existed, the value chosen was 
the one derived from later work. Cer- 
tain values were determined by inter- 
polation, using Moseley’s law. (All 
this is annotated in footnotes.) 


The conversion equations relating 
energy and wavelength used are (6) 

E (kev) = (12.39644 ± 0.00017) /X(A) 
= 12.39644/1.002020 X(kX unit) 

In computing values the number of 
places retained sufficed to maintain the 
uncertainty in the original source value. 
The values in the table have been listed 
uniformly to 1 ev. However, chemical 
form may shift absorption edges as 
much as 10-20 ev (4, 5). 

To discover computational errors a 
fit was made to Moseley’s law. In 
general the values were consistent, 
however there were a few irregularities 
due to the deviation of some input 
values (1). These were retained in the 


body of the table but a set of values 

calculated to fit better are footnoted. 

* « * 

The authors wish to express their apprecia- 
tion to U". Parrish for helpful suggestions and 
to H. Kasper for performing the computation 
in connection with this work. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1. V. Cauchois, H. Hulubei, “Tables de Con- 
stantes et Donnees Numeriques. I. Longueurs 
D’Onde des Eraission.s X et des Discontinuites 
D'Absorption X” (Hermann et Cie. Paris 
France. 1947) 

2. A. H. Compton and S. K. Allison, “X-rays in 
Theory and Experiment" (D. Van Nostrand 
Co., Inc., New York, 1951) 

5. C. E. Moore, “Atomic Energy Levels,” NB9 
467 (National Bureau of Standards, U. S. 
Department of Commerce, Washington, D. C., 
1949) 

4. Y. Cauchois, J. phya. radium 13, 113 (1952) 

5. R. D. Hill, E. L. Church, and J. W. Mihelicb, 
Reo. Sci. Inalr. 23, 523 (1952) 

6. J. W. M. DuMond, E. R. Cohen. Phya. Re*. 
82. 555 (1951) 


X-Ray Critical-Absorption and Emission Energies in kev 


Atomic 
Num- 
ber Element 



K series 






L series 



Aab 

Kpi 

A/3 1 

Kai 

Kai 

Llab 

Lllab 

Llllab 

Lyi 


L^i 

Lai Lot 

1 

Hydrogen 

0.0136J 












2 

Helium 

0.0246{ 












3 

Lithium 

0.055 



0.052 








4 

Beryllium 

0.116§ 



0.110 








5 

Boron 

0.192t 



0.185 








6 

Carbon 

0.283 



0.282 








7 

Nitrogen 

0.399 



0.392 








8 

Oxygen 

0.531 



0.523 








9 

Fluorine 

0.687t 



0.677 








10 

Neon 

0.874* 



0.851§ 

0.048t 

0.022t 

0.022t 





11 

Sodium 

1.08* 


1.067 

1.041 

0.055§ 

0.034§ 

0.034§ 





12 

Magnesium 

1.303 


1.297 

1.254 

0.063 

0.050 

0.049 





13 

Aluminum 

1.559 


1.553 

1.487 

1.486 

0.087 

0.073** 

0.072** 





14 

Silicon 

1.838 


1.832 

1.740 

1.739 

0.118* 

0.099** 

0.098** 





15 

Phosphorus 

2.142 


2.136 

2.015§ 

2.014§ 0.153* 

0.129§ 

0.128§ 





16 

Sulphur 

2.470 


2.464 

2.808 

2.306 

0.193* 

0. 164** 

0.163** 





17 

Chlorine 

2.8191 


2.815 

2.622 

2.621 

0.238* 

0.203§ 

0.202§ 





18 

Argon 

3.203 


3.192§ 

2.957 

2.955 

0.287* 

0.247** 

0.245** 





19 

Potassium 

3.607 


3.589 

3.313 

3.310 

0.341* 

0.297** 

0.294** 





20 

Calcium 

4.038 


4.012 

3.691 

3.688 

0.399* 

0.352 

0.349 



0.344 

0.341 

21 

Scandium 

4.496 


4.460 

4.090 

4.085 

0.462* 

0.411** 

0.406** 



0.399 

0.395 

22 

Titanium 

4.964 


-4.931 

4.510 

4.504 

0.530* 

0.460** 

0.454** 



0.458 

0.452 

23 

Vanadium 

5.463 


-5.427 

4.952 

4.944 

0.604* 

0.519** 

0.512** 



0.519 

0.510 

24 

Chromium 

5.988 


-5.946 

5.414 

5.405 

0.679* 

0.583** 

0.574** 



0.581 

0.571 

25 

Manganese 

6.537 


6.490 

5.898 

5.887 

0.762* 

0.650** 

0.639** 



0.647 

0.636 

26 

Iron 

7.111 


7.057 

6.403 

6.390 

0.849* 

0.721** 

0.708** 



0.717 

0.704 

27 

Cobalt 

7.709 


7.649 

6.930 

6.915 

0.929* 

0.794** 

0.779** 



0.790 

0.775 

28 

Nickel 

8.331 

8.328 

8.264 

7.477 

7.460 

1.015* 

0.871** 

0.853** 



0.866 

0.849 

29 

Copper 

8.980 

8.976 

8.904 

8.047 

8.027 

1.100* 

0.953 

0.933 



0.948 

0.928 

30 

Zinc 

9.660 

9.657 

9.571 

8.638 

8.615 

1.200* 

1.045 

1.022 



1.032 

1 009 


Copyrighted by McGraw-Hill (NUCLEONICS). Reproduced by U.S. Department of Ib-.i t-i, 
Education, and Welfare by permission of copyright holder. Further reproduction 
without permission of copyright holder is forbidden. 


K series 


L series 


Atomic 

Num- 


ber 

Element 

K.b 

K^2 

KP, 

Kai 

Kar 

Lub 

Liub 

Liiub 

Lyi 

LPi 

LPi 

Lai 

La 2 

31 

Gallium 

10.368 

10.365 

10.263 

9.251 

9.234 

1.30* 

1.134** 1.117** 


1.122 

1. 

096 

32 

Germanium 

11.103 

11.100 

10.981 

9.885 

9.854 

1.42* 

1.248** 1.217** 


1.216 

1. 

186 

33 

Arsenic 

11.863 

11.863 

11.725 

10.543 

10.507 

1.529 

1.359 

1.323 



1.317 

1. 

282 

34 

Selenium 

12.652 

12.651 

12.495 

11.221 

11.181 

1.652 

1.473 

1.434 



1.419 

1, 

379 

35 

Bromine 

13.475 

13.465 

13.290 

11.923 

11.877 

1.794§ 1.599** 1.552** 


1.526 

1. 

480 

36 

Krypton 

14.323 

14.313 

14.112 

12.648 

12.597 

1.931§ 1.727** 1.675** 


1.638S 1. 

587** 

37 

Rubidium 

15.201 

15.184 

14. 960 

13.394 

13.335 

2.067 

1.866 

1.806 



1.752 

1.694 

1.692 

38 

Strontium 

16.106 

16.083 

15.834 

14.164 

14. 097 

2.221 

2.008 

1.941 



1.872 

1.806 

1.805 

39 

Yttrium 

17.037 

17.011 

16.736 

14.957 

14.882 

2.369 

2.154 

2.079 



1.996 

1.922 

1.920 

40 

Zirconium 

17.998 

17.969 

17.666 

15.774 

15.690 

2.547 

2.305 

2.220 

2.302 

2.219 

2.124 

2.042 

2.040 

41 

Niobium 

18.987 

18.951 

18.621 

16.614 

16.520 

2.706 

2.467** 2.374 

2.462 

2.367 

2.257 

2.166 

2.163 

42 

Molybdenum 

20.002 

19.964 

19. 607 

17.478 

17.373 

2.884 

2.627 

2.523 

2.623 

2.518 

2.395 

2.293 

2.290 

43 

Technetium 

21.054§ 21.012§ 

-20.58511 18.410H 18.328H 3.054§ 2.795§ 

2.677§ 2.792§ 2.674§ 2.538§ 2.424§ 2.420§ 

44 

Ruthenium 

22.118 

22.072 

21.655 

19.278 

19.149 

3.236§ 2.966 

2.837 

2.964 

2.836 

2.683 

2.558 

2.554 

45 

Rhodium 

23.224 

23.169 

22.721 

20.214 

20.072 

3.419 

3. 145 

3.002 

3.144 

3.001 

2.834 

2.696 

2.692 

46 

Palladium 

24.347 

24.297 

23.816 

21.175 

21.018 

3.617 

3.329 

3. 172 

3.328 

3.172 

2.990 

2.838 

2.833 

47 

Silver 

25.617 

25.454 

24. 942 

22.162 

21.988 

3.810 

3.528 

3.352 

3.519 

3.348 

3. 151 

2.984 

2.978 

48 

Cadmium 

26.712 

26.641 

26. 093 

23.172 

22. 982 

4.019 

3.727 

3.538 

3.716 

3.528 

3.316 

3. 133 

3.127 

49 

Indium 

27.928 

27. 859 

27. 274 

24. 207 

24. 000 

4.237 

3.939 

3.729 

3.920 

3.713 

3.487 

3.287 

3.279 

50 

Tin 

29. 190 

29.106 

28.483 

25.270 

25.042 

4.464 

4.157 

3.928 

4.131 

3.904 

3.662 

3.444 

3.435 

51 

Antimony 

30.486 

30.387 

29.723 

26. 357 

26.109 

4.697 

4.381 

4.132 

4.347 

4.100 

3.843 

3.605 

3.595 

62 

Tellurium 

31.809 

31.698 

30.993 

27.471 

27. 200 

4.938 

4.613 

4.341 

4.570 

4.301 

4.029 

3.769 

3.758 

53 

Iodine 

33.164 

33.016 

32.292 

28.610 

28.315 

5. 190 

4.856 

4.559 

4.800 

4.507 

4.220 

3.937 

3.926 

54 

Xenon 

34.579 

34.44611 

33. 644 

29.80211 29.4851 5.452 

5.104 

4.782 

5.036§ 4.720§ 4.422§ 4.111§ 4.098§ 

55 

Cesium 

35.959 

35.819 

34.984 

30.970 

30.623 

5.720 

5.358 

5.011 

5.280 

4.936 

4.620 

4.286 

4.272 

56 

Barium 

37.410 

37.255 

36.376 

32.191 

31.815 

5.995 

5.623 

5.247 

5.531 

5.156 

4,828 

4.467 

4.451 

57 

Lanthanum 

38.931 

38.728 

37.799 

33.440 

33. 033 

6.283 

5.894 

5.489 

5.789 

5.384 

5.043 

4.651 

4.635 

58 

Cerium 

40.449 

40.231 

39. 255 

34.717 

34.276 

6.561 

6. 165t 

5.729 

6.052 

5.613 

5.262 

4.840 

4.823 

59 

Praseodymium 

41.998 

41.772 

40.746 

36. 023 

35.548 

6.846 

6.443 

5.968 

6.322 

5.850 

5.489 

5.034 

5.014 

60 

Neodymium 

43.571 

43.2981f 

42 269 

37.359 

36.845 

7.144 

6.727 

6.215 

6.602 

6.090 

5.722 

5.230 

5.208 

61 

Promethium 

45.207§ 44.955§ 

-43.945H 38.649H 38.160H 7.448§ 7.018§ 

6.466§ 6.891§ 6.336§ 5.956 

5.431 

5.408§ 

62 

Samarium 

46.846 

46. 553 H 

45.400 

40. 124 

39.523 

7.754 

7.2811; 

6.721 

7.180 

6.587 

6.206 

5.636 

5.609 

63 

Europium 

48.515 

48.241 

47.027 

41.529 

40.877 

8.069 

7.624 

6.983 

7.478 

6.842 

6.456 

5.846 

5.816 

64 

Gadolinium 

50.229 

49.961 

48.718 

42.983 

42.280 

8.393 

7.940 

7.252 

7.788 

7.102 

6.714 

6.059 

6.027 

65 

Terbium 

51.998 

51.737 

50.391 

44.470 

43.737 

8.724 

8.258 

7.519 

8.104 

7.368 

6.979 

6.275 

6.241 

66 

Dysprosiuti 

53.789 

53.491 

52.178 

45.985 

45.193 

9.083 

8.621H 

7.8501 8.418 

7.638 

7.249 

6.495 

6.457 

67 

Holmium 

55.615 

55.292** 53. 934 § 47.528 

46.686 

9.411 

8.920 

8.074 

8.748 

7.912 

7.528 

6.720 

6.680 

68 

Erbium 

57.483 

57. 088 

55.690 

49.099 

48. 205 

9.776 

9.263 

8.364 

9.089 

8.188 

7.810 

6.948 

6.904 

69 

Thulium 

59.335H 58.969** 57.5761[ 50.730 

49.762 

10. 144 

9.628 

8.652 

9.424 

8.472 

8.103 

7.181 

7.135 

70 

Ytterbium 

61.303 

60. 959 

59.352 

52.360 

51.326 

10.486 

9.977 

8.943 

9.779 

8.758 

8.401 

7.414 

7.367 

71 

Lutecium 

63.304 

62.946 

61.282 

54.063 

52.959 

10.867 

10.345 

9.241 

10.142 

9.048 

8.708 

7.654 

7.604 

72 

Hafnium 

65.313 

64. 936 

63.209 

55.757 

54.579 

11.264 

10.734 

9.556 

10.514 

9.346 

9.021 

7.898 

7.843 

73 

Tantalum 

67.400 

66.999 

65.210 

57. 524 

56.270 

11.676 

11.130 

9.876 

10.892 

9.649 

9.341 

8.145 

8.087 

74 

Tungsten 

69.508 

69.090 

67. 233 

59.310 

57.973 

12.090 

11.535 

10.198 

11.283 

9.959 

9.670 

8.396 

8.333 

76 

Rhenium 

71.662 

71.220 

69.298 

61.131 

59.707 

12.522 

11.955 

10.531 

11.684 

10.273 

10.008 

8.651 

8.584 

76 

Osmium 

73.860 

73.393 

71.404 

62.991 

61.477 

12.965 

12.383 

10.869 

12.094 

10.596 

10.354 

8.910 

8.840 

77 

Iridium 

76.097 

75.605 

73.549 

64. 886 

63. 278 

13.413 

12.819 

11.211 

12.509 

10.918 

10.706 

9.173 

9.098 

78 

Platinum 

78.379 

77.866 

75.736 

66.820 

65. Ill 

13.873 

13.268 

11.559 

12.939 

11.249 

11.069 

9.441 

9.360 

79 

Gold 

80.713 

80.165 

77.968 

68.794 

66.980 

14.353 

13.733 

11.919 

13.379 

11.582 

11.439 

9.711 

9.625 

80 

Mercury 

83.106 

82.526 

80.258 

70.821 

68.894 

14.841 

14.212 

12.285 

13.828 

11.923 

11.823 

9.987 

9.896 

81 

Thallium 

85.517 

84.904 

82.558 

72.860 

70.820 

15.346 

14.697 

12.657 

14.288 

12.268 

12.210 

10.266 

10.170 

82 

Lead 

88.001 

87. 343 

84.922 

74.957 

72.794 

15.870 

15.207 

13.044 

14.762 

12.620 

12.611 

10.549 

10.448 

83 

Bismuth 

90.521 

89.833 

87.335 

77. 097 

74.805 

16.393 

15.716 

13.424 

15.244 

12.977 

13.021 

10.836 

10.729 

84 

Polonium 

93.112 

92.386 

89.809 

79.296 

76.868 

16.935 

16.244 

13.817 

15.740 

13.338 

13.441 

11.128 

11.014 

85 

Astatine 

95.740 

94.976 

92.319 

81.525 

78. 956 

17.490 

16.784 

14.215 

16.248 

13.705 

13.873 

11.424 

11.304 

86 

Radon 

98.418 

97.616 

94.877 

83.800 

81. 080 

18.058 

17.387 

14.618 

16.768 

14.077 

14.316 

11.724 

11.597 

87 

Francium 

101.147 

100.305 

97.483 

86. 119 

83.243 

18.638 

17.904 

15.028 

17.301 

14.459 

14.770 

12.029 

11.894 

88 

Radium 

103.927 

103.048 

100. 136 

88.485 

85.446 

19.233 

18.481 

15.442 

17.845 

14.839 

15.233 

12.338 

12.194 

89 

Actinium 

106.759 

105.838 

102.846 

90.894 

87.681 

19.842 

19.078 

15.865 

18.405 

15.227 

15.712 

12.650 

12.499 

90 

Thorium 

109.630 

108.671 

105.592 

93. 334 

89.942 

20.460 

19.688 

16.296 

18.977 

15.620 

16.200 

12.966 

12.808 

91 

Protactinium 

112.581 

111.575 

108.408 

95.851 

92.271 

21.102 

20.311 

16.731 

19.559 

16.022 

16.700 

13.291 

13.120 

92 

Uranium 

115.591 

114.549 

111.289 

98.428 

94.648 

21.753 

20.943 

17.163 

20.163 

16.425 

17.218 

13.613 

13.438 

93 

Neptunium 

118.619 

117.533 

114.181 

101.005 

97. 023 

22.417 

21.596 

17.614 

20.774 

16.837 

17.740 

13.945 

13.758 

94 

Plutonium 

121.720 

120.592 

117.146 

103.653 

99.457 

23.097 

22.262 

18.066 

21.401 

17.254 

18.278 

14.279 

14. 082 

95 

Americium 

124.876 

123.706 

120.163 

106.351 

101.932 

23.793 

22. 944 

18.525 

22.042 

17.677 

18.829 

14.618 

14.411 

96 

Curium 

128.088 

126.875 

123.235 

109.098 

104.448 

24.503 

23.640 

18.990 

22.699 

18.106 

19.393 

14.961 

14.743 

97 

Berkelium 

131.357 

130.101 

126.362 

111.896 

107. 023 

25.230 

24. 352 

19.461 

23. 370 

18.540 

19.971 

15.309 

15.079 

98 

Californium 

134.683 

133.383 

129.544 

114.745 

109.603 

25.971 

25.080 

19.938 

24. 056 

18.980 

20.562 

15.661 

15.420 

99 


138.067 

136.724 

132.781 

117.646 

112.244 

26.729 

25. 824 

20.422 

24.758 

19.426 

21.166 

16.018 

15.764 

100 


141.510 

140. 122 

136.075 

120.598 

114.926 

27.503 

26.584 

20.912 

25.475 

19.879 

21.785 

16.379 

16.113 


For Z < 69, values irithout symbols are derived from (I). Values prefixed with a — sign are Kfii+t. 

For Z > 70, absorption-edge values are from (4) in the case of Z » 70-83, 88, 90, and 92; remaining absorption edges to Z “ 100 are obtained from these 

by least-squares quadratic fitting. All emission values for Z >70 are derived from the preceding absorption edges, and others based on (4), using the transi- 
tion relations Xai iCab — ' ATaj ■» Kab — ^IT> «=• /Cab — Afm, etc. 

* Obtained from R. D. Hill, E. L. Church, J. W. Mihelich (5). t Derived from Compton and Allison (S). t Derived from C. E. Moore (S). 

^ Values derived from Cauchois and Hulubei (/) which deviate from the Moseley law. Better-fitting values are: Z “ 17, Xab = 2.826; Z ■= 43, 

Kai - 18.370, Kat -= 18.250, K0i •= 20.612; Z = 54, Kai = 29.779, Ka, -= 29.463, K0, = 34.398; Z = 60, K6t = 43.349; Z = 61, Kai = 38.726, Ka, - 

38.180, Kfii = 43.811; Z - 62. K0t ■= 46.581, Lu -= 7.312; Z ■ 66, Lxi •= 8.591, Lni ” 7.790; Z = 69, /Tab " 59.382, K0i ■= 57.487. 

162 ^ Calculated by method of least squares. •* Calculated by transition relations. 



HALF VALUE LAYER I CM) 



o 



164 


(A3)l)AO»3N3 NOiOHd 


HALF VALUE LAYER (MM) 


MEDICAL X RAY FILM SPEEDS* 


Film 

(Screen Films) 

Slow Screen 
(Radelin UD) 

Medium Screen 
(Patterson 
Par-Speed) 

Fast Screen 
(Ilford Fast) 

Contrast 

Factort 

Ansco Fine-X 

350 

890 

1570 

2.6 

Ansco Hi-Speed 

400 

1000 

1780 

2.4 

Dupont Cronex I 

280 

700 

1230 

3.0 

Dupont Cronex II 

360 

910 

1600 

3.4 

Dupont Cronex III 

560 

1430 

2520 

2.9 

Ferrania Radio N 

350 

880 

1560 

2.7 

Gevaert Curix 

260 

670 

1190 

2.6 

Gevaert Curix Rapid 

470 

1190 

2110 

2.8 

Gevaert Curix Spec. 

180 

460 

820 

2.6 

Ilford Red Seal 

350 

880 

1550 

2.7 

Ilford Standard 

220 

560 

1000 

2.8 

Kodak Blue Brand 

320 

820 

1460 

2.8 

Kodak Royal Blue 

610 

1550 

2740 

3.0 


(Non-Screen Films) 

Without Screen 



Contrast 
F actor 

Ansco No Screen 

47 



2.2 

Ferrania Simplex 

25 



2.0 

Gevaert Osray 

46 



2.2 

Ilford Ilfex 

39 



2.5 

Kodak No Screen 

51 



2.5 


*Speed = 1/R, where R is the exposure in roentgens required to obtain a film 
density of 1.0 under specified development conditions. Film exposed with 
x-ray beam of 4 mm A1 HVL and developed 3 minutes in Kodak Liquid Developer 
at 20° C. 

tThe slope of the H & D curve (plot of film density vs. log exposure) at a 
film density of 1.0. The contrast factor is generally independent of screen 
type and HVL of exposing beam except when film is used without screens. 


The information on pages 165 through 167 is taken from "Some Physical Fai tors 
Affecting Radiographic Image Quality: Their Theoretical Basis and Measurement 
by Lloyd M. Bates (PHS Publication No. 999-RH-38) August 1969. 


373-062 0 - 70-12 


MEDICAL X RAY SCREEN SPEEDS* 


Screen 

Slow Film 
(Gevaert 
Curix Spec.) 

Medium Film 
(Kodak 
Blue Brand) 

Fast Film 
(Kodak 
Royal Blue) 

Ansco High Speed 

610 

1080 

2040 

Ansco Medium Speed 

490 

880 

1660 

Auer Flash-speed 

730 

1300 

2440 

Buck A 

440 

780 

1480 

Buck AA 

550 

990 

1860 

Buck AAA 

610 

1090 

2050 

Ilford Fast 

820 

1460 

2740 

Ilford Standard 

420 

760 

1430 

Patterson Detail 

280 

500 

930 

Patterson Hi-speed 

680 

1220 

2300 

Patterson Par-speed 

460 

820 

1550 

Radelin HR 

230 

410 

780 

Radelin T 

440 

790 

1480 

Radelin TF 

720 

1290 

2440 

Radelin UD 

180 

320 

610 

Wolf Rapid 

490 

870 

1640 

Wolf Ultra 

560 

1000 

1880 

Without screent 

6 

13 

22 


*Speed = 1/R, where R is the exposure in roentgens required to ob- 
tain a film density of 1.0 under specified development conditions. 
Films exposed with x-ray beam of 4 mm A1 HVL and developed 3 
minutes in Kodak Liquid Developer at 20° C. 
tScreen-type film used. 


VARIATION OF MEDICAL X RAY FILM SPEED WITH HVL* 


Screen 

Film 

HVL 

2 mm A1 

4 mm A1 

6 mm A1 

Slow 

Medium 

260 

320 

370 

(Radelin UD) 

(Kodak Blue Brand) 




Medium 

Medium 

630 

820 

940 

(Patterson 

(Kodak Blue Brand) 




Par-speed) 





Fast 

Medium 

980 

1460 

1770 

(Ilford Fast) 

(Kodak Blue Brand) 




None 

Medium 

11 

13 

13 


(Kodak Blue Brand) 




None 

Fast 

42 

51 

58 


(Kodak No Screen) 





*Speed = 1/R, where R is the exposure in roentgens required to ob- 
tain a film density of 1.0 under specified development conditions. 
Films developed 3 minutes in Kodak Liquid Developer at 20° C. 


PERCENTAGE BACKSCATTER TABLES 


X-ray exposure is measured in air at a given distance from the x-ray tube. 
When a beam of x rays is incident on a patient or other object, the exposure 
rate at the surface will be increased by x rays scattered back to the detec- 
tor by the patient or the tabletop. The percentage backscatter is a measure 
of the increase in exposure rate and is defined as the increase in exposure 
rate at the surface of the patient compared to the exposure rate at the same 
point in air: 

X “X 

Percentage Backscatter = — x 100 

where: Xg = exposure rate at the surface 

Xg = exposure rate at the same distance in air. 

The following tables give percentage backscatter for circular and rectangu- 
lar fields of various sizes and at various HVL ' s with open-ended treatment 
cones. 


(a) Circular Fields 


Half Value 

Area 














Layer 

an'^ 

]0 

16 

20 

25 

35 

50 

64 

80 

100 

150 

200 

300 

400 


radius 














inm A1 

cm 

1.78 

2.26 

2.52 

2.82 

3.34 

3.99 

4.51 

5.05 

5.64 

6.77 

7.98 

9.75 

11.3 

1.0 


10.8 

12.8 

13.8 

14.8 

16.4 

17.9 

18.9 

19.7 

20.5 

21.8 

22.9 



2.0 


11.8 

14.3 

15.4 

16.8 

19.0 

21.1 

22.5 

23.8 

25.0 

26.6 

27.9 



3.0 


13.4 

16.4 

17.9 

19.4 

21.7 

24.0 

25.6 

27.0 

28.3 

30.2 

31.8 



4.0 


14.1 

17.4 

19.0 

20.8 

23.6 

26.5 

28.3 

29.9 

31.4 

33.4 

35.0 



mm Cu 















0.25 


17.4 

20.5 

22.0 

23.7 

26.3 

29.2 

31.2 

33.0 

34.8 

37.4 

39.5 

42.4 

45.0 

0.5 


18.6 

22.0 

23.5 

25.4 

28.2 

31.4 

33.6 

35.7 

37.6 

40.6 

43.0 

46.3 

49.2 

1.0 


15.0 

18.4 

20.0 

22.1 

25.2 

28.8 

31.4 

33.8 

36.0 

39.3 

42.0 

45.8 

49.0 

1.5 


13.8 

16.9 

18.4 

20.1 

23.0 

26.2 

28.4 

30.6 

32.7 

36.1 

39.1 

42.8 

46.0 

2.0 


11.9 

14.5 

16.0 

17.6 

20.1 

23.0 

25.0 

26.9 

28.8 

32.0 

34.8 

38.5 

41.8 

3.0 


9.8 

12.0 

13.0 

14.4 

16.4 

18.8 

20.5 

22.2 

23.8 

26.6 

28.9 

31.6 

34.0 

4.0 


7.6 

9.4 

10.4 

11.4 

13.2 

15.2 

16.8 

18.2 

19.7 

22.0 

24.0 

26.4 

28.0 




(b) 

Rectangular 

Fields 

CM 

X CM 






Half Value 















Layer 






Field Size (cm X cm) 






mm Cu 

4X4 

4X6 

4X8 i 

IXIO 

4X15 

4X20 

6X6 

6X8 

6X10 6X15 

6X20 

0.5 

21.4 

24.4 

26.1 

27.2 

28.5 

29.2 

28.3 

30.6 

32.1 

34.0 

35.0 

1.0 

18.0 

21.1 

23.0 


24.3 

25.8 

26.6 

25.2 

27.9 

29.7 

31.8 

33.0 

1.5 

16.6 

19.3 

21.0 

22.2 

23.7 

24.5 

23.0 

25.3 

26.9 

29.1 

30.3 

2.0 

14.4 

16.9 

18.4 


19.4 

20.8 

21.6 

20.1 

22.2 

23.7 

25.7 

26.9 

3.0 

11.6 

13.7 

14.9 


15.8 

17.0 

17.6 

16.4 

18.2 

19.4 

21.1 

22.1 



8X8 

8X10 

8X15 

8X20 

10X10 

10X15 

10X20 

15X15 

15X20 

20X20 

0.5 

33.4 

35.2 

37.6 

39.0 

37.3 

40.1 

41.8 

43.9 

46.2 

48.9 

1.0 

31.1 

33.3 

36.0 

37.5 

55.7 

38.9 

40.7 

43.0 

45.6 

48.7 

1.5 

28.2 

30.2 

33.0 

34.5 

32.4 

35.7 

37.6 

40.0 

42.6 

45.7 

2.0 

24.8 

26.5 

29.2 

30.7 

2;;.6 

31.7 

33.5 

35.8 

38.4 

41.5 

3.0 

20.4 

21.9 

24.1 

25.3 

23.7 

26.2 

27.7 

29.6 

31.5 

33.7 


168 Tables reprinted from: Johns, H. E., The Physics of Radiology, 2nd Ed., 1964 


DEPTH DOSE TABLES 


"Percentage depth dose" is the ratio of radiation dose at some depth 
below the surface of the patient or phantom (D^) to the dose at the 


face (D^ ) : 


Percentage Depth Dose - 


Ed. 

Ds 


X 100. 


(d) 

sur- 


At high energies 
the surface. In 
of absorbed dose 


(e.g., ®°Co), the maximum dose occurs at some point below 
this case the percentage depth dose is defined as the ratio 
at some depth d (D^j ) to the maximum dose (D^) : 


Percentage Depth Dose - “ X 100. 

l-'-m 


The following tables give percentage depth doses for various field sizes and 
exposure parameters. 

I IVL 1 .0 MM Al. (Approximately 70 kvp With Inherent 1 iltration) 



A rca (cm‘2') 

0 

3.1 

7.0 

12.5 

2S.3 

50 

100 


Diam. {cm) 

0 

2 

3 

4 

6 

8 

11.3 


Depth (cm) 
0 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 


0.5 

61 

74 

79 

81 

84 

86 

87 


1 

42 

56 

61 

63 

66 

67 

69 

FSD 

2 

23 

32 

36 

39 

41 

42 

44 

15 cm 

3 

13 

19 

22 

24 

26 

27 

29 


4 

8 

12 

13 

15 

17 

19 

20 


8 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

5 


0 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 


0.5 

62 

75 

80 

82 

84 

86 

88 


1 

44 

58 

63 

65 

67 

68 

70 

FSD 

2 

24 

34 

38 

41 

43 

44 

45 

20 cm 

3 

14 

20 

23 

25 

28 

29 

31 


4 

9 

13 

15 

16 

18 

20 

21 


8 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

5 

6 


0 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 


0.5 

63 

76 

81 

83 

85 

88 

89 


1 

45 

60 

64 

66 

68 

70 

71 

FSD 

2 

25 

36 

40 

42 

44 

46 

48 

30 cm 

3 

16 

22 

25 

27 

30 

31 

33 


4 

10 

14 

16 

18 

20 

22 

23 


8 

2 

3 

4 

4 

5 

6 

7 


HVL2.0MM Al. 

(Approximately 120 kvp 

With Inherent Filtration) 



0 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 


0.5 

71 

82 

85 

87 

88 

89 

90 


1 

52 

65 

69 

72 

74 

76 

77 

FSD 

2 

31 

42 

47 

49 

53 

55 

56 

15 cm 

3 

20 

28 

32 

34 

38 

40 

42 


4 

14 

19 

22 

24 

27 

30 

32 


8 

3 

5 

6 

7 

9 

10 

11 


0 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 


0.5 

72 

83 

86 

88 

89 

90 

91 


1 

54 

66 

71 

73 

76 

77 

78 

FSD 

2 

33 

44 

49 

51 

55 

57 

58 

20 cm 

3 

22 

30 

34 

36 

40 

42 

44 


4 

15 

21 

24 

26 

30 

32 

34 


8 

4 

6 

7 

8 

10 

11 

13 


0 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 


0.5 

73 

84 

87 

88 

89 

91 

92 


1 

55 

68 

73 

74 

77 

79 

80 

FSD 

2 

35 

47 

51 

54 

57 

60 

61 

30 cm 

3 

24 

33 

37 

39 

43 

45 

47 


4 

17 

23 

27 

29 

32 

35 

37 


8 

5 

7 

8 

9 

11 

13 

15 


Tables reprinted from; Johns, H. E., The Physics of Radiology, 2nd Ed., 1964. 


DEPTH DOSE--Continued 


HVL 3.0 MM Al. (Approximately 120 kvp 1 mm Al. Filter) 



Area (cm2) 

0 

3.1 

7.0 

72,5 

28.3 

50 

100 


Diam. (cm) 

0 

2 

3 

4 

6 

8 

113 


Depth (cm) 









0 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 


0.5 

lb 

85 

87 

88 

■89 

90 

90 


1 

58 

70 

74 

76 

77 

78 

80 

FSD 

2 

37 

48 

53 

56 

59 

60 

62 

15 cm 

3 

24 

33 

37 

41 

45 

46 

48 


4 

17 

23 

27 

30 

34 

35 

37 


8 

4 

6 

8 

9 

11 

13 

14 


0 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 


0.5 

76 

86 

88 

89 

90 

91 

91 


1 

60 

72 

lb 

77 

79 

80 

81 

FSD 

2 

39 

51 

55 

58 

62 

63 

65 

20 cm 

3 

27 

35 

40 

43 

47 

49 

51 


4 

19 

25 

29 

32 

36 

38 

40 


8 

5 

7 

9 

10 

12 

14 

16 


0 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 


0.5 

77 

86 

88 

90 

91 

92 

92 


1 

62 

74 

77 

79 

81 

82 

83 

FSD 

2 

41 

54 

58 

61 

65 

66 

67 

30 cm 

3 

29 

39 

43 

46 

51 

53 

55 


4 

21 

28 

32 

35 

40 

42 

44 


8 

6 

9 

10 

12 

14 

17 

19 


HVL 4.0 mm Al. (Approximatei.y 140 kvp 2.0 mm Al. Filter) 



0 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 


0.5 

78 

87 

89 

90 

91 

92 

93 


1 

62 

74 

77 

79 

80 

81 

84 

FSD 

2 

40 

52 

56 

59 

62 

63 

67 

15 cm 

3 

27 

37 

41 

44 

47 

49 

53 


4 

19 

26 

30 

32 

36 

38 

42 


8 

5 

8 

9 

10 

12 

14 

17 


0 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 


0.5 

79 

88 

89 

90 

92 

93 

94 


1 

63 

76 

78 

80 

82 

83 

86 

FSD 

2 

43 

55 

59 

62 

64 

66 

70 

20 cm 

3 

30 

40 

44 

46 

49 

52 

56 


4 

21 

29 

32 

35 

38 

41 

45 


8 

6 

9 

10 

12 

14 

16 

19 


0 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 


0.5 

80 

90 

91 

92 

93 

94 

95 


1 

65 

78 

81 

82 

83 

84 

87 

FSD 

2 

45 

58 

62 

65 

68 

69 

73 

30 cm 

3 

32 

43 

47 

50 

54 

56 

60 


4 

24 

32 

36 

38 

42 

45 

49 


8 

7 

11 

12 

14 

17 

19 

22 


170 


DEPTH DOSE --Continued 


HVLO.SmmCu FSD40CM 


Depth 


Area of I'ield in Square Centiinetres 


in cni 

0 

20 

35 

50 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

74.6 

91.7 

93.6 

94.7 

2 

56.5 

78.1 

81.5 

83.4 

3 

43.2 

64.8 

68.9 

71.6 

4 

33.3 

52.9 

bin 

60.5 

5 

25.8 

43.3 

47.8 

50.9 

6 

20.0 

35.4 

39.3 

42.4 

7 

15.5 

28.9 

32.6 

35.6 

8 

12.1 

23.7 

27.1 

29.5 

9 

9.4 

19.4 

22.3 

24.7 

10 

7.4 

16.1 

18.4 

20.5 

II 

5.8 

13.2 

15.3 

17.0 

12 

4.6 

10.8 

12.8 

14.3 

13 

3.7 

8.8 

10.7 

12.0 

14 

2.9 

7.3 

8.9 

10.0 

15 

2,4 

6.0 

7,4 

8.3 

16 

1.9 

4.9 

6,1 

6.9 

17 

1.5 

4.1 

5.1 

5.8 

18 

1.2 

3.4 

4.2 

4.8 

19 

1.0 

2.8 

3.5 

4.0 

20 

.8 

2.3 

2.9 

3.4 


80 

100 

150 

2(!0 

400 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

I'lO () 

100.0 

96.4 

97.0 

98.0 

98.6 

99.3 

86.0 

86.9 

88.8 

89.9 

91.9 

74.6 

76.0 

78.4 

80.0 

83.4 

64.2 

65.6 

68.1 

69.7 

73.9 

54.6 

56.2 

59.0 

61.0 

65.1 

46.0 

47.5 

50.5 

52.8 

57.0 

38.8 

40.1 

43.2 

45.4 

49.8 

32.5 

34.0 

36.8 

39.0 

43.5 

27.3 

28.7 

31.4 

33.4 

37.5 

23.0 

24.3 

26.6 

28.5 

32.7 

19.3 

20.5 

22.5 

24.3 

28.2 

16.3 

17.4 

19.2 

20.8 

24.5 

13.7 

14.7 

16.3 

17.6 

21.1 

11.5 

12.3 

13.9 

15.3 

18.3 

9.7 

10.4 

11.8 

13.0 

15.7 

8.2 

8.8 

10.1 

11. 1 

13.6 

6.9 

7.4 

8.6 

9.6 

11.7 

5.8 

6.3 

7.3 

8.2 

10.1 

4.9 

5.3 

6.2 

7.0 

8.7 

4.1 

4.5 

5.3 

5.9 

7.5 


HVL 0.5 MM Cu FSD 50 cm 


Depth 


Area of Field in Square Centimetres 


in cm 

0 

20 

35 

50 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

75.3 

92.3 

94.3 

95.4 

2 

55.7 

79.0 

82.5 

84.4 

3 

44.5 

66.0 

70.2 

72.9 

4 

34.5 

54.3 

59.2 

62.1 

5 

27.0 

44.7 

49.3 

52.5 

6 

21.1 

36.7 

40.8 

44.0 

7 

16.5 

30.1 

34.0 

37.1 

8 

13.0 

24.8 

28.3 

30.8 

9 

10.1 

20.4 

23.4 

25.9 

10 

8.0 

16.9 

19.4 

21.6 

11 

6.3 

13.9 

16.2 

18.0 

12 

5.1 

11.4 

13.5 

15.1 

13 

4.1 

9.4 

11.3 

12.7 

14 

3.3 

in 

9.4 

10.6 

15 

2.6 

6.4 

7.8 

8.8 

16 

2.1 

5.3 

6.5 

7.4 

17 

1.7 

4.3 

5.4 

6.2 

18 

1.4 

3.6 

4.5 

5.2 

19 

1.1 

3.0 

3.8 

4.3 

20 

.9 

2.4 

3.1 

3.6 


80 

100 

150 

200 

400 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

97.1 

97.7 

98.7 

99.3 

100.0 

87.0 

88.0 

89.9 

91.0 

93.0 

76.0 

77.4 

79.8 

81.5 

84.9 

65.9 

67.3 

69.9 

71.6 

75.9 

56.3 

58.0 

60.9 

62.9 

612 

Ain 

49.3 

52.4 

54.8 

59.1 

40.4 

41.8 

45.0 

47.3 

51.9 

34.0 

355 

38.5 

40.8 

45.2 

28.6 

30.1 

32.9 

35.0 

39.4 

24.2 

25.6 

28.0 

30.0 

34.4 

20.4 

21.6 

23.8 

25.7 

29.8 

17.2 

18.4 

20.3 

22.0 

25.9 

14.5 

15.6 

17.3 

18.7 

22.4 

12.2 

13.1 

14.8 

16.2 

19.4 

10.3 

11.1 

12.6 

13.8 

16.7 

8.7 

9.4 

10.8 

11.8 

14.5 

7.3 

7.9 

92 

10.2 

125 

6.2 

6.7 

7.8 

8.7 

10.8 

5.2 

5.7 

6.6 

15 

9.3 

4.4 

4.8 

5.6 

6.4 

8.1 


1 - 1 


DEPTH DOSE --Continued 


HVL 1.0 MM Cu I Sl ) -10 CM 


Depth 




A rea of Field 

in Square Centimetres 




in cm 

0 

20 

75 

50 

SO 

100 

150 

200 

■100 

0 

100,0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100 0 

100.0 

100.0 

loo.o 

1 

78.3 

93.5 

96.2 

9V.5 

99.2 

100. i 

101.3 

101,9 

102.3 

2 

61.7 

82.1 

87.2 

89.0 

92.0 

93.0 

91.7 

95.6 

97.1 

3 

49.0 

71.1 

75.9 

79.0 

83.1 

84.7 

87.1 

88.9 

91.4 

4 

39.0 

60.5 

65.5 

68.8 

73.2 

75.2 

78.2 

80.3 

84.2 

5 

31.1 

50.9 

55.8 

59.3 

63.9 

65.6 

69.1 

71.3 

75.5 

6 

25.0 

42.8 

47.4 

50.7 

55.1 

57.1 

60.3 

62.6 

67 A 

7 

20.0 

35.8 

40.1 

43.2 

47.4 

49.3 

52.7 

55.1 

59.9 

8 

16.1 

29.8 

33.7 

36.5 

40.5 

42.6 

45.7 

48.1 

53.1 

9 

13.0 

24.9 

28.5 

31.0 

34.7 

36.7 

39.9 

41.9 

46.9 

10 

10.4 

20.8 

24.9 

26.4 

29.6 

31.4 

34.4 

36.4 

41.5 

11 

8.4 

17.4 

20.3 

22.4 

25.3 

27.0 

29.6 

31.6 

36.4 

12 

6.7 

14.6 

17.1 

19.0 

21.5 

23.1 

25.6 

27.5 

31.8 

13 

5.4 

12.2 

14.4 

16.0 

18.4 

19.7 

22.0 

23.9 

27.8 

14 

4.4 

10.2 

12.2 

13.6 

15.7 

16.9 

19.0 

20.7 

24.3 

15 

3.5 

8.5 

10.2 

11.5 

13.5 

14.5 

16.3 

17.8 

21.3 

16 

2.8 

7.1 

8.6 

9.7 

11.5 

12.4 

14.0 

15.4 

18.6 

17 

2.3 

6.0 

7.2 

8.3 

9.8 

10.6 

12.1 

13.3 

16.3 

18 

1.9 

5.0 

6.1 

7.0 

8.3 

9.0 

10.4 

11.5 

14.3 

19 

1.5 

4.2 

5.2 

5.9 

7.1 

7.8 

8.9 

9.9 

12.5 

20 

1.2 

3.5 

4.4 

5.0 

6.1 

6.7 

7.7 

8.5 

10.9 


HVL I.O MM Cu FSD 50 cm 


Depth Area of Field in Square Centimetres 


in cm 

0 

20 

35 

50 

80 

100 

150 

200 

400 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

79.0 

94.2 

96.9 

98.2 

99.9 

100.8 

102.0 

102.6 

103.0 

2 

63.0 

83.2 

88.3 

90.2 

93.2 

94.2 

95.9 

96.9 

98.4 

3 

50.5 

72.5 

77.4 

80.5 

84.7 

86.3 

88.8 

90.6 

93.5 

4 

40,5 

62.0 

67.2 

70.6 

75.1 

77.1 

80.2 

82.4 

86.4 

5 

32.5 

52.5 

57.5 

61.1 

65.9 

67.6 

71.2 

73.5 

77.8 

6 

26.3 

44.4 

49.1 

52.5 

57.1 

59.2 

62.5 

64.9 

69.8 

7 

21.3 

37.3 

41.8 

45.0 

49.4 

51.4 

54.8 

57.3 

62.3 

8 

17.3 

31.2 

35.2 

38.2 

42.4 

44.6 

47.8 

50.3 

55.5 

9 

14.0 

26.1 

29.9 

32.5 

36.4 

38.5 

41.8 

43.9 

49.3 

10 

11.3 

21.9 

25.2 

27.8 

31.2 

33.1 

36.2 

38.3 

43.6 

11 

9.1 

18.3 

21.4 

23.7 

26.7 

28.5 

31.3 

33.4 

38.5 

12 

lA 

15.4 

18.2 

20.1 

22.8 

24.4 

27.1 

29.1 

33.8 

13 

5.9 

12.9 

15.3 

17.0 

19.5 

20.9 

23.4 

25.3 

29.5 

14 

4.8 

10.8 

13.0 

14.4 

16.7 

17.9 

20.2 

21.9 

25.8 

15 

3.9 

9.1 

10.8 

12.2 

14.3 

15.4 

17.4 

18.9 

22.7 

16 

3.2 

7.6 

9.1 

10.3 

12.2 

13.2 

14.9 

16.4 

19.8 

17 

2.6 

6.4 

7.7 

8.8 

10.4 

11.3 

12.9 

14.2 

17.3 

18 

2.1 

5.3 

6.5 

7.4 

8.9 

9.6 

11.1 

12.3 

15.2 

19 

1.7 

4.5 

5.5 

6.3 

7.6 

8.3 

9.5 

10.6 

13.3 

20 

1.4 

3.7 

4.7 

5.4 

6.5 

7.1 

8.2 

9.1 

11.6 


172 


DEPTH DOSE--Continued 


HVLI.OmmCu ISD60CM 


Depth Area of Held in Square Centimetres 


in cm 

0 

20 

35 

50 

SO 

100 

150 

200 

WO 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

KKl.O 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

loo.o 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

79.6 

94.8 

97.5 

98.8 

100.5 

101.4 

102.6 

103.2 

103.6 

2 

63.8 

84.2 

89.4 

91.3 

94.3 

95.3 

97.1 

98.1 

99.6 

3 

51.5 

73.8 

78.8 

81.9 

86.2 

87.9 

90.4 

92.2 

95.2 

4 

41.5 

63.4 

68.7 

72.2 

76.8 

78.9 

82.0 

84.3 

88.4 

5 

33.5 

54.0 

59.0 

62.7 

67.6 

69.4 

73.0 

75.3 

79.7 

6 

27.4 

4.5.6 

50.5 

54.0 

58.7 

60.9 

64.3 

66.7 

71.8 

7 

22.2 

38.5 

43.0 

46.4 

50.9 

53.0 

56.5 

59.1 

64.2 

8 

18.1 

32.2 

36.4 

39.5 

43.8 

46.1 

49.5 

52.0 

57.3 

9 

14.6 

27.0 

30.9 

33.6 

37.7 

39.8 

43.2 

45.4 

51.0 

10 

11.8 

22.7 

26.2 

28.8 

32.4 

34.3 

37.5 

39.7 

45.2 

II 

9.7 

19.0 

22.2 

24.6 

Tin 

29.6 

32.5 

34.7 

40.0 

12 

7.8 

16.0 

18.8 

20.8 

23.7 

25.4 

28.2 

30.3 

35.2 

13 

6.4 

13.4 

15.9 

17.7 

20.3 

21.8 

24.4 

26.4 

30.8 

14 

5.2 

11.3 

13.5 

15.0 

■17.4 

18.7 

21.0 

22.9 

27.0 

15 

4.2 

9.5 

11.3 

Yin 

15.0 

16.1 

18.1 

19.8 

23.7 

16 

3.4 

8.0 

9.6 

10.7 

12.8 

13.8 

15.6 

17.2 

20.8 

17 

2.8 

6.7 

8.1 

9.2 

10.9 

11.9 

13.5 

14.9 

18.2 

18 

2.3 

5.6 

6.9 

7.8 

9.3 

10.1 

11.7 

12.8 

15.9 

19 

1.9 

4.7 

5.8 

6.6 

8.0 

8.7 

10.0 

11.2 

14.0 

20 

1.6 

3.9 

4.9 

5.6 

6.8 

7.5 

8.6 

9.6 

12.2 


HVLI.OmmCu FSDSOcm 


Depth Area of Field in Square Centimetres 


in cm 

0 

20 

35 

50 

80 

100 

150 

200 

100 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

80.4 

95.3 

98.1 

99.4 

101.1 

102.0 

103.2 

103.8 

104.2 

2 

64.9 

85.4 

90.6 

92.5 

95.5 

96.6 

98.3 

99.3 

100.9 

3 

52.6 

75.3 

80.3 

83.4 

87.7 

89.4 

91.9 

93.8 

96.8 

4 

42.7 

65.0 

70.4 

73.8 

78.6 

80.6 

83.8 

86.1 

90.3 

5 

34.8 

55.4 

60.7 

64.4 

69.5 

71.3 

75.0 

77.4 

81.9 

6 

28.6 

47.2 

52.2 

55.8 

60.7 

62.9 

66.4 

68.9 

74.1 

7 

23.4 

40.0 

44.7 

48.2 

52.9 

54.9 

58.6 

61.3 

66.6 

8 

19.2 

33.6 

38.1 

41.1 

45.6 

47.9 

51.4 

54.0 

59.6 

9 

15.7 

28.3 

32.4 

35.2 

39.5 

41.6 

45.1 

47.5 

53.2 

10 

12.9 

23.9 

27.b 

30.3 

34.0 

36.0 

39.4 

41.6 

47.3 

11 

10.5 

20.1 

23.4 

25.9 

29.2 

31.1 

34.2 

36.5 

42.0 

12 

8.6 

17.0 

19.8 

22.1 

25.1 

26.8 

29.7 

31.9 

37.0 

13 

7.0 

14.3 

16.8 

18.8 

21.5 

23.0 

25.7 

27.8 

32.4 

14 

5.7 

12.0 

14.3 

16.0 

18.4 

19.8 

22.3 

24.2 

28.5 

15 

4.7 

10.1 

12.1 

13.6 

15.8 

17.1 

10.3 

21.0 

25.2 

16 

3.9 

8.5 

10.2 

11.5 

13.6 

14.7 

16.6 

18.3 

22.1 

17 

3.2 

7.2 

8.7 

9.8 

11.7 

12.6 

14.4 

15.9 

19.4 

18 

2.6 

6.0 

7.4 

8.4 

10.0 

10.8 

12.5 

13.8 

17.0 

19 

2.2 

5.1 

6.2 

7.1 

8.6 

9.3 

10.7 

11.9 

14.9 

20 

1.8 

4.2 

5.3 

6.1 

7.4 

8.0 

9.3 

10.4 

13.1 


1, 1 


DEPTH DOSE--Continued 


HVL1.5mmCu rSD40cM 


Dejil It 


Area of Field in Sf/iiare Ceriiimetres 


in cm 

0 

20 

33 

30 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

100,0 

100.0 

1 

80.1 

91,3 

96.3 

9H.0 

2 

63.9 

83.8 

87.4 

89.3 

3 

51.2 

12A 

76.9 

79.8 

4 

41.5 

61.7 

66.5 

69.6 

5 

33.5 

52.3 

57.0 

60.4 

6 

27.0 

44.3 

48.6 

52.0 

7 

21.8 

37 A 

41.8 

44.7 

8 

17.6 

31.5 

35.4 

38.2 

9 

14.2 

26.4 

30.0 

32.6 

10 

11.4 

22.2 

25.5 

27.9 

11 

9.3 

18.7 

21.6 

23.7 

12 

7.5 

15.8 

18.4 

20.3 

13 

6.1 

13.2 

15.6 

17.3 

14 

5.0 

11.1 

13.2 

14.8 

15 

4.1 

9.4 

11.2 

12:6 

16 

3.3 

7.9 

9.6 

10.8 

17 

2.7 

6.7 

8.1 

9.2 

18 

2.2 

5.6 

6.9 

7.9 

19 

1.8 

4.8 

5.9 

6.8 

20 

1.5 

4.0 

5.0 

5.8 


SO 

JOO 

no 

200 

■100 

1(I!M» 

100 0 

loo 0 

1 o() 0 

lOil.O 

98,9 

90.7 

1( H ).7 

lo : .9 

H )2 ,0 

92.0 

9; t.o 

94.8 

95.9 

98.0 

83.3 

85.1 

87.6 

89.2 

92.3 

74.0 

76.0 

78.9 

80.8 

84.7 

64.8 

66.7 

70.0 

72.1 

76.6 

56.4 

58.9 

62.1 

64.4 

69.2 

49.1 

51.3 

54.4 

56.9 

62.3 

42.7 

44.4 

47.6 

50.0 

55.8 

36.8 

38.3 

41.7 

44.0 

49.6 

31.5 

33.2 

36.4 

38.3 

44.0 

27.1 

28.5 

31.5 

33.4 

38.7 

23.3 

24.6 

27.4 

29.2 

.34.1 

20.0 

21.3 

23.8 

25.4 

30.1 

17.2 

18.4 

20.7 

22.3 

26.3 

14.8 

15.8 

17.9 

19.5 

23.2 

12.7 

13.6 

15.6 

17.0 

20.3 

11.0 

11.8 

13.6 

14.9 

17.9 

9.5 

10.2 

11.9 

13.1 

15.7 

8.1 

8.8 

10.3 

11.5 

13.8 

7.0 

7.6 

8.9 

10.1 

12.1 


HVL1.5mmCu FSD50CM 


Depth 


Area of Field in Square Centimetres 


in cm 

0 

20 

33 

30 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

80.8 

95.0 

97.0 

98.0 

2 

65.2 

84.9 

88.6 

90.5 

3 

52.7 

73.9 

78.5 

81.4 

4 

43.0 

63.3 

68.3 

71.5 

5 

35.0 

53.9 

58.8 

62.3 

6 

28.4 

45.9 

50.3 

53.8 

7 

23.2 

38.9 

43.4 

46.4 

8 

18.8 

32.8 

36.9 

39.8 

9 

15.3 

27.6 

31.4 

34.1 

10 

12.4 

23.3 

26.8 

29.3 

11 

10.2 

19.7 

22.8 

25.0 

12 

8.3 

16.7 

19.4 

21.4 

13 

6.7 

14.0 

16.5 

18.3 

14 

5.5 

11.8 

14.0 

15.7 

15 

4.5 

10.0 

11.9 

13.4 

16 

3.7 

8.4 

10.2 

11.5 

17 

3.1 

7.1 

8.7 

9.8 

18 

2.5 

6.0 

7.4 

8.4 

19 

2.1 

5.1 

6.3 

7.2 

20 

1.7 

4.3 

5.3 

6.2 


80 

100 

130 

200 

100 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

99.6 

100.4 

101.5 

102.2 

102.7 

93.2 

94.2 

96.0 

97.2 

99.3 

85.0 

86.8 

89.4 

91.0 

94.2 

76.0 

78.0 

81.0 

83.0 

87.0 

66.8 

68.8 

72.1 

74.3 

79.0 

58.4 

61.0 

64.3 

66.7 

71.6 

51.0 

53.3 

56.5 

59.1 

64.7 

44.5 

46.3 

49.6 

52.1 

58.2 

38.5 

40.1 

43.6 

46.0 

51.9 

33.1 

34.8 

38.2 

40.2 

46.2 

28.6 

30.0 

33.2 

35.2 

40.8 

24.6 

26.0 

28.9 

30.8 

36.0 

21.2 

22.5 

25.2 

26.9 

31.8 

18.2 

19.5 

21.9 

23.6 

27.9 

15.7 

16.8 

19.0 

20.7 

24.6 

13.5 

14.5 

16.6 

18.1 

21.6 

11.7 

12.5 

14.4 

15.8 

19.0 

10.1 

10.8 

12.6 

13.9 

16.7 

8.6 

9.4 

10.9 

12.2 

14.7 

7.4 

8.1 

9.5 

10.7 

12.9 


DEPTH DOSE--Continued 


HVL1.5mmCu FSD60CM 


DejUh A rea of Field in Square Centimetres 


1 cm 

0 

20 

J5 

50 

80 

ino 

150 

200 

400 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100 0 

KJOO 

100.0 

1 

81.4 

95.6 

97.6 

98.6 

100.2 

101.0 

102.1 

102.8 

103 .3 

2 

66.0 

85.8 

89.6 

91.5 

94.2 

95.2 

97.1 

98.3 

100.4 

.3 

.5.3.7 

75.0 

79.7 

82.6 

86.3 

88.1 

90.7 

92.4 

95.6 

4 

44.0 

64.6 

69.7 

72.9 

77.5 

79.6 

82.6 

84.7 

88.7 

.5 

36.1 

55.2 

60.2 

63.8 

68.4 

70.5 

73.8 

76.1 

80.9 

6 

29.4 

47.1 

51.7 

55.3 

60.0 

62.6 

66.0 

68.5 

73.5 

7 

24.2 

40.1 

44.7 

47.8 

52.5 

54.9 

58.2 

60.9 

66.6 

8 

19.7 

33.8 

38.1 

41.1 

45.9 

47.8 

51.2 

53.8 

60.1 

9 

16.1 

28.6 

32.5 

35.3 

39.8 

41.5 

45.1 

47.6 

53J 

10 

13.1 

24.2 

27.8 

30.4 

34.3 

36.1 

39.6 

41.7 

47.9 

1 1 

10.8 

20.5 

23.7 

26.0 

29.7 

31.2 

34.5 

36.6 

42.4 

12 

8.8 

17.4 

20.2 

22.3 

25.6 

27.0 

30.1 

32.0 

37.4 

13 

7.2 

14.6 

17.2 

19.1 

22.1 

23.4 

26.3 

28.0 

33.1 

14 

5.9 

12.3 

14.6 

16.4 

19.0 

20.4 

22.9 

24.6 

29.1 

15 

4.9 

10.5 

12.4 

14.0 

16.4 

17.5 

19.9 

21.6 

25.7 

16 

4.0 

8.8 

10.7 

12.0 

14.1 

15.2 

17.4 

19.0 

22.6 

17 

3.4 

7.5 

9.1 

10.3 

12.3 

13.1 

15.1 

16.6 

19.9 

18 

2.8 

6.3 

7.7 

8.8 

10.6 

11.3 

13.2 

14.6 

17.5 

19 

2.3 

5.3 

6.6 

7.6 

9.1 

9.8 

11.5 

12.8 

15.4 

20 

1.9 

4.5 

5.6 

6.5 

7.8 

8.5 

10.0 

11.3 

13.6 


HVL 1.5 MM Cu FSD 80 cm 


Depth Area of Field in Square Centimetres 


in cm 

0 

20 

35 

50 

80 

100 

150 

200 

400 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

82.3 

96.3 

98.3 

99.3 

100.9 

101.7 

102.7 

103.4 

103.8 

2 

67.2 

87.1 

90.9 

92.8 

95.4 

96.4 

98.1 

99.3 

101.5 

3 

54.9 

76.7 

81.4 

84.3 

88.0 

89.8 

92.4 

94.0 

97.2 

4 

45.4 

66.4 

71.5 

74.9 

79.4 

81.4 

84.6 

86.6 

90.7 

5 

37.5 

57.0 

62.1 

65.7 

70.5 

72.5 

75.0 

78.2 

83.0 

6 

30.8 

48.9 

53.6 

57.2 

62.1 

64.8 

68.2 

70.8 

75.8 

7 

25.5 

41.7 

46.5 

49.7 

54.6 

57.0 

60.4 

63.1 

69.1 

8 

20.9 

35.4 

39.8 

42.9 

47.9 

49.8 

53.3 

56.0 

62.5 

9 

17.2 

29.9 

34.1 

36.9 

41.7 

43.3 

47.1 

49.7 

56.0 

10 

14.1 

25.4 

29.2 

31.9 

36.0 

37.8 

41.5 

43.7 

50.1 

11 

11.8 

21.6 

25.0 

27.3 

31.3 

32.7 

36.2 

38.4 

44.5 

12 

9.6 

18.4 

21.3 

23.5 

27.0 

28.5 

31.6 

33.7 

39.4 

13 

7.9 

15.5 

18.2 

20.2 

23.3 

24.8 

27.7 

29.6 

34.9 

14 

6.6 

13.1 

15.5 

17.4 

20.1 

21.5 

242 

26.0 

30.7 

15 

5.4 

11.2 

13.2 

14.9 

17.4 

18.6 

21.0 

22.9 

27.2 

16 

4.5 

9.5 

11.4 

12.8 

15.0 

16.1 

18.4 

20.1 

24.0 

17 

3.7 

8.0 

9.7 

11.0 

13.1 

14.0 

16.1 

17.6 

21.1 

18 

3.1 

6.8 

8.3 

9.4 

11.3 

12.1 

14.1 

15.6 

18.7 

19 

2.6 

5.7 

7.1 

8.1 

9.7 

10.5 

12.3 

13.7 

16.5 

20 

2.2 

4.9 

6.0 

7.0 

8.4 

9.1 

10.7 

12.1 

\45 


17 


DEPTH DOSE - -Cont inued 


HVL 2.0 MM Cu r.SD 50 cm 


Depth 




A rea of Field 

in Square Centimetres 




in cm 

0 

20 

75 

50 

SO 

100 

no 

200 

■too 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100 0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

81.4 

95.0 

96.9 

97.9 

99.4 

99.9 

101.0 

101.6 

102.4 

2 

66.5 

85.5 

88.5 

90.3 

92.7 

93.8 

95.4 

96.6 

99.0 

3 

54.0 

74.3 

78.6 

81.3 

84.8 

86.3 

88.8 

90.5 

93.7 

4 

44.2 

63.9 

68.7 

71.8 

75.8 

77.6 

80.7 

82.8 

87.0 

5 

36.2 

54.9 

59.5 

62.8 

67.0 

68.8 

71.9 

74.2 

19.2 

6 

29.6 

46.5 

51.2 

54.5 

58.8 

61.0 

64.2 

66.5 

71.8 

7 

24.3 

39.6 

44.0 

47.2 

51.5 

53.4 

57.0 

59.2 

64.8 

8 

19.9 

33.5 

37.7 

40.8 

44.8 

46.8 

50.3 

52.7 

58.5 

9 

16.4 

28.4 

32.4 

35.2 

39.2 

40.9 

44.4 

46.5 

52.4 

10 

13.4 

24.0 

27.7 

30.3 

33.9 

35.7 

38.9 

41.3 

46.7 

11 

11.1 

20.4 

23.7 

26.0 

29.4 

31.0 

34.0 

36.3 

41.6 

12 

9.1 

17.2 

20.2 

22.3 

25.4 

27.0 

29.7 

31.8 

36.9 

13 

7.5 

14.7 

17.3 

19.2 

21.9 

23.4 

26.0 

28.0 

32.7 

14 

6.2 

12.5 

14.8 

16.5 

19.0 

20.3 

22.8 

24.7 

28.9 

15 

5.1 

10.6 

12.6 

14.1 

16.4 

17.7 

19.9 

21.7 

25.5 

16 

4.2 

8.9 

10.8 

12.1 

14.2 

15.3 

17.4 

19.1 

22.6 

17 

3.5 

7.6 

9.2 

10.4 

12.3 

13.3 

15.2 

16.8 

20.0 

18 

2.9 

6.5 

7.8 

8.9 

10.7 

11.6 

13.3 

14.8 

17.7 

19 

2.4 

5.5 

6.7 

7.7 

9.2 

10.0 

11.6 

13.0 

15.6 

20 

2.0 

4.7 

5.7 

6.6 

7.9 

8.7 

10.2 

11.4 

13.8 


HVL 2.0 MM Cu FSD 60 cm 


Depth Area of Field in Square Centimetres 


in cm 

0 

20 

35 

50 

80 

100 

150 

200 

400 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

82.0 

95.5 

97.4 

98.4 

99.9 

100.4 

101.5 

102.1 

102.9 

2 

67.3 

86.4 

89.5 

91.2 

93.6 

94.7 

96.4 

97.6 

100.0 

3 

55.0 

75.5 

79.9 

82.6 

86.2 

87.7 

90.2 

91.9 

95.2 

4 

45.2 

65.3 

70.1 

73.3 

77.3 

79.2 

82.3 

84.5 

88.7 

5 

37.3 

56.3 

61.0 

64.4 

68.7 

70.5 

73.7 

76.1 

81.1 

6 

30.7 

47.9 

52.6 

56.0 

60.4 

62.5 

65.9 

68.2 

73.7 

7 

25.3 

40.9 

45.4 

48.7 

53.1 

55.0 

58.7 

61.0 

66.6 

8 

20.9 

34.7 

39.0 

42.2 

46.3 

48.3 

52.0 

54.4 

60.2 

9 

17.3 

29.5 

33.5 

36.4 

40.6 

42.3 

46.0 

48.1 

54.0 

10 

14.2 

25.0 

28.7 

31.4 

35.2 

37.0 

40.3 

42.7 

48.4 

11 

11.8 

21.2 

24.6 

27.0 

30.5 

32.3 

35.3 

37.6 

43.1 

12 

9.7 

18.1 

21.0 

23.2 

26.4 

28.1 

30.9 

33.1 

38.3 

13 

8.0 

15.4 

18.0 

20.0 

22.9 

24.4 

27.1 

29.1 

34.0 

14 

6.6 

13.1 

15.5 

17.2 

19.8 

21.3 

23.8 

25.8 

30.1 

15 

5.5 

11.1 

13.2 

14.8 

17.1 

18.5 

20.8 

22.7 

26.6 

16 

4.6 

9.4 

11.3 

12.7 

14.8 

16.0 

18.2 

20.0 

23.6 

17 

3.8 

8.0 

9.6 

10.9 

12.9 

13.9 

15.9 

17.6 

21.0 

18 

3.2 

6.8 

8.2 

9.4 

11.2 

12.1 

13.9 

15.5 

18.6 

19 

2.6 

5.8 

7.0 

8.1 

9.7 

10.5 

12.2 

13.7 

16.4 

20 

2.2 

4.9 

6.0 

6.9 

8.4 

9.1 

10.7 

12.0 

14.5 


176 


DEPTH DOSE--Continued 


HVL 2.0 MNf Cu KSD 80 Cm 


Depth 




A rea of Field 

in Square Centimetres 




in cm 

0 

20 

7.5 

50 

SO 

WO 

150 

200 

■too 

0 

100.0 

lon.o 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

lOfl.O 

100,0 

109.0 

1 

82.9 

96.1 

98.0 

99.0 

100.5 

101.0 

102.1 

102.7 

10.3.4 

2 

68.5 

87.6 

90.6 

92.5 

94.8 

96.0 

97.6 

98.8 

101.2 

3 

56.3 

77.1 

81.4 

84.1 

87.8 

89.1 

91.7 

93.5 

96.7 

4 

46.6 

67.1 

71.9 

75.2 

79.2 

81.0 

84.2 

86.4 

90.7 

5 

38.7 

58.1 

62.9 

66.3 

70.7 

72.6 

75.8 

78.2 

83.2 

6 

32.1 

49.7 

54.5 

58.0 

62.6 

64.8 

68.1 

70.6 

76.0 

7 

26.7 

42.6 

47.3 

50.6 

.55.2 

57.1 

60.9 

63.2 

69.1 

8 

22.1 

36.3 

40.7 

44.1 

48.3 

50.4 

54.1 

56.6 

62.8 

9 

18.4 

30.9 

35.2 

38.2 

42.3 

44.3 

48.0 

50.3 

56.6 

10 

15.3 

26.3 

30.2 

33.0 

36.9 

38.8 

42.2 

44.7 

50.7 

11 

12.8 

22.5 

26.0 

28.5 

32.1 

33.9 

37.1 

39.6 

45.3 

12 

10.6 

19.1 

22.3 

24.5 

27.9 

29.6 

32.5 

34.8 

40.4 

13 

8.8 

16.3 

19.1 

21.2 

24.1 

25.8 

28.6 

30.8 

35.9 

14 

7.3 

13.9 

16.4 

18.3 

21.0 

22.5 

25.2 

27.3 

31.8 

15 

6.1 

11.8 

14.0 

15.7 

18.2 

19.6 

22.0 

24.0 

28.2 

16 

5.1 

10.1 

12.1 

13.5 

15.8 

17.0 

19.4 

21.3 

25.1 

17 

4.3 

8.6 

10.3 

11.7 

13.7 

14.9 

17.0 

18.8 

22.3 

18 

3.6 

7.3 

8.8 

10.1 

12.0 

13.0 

14.9 

16.6 

19.8 

19 

3.0 

6.3 

7.6 

8.7 

10.3 

11.3 

13.1 

14.6 

17.5 

20 

2.5 

5.3 

6.5 

7.4 

9.0 

9.8 

11.5 

12.9 

15.6 


HVL 2.0 MM Cu FSD 100 cm 


Depth 


Area of Field in Square Centimetres 


in cm 

0 

20 

35 

50 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

83.1 

96.6 

98.5 

99.5 

2 

69.2 

88.4 

91.4 

93.2 

3 

57.2 

78.2 

82.4 

85.1 

4 

47.7 

68.2 

73.1 

76.3 

5 

39.7 

59.3 

64.1 

67.5 

6 

33.0 

50.9 

55.9 

59.3 

7 

27.6 

43.8 

48.4 

51.9 

8 

23.0 

2,1 A 

41.9 

45.3 

9 

19.2 

32.0 

36.4 

39.4 

10 

15.9 

27.3 

31.3 

34.2 

11 

13.4 

23.4 

27.0 

29.5 

12 

11.1 

19.8 

23.2 

25.5 

13 

9.3 

17.0 

20.0 

22.1 

14 

7.8 

14.5 

17.2 

19.1 

15 

6.5 

12.5 

14.7 

16.4 

16 

5.4 

10.6 

12.7 

14.2 

17 

4.6 

9.0 

10.8 

12.3 

18 

3.8 

7.7 

9.3 

10.6 

19 

3.2 

6.6 

8.0 

9.1 

20 

2.7 

5.7 

6.9 

7.8 


80 

100 

150 

200 

400 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

101.0 

101.4 

102.5 

103.1 

103.8 

95.6 

96.6 

98.3 

99.5 

101.9 

88.7 

90.2 

92.8 

94.5 

97.7 

80.3 

82.2 

85.4 

87.5 

91.9 

72.0 

73.8 

77.1 

79.5 

84.6 

63.9 

66.2 

69.5 

72.0 

115 

56.5 

58.5 

62.4 

64.7 

70.7 

49.6 

51.8 

55.6 

58.0 

B4.4 

43.8 

45.6 

49.5 

51.7 

58.2 

38.1 

40.1 

43.6 

46.2 

52.3 

33.3 

35.1 

38.4 

40.9 

46.8 

29.0 

30.7 

33.7 

36.1 

41.8 

25.1 

26.8 

29.7 

32.0 

37.2 

21.9 

23.4 

26.2 

28.4 

33.1 

19.0 

20.5 

23.0 

25.0 

29.4 

16.6 

17.8 

20.2 

22.1 

26.1 

14.4 

15.6 

17.7 

19.6 

23.3 

12.6 

13.6 

15.6 

17.3 

20.7 

10.9 

11.8 

13.7 

15.3 

18.3 

9.5 

10.3 

12.1 

13j 

16.3 


DEPTH DOSE -.-Continued 


HVL 3.0 MM Cu I- SI) .so CM 


Drl>lh Area of Field in Square Centimetres 


in cm 

0 

20 


SO 

SO 

too 

no 

200 

■ton 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

lOO.O 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100 0 

1 

82.3 

94.7 

96.5 

97.4 

98.6 

99.0 

100.0 

100.5 

lOi.4 

2 

68.0 

85.8 

88.2 

89.8 

91.7 

92.7 

94.3 

95.4 

97.6 

3 

.56.2 

75.0 

78.8 

81.0 

84.1 

85.4 

87.5 

89.2 

92.4 

4 

46.4 

64.8 

69.1 

71.8 

75.4 

77.0 

79.8 

81.8 

85.9 

5 

38.6 

56.0 

60.0 

63.0 

66.8 

68.6 

71.6 

73.9 

78.4 

6 

32.0 

47.7 

52.0 

54.9 

.58.8 

60.9 

64.0 

66.4 

71.0 

7 

26.5 

40.8 

44.8 

47.8 

51.8 

54.0 

56.9 

59.4 

64.4 

8 

22.0 

34.9 

38.7 

41.5 

45.5 

47.6 

50.4 

53.0 

58.2 

9 

18.4 

29.7 

33.3 

36.0 

39.8 

41.7 

44.6 

47.2 

52.2 

10 

15.4 

25.3 

28.6 

31.1 

34.7 

36.6 

39.5 

41.8 

46.8 

11 

12.8 

21.7 

24.6 

26.9 

30.3 

32.0 

34.8 

37.2 

41.9 

12 

10.7 

18.5 

21.1 

23.2 

26.4 

27.9 

30.6 

32.7 

37.3 

13 

9.0 

15.7 

18.2 

20.0 

22.9 

24.4 

26.9 

28.8 

33.3 

14 

7.5 

13.4 

15.7 

17.3 

19.9 

21.2 

23.6 

25.4 

29.5 

15 

6.3 

11.5 

13.4 

15.0 

17.3 

18.5 

20.7 

22.4 

26.3 

16 

5.3 

9.8 

11.5 

12.9 

15.0 

16.1 

18.2 

19.7 

23.4 

17 

4.5 

8.4 

9.9 

11.2 

13.1 

14.0 

15.9 

17.4 

20.8 

18 

3.7 

7.2 

8.5 

9.6 

11.4 

12.2 

14.0 

15.4 

18.5 

19 

3.1 

6.1 

7.3 

8.3 

9.9 

10.7 

12.3 

13.6 

16.5 

20 

2.6 

5.2 

6.3 

7.2 

8.6 

9.3 

10.8 

11.9 

14.6 


HVL 3.0 MM Cu FSD 60 cm 


Depth Area of Field in Square Centimetres 


in cm 

0 

20 

3S 

50 

80 

100 

150 

200 

100 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

82.9 

95.3 

97.1 

98.0 

99.2 

99.5 

100.6 

101.1 

102.0 

2 

68.8 

86.7 

89.2 

90.8 

92.7 

93.7 

95.3 

96.4 

98.7 

3 

57.3 

16.2 

80.1 

82.3 

85.4 

86.8 

88.9 

90.6 

93.9 

4 

47.5 

66.1 

70.5 

73.2 

76.8 

78.5 

81.3 

83.3 

87.4 

5 

39.8 

57.5 

61.4 

64.5 

68.3 

70.2 

73.2 

75.5 

80.1 

6 

33.2 

49.1 

53.4 

56.4 

60.3 

62.5 

65.6 

68.1 

72.8 

7 

27.6 

42.2 

46.2 

49.3 

53.3 

55.6 

58.6 

61.1 

66.2 

8 

23.1 

36.2 

40.0 

42.9 

47.0 

49.1 

52.0 

54.7 

60.0 

9 

19.4 

30.9 

34.6 

37.3 

41.2 

43.2 

46.2 

48.9 

54.0 

10 

16.3 

26.4 

29.8 

32.3 

36.1 

38.0 

41.0 

43.3 

48.5 

11 

13.6 

22.7 

25.7 

28.0 

31.5 

33.3 

36.2 

38.6 

43.4 

12 

11.4 

19.4 

22.1 

24.2 

27.5 

29.1 

31.9 

34.1 

38.8 

13 

9.6 

16.5 

19.1 

20.9 

24.0 

25.5 

28.1 

30.1 

34.8 

14 

8.1 

14.2 

16.5 

18.1 

20.9 

22.2 

24.7 

26.6 

30.9 

15 

6.8 

12.2 

14.2 

15.7 

18.2 

19.5 

21.8 

23.6 

27.6 

16 

5.8 

10.4 

12.2 

13.6 

15.8 

17.0 

19.2 

20.8 

24.6 

17 

4.9 

8.9 

10.5 

11.8 

13.9 

14.8 

16.8 

18.4 

21.9 

18 

4.1 

7.6 

9.1 

10.2 

12.1 

12.9 

14.8 

16.3 

19.6 

19 

3.5 

6.5 

7.9 

8.9 

10.5 

11.4 

13.1 

14.4 

17.5 

20 

2.9 

5.6 

6.8 

7.7 

9.2 

9.9 

11.5 

12.7 

15.6 


178 


DEPTH DOSE--Continued 


IIVLS.OmmCu ISDSOCM 


Depth 




Area of Field 

in Square Centimetres 




in cm 

0 

20 

35 

50 

SO 

too 

150 

200 

■too 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 00.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

83.8 

95.9 

97.8 

98.6 

99.7 

100.1 

101.1 

101.6 

102.5 

2 

70.0 

88.0 

90.3 

92.0 

93.9 

94.8 

96.5 

97.6 

99.7 

3 

.58.6 

77.9 

81.7 

83.8 

86.9 

88.2 

90.4 

92.1 

95.4 

4 

49.0 

68.1 

72.3 

15>2 

78.7 

80.4 

83.3 

85.3 

89.5 

5 

41.3 

59.5 

63.4 

66.5 

70.4 

72.3 

75.3 

77.7 

82.3 

G 

34.7 

51.1 

.55.5 

58.6 

62.6 

64.8 

68.0 

70.5 

75.1 

7 

29.2 

44.1 

48.3 

51.4 

55.5 

57.8 

60.9 

63.6 

68.9 

8 

24.5 

38.1 

42.0 

44.9 

49.1 

51.4 

54.4 

57.1 

62.6 

9 

20.7 

32.7 

36.5 

39.2 

43.3 

45.3 

48.4 

51.2 

56.4 

10 

17.5 

28.1 

31.5 

34.1 

38.0 

40.0 

43.1 

45.7 

50.9 

11 

14.7 

24.2 

27.3 

29.7 

33.4 

35.2 

38.2 

40.7 

4.5.8 

12 

12.5 

20.8 

23.6 

25.8 

29.2 

30.9 

33.8 

36.1 

41.0 

13 

10.5 

17.8 

20.4 

22.2 

25.5 

27.1 

29.9 

31.9 

36.8 

14 

8.9 

15.3 

17.7 

19.4 

22.3 

23.7 

26.3 

28.2 

32.8 

15 

7.6 

13.2 

15.2 

16.9 

19.4 

20.8 

23.2 

25.0 

29.4 

16 

6.4 

11.3 

13.2 

14.7 

17.0 

18.2 

20.5 

22.1 

26.3 

17 

5.4 

9.7 

11.4 

12.8 

14.9 

15.9 

18.1 

19.7 

23.5 

18 

4.6 

8.3 

9.9 

11.1 

13.0 

13.9 

15.9 

17.5 

21.0 

19 

3.9 

7.2 

8.5 

9.6 

11.4 

12.3 

14.1 

15.5 

18.8 

20 

3.3 

6.2 

7.4 

8.4 

9.9 

10.7 

12.4 

13.7 

16.7 


HVL 3.0 MM Cu FSD 100 cm 


Depth 


Area of Field in Square Centimetres 


cm 

0 

20 

35 

50 

80 

100 

150 

200 

lOO 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

84.0 

96.4 

98.1 

99.0 

100.1 

100.5 

101.5 

101.9 

102.8 

2 

70.7 

88.8 

91.1 

92.7 

94.5 

95.5 

97.0 

98.2 

100.3 

3 

59.6 

79.0 

82.7 

84.8 

87.9 

89.2 

91.4 

93.0 

96.3 

4 

.50.1 

69.3 

73.5 

76.3 

79.8 

81.5 

84.4 

86.4 

90.6 

5 

42.4 

60.8 

64.7 

67.8 

71.7 

73.6 

76.7 

79.1 

83.7 

6 

35.7 

52.4 

56.8 

59.9 

63.9 

66.1 

69.3 

71.8 

76.6 

7 

30.1 

45.5 

49.6 

.52.8 

56.9 

59.3 

62.3 

65.0 

70.3 

8 

25.4 

39.3 

43.4 

46.3 

50.6 

52.8 

55.8 

58.6 

64.1 

9 

21.6 

33.9 

37.7 

40.6 

44.7 

46.7 

49.8 

52.6 

58.0 

10 

18.3 

29.2 

32.7 

35.4 

39.3 

41.4 

44.5 

47.0 

52.4 

11 

15.4 

25.2 

28.4 

30.9 

34.6 

36.5 

39.5 

42.1 

47.3 

12 

13.1 

21.7 

^4.6 

26.9 

30.4 

32.1 

35.0 

57 A 

42.4 

13 

11.1 

18.6 

21.3 

23.4 

26.6 

28.2 

31.0 

33.1 

38.0 

14 

9.5 

16.1 

18.5 

20.4 

23.3 

24.7 

27.4 

29.4 

34.0 

15 

8.1 

13.8 

16.0 

17.8 

20.4 

21.7 

24.2 

26.1 

30.5 

16 

6.9 

11.9 

13.9 

15.4 

17.8 

19.0 

21.4 

23.1 

27.3 

17 

5.8 

10.3 

12.1 

13.5 

15.6 

16.7 

18.9 

20.5 

24.4 

18 

5.0 

8.9 

10.5 

11.7 

13.7 

14.6 

16.7 

18.2 

21.9 

19 

4.2 

7.6 

9.2 

10.2 

12.0 

12.9 

14.7 

16.2 

19.6 

20 

3.6 

6.6 

7.9 

8.9 

10.5 

11.3 

13.0 

14.3 

17.5 


DEPTH DOSE --Continued 


HVL 4,0 MM Cu FSn 50 cm 


Depth 




Area of Field 

in Square Centimetres 




in cm 

0 

20 

35 

50 

SO 

100 

150 

200 

100 

0 

lon.o 

100 0 

100,0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

lO’O.O 

ino.o 

100.0 

1 

83.1 

91.4 

96.0 

96,8 

97.7 

98 0 

'’8.8 

99. .3 

100,0 

2 

69.3 

85.9 

87.8 

89.1 

90,8 

91.6 

93.0 

93.9 

96,0 

3 

57.8 

75.6 

78.8 

80.7 

83.3 

84.3 

86.2 

87.6 

90.1 

4 

48.2 

65.5 

69.5 

71.8 

75.0 

76.4 

78.9 

80.5 

84.2 

5 

40.7 

56.6 

60.4 

63.2 

66.6 

68.2 

71.2 

73.4 

77.1 

C 

34.3 

48.5 

52.7 

55.5 

58.9 

60.8 

63.8 

66.1 

70.2 

7 

28.9 

41.6 

45.6 

48.4 

51.8 

53.7 

56.8 

59.4 

63.8 

8 

24.4 

35.7 

39.5 

42.0 

45.5 

47.3 

50.5 

53.1 

57.8 

9 

20.5 

30.6 

34.0 

36.5 

39.8 

41.6 

44.8 

47.3 

51.8 

10 

17.3 

26.3 

29.4 

31.6 

35.0 

36.7 

39.7 

42.0 

46.6 

11 

14.6 

22.6 

25.4 

27.4 

30.6 

32.3 

35.1 

37.4 

41.8 

12 

12.4 

19.4 

21.9 

23.7 

26.8 

28.4 

30.9 

33.1 

37.5 

13 

10.5 

16.7 

19.0 

20.6 

23.4 

24.9 

27.3 

29.2 

33.6 

14 

8.9 

14.3 

16.4 

17.9 

20.4 

21.8 

24.1 

25.8 

30.0 

15 

7.5 

12.3 

14.1 

15.5 

17.8 

19.0 

21.2 

22.8 

26.7 

16 

6.4 

10.6 

12.2 

13.5 

15.6 

16.7 

18.7 

20.1 

23.8 

17 

5.4 

9.1 

10.6 

11.7 

13.6 

14.6 

16.4 

17.7 

21.2 

18 

4.6 

7.8 

9.1 

10.2 

11.8 

12.8 

14.4 

15.7 

18.9 

19 

4.0 

6.7 

7.9 

8.8 

10.3 

11.2 

12.6 

13.8 

16.9 

20 

3.4 

5.8 

6.8 

7.7 

9.0 

9.7 

11.1 

12.2 

15.1 


HVL 4.0 mmCu FSDSOcm 


Depth Area of Field in Square Centimetres 


in cm 

0 

20 

35 

50 

80 

100 

150 

200 

400 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

84.6 

95.6 

97.2 

97.9 

98.8 

99.1 

99.8 

100.3 

101.0 

2 

71.4 

88.0 

89.7 

91.1 

92.8 

93.6 

95.0 

95.9 

97.9 

3 

60.2 

78.5 

81.5 

83.4 

86.0 

87.0 

88.9 

90.4 

93.2 

4 

50.9 

68.8 

72.7 

75.0 

78.2 

79.7 

82.2 

83.9 

87.5 

5 

43.5 

60.2 

63.9 

66.7 

70.2 

71.9 

74.9 

77.1 

80.9 

6 

S 1.2 

52.2 

56.3 

59.2 

62.7 

64.8 

67.8 

70.1 

74.2 

7 

31.7 

45.3 

49.2 

52.1 

55.1 

57.8 

60.9 

63.6 

67.9 

8 

27.1 

39.3 

43.1 

45.1 

49.4 

51.3 

54.6 

57.3 

62.1 

9 

23.1 

34.0 

37.5 

40.1 

43.6 

45.4 

48.8 

51 .5 

56.0 

10 

19.7 

29.5 

32.7 

35.0 

38.6 

40.4 

43.6 

46.1 

50.8 

1 1 

16.8 

25.6 

28.5 

30.6 

34.0 

35.8 

38.8 

41.3 

45.9 

12 

14.4 

22.2 

24.8 

26.7 

29.9 

31.6 

34.4 

36.8 

41.4 

13 

12.3 

19.3 

21.6 

23.4 

26.4 

27.9 

30.6 

32.7 

37.4 

14 

10.5 

16.6 

18.8 

20.4 

23.1 

24.7 

27.2 

29.1 

33.6 

15 

9.0 

14.4 

16.3 

17.8 

20.3 

21.6 

24.0 

25.9 

30.1 

16 

7.7 

12.5 

14.2 

15.6 

17.8 

19.1 

21.3 

23.0 

27.0 

17 

6.6 

10.8 

12.4 

13.7 

15.7 

16.8 

18.9 

20.3 

24.2 

18 

5.7 

9.4 

10.8 

12.0 

13.8 

14.8 

16.7 

18.1 

21.7 

19 

4.9 

8.1 

9.4 

10.5 

12.1 

13.1 

14.8 

16.1 

19.5 

20 

4.2 

7.0 

8.2 

9.1 

10.6 

11.5 

13.1 

14.3 

17.6 


180 


DEPTH DOSE--Continued 


Cobalt fiO Radiation 

Average photon energy 1.25 Mev HVL 1 1 mm Pb S5D 50 cm 


Dcjith 



Area of Field in 

Square Centimetres 



in cm 

0 

20 

50 

100 

200 

■fOO 

0.5 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

94.6 

96.2 

97.0 

97.5 

97.6 

97.7 

2 

85.2 

89.2 

90.6 

91.4 

91.8 

92.1 

3 

76.8 

82.3 

84.2 

85.4 

86.1 

86.8 

4 

69.3 

75.7 

78.2 

79.6 

80.6 

81.6 

5 

62.6 

69.5 

72.4 

74.0 

75.3 

76.6 

6 

56.4 

63.7 

66.8 

68.6 

70.2 

71.8 

7 

51.0 

58.3 

61.4 

63.4 

65.3 

67.1 

8 

46.1 

53.3 

56.4 

58.6 

60.7 

62.7 

9 

41.7 

48.7 

51.7 

53.9 

56.2 

58.6 

10 

37.8 

< 

47.4 

49.7 

52.2 

54.9 

11 

34.3 

40.6 

43.5 

45.8 

48.4 

51.2 

12 

31.1 

37.1 

40.0 

42.2 

45.0 

47.8 

13 

28.2 

33.9 

36.7 

39.0 

41.7 

44.7 

14 

25.6 

31.0 

33.7 

36.0 

38.7 

41.7 

15 

23.3 

28.4 

30.9 

33.2 

36.0 

39.0 

16 

21.1 

26.0 

28.4 

30.6 

33.4 

36.5 

17 

19.3 

23.8 

26.1 

28.3 

31.1 

34.2 

18 

17.5 

21.8 

24.0 

26.2 

28.9 

32.0 

19 

15.9 

19.9 

22.2 

24.2 

26.9 

29.9 

20 

14.5 

18.2 

20.3 

22.4 

25.0 

28.1 


Cobalt 60 SSD 60 cm 

Depth 



Area of Field in 

Square Centimetres 



in cm 

0 

20 

50 

100 

200 

400 

0.5 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

95.0 

96.7 

97.1 

97.8 

97.9 

98.1 

2 

86.0 

90.1 

91.2 

92.2 

92.6 

93.0 

3 

77.9 

83.7 

85.4 

86.6 

87.4 

88.0 

4 

70.7 

77.6 

79.7 

81.2 

82.3 

83.2 

5 

64.2 

i\n 

74.2 

75.9 

77.3 

78.4 

6 

58.3 

66.1 

68.9 

70.7 

72.4 

73.7 

7 

53.0 

60.8 

63.7 

65.7 

67.6 

69.2 

8 

48.2 

.55.8 

58.8 

60.9 

63.0 

65.0 

9 

43.9 

51.2 

54.2 

56.4 

58.6 

60.9 

10 

39.9 

46.9 

49.9 

52.2 

54.5 

57.1 

11 

36.3 

43.0 

46.0 

48.3 

50.7 

53.4 

12 

33.1 

39.4 

42.4 

44.7 

47.2 

50.0 

13 

30.2 

.36.1 

39.1 

41.4 

44.0 

47.0 

14 

27.5 

33.1 

36.0 

38.3 

41.0 

44.0 

15 

25.1 

30.4 

33.2 

35.5 

38.2 

41.2 

16 

22.9 

27.9 

30.6 

32.9 

35.6 

38.6 

17 

20.9 

25.7 

28.2 

30.5 

33.2 

36.2 

18 

19.1 

23.7 

26.0 

28.3 

31.0 

34.1 

19 

17.4 

21.8 

24.0 

26.2 

28.9 

32.0 

20 

15.9 

20.0 

22.1 

24.2 

27.0 

30.0 


81 


373-062 0 - 70 - 13 


DEPTH DOSE --Continued 


Cobalt 60 SSD 80 cm 


Dcjilli 



A rea of Field in 

Square Centimetres 



in cm 

0 

20 

50 

100 

200 

■too 

0.5 

1(4). 0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

lOD.O 

100.0 

1 

95.4 

97.0 

97.7 

98.2 

98.4 

98.5 

2 

87.1 

91.0 

92.5 

93.4 

93.7 

94.0 

.3 

79.5 

85.3 

87.2 

88.4 

89.0 

89.6 

4 

72.7 

79.6 

82.0 

83.4 

84.4 

85.2 

5 

66.5 

74.1 

76.9 

78.5 

79.9 

80.8 

6 

60.8 

68.9 

71.8 

73.7 

75.2 

76.4 

7 

.55.6 

63.8 

66.8 

68.9 

70.7 

72.1 

8 

50.9 

58.9 

62.1 

64.2 

66.3 

68.0 

0 

46.6 

.54.3 

57.5 

59.8 

62.1 

64.1 

10 

42.7 

50.1 

53.3 

55.7 

58.1 

60.3 

1 1 

39.2 

46.2 

49.4 

51.8 

54.3 

56.7 

12 

35.9 

42.6 

45.8 

48.2 

50.8 

53.3 

13 

32.9 

39.3 

42.4 

44.9 

47.6 

50.1 

14 

30.2 

36.3 

39.3 

41.8 

44.5 

47.1 

15 

27.7 

33.5 

36.4 

38.9 

41.8 

44.3 

16 

25.4 

31.0 

33.8 

36.2 

39.0 

41.7 

17 

23.3 

28.7 

31.3 

33.8 

36.5 

39.2 

18 

21.4 

26.5 

29.0 

31.4 

34.2 

36.9 

19 

19.6 

24.5 

27.0 

29.3 

32.0 

34.7 

20 

18.0 

22.6 

25.0 

27.3 

30.0 

32.7- 


Cobalt 60 SSD 100 cm 


Depth 
in cm 

0 

20 

Area of Field in 
50 

Square Centimetres 
100 

200 

400 

0.5 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

95.9 

97.2 

97.9 

98.6 

98.8 

98.8 

2 

87.9 

91.7 

93.0 

94.0 

94.5 

94.6 

3 

80.7 

86.3 

88.1 

89.4 

90.1 

90.5 

4 

73.8 

81.0 

83.2 

84.8 

85.7 

86.4 

5 

67.8 

Ib.l 

78.4 

80.2 

81.3 

82.3 

6 

62.3 

70.6 

73.6 

75.6 

76.9 

78.2 

7 

57.3 

65.7 

68.8 

71.0 

72.5 

74.1 

8 

52.7 

61.0 

64.2 

66.5 

68.3 

70.1 

9 

48.5 

56.5 

59.7 

62.1 

64.2 

66.2 

10 

44.7 

52.3 

55.5 

57.9 

60.3 

62.5 

11 

41.2 

48.4 

51.6 

54.0 

56.6 

58.8 

12 

38.0 

44.8 

48.0 

50.4 

53.1 

55.4 

13 

35.0 

41.5 

44.6 

47.1 

49.8 

52.2 

14 

32.2 

38.5 

41.5 

44.0 

46.7 

49.2 

15 

29.6 

35.7 

38.6 

41.1 

43.8 

46.4 

16 

27.2 

33.1 

35.9 

38.4 

41.1 

43.7 

17 

25.0 

30.7 

33.4 

35.9 

38.6 

41.2 

18 

23.0 

28.5 

31.1 

33.6 

36.3 

38.8 

19 

21.2 

26.4 

29.0 

31.4 

34.1 

36.6 

20 

19.5 

24.4 

27.0 

29.2 

32.0 

34.5 


182 


DEPTH DOSE --Continued 


Depth Dose in Wa itr i or Linear Accfi.erator for 100% at Peak 
4.2 Mev 15D 100 cm HVL15.7mmCu 
C ourtesy of M. J. Day and !•'. T. raiincr: Hril. J. Radiol. 


field 
Si 1C 

Zero 
,1 ren 

2 X 2 

VX -/ 

6 X 6 

fixs 

JOXIO 

12X12 

14X1 ! 

16X16 

ISXIS 

20X20 

l-'.quiv din 


Cfn 

cm 

cm 

cm 

cm 

cm 

cm 

cm 

cm 

cm 

Depth cm 

0 

2.2 

7.5 

6.7 

9.0 

11.2 

13.4 

15.6 

17. S 

20.0 

22.1 

1 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1.35 

99.0 

99.0 

99.1 

99.1 

99.2 

99.2 

99.3 

99.3 

99.3 

99.4 

99.5 

1.5 

97.9 

98.0 

98.0 

98.1 

98.3 

98.5 

98.7 

98.8 

99.0 

99.2 

99.3 

2 

93.9 

94.6 

95.2 

96.0 

96.4 

96.7 

97.0 

97.2 

97.4 

97.7 

97.9 

4 

80.2 

82.9 

85.0 

86.6 

81. ry 

88.1 

88.6 

89.0 

89.3 

89.7 

90.1 

6 

68.6 

71.9 

74.6 

76.8 

78.0 

78.9 

79.5 

80.0 

80.6 

81.2 

81.6 

8 

. 59.1 

61.9 

65.0 

fyl.l 

69.3 

70.5 

71.3 

72.1 

72.7 

73.3 

73.7 

10 

50.9 

53.6 

56.7 

59.6 

61.5 

62.9 

63.9 

65.0 

65.7 

66.5 

67.1 

12 

44.2 

46.4 

49.3 

. 52.1 

, 54.3 

. 55.8 

57.0 

57.9 

59.0 

. 59.8 

60.5 

14 

38.2 

40.2 

42.8 

45.5 

47.4 

49.0 

50.2 

51.3 

52.3 

53.3 

54.0 

16 

33.4 

35.3 

37.6 

39.9 

41.5 

43.5 

44.8 

45.9 

47.0 

47.9 

48.7 

18 

29.2 

30.7 

32.7 

34.8 

36.8 

38.4 

39.6 

40.8 

41.8 

42.8 

43.5 

20 

25.5 

26.8 

28.6 

30.6 

32.6 

34.0 

35.3 

36.4 

37.4 

38.3 

39.2 

22 

22.3 

23.4 

25.2 

26.9 

28.5 

30.0 

31.3 

32.3 

33.2 

34.2 

34.9 

24 

19.5 

20.6 

22.0 

23.6 

25.2 

26.5 

27.6 

28.6 

29.5 

30.5 

31.2 

26 

17.1 

18.0 

19.5 

20.8 

22.3 

23.4 

24.4 

25.3 

26.2 

27.0 

27.8 

28 

14.9 

15.8 

17.0 

18.4 

19.6 

20.7 

21.6 

22.4 

23.3 

24.1 

24.7 

30 

13.1 

14.0 

15.1 

16.3 

17.3 

18.3 

19.1 

19.8 

20.7 

21.4 

22.0 


22 Mev Betatron Radiation with Copper Compensating Filter 

Depth 

FSD — 70 cm 

FSD — 100 cm 

0.0 

20 

19 

0.5 

51.0 

50.0 

1.0 

71.0 

70.0 

2.0 

92.8 

90.1 

3.0 

99.2 

98.0 

4.0 

100.0 

100.0 

5.0 

98.2 

99.5 

6.0 

93.3 

96.6 

7.0 

89.0 

93.0 

8.0 

84.9 

89.1 

9.0 

81.0 

85.3 

10.0 

77.1 

81.9 

11.0 

73.5 

78.5 

12.0 

70.0 

75.5 

13.0 

66.7 

72.5 

14.0 

63.6 

69.6 

15.0 

60.5 

67.0 

16.0 

57.7 

64.2 

17.0 

55.0 

61.6 

18.0 

52.4 

. 59.1 

19.0 

49.9 

56.8 

20.0 

47.5 

54.5 


183 


DEPTH DOSE --Continued 


Rectangular I'iF.i.Ds HVL 0.5 mm Cii KSD 50cm 
RecTANGLI.AR FIEI.DS in cm X CM 


Depth 
in cm 

4X4 

4X6 

4XS 

4X10 

4X15 

4X20 

6X6 

6X8 

6X10 

6X15 

6X20 

* 

121.4 

124.4 

126.1 

127.2 

128.5 

129.2 

128.3 

130.6 

1.32.1 

134.0 

135.0 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

91.4 

92.7 

93.3 

93.8 

94.3 

94.4 

94.2 

95.1 

95.6 

96.3 

96.5 

2 

77.6 

79.7 

80.9 

81.6 

82.5 

82.8 

82.4 

83.9 

84.9 

86.0 

86.4 

.5 

64.4 

66.9 

68.4 

69.4 

70.5 

71.1 

70.2 

72.2 

73.3 

74.8 

75.5 

4 

52.6 

55.4 

57.1 

58.2 

59.5 

60.1 

59.0 

61.3 

62.6 

64.3 

65.2 

5 

42.9 

45.7 

47.4 

48.6 

50.0 

50.7 

49.3 

51.6 

53.0 

54.9 

55.8 

6 

.35.0 

37.7 

39.4 

40.4 

41.9 

42.6 

41.1 

43.3 

44.6 

46.6 

47.6 

7 

28.5 

31.0 

32.6 

33.5 

35.0 

35.7 

34.2 

36.2 

37.4 

39.4 

40.4 

8 

23.5 

25.6 

27.0 

27.9 

29.3 

30.0 

28.4 

30.2 

31.4 

33.3 

34.2 

9 

19.4 

21.2 

22.4 

23.2 

24.6 

25.2 

23.6 

25.1 

26.3 

28.1 

29.0 

10 

16.0 

17.5 

18.6 

19.3 

20.6 

21.1 

19.6 

21.0 

22.0 

23.7 

24.6 

11 

13.1 

14.5 

15.5 

16.1 

17.2 

17.8 

16.3 

17.6 

18.5 

20.0 

20.9 

12 

10.7 

12.0 

12.9 

13.5 

14.4 

15.0 

13.6 

14.8 

15.6 

16.9 

17.7 

13 

8.8 

9.9 

10.7 

11.3 

12.1 

12.6 

11.3 

12.4 

13.1 

14.3 

15.0 

14 

7.3 

8.2 

8.9 

9.4 

10.1 

10.6 

9.4 

10.3 

11.0 

12.1 

12.8 

15 

6.0 

6.8 

7.4 

7.8 

8.5 

8.9 

7.8 

8.6 

9.2 

10.2 

10.7 

16 

5.0 

5.6 

6.1 

6.5 

7.1 

7.5 

6.5 

7.2 

7.7 

8.6 

9.1 

17 

4.1 

4.7 

5.1 

5.4 

5.9 

6.3 

5.4 

6.0 

6.4 

7.2 

7.7 

18 

3.3 

3.9 

4.2 

4.5 

5.0 

5.3 

4.5 

5.0 

5.4 

6.1 

6.5 

19 

2.7 

3.2 

3.5 

3.8 

4.2 

4.5 

3.8 

4.2 

4.6 

5.2 

5.5 

20 

2.2 

2.6 

2.9 

3.1 

3.5 

3.7 

3.1 

3.5 

3.8 

4.3 

4.7 


Depth 
in cm 

8X8 

8X10 

8X15 

8X20 

10X10 

10X15 

10X20 

15X15 

15X20 

20X20 

♦ 

133.4 

135.2 

137.6 

139.0 

137.3 

140.1 

141.8 

143.9 

146.2 

148.9 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

96.1 

96.7 

97.6 

97.8 

97.5 

98.4 

98.6 

99.4 

99.6 

99.8 

2 

85.8 

86.7 

88.1 

88.6 

87.9 

89.5 

90.1 

91.3 

92.0 

92.9 

3 

74.3 

75.7 

77.6 

78.5 

77.3 

79.4 

80.4 

81.9 

83.2 

84.7 

4 

63.8 

65.3 

67.4 

68.5 

67.1 

69.5 

70.7 

12A 

73.9 

15.7 

5 

54.2 

55.8 

58.1 

59.2 

57.7 

60.3 

61.6 

63.5 

65.1 

66.9 

6 

45.8 

47.4 

49.8 

51.0 

49.2 

52.0 

53.4 

55.4 

57.0 

58.9 

7 

38.6 

40.1 

42.5 

43.7 

41.8 

44.6 

46.0 

48.0 

49.7 

51.6 

8 

32.3 

33.8 

36.1 

37.3 

35.4 

38.1 

39.5 

41.4 

43.1 

45.0 

9 

27.0 

28.4 

30.6 

31.8 

30.0 

32.5 

33.8 

35.6 

37.3 

39.2 

10 

22.7 

24.0 

26.0 

27.1 

25.4 

27.7 

29.0 

30.6 

32.3 

.34.1 

11 

19.1 

20.3 

22.0 

23.1 

21.5 

23.6 

24.8 

26.3 

27.8 

29.6 

12 

16.1 

17.1 

18.7 

19.7 

18.3 

20.1 

21.2 

22.5 

24.0 

25.7 

13 

13.6 

14.5 

15.9 

16.8 

15.5 

17.2 

18.2 

19.3 

20.7 

22.2 

14 

11.4 

12.2 

13.5 

14.3 

13.1 

14.7 

15.6 

16.6 

17.8 

19.2 

15 

9.5 

10.2 

11.4 

12.2 

11.0 

12.5 

13.3 

14.2 

15.3 

16.6 

16 

8.0 

8.5 

9.6 

10.4 

9.3 

10.6 

11.4 

12.2 

13.2 

14.4 

17 

6.7 

7.2 

8.2 

8.8 

7.9 

9.0 

9.7 

10.5 

11.4 

12.4 

18 

5.6 

6.1 

7.0 

7.5 

6.7 

7.7 

8.3 

9.0 

9.8 

10.7 

19 

4.7 

5.2 

6.0 

6.4 

5.7 

6.6 

7.1 

7.7 

8.5 

9.3 

20 

4.0 

4.3 

5.0 

5.4 

4.8 

5.6 

6.1 

6.6 

7.3 

8.0 


*The first line gives the surface dose for 100 r of primary. 


184 


DEPTH DOSE--Continued 


Rkctangh.ar Fields HVLI. OmmCu FSD r>0 cm 
Rectangular Fiei.ds in cm X cm 


Drl'ili 












in cm 

vxy 

yxrt 

■fXH 

■fxio 

yx/y 

■1X20 

6X6 

6XS 

6X10 

6XJ'i 

6X20 

* 

1 IH.O 

121. 1 

123.0 

124.3 

125.8 

126.6 

125.2 

127.9 

129.7 

131.8 

133.0 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

92.9 

94.7 

95.5 

96.0 

96.6 

96.8 

96.9 

97.9 

98.5 

99.3 

99.5 

2 

81.3 

84.3 

85.7 

86.5 

87.4 

87.7 

87.9 

89.6 

90.6 

91.7 

92.1 

.1 

70.3 

73.5 

75.3 

76.5 

77.8 

78.3 

llA 

79.8 

81.3 

82.9 

83.6 

4 

60.0 

63.2 

65.1 

66.4 

68.0 

68.7 

67.2 

69.7 

71.3 

73.4 

74.4 

5 

.->0.7 

53.8 

55.8 

57.1 

58.7 

59.5 

bin 

60.2 

61.9 

64.2 

65.2 

6 

42.7 

45.5 

47.4 

48.8 

50.4 

51.3 

49.2 

51.6 

53.4 

55.7 

56.8 

7 

3.').8 

38.3 

40.1 

41.5 

43.1 

44.0 

41.7 

44.1 

45.8 

48.1 

49.2 

H 

29.9 

32.2 

33.9 

35.2 

36.8 

37.7 

35.3 

37.6 

39.2 

41.4 

42.5 

!) 

2.7.0 

27.1 

28.7 

29.8 

31.4 

32.2 

29.9 

32.0 

33.5 

35.6 

36.7 

10 

20.9 

22.8 

24.2 

25.2 

26.7 

27.5 

25.3 

27.2 

28.6 

30.6 

31.6 

1 1 

17.4 

19.2 

20.4 

21.3 

22.7 

23.5 

21.4 

23.1 

24.3 

26.2 

27.2 

12 

14.6 

16.2 

17.3 

18.1 

19.4 

20.1 

18.1 

19.6 

20.7 

22.5 

23.4 

l.S 

12.2 

13.6 

14.6 

15.4 

16.5 

17.1 

15.3 

16.6 

17.6 

19.3 

20.1 

14 

10.2 

11.4 

12.3 

13.0 

14.0 

14.6 

12.9 

14.1 

15.0 

16.5 

17.2 

IT) 

8.6 

9.6 

10.4 

11.0 

11.9 

12.5 

10.9 

12.0 

12.8 

14.1 

14.8 

16 

7.2 

8.1 

8.7 

9.3 

10.1 

10.7 

9.2 

10.2 

10.9 

12.0 

12.7 

17 

6.0 

6.8 

7.3 

7.8 

8.6 

9.1 

7.8 

8.6 

9.2 

10.3 

10.9 

IH 

.7.0 

5.7 

6.2 

6.6 

7.3 

7.7 

6.6 

7.3 

7.8 

8.8 

9.4 

19 

4.2 

4.8 

5.2 

5.6 

6.2 

6.6 

5.6 

6.2 

6.7 

7.5 

8.1 

20 

3.5 

4.0 

4.4 

4.8 

5.3 

5.6 

4.7 

5.3 

5.7 

6.4 

6.9 


Depth 
in cm 

SXS 

SXIO 

8 X 15 

8 X 20 

10 X 10 

10 X 15 

10 X 20 

15 X 15 

15 X 20 

20 X 20 

* 

131.1 

133.3 

136.0 

137.5 

135.7 

138.9 

140.7 

143.0 

145.6 

148.7 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

99.1 

99.8 

100.7 

100.9 

100.6 

101.5 

101.8 

102.6 

102.8 

103.0 

2 

91.6 

92.8 

94.0 

94.5 

94.0 

95.4 

95.9 

97.0 

97.6 

98.4 

3 

82.5 

84.2 

86.2 

87.0 

86.1 

88.3 

89.2 

90.9 

92.0 

93.4 

4 

72.6 

lA.b 

77.0 

78.1 

76.6 

79.4 

80.7 

82.8 

84.4 

86.1 

r> 

63.2 

65.2 

67.8 

69.1 

67.3 

70.3 

71.8 

74.0 

lb .8 

77.8 

6 

54.6 

56.6 

59.4 

60.6 

58.8 

61.9 

63.4 

65.6 

61. b 

69.7 

7 

46.9 

48.9 

51.7 

52.9 

51.1 

54.2 

bb.l 

57.9 

59.9 

62.2 

8 

40.2 

42.1 

44.8 

46.1 

44.2 

47.2 

48.8 

50.9 

53.0 

55.3 

9 

34.4 

.36.2 

38.7 

40.1 

38.2 

41.1 

42.6 

44.6 

46.7 

49.1 

10 

29.4 

31.1 

33.4 

34.8 

32.9 

35.6 

37.1 

39.0 

41.0 

43.4 

11 

25.1 

26.6 

28.8 

30.2 

28.3 

30.8 

32.3 

34.0 

35.9 

38.2 

12 

21.4 

22.1 

24.9 

26.1 

24.3 

26.6 

28.1 

29.6 

31.4 

33.5 

13 

18.3 

19.4 

21.4 

22.5 

20.8 

23.0 

24.3 

25.8 

27.4 

29.3 

14 

15.6 

16.6 

18.4 

19.4 

17.8 

19.8 

21.0 

22.4 

23.9 

25.7 

15 

13.2 

14.2 

15.8 

16.7 

15.3 

17.1 

18.2 

19.4 

20.8 

22.5 

16 

11.2 

12.1 

13.5 

14.4 

13.1 

14.8 

15.8 

16.9 

18.2 

19.7 

17 

9.5 

10.3 

11.6 

12.4 

11.2 

12.7 

13.7 

14.7 

15.9 

17.2 

18 

8.1 

8.8 

10.0 

10.7 

9.6 

10.9 

11.8 

12.7 

13.8 

15.1 

19 

7.0 

7.6 

8.6 

9.3 

8.3 

9.4 

10.2 

11.0 

12.0 

13.2 

20 

6.0 

6.5 

7.4 

8.0 

7.1 

8.1 

8.8 

9.5 

10.4 

11.5 


* The first line gives the surface dose for 100 r of primary. 


DEPTH DOSE,- -Continued 


RrcTANr.iii.AR I'iF.LDS nVL 1.5 MM fUj )'.S1)50cm 


RrCTANGULAR iMF.l.DS IN CM X CM 


Depth 












in cm 

4X-/ 

■fX6 

4XS 

■fXIO 

■4X15 

4X20 

6X6 

6XS 

6X10 

6X 15 

6X20 

* 

116.6 

119.3 

121.0 

122.2 

123.7 

124.5 

123.0 

125.3 

126.9 

129.1 

1.30.3 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

100,0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

91.0 

95.3 

96.0 

96.4 

97.0 

97.2 

97.0 

97.8 

98.4 

99.1 

99.4 

2 

83.2 

85.5 

86.8 

87.5 

88.4 

88.8 

88.5 

90.0 

91.0 

92.1 

92.6 

3 

72.0 

74.9 

76.6 

77.6 

78.8 

79.3 

78.5 

80.8 

82.1 

83.8 

84.5 

4 

61.3 

64.4 

66.3 

67.6 

69.0 

69.7 

68.2 

70.8 

72.4 

74.4 

75.3 

5 

52.2 

55.1 

57.1 

58.4 

60.0 

60.8 

58.9 

61.5 

63.2 

65.4 

66.4 

6 

44.2 

47.0 

48.9 

50.2 

52.0 

52.8 

50.6 

53.2 

54.9 

57.2 

58.3 

7 

37.3 

40.0 

41.8 

43.1 

44.8 

45.7 

43.4 

45.8 

47.5 

49.8 

51.0 

8 

31.4 

33.9 

35.6 

36.8 

38.5 

39.4 

37.0 

39.3 

40.9 

43.2 

44.4 

9 

26.4 

28.6 

30.2 

31.4 

33.0 

33.9 

31.5 

33.6 

35.2 

37.4 

38.6 

10 

22.3 

24.2 

25.6 

26.7 

28.2 

29.1 

26.9 

28.8 

30.2 

32.3 

33.5 

11 

18.8 

20.5 

21.8 

22.8 

24.2 

25.0 

22.9 

24.6 

25.9 

27.8 

29.0 

12 

15.8 

17.4 

18.5 

19.4 

20.7 

21.5 

19.5 

21.0 

22.2 

24.0 

25.1 

13 

13.3 

14.7 

15.7 

16.5 

17.7 

18.5 

16.6 

17.9 

19.0 

20.7 

21.7 

14 

11.2 

12.4 

13.4 

14.1 

15.2 

15.9 

14.1 

15.3 

16.3 

17.8 

18.7 

15 

9.4 

10.5 

11.4 

12.0 

13.1 

13.6 

12.0 

13.1 

14.0 

15.4 

16.2 

16 

7.9 

8.9 

9.6 

10.2 

11.2 

11.7 

10.2 

11.2 

12.0 

13.3 

14.0 

17 

6.7 

7.5 

8.2 

8.7 

9.6 

10.1 

8.7 

9.6 

10.3 

11.5 

12.1 

18 

5.7 

6.4 

7.0 

7.4 

8.2 

8.7 

7.4 

8.2 

8.9 

10.0 

10.5 

19 

4.8 

5.4 

5.9 

6.3 

7.1 

7.5 

6.3 

7.0 

7.6 

8.6 

9.1 

20 

4.0 

4.6 

5.0 

5.4 

6.1 

6.5 

5.3 

6.0 

6.5 

7.4 

7.9 


Depth 
in cm 

8 X 8 

8 X 10 

8 X 15 

8 X 20 

10 X 10 

10 X 15 

10 X 20 

15 X 15 

15 X 20 

20 X 20 

* 

128.2 

130.2 

133.0 

134.5 

132.4 

135.7 

137.6 

140.0 

142.6 

145.7 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

98.8 

99.5 

100.3 

100.6 

100.2 

101.2 

101.5 

102.3 

102.5 

102.7 

2 

91.8 

92.9 

94.3 

94.9 

94.1 

95.6 

96.3 

97.4 

98.3 

99.3 

3 

83.2 

84.8 

86.8 

87.7 

86.6 

88.8 

89.8 

91.4 

92.7 

94.2 

4 

73.7 

75.6 

78.0 

79.0 

77.7 

80.4 

81.6 

83.5 

85.1 

86.9 

5 

64.5 

66.5 

69.1 

70.3 

68.7 

71.7 

73.1 

75.3 

77.1 

79.2 

6 

,56.1 

58.1 

60.9 

62.2 

60.4 

63.5 

65.0 

67.3 

69.3 

71.7 

7 

48.6 

50.6 

53.4 

54.8 

52.9 

56.0 

57.7 

59.9 

62.0 

64.6 

8 

42.0 

43.9 

46.6 

48.1 

46.1 

49.2 

50.9 

53.0 

55.3 

57.9 

9 

36.2 

38.0 

40.6 

42.1 

40.1 

43.1 

44.8 

46.8 

49.1 

51.7 

10 

31.1 

32.8 

35.3 

36.7 

34.7 

37.6 

39.2 

41.2 

43.4 

45.9 

11 

26.7 

28.3 

30.6 

32.0 

30.0 

32.7 

34.3 

36.1 

38.2 

40.6 

12 

22.9 

24.3 

26.5 

27.8 

25.9 

28.4 

30.0 

31.6 

33.6 

35.8 

13 

19.7 

20.9 

22.9 

24.1 

22.4 

24.7 

26.1 

27.6 

29.4 

31.5 

14 

16.9 

18.0 

19.8 

21.0 

19.4 

21.5 

22.8 

24.2 

25.8 

27.7 

15 

14.5 

15.5 

17.2 

18.3 

16.8 

18.7 

19.9 

21.2 

22.7 

24.3 

16 

12.4 

13.4 

14.9 

15.9 

14.5 

16.3 

17.4 

18.6 

19.9 

21.4 

17 

10.7 

11.6 

13.0 

13.9 

12.5 

14.2 

15.2 

16.4 

17.5 

18.8 

18 

9.2 

10.0 

11.3 

12.1 

10.8 

12.4 

13.3 

14.4 

15.4 

16.6 

19 

7.9 

8.6 

9.8 

10.5 

9.3 

10.8 

11.6 

12.6 

13.6 

14.6 

20 

6.7 

7.4 

8.5 

9.1 

8.1 

9.4 

10.1 

11.0 

11.9 

12.8 


*The first line gives the surface dose for 100 r of primary. 


DEPTH DOSE --Continued 


Recianciu.ar Fields UVL 2.0 sjst Cn r. sn.'iOcM 
Kectanci'Lar Fiei.ds in cm X cm 


Defiih 


ill cm 

vx / 

■tX6 

VX.V 

IX/0 

■fxn 

■IX. 20 

61 ^ (> 

6XS 

6X10 

6x n 

6X20 

♦ 

114.4 

116.9 

118.4 

119.4 

120.8 

121.6 

120.1 

122.2 

123.7 

125.7 

126.9 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

93.8 

95.2 

95.8 

96.2 

96.7 

96.9 

96.8 

97.7 

98.2 

98.8 

99.0 

2 

83.9 

85.9 

87.0 

87.7 

885 

88.9 

88.4 

89.8 

90.7 

91.8 

92.3 

3 

72.5 

75.2 

76.7 

77.7 

78.9 

79.4 

78.6 

80.6 

81.9 

83.5 

84.2 

4 

62.1 

65.0 

66.7 

67.9 

69.4 

70.0 

68.7 

71.0 

725 

745 

75.4 

,5 

52.9 

55.7 

57.6 

58.8 

60.5 

61.2 

595 

61.9 

63.5 

65.6 

66.6 

6 

44.9 

47.6 

49.5 

.50.7 

52.4 

53.2 

51.3 

53.7 

55.3 

57.5 

58.6 

7 

38.0 

40.6 

42.4 

43.6 

45.3 

46.1 

44.1 

46.4 

48.0 

50.3 

51.4 

8 

32.1 

34.6 

36.3 

37.4 

39.1 

39.9 

37.8 

40.1 

41.6 

43.8 

45.0 

9 

27.1 

29.4 

31.0 

32.1 

33.7 

345 

32.4 

34.5 

36.0 

38.1 

39.3 

10 

22.9 

25.0 

26.5 

27.5 

29.0 

29.8 

27.7 

29.7 

31.1 

33.1 

34.2 

11 

19.4 

21.3 

22.6 

23.6 

25.0 

25.8 

23.6 

25.5 

26.8 

28.7 

29.8 

12 

16.5 

18.1 

19.3 

20.2 

21.5 

22.3 

20.2 

21.9 

23.1 

24.9 

25.9 

13 

14.0 

15.4 

165 

17.3 

18.5 

19.3 

17.3 

18.8 

19.9 

21.6 

225 

14 

11.9 

13.1 

14.1 

14.8 

15.9 

16.7 

14.8 

16.1 

17.1 

18.7 

19.6 

15 

10.1 

11.2 

12.1 

12.7 

13.7 

14.4 

12.7 

13.8 

14.7 

16.2 

17.0 

16 

8.5 

9.5 

10.3 

10.9 

11.8 

12.4 

10.9 

11.8 

12.6 

14.0 

14.8 

17 

7.2 

8.1 

8.8 

9.3 

10.2 

10.7 

9.3 

10.1 

10.9 

12.1 

12.9 

18 

6.1 

6.9 

7.5 

8.0 

8.8 

9.3 

7.9 

8.7 

9.4 

10.5 

11.2 

19 

5.2 

5.9 

6.4 

6.8 

7.6 

8.0 

6.7 

75 

8.1 

9.1 

9.7 

20 

4.4 

4.9 

5.4 

5.8 

6.5 

6.9 

5.7 

6.4 

6.9 

7.9 

8.4 


Depth 
in cm 

8X8 

8X10 

8X15 

8X20 

10X10 

10X15 

10X20 

15X15 

15X20 

20X20 

* 

124.8 

126.5 

129.2 

130.7 

128.6 

131.7 

1335 

135.8 

138.4 

141.5 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

98.6 

99.3 

100.0 

100.3 

99.9 

100.8 

101.0 

101.7 

102.0 

102.4 

2 

91.4 

92.5 

93.8 

94.4 

93.6 

95.1 

95.8 

96.9 

97.8 

98.9 

3 

83.0 

84.5 

86.4 

87.3 

86.1 

88.3 

89.3 

90.9 

92.1 

93.6 

4 

73.6 

75.4 

77.8 

78.9 

77.4 

80.1 

81.4 

83.4 

85.0 

86.8 

5 

64.7 

66.6 

69.1 

70.4 

68.7 

71.6 

73.0 

75.1 

77.0 

79.1 

6 

565 

58.5 

61.1 

62.5 

60.6 

63.6 

65.2 

67.3 

69.3 

71.6 

7 

49.2 

51.1 

53.8 

55.3 

53.2 

56.3 

57.9 

60.1 

62.2 

64.6 

8 

42.7 

44.5 

47.2 

48.7 

46.6 

49.7 

51.3 

53 Ji 

55.6 

58.1 

9 

37.0 

38.7 

41.4 

42.8 

40.7 

43.8 

45.3 

47.5 

49.6 

52.1 

10 

32.0 

33.6 

36.2 

37.5 

355 

38.4 

40.0 

42.0 

44.1 

465 

11 

27.6 

29.1 

31.6 

32.8 

30.9 

33.6 

35.2 

37.1 

39.1 

41.4 

12 

23.8 

25.2 

27.5 

28.7 

26.9 

29.4 

30.9 

32.7 

34.6 

36.7 

13 

20.5 

21.8 

23.9 

25.1 

23.4 

25.7 

27.1 

28.7 

30.5 

325 

14 

17.6 

18.9 

20.8 

21.9 

20.3 

22.4 

23.8 

25.2 

26.9 

28.7 

15 

15.2 

16.3 

18.1 

19.1 

17.6 

19.6 

20.8 

22.2 

23.7 

25.4 

16 

13.1 

14.1 

15.7 

16.7 

15.2 

17.1 

18.2 

19.5 

20.9 

22.5 

17 

11.3 

12.2 

13.7 

14.6 

13.2 

15.0 

16.0 

17.2 

18.4 

19.9 

18 

9.8 

10.5 

12.0 

12.8 

11.5 

13.2 

14.0 

15.2 

16.3 

17.6 

19 

8.4 

9.1 

10.5 

11.2 

10.0 

115 

12.3 

13.4 

14.4 

15.6 

20 

7.2 

7.9 

9.1 

9.7 

8.7 

10.0 

10.8 

11.7 

12.7 

13.7 


* The first line gives the surface dose for 100 f of primary. 


187 


DEPTH DOSE--Continued 


Ri.ci AN(;iii.AK I ii;i,i)s liVLS.OMMCu FSDSOcm 

RfC.I A^Glll.AR I' lEI DS IN CM X CM 


Drf)th 












in cm 

4X4 

4X6 

4XS 

■IXIO 

4X/5 

4X20 

6X6 

6XS 

6X/0 

6X/‘> 

6X20 

* 

111.6 

113.7 

114.9 

115.8 

117.0 

117.6 

116.4 

118.2 

119.4 

121.1 

122.1 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

93.9 

95.1 

95.6 

95.9 

96.3 

96.5 

96.5 

97.1 

97.5 

98.1 

98.3 

2 

84.6 

86.2 

87.1 

87.6 

88.4 

88.7 

88.3 

89.4 

90.1 

91.2 

91.5 

3 

73.7 

76.0 

77.3 

78.1 

79.2 

79.7 

78.8 

80.5 

81.6 

83.1 

83.6 

4 

63.1 

65.8 

67.4 

68.4 

69.6 

70.3 

69.0 

71.0 

72.4 

74.1 

75.0 

5 

54.2 

56.7 

58.4 

59.5 

60.9 

61.6 

60.1 

62.2 

63.7 

65.6 

66.6 

6 

46.3 

48.7 

50.4 

51.5 

53.1 

53.8 

52.0' 

54.2 

55.7 

57.8 

58.8 

7 

39.3 

41.7 

43.4 

44.5 

46.1 

46.8 

44.9 

47.1 

48.6 

50.8 

51.8 

8 

33.4 

35.7 

37.3 

38.5 

40.0 

40.7 

38.7 

40.9 

42.4 

44.5 

45.6 

9 

28.5 

30.6 

32.1 

33.2 

34.7 

35.4 

33.4 

35.4 

36.9 

38.9 

40.0 

10 

24.3 

26.2 

27.6 

28.6 

30.0 

30.8 

28.7 

30.6 

32.0 

34.0 

35.0 

11 

20.7 

22.4 

23.7 

24.6 

26.0 

26.7 

24.7 

26.4 

27.7 

29.6 

30.6 

12 

17.6 

19.1 

20.4 

21.2 

22.5 

23.1 

21.2 

22.8 

24.0 

25.7 

26.7 

13 

15.1 

16.3 

17.5 

18.3 

19.5 

20.0 

18.2 

19.7 

20.8 

22.4 

23.3 

14 

12.9 

14.0 

15.0 

15.'/ 

16.9 

17.4 

15.7 

17.0 

18.0 

19.5 

20.3 

15 

11.0 

12.0 

12.8 

13.5 

14.6 

15.1 

13.5 

14.6 

15.5 

17.0 

17.7 

16 

9.4 

10.3 

11.0 

11.6 

12.6 

13.1 

11.6 

12.6 

13.4 

14.8 

15.5 

17 

8.0 

8.8 

9.4 

10.0 

10.9 

11.4 

10.0 

10.9 

11.6 

12.9 

13.5 

18 

6.8 

7.5 

8.1 

8.6 

9.4 

9.9 

8.6 

9.4 

10.0 

11.2 

11.8 

19 

5.8 

6.4 

7.0 

7.4 

8.1 

8.6 

7.4 

8.1 

8.7 

9.8 

10.3 

20 

4.9 

5.5 

6.0 

6.4 

7.1 

7.5 

6.3 

7.0 

7.6 

8.5 

9.0 


Depth 
in cm 

8X8 

8X10 

8X15 

8X20 

10X10 

10X15 

10X20 

15X15 

15X20 

20X20 

* 

120.4 

121.9 

124.1 

125.3 

123.7 

126.2 

127.7 

129.6 

131.5 

133.7 

0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

97.9 

98.3 

99.1 

99.3 

98.9 

99.7 

100.0 

100.6 

101.0 

101.4 

2 

90.7 

91.6 

92.8 

93.3 

92.6 

93.9 

94.5 

95.6 

96.2 

96.8 

3 

82.4 

83.7 

85.4 

86.3 

85.1 

87.0 

88.1 

89.5 

90.8 

92.3 

4 

73.4 

74.9 

77.1 

78.1 

76.7 

79.1 

80.3 

82.1 

83.8 

85.7 

5 

64.8 

66.5 

68.8 

70.0 

68.4 

71.1 

72.5 

74.5 

76.2 

78.3 

6 

56.8 

58.6 

61.1 

62.3 

60.6 

63.5 

65.0 

67.0 

68.9 

71.3 

7 

49.7 

51.5 

54.1 

55.3 

53.6 

56.5 

58.1 

60.1 

62.0 

64.2 

8 

43.4 

45.2 

47.7 

49.0 

47.2 

50.1 

51.7 

53.7 

55.6 

51.9 

9 

37.8 

39.6 

42.0 

43.3 

41.5 

44.3 

45.9 

47.9 

49.8 

52.0 

10 

32.8 

34.5 

36.9 

38.1 

36.3 

39.1 

40.6 

42.6 

44.5 

46.7 

11 

28.5 

30.0 

32.3 

33.5 

31.7 

34.4 

35.8 

37.7 

39.6 

41.7 

12 

24.8 

26.1 

28.3 

29.4 

27.7 

30.3 

31.5 

33.3 

35.1 

37.2 

13 

21.5 

22.7 

24.7 

25.8 

24.2 

26.6 

27.8 

29.4 

31.1 

33.1 

14 

18.6 

19.7 

21.6 

22.6 

21.1 

23.3 

24.5 

25.9 

27.5 

29.4 

15 

16.1 

17.1 

18.9 

19.8 

18.4 

20.4 

21.6 

22.9 

24.4 

26.2 

16 

13.9 

14.9 

16.5 

17.4 

16.0 

17.9 

19.0 

20.2 

21.6 

23.2 

17 

12.0 

13.0 

14.4 

15.3 

13.9 

15.7 

16.7 

17.8 

19.1 

20.7 

18 

10.4 

11.3 

12.6 

13.4 

12.2 

13.8 

14.7 

15.7 

16.9 

18.5 

19 

9.0 

9.8 

11.1 

11.8 

10.7 

12.1 

13.0 

13.9 

15.0 

16.4 

20 

7.8 

8.5 

9.7 

10.3 

9.3 

10.6 

11.4 

12.3 

13.3 

14.5 


*The first line gives the surface dose for 100 r of primary. 


188 


DEPTH DOSE--Continued 


;U cm 

Rcctangular Fields in cm X cm 


Drf)lh 
iM cm 

■1X1 

■1X6 

■fX8 

-iXIO 

4X18 

4X20 


6X8 

6X10 

6X18 

6X20 

* 

101.1 

101.3 

101.5 

101.6 

101.8 

101.9 

101.6 

101.8 

102.0 

102.3 

102.5 

0 

0.5 

Surface dose 30 to 50% depending upon collimator 
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

96.0 

96.3 

96.5 

96.6 

96.6 

96.6 

96.7 

96.9 

97.0 

97.1 

97.1 

2 

88.7 

89.3 

89.6 

89.8 

89.9 

89.9 

90.1 

90.5 

90.6 

90.8 

90.9 

3 

81.6 

82.5 

82.9 

83.1 

83.3 

83.4 

83.6 

84.1 

84.4 

84.7 

84.8 

4 

75.0 

76.0 

76.5 

76.7 

77.0 

77.1 

77.3 

77.9 

78.3 

78.7 

78.9 

5 

68.8 

70.0 

70.4 

70.7 

71.1 

71.2 

71.3 

72.0 

12.5 

73.0 

73.2 

6 

63.0 

64.1 

64.7 

65.1 

65.5 

65.6 

65.6 

66.4 

66.9 

67.5 

67.8 

7 

57.6 

58.7 

59.4 

59.8 

60.2 

60.4 

60.2 

61.1 

61.6 

62.2 

62.6 

8 

52.6 

53.7 

54.4 

54.8 

55.3 

55.5 

55.2 

56.1 

56.6 

57.3 

57.7 

9 

48.0 

49.1 

49.8 

50.1 

50.7 

51.0 

50.5 

51.4 

52.0 

52.7 

53.2 

10 

43.8 

44.9 

45.5 

45.9 

46.5 

46.8 

46.2 

47.1 

47.7 

48.5 

49.0 

11 

40.0 

41.0 

41.6 

42.0 

42.6 

43.0 

42.3 

43.2 

43.8 

44.7 

45.1 

12 

36.5 

37.5 

38.1 

38.5 

39.1 

39.5 

38.8 

39.7 

40.2 

41.1 

41.6 

13 

33.3 

34.3 

34.9 

35.3 

35.9 

36.3 

35.6 

36.4 

37.0 

37.9 

38.4 

14 

30.5 

31.4 

32.0 

32.4 

33.0 

33.4 

32.6 

33.4 

34.0 

34.9 

35.4 

15 

27.9 

28.7 

29.3 

29.7 

30.3 

30.7 

29.9 

30.6 

31.2 

32.1 

32.7 

16 

25.5 

26.2 

26.8 

27.2 

27.9 

28.2 

27.4 

28.1 

28.7 

29.6 

30.2 

17 

23.3 

24.0 

24.6 

24.9 

25.6 

26.0 

25.1 

25.8 

26.4 

27.3 

27.9 

18 

21.3 

22.0 

22.6 

22.9 

23.5 

24.0 

23.0 

23.7 

24.3 

25.2 

25.8 

19 

19.5 

20.2 

20.7 

21.0 

21.6 

22.1 

21.1 

21.8 

22.4 

23.3 

23.8 

20 

17.8 

18.5 

19.0 

19.3 

19.9 

20.3 

19.4 

20.0 

20.6 

21.5 

22.0 


Depth 
in cm 

8X8 

8X10 

8X15 

8X20 

10X10 

10X15 

10X20 

15X15 

15X20 

20X20 

* 

102.1 

102.3 

102.7 

103.0 

102.5 

103.0 

103.4 

103.7 

104.1 

104.6 

0 

0.5 

Surface dose 30 to 50% depending upon collimator 
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 

lod.o 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

97.1 

97.3 

91 A 

97.4 

97.5 

97.6 

97.6 

97.7 

97.7 

97.7 

2 

90.9 

91.1 

91.3 

91.4 

91.4 

91.6 

91.7 

91.9 

92.0 

92.1 

3 

84.7 

85.0 

85.4 

8b. b 

85.4 

85.8 

86.0 

86.2 

86.5 

86.7 

4 

78.7 

79.1 

79.6 

79.8 

79.6 

80.1 

80.4 

80.7 

81.1 

81.5 

5 

72.9 

73.4 

74.0 

74.3 

74.0 

74.6 

75.0 

lb A 

75.9 

16A 

6 

67.4 

67.9 

68.6 

69.0 

68.6 

69.4 

69.8 

70.3 

70.9 

71.6 

7 

62.1 

62.7 

63.5 

64.0 

63.4 

64.4 

64.9 

65.5 

66.2 

67.0 

8 

57.1 

bin 

58.6 

59.2 

58.5 

59.6 

60.2 

60.9 

61.7 

62.6 

9 

52.4 

53.1 

54.1 

54.7 

53.9 

55.1 

55.8 

56.6 

bl.b 

58.5 

10 

48.1 

48.8 

49.9 

50.5 

49.7 

50.9 

51.7 

52.5 

53.6 

bi.l 

11 

44.2 

44.9 

46.0 

46.7 

45.8 

47.1 

47.9 

48.7 

49.9 

51.1 

12 

40.7 

41.4 

42.5 

43.2 

42.2 

43.6 

44.4 

45.2 

46.4 

47.7 

13 

37.4 

38.1 

39.2 

39.9 

39.0 

40.3 

41.1 

42.0 

43.2 

44.5 

14 

34.4 

35.1 

36.2 

36.9 

36.0 

37.3 

38.1 

39.0 

40.2 

41.6 

15 

31.6 

32.3 

33.4 

34.1 

33.2 

34.5 

35.3 

36.3 

31. b 

38.8 

16 

29.1 

29.7 

30.9 

31.6 

30.6 

32.0 

32.8 

33.8 

35.0 

36.3 

17 

26.8 

21 A 

28.6 

29.3 

28.2 

29.7 

30.5 

31.5 

32.7 

34.0 

18 

24.7 

25.3 

26.5 

27.2 

26.1 

27.5 

28.3 

29.3 

30.5 

31.8 

19 

22.7 

23.4 

24.5 

25.2 

24.1 

25.5 

26.3 

27.3 

28.5 

29.8 

20 

20.9 

21.6 

22.7 

23.3 

22.2 

23.7 

24.4 

25.4 

26.6 

27.9 


The first line gives the dose at the maximum for 100 r of primary. 


DEPTH DOSE--Continued 


Rrci ANGHi AR I'ln.os Coil AM 00 F,Si)60f:M 
KrcrANf.iii.AR Fif.lds in cm X cm 


Dvjydi 
in cm 

■/XV 

VX8 

VX5 

VX/W 

VX/5 

4X20 

6X6 

6XS 

6X10 

6X15 

6X20 

♦ 

101.0 

101.3 

101.4 

101.5 

101.7 

101.9 

101.6 

101.8 

102.0 

J02.3 

102.5 

0 

0.5 

Surface do.se 30 to 50% depending upon collimator 
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

96.5 

96.7 

96.8 

96.9 

97.0 

97.0 

97.0 

97.2 

97.3 

97 A 

97.4 

2 

89.7 

90.2 

90.5 

90.7 

90.8 

90.8 

90.8 

91.2 

91.4 

91.6 

91.7 

3 

83.2 

83.9 

84.3 

84.6 

84.8 

84.8 

84.8 

85.3 

85.6 

85.9 

86.1 

4 

77.0 

77.8 

78.3 

78.6 

78.9 

79.0 

78.9 

79.6 

80.0 

80.3 

80.5 

5 

71.0 

71.9 

72.5 

72.8 

73.1 

73.4 

73.2 

74.0 

74.5 

74.8 

75.1 

0 

6.5.4 

66.4 

67.0 

67.3 

67.7 

68.0 

67.7 

68.6 

69.1 

69.6 

69.9 

7 

60.1 

61.2 

61.8 

62.1 

62.6 

62.8 

62.5 

63.4 

63.9 

64.5 

64.9 

8 

55.1 

56.2 

56.8 

57.2 

57.7 

57.9 

57.6 

58.4 

59.0 

59.7 

60.1 

9 

50.4 

5 1 .5 

52.1 

52.6 

53.1 

53.4 

53.0 

53.8 

54.4 

55.1 

55.6 

10 

46.1 

47.2 

47.8 

48.3 

48.8 

49.2 

48.7 

49.5 

50.1 

50.9 

51.4 

1 1 

42.2 

43.3 

43.9 

44.4 

44.9 

45.3 

44.8 

45.6 

46.2 

47.0 

47.5 

12 

.38.7 

39.8 

40.4 

40.9 

41.4 

41.8 

41.2 

42.0 

42.6 

43.4 

44.0 

13 

35.5 

36.5 

37.2 

37.6 

38.2 

38.5 

37.9 

38.7 

39.3 

40.1 

40.7 

14 

32.5 

33.5 

34.2 

34.6 

35.2 

35.5 

34.8 

35.7 

36.3 

37.1 

37.7 

15 

29.8 

30.8 

31.4 

31.8 

32.4 

32.8 

32.0 

32.9 

33.5 

34.3 

34.9 

16 

27.4 

28.3 

28.9 

29.3 

29.9 

30.3 

29.4 

30.3 

30.9 

31.7 

32.3 

17 

25.2 

26.1 

26.6 

27.0 

27.6 

28.0 

27.1 

28.0 

28.5 

29.3 

29.9 

18 

23.2 

24.0 

24.5 

24.9 

25.5 

25.9 

25.0 

25.8 

26.3 

27.2 

27.8 

19 

21,3 

22.1 

22.6 

22.9 

23.6 

23.9 

23.0 

23.8 

24.3 

25.2 

25.8 

20 

19.5 

20.3 

20.8 

21.0 

21.8 

22.0 

21.1 

21.9 

22.4 

23.3 

23.9 


Depth 
in cm 

8XS 

SXIO 

SXI5 

8X20 

10X10 

10X15 

10X20 

15X15 

15X20 

20X20 

* 

102.1 

102.3 

102.7 

102.9 

102.5 

103.0 

103.3 

103.6 

104.1 

104.6 

0 

0.5 

Surface dose 30 to 50% depending upon collimator 
100.0 100.0 100.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

97.4 

97.5 

97.7 

97.7 

97.7 

97.8 

97.9 

98.0 

98.0 

98.1 

2 

91.7 

91.9 

92.1 

92.2 

92.1 

92.4 

92.5 

92.7 

92.8 

93.0 

3 

86.0 

86.3 

86.6 

86.8 

86.6 

87.1 

87.2 

87.5 

87.7 

88.0 

4 

80.3 

80.7 

81.2 

81.4 

81.2 

81.8 

82.0 

82.4 

82.7 

83.1 

5 

74.8 

75.3 

75.9 

76.2 

75.9 

76.6 

76.9 

77.4 

77.8 

78.3 

6 

69.5 

70.0 

70.7 

71.1 

70.7 

71.5 

71.9 

72.5 

73.0 

73.7 

7 

64.4 

64.9 

65.7 

66.2 

65.6 

66.6 

67.0 

67.8 

68.4 

69.2 

8 

59.5 

60.1 

61.0 

61.5 

60.8 

61.9 

62.4 

63.3 

64.0 

64.9 

9 

54.9 

55.6 

56.6 

57.1 

56.3 

57. b 

58.1 

59.0 

59.8 

60.9 

10 

50.6 

51.3 

52.4 

52.9 

52.1 

53.4 

54.0 

54.9 

55.8 

57.0 

11 

46.7 

47.4 

48.5 

49.1 

48.2 

49.5 

50.2 

51.1 

52.1 

53.4 

12 

43.1 

43.8 

44.9 

45.6 

44.6 

45.9 

46.7 

47.6 

48.7 

50.0 

13 

39.8 

40.5 

41.6 

42.3 

41.3 

42.6 

43.4 

44.4 

45.5 

46.9 

14 

36.7 

37.5 

38.5 

39.2 

38.2 

39.6 

40.4 

41.4 

42.5 

43.9 

15 

33.9 

34.6 

35.7 

36.4 

35.4 

36.8 

37.6 

38.6 

39.7 

41.1 

16 

31.3 

32.0 

33.1 

33.8 

32.8 

34.2 

35.0 

36.0 

37.1 

38.5 

17 

28.9 

29.6 

30.7 

31.4 

30.4 

31.8 

32.6 

33.6 

34.8 

36.1 

18 

26.7 

27.4 

28.5 

29.2 

28.2 

29.6 

30.4 

31.4 

32.6 

33.9 

19 

24.7 

25.4 

26.5 

27.2 

26.2 

27.5 

28.4 

29.3 

30.5 

31.8 

20 

22.8 

23.4 

24.6 

25.3 

24.2 

25.5 

26.4 

27.3 

28.5 

29.8 


34c 

The first line gives the dose at the maximum for 100 r of primary. 


DEPTH DOSE--Continued 


!U ci ANr.iii AR Tii lds Coj'm ' i f>0 i SD 80 CM 
Rl CI ANOUI.AR FiF.LDS IN CM X CM 


Depth 












in cm 

■1X4 

■1X6 

4X.S 

4X10 

4X15 

4X20 

6X6 

6XS 

6X10 

6X15 

6X20 

♦ 

101.1 

101.3 

101.5 

101.6 

101.8 

101.9 

101.6 

101.8 

102.0 

102.3 

102.5 

0 

Surface dose 30 to .50% depending upon collimator 





0.5 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

96.8 

97.0 

97.2 

97.3 

97.4 

97.4 

97.4 

97.6 

97.7 

97.8 

97.8 

2 

90.6 

91.2 

91.5 

91.6 

91.8 

91.8 

91.9 

92.2 

92.5 

92.7 

92.8 

3 

84.7 

85.5 

85.9 

86.1 

86.4 

86.4 

86.5 

86.9 

87.3 

87.6 

87.7 

4 

79.0 

79.9 

80.4 

80.6 

81.0 

, 81.1 

81.1 

81.7 

82.1 

82.5 

82.7 

5 

73.5 

74.5 

75.1 

75.3 

75.7 

75.9 

75.9 

76.6 

77.0 

77.5 

77.7 

6 

68.1 

69.2 

69.9 

70.1 

70.5 

70.7 

70.7 

71.5 

71.9 

72.5 

72.7 

7 

62.9 

64.1 

64.8 

65.1 

65.5 

65.7 

65.7 

66.5 

67.0 

67.6 

67.9 

8 

58.0 

59.2 

59.9 

60.3 

60.8 

61.0 

60.8 

61.7 

62.2 

62.9 

63.3 

9 

53.5 

54.7 

55.3 

55.8 

56.3 

56.6 

56.2 

57.1 

57.7 

58.5 

58.9 

10 

49.3 

50.5 

51.1 

51.6 

52.2 

52.5 

52.0 

52.9 

53.5 

54.4 

54.8 

11 

45.5 

46.6 

47.3 

47.8 

48.4 

48.6 

48.1 

49.0 

49.6 

50.5 

51.0 

12 

41.9 

43.0 

43.7 

44.2 

44.8 

45.1 

44.5 

45.4 

46.0 

46.9 

47.4 

13 

38.6 

39.7 

40.4 

40.9 

41.4 

41.8 

41.1 

42.0 

42.7 

43.6 

44.1 

14 

35.6 

36.6 

37.3 

37.8 

38.4 

38.7 

38.0 

38.9 

39.6 

40.5 

41.0 

15 

32.9 

33.8 

34.5 

35.0 

35.6 

35.9 

35.2 

36.1 

36.7 

37.6 

38.1 

16 

30.4 

31.3 

32.0 

32.4 

33.1 

33.4 

32.6 

33.5 

34.1 

35.0 

35.5 

17 

28.1 

29.0 

29.6 

30.0 

30.7 

31.0 

30.2 

31.1 

31.6 

32.6 

33.1 

18 

26.0 

26.9 

27.4 

27.9 

28.5 

28.8 

28.0 

28.8 

29.4 

30.3 

30.8 

19 

24.0 

24.9 

25.4 

25.9 

26.5 

26.8 

26.0 

26.7 

27.4 

28.2 

28.7 

20 

22.1 

22.9 

23.5 

23.9 

24.5 

24.8 

24.0 

24.8 

25.4 

26.2 

26.8 


Depth 
in cm 

8X8 

8X10 

8X15 

8X20 

10X10 

10X15 

10X20 

15X15 

15X20 

20X20 

* 

102.1 

102.3 

102.7 

102.9 

102.5 

103.0 

103.3 

103.6 

104.1 

104.6 

0 

0.5 

surface dose 30 to 50% depending upon collimator 
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

97.8 

98.0 

98.1 

98.1 

98.2 

98.3 

98.3 

98.4 

98.4 

98.4 

2 

92.7 

93.0 

93.2 

93.3 

93.3 

93.6 

93.6 

93.9 

93.9 

94.0 

3 

87.6 

87.9 

88.3 

88.5 

88.3 

88.8 

88.9 

89.3 

89.4 

89.6 

4 

82.5 

82.9 

83.4 

83.6 

83.4 

84.0 

84.2 

84.7 

84.9 

85.2 

5 

77.4 

77.9 

78.5 

78.8 

78.5 

79.2 

79.5 

80.1 

80.4 

80.8 

6 

72.4 

73.0 

73.7 

74.0 

73.6 

74.4 

74.7 

75.4 

75.8 

76.4 

7 

67.5 

68.1 

68.9 

69.2 

68.8 

69.8 

70.1 

70.8 

71.4 

72.1 

8 

62.7 

63.4 

64.3 

64.7 

64.1 

65.2 

65.7 

66.5 

67.2 

68.0 

9 

58.2 

58.9 

59.9 

60.4 

59.7 

60.9 

61.4 

62.3 

63.1 

64.0 

10 

54.0 

54.8 

55.8 

56.3 

55.6 

56.9 

57.4 

58.4 

59.2 

60.2 

11 

50.1 

50.9 

52.0 

52.5 

51.7 

53.1 

53.7 

54.7 

55.6 

56.6 

12 

46.5 

47.3 

48.4 

49.0 

48.1 

49.5 

50.2 

51.2 

52.1 

53.2 

13 

43.2 

44.0 

45.1 

45.7 

44.8 

46.2 

46.9 

47.9 

48.8 

50.0 

14 

40.1 

40.9 

42.0 

42.6 

41.8 

43.1 

43.9 

44.9 

45.8 

47.0 

15 

37.2 

38.0 

39.2 

39.8 

38.9 

40.3 

41.0 

42.0 

43.0 

44.2 

16 

34.5 

35.3 

36.5 

37.1 

36.2 

37.6 

38.3 

39.3 

40.3 

41.5 

17 

32.1 

32.8 

34.0 

34.6 

33.7 

35.1 

35.8 

36.8 

37.8 

39.0 

18 

29.8 

30.5 

31.7 

32.3 

31.4 

32.8 

33.5 

34.5 

35.5 

36.7 

19 

27.7 

28.4 

29.6 

30.2 

29.2 

30.7 

31.4 

32.3 

33.4 

34.6 

20 

25.7 

26.4 

27.6 

28.2 

27.2 

28.6 

29.4 

30.3 

31.4 

32.6 


* The first line gives the dose at the maximum for 100 r of primary. 


DEPTH DOSE --Continued 


RrcTANCui AH FiEi.ns Coiiai,t60 FSl) 100 cm 

RiXTANGULAR P'IELDS in cm X CM 


Depth 
in cm 

4X-! 

4X6 

4X8 

4X10 

4X15 

4X20 

6X6 

6X8 

6X10 

6X15 

6X20 

SF 

101.1 

101.3 

101.5 

101.6 

101.8 

101.9 

101.6 

101.8 

102.0 

102.3 

102.5 

0 

0.5 

Surface dose 30 to 50% depending upon collimator 
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 

100.0 

lOO.O 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

97.1 

97.3 

97.5 

97.6 

97.7 

97.7 

97.7 

97.9 

98.0 

98.2 

98.2 

2 

91.4 

91.9 

92.2 

92.4 

92.5 

92.6 

92.6 

92.9 

93.1 

93.4 

93.4 

3 

85.8 

86.5 

86.9 

87.2 

87.3 

87.5 

87.5 

87.9 

88.2 

88.6 

88.6 

4 

80.2 

81.2 

81.7 

82.0 

82.2 

82.4 

82.4 

83.0 

83.4 

83.8 

83.9 

5 

74.8 

76.0 

76.6 

76.9 

77.2 

77.4 

77.3 

78.1 

78.6 

79.0 

79.2 

6 

69.7 

70.9 

71.6 

71.9 

72.3 

72.5 

72.4 

73.2 

73.8 

74.3 

74.5 

7 

64.8 

66.0 

66.7 

67.1 

67.5 

67.7 

67.6 

68.4 

69.0 

69.6 

69.9 

8 

60.1 

61.3 

62.0 

62.4 

62.9 

63.1 

62.9 

63.8 

64.4 

65.1 

65.4 

9 

55.7 

56.9 

57.6 

58.0 

58.5 

58.8 

58.4 

59.4 

60.0 

60.7 

61.1 

10 

51.5 

52.7 

53.4 

53.8 

54.4 

54.7 

54.2 

55.2 

55.8 

56.6 

57.0 

11 

47.7 

48.8 

49.5 

49.9 ■ 

50.5 

50.8 

50.3 

51.3 

51.9 

52.7 

53.2 

12 

44.1 

45.2 

45.9 

46.3 

46.9 

47.2 

46.7 

47.7 

48.2 

49.1 

49.6 

13 

40.8 

41.9 

42.6 

43.0 

43.6 

43.9 

43.3 

44.3 

44.9 

45.8 

46.3 

14 

37.8 

38.9 

39.5 

40.0 

40.6 

40.9 

40.2 

41.2 

41.8 

42.7 

43.2 

15 

35.0 

36.1 

36.7 

37.2 

37.8 

38.1 

37.4 

38.3 

38.9 

39.9 

40.3 

16 

32.5 

33.5 

34.1 

34.5 

35.2 

35.5 

34.8 

35.6 

36.3 

37.2 

37.7 

17 

30.1 

31.1 

31.7 

32.1 

32.8 

33.1 

32.3 

33.1 

33.8 

34.7 

35.2 

18 

27.9 

28.8 

29.4 

29.8 

30.5 

30.8 

30.0 

30.8 

31.5 

32.4 

32.9 

19 

25.8 

26.7 

27.3 

27.7 

28.4 

28.7 

27.9 

28.7 

29.3 

30.2 

30.7 

20 

23.8 

24.7 

25.3 

25.7 

26.4 

26.7 

25.9 

26.7 

27.3 

28.2 

28.7 


Depth 
in cm 

8X8 

8X10 

8X15 

8X20 

10X10 

10X15 

10X20 

15X15 

15X20 

20X20 

* 

102.1 

102.3 

102.7 

103.0 

102.5 

103.0 

103.4 

103.7 

104.1 

104.6 

0 

0.5 

Surface dose 30 to 50% depending upon collimator 
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1 

98.1 

98.3 

98.5 

98.5 

98.6 

98.8 

98.8 

99.0 

98.9 

98.9 

2 

93.3 

93.6 

93.9 

93.9 

93.9 

94.3 

94.3 

94.6 

94.6 

94.7 

3 

88.5 

88.9 

89.3 

89.3 

89.3 

89.8 

89.8 

90.2 

90.3 

90.5 

4 

83.7 

84.2 

84.7 

84.8 

84.7 

85.3 

85.4 

85.9 

86.1 

86.3 

5 

78.9 

79.6 

80.1 

80.3 

80.1 

80.8 

81.0 

81.6 

81.9 

82.2 

6 

74.2 

74.9 

75.6 

75.8 

75.5 

76.3 

76.6 

77.3 

77.7 

78.1 

7 

69.5 

70.2 

71.0 

71.3 

70.9 

71.8 

72.2 

73.0 

73.5 

74.0 

8 

64.9 

65.6 

66.5 

66.9 

66.4 

67.4 

67.9 

68.7 

69.3 

70.0 

9 

60.5 

61.2 

62.1 

62.6 

62.0 

63.1 

63.7 

64.5 

65.2 

66.1 

10 

56.3 

57.0 

58.0 

58.6 

57.8 

59.0 

59.7 

60.6 

61.3 

62.3 

11 

52.4 

53.1 

54.2 

54.8 

53.9 

55.2 

55.9 

56.9 

57.7 

58.7 

12 

48.7 

49.5 

50.7 

51.2 

50.3 

51.7 

52.4 

53.4 

54.3 

55.3 

13 

45.4 

46.1 

47.3 

47.9 

47.0 

48.4 

49.1 

50.2 

51.1 

52.1 

14 

42.3 

43.0 

44.2 

44.8 

43.9 

45.3 

46.0 

47.1 

48.1 

49.1 

15 

39.4 

40.1 

41.3 

41.9 

41.0 

42.4 

43.1 

44.2 

45.2 

46.2 

16 

36.7 

37.4 

38.6 

39.2 

38.3 

39.7 

40.4 

41.5 

42.5 

43.5 

17 

34.2 

34.9 

36.1 

36.7 

35.8 

37.2 

37.9 

39.0 

40.0 

41.0 

18 

31.9 

32.6 

33.8 

34.4 

33.5 

34.9 

35.6 

36.7 

37.6 

38.6 

19 

29.7 

30.5 

31.6 

32.3 

31.3 

32.7 

33.4 

34.5 

35.4 

36.4 

20 

27.7 

28.5 

29.6 

30.2 

29.3 

30.6 

31.3 

32.4 

33.3 

34.4 


The first line gives the dose at the maximum for 100 r of primary. 


Characteristics of some important (a, n) sources 


Sources 

Half-Ufe 

PoJ'H-LI 

138.40d 

Poi>«-Be 

138.40d 

RaDEF-Be 

19.4y 

Ra-Be 

1622y 

Em “-Be 

3.825d 

Pu»'-Be...- 

24,400y 

Ac“-Be 

21 .8y 

Po»>-Be 

2.93y 

RaBeFi 

1622y 

Po3i»-B 

138.40d 

Ra-B -• 

1622y 

Po»'»-F 

138.40d 

Po>'»-Na 

138.40d 

Am24>-Bp 

462y 

CmM*-Be 

162.5d 

Mock fission >•... 

138.40d 


Maximum 

neutron 

energy 

Average 

neutron 

energy 

Yield 

Mev 

1.32 

Mev 

0.48 

4.2 

4.5 

•3.9 

n/secXlO-* 

curie 

.05 

10.87 - 

2.5 

10.87 

9. 5 

13.08 

15 

13.08 — 

15 

10.74 

4.5 

4.6 

0.064 (per g). 

12.79 

10.71 


13.08. 


2.53 

B>» 6.29, B» 
4.48. 

Bn 8.58, Bii 
7.25. 

2.8 


0.6 


7 

1.4 

0.2 

4.45 

0.04 







10.87 

1.6 

0.4 




Remarks 


Po-Be with a long 
half-life. 


Made by irradiat- 
ing radium in 
reactor. 


Proposed std 
source. 

Relatively mono- 
energetic. 


Suggested for sto- 
ichiometric std 
source. 


Characteristics of some important (7,11) sources 


Soiuces 

Half-life 

E-r 

E. 

Stand- 
ard 
yield • 

Actual 
source 
yield >> 



Mev 

Mev 




14. 8h 

2.76--- 

0.83... 

13 


N‘a2<-f-r>20 

14. 8h 

2.76 - 

0.22.-- 

27 


Qa72-|-Be 

14. Ih 

1.87, 2.21, 2.51--_ — _ 

(0.78) 

5 


YM-pBe - 

87d 

1.9, '2.8— — 

0.158±0.005_. 

10 




1.8, 2.1---. 

0.30- 

0.82 


Sb'24-t-Be 

60d 

1.7 

0.024±0.003.. 

19 

1.6 


40d 

2.50 

0.62- 

0.3 


RdTh-l-DjO.... 

1.90y 

2.62 (ThC") 

0.197±0.010.. 

9.5 

• 1.2 

MsTh-f-Be 

6.7y 

1.80, 2.62 - 

0.S27±0.030.- 

3.5 


MsTH+DjO... 

6.7y 

2.62' (ThC") —. 

0.197±0.010.. 

9.5 

" 1.2 


1622y 

1.69, 1.75, 1.82, 2 09, 2.20, 



1.3 


2.42. 





‘This is the neutron yield x 10^ for a 1-curie gamma source with 1 g of target material 


placed 1 cm away from the gamma source. 

*’ 10* n/sec -curie. 

® Ms-Th and Rd-Th sources emit some neutrons through (a,n) reactions with light 
elements in the carrier and container walls. 

NOTE: All photoneutron sources possess intense gamma-ray backgrounds of at least 10^ 

gamma rays per neutron. 


Characteristics of some important spontaneous fission neutron 
sourcets 


Nuclide 

Half-life 

(SF) 

Half-Ufe 
(ot decay) 

Alphas per fission * 

Neutrons 

per 

fission 

Neutrons 
per 
g sec 

IJ23J 

Pu“» 

8X10i3y 

3.5X10»y 

74y 

2.7y 

(I.IXIOH 

<6.5X1012, after aging, 
(with 1.9 yr haU-llfe 
1.3X10' 

1 9 

3.1X10* 

2.3X10» 

7.0X10' 

U2W 

Pu»« 

8.3X10'5y_ 

4.9XlO'“y 

4.5iX10«y 

89.6y 

1.8X10® 

5.5X10* 

2.0 

Pu2« 

1.3X10"y 

6600y 

1.9X10' 

2. 1 

Pu*« -. 

7.2X10“>y 

3.8X105y 

1.9X105 

2 3 

Cm2« ... 

7.2X10«y 

162.5d 

1.6X107 

2 3 

1.8X10* 

1.0X10' 

2.6X10>» 

Cm2« 

1.4X10’y 

18.4y 

7.6X10* 

2.6 

CP« 

66y..-J 

2.2y 

30 


60d 

60d 


3.5 







“The number of alphas/fission is an inverse “figure of merit.*’ A source with a low 
number of alphas per fission has relatively many fissions and the neutron spectrum is not 
likelv to be contaminated with (a ,n) neutrons. 




Data for tables from NBS Handbook No. 72 


PERSONNEL DECONTAMINATION 



00 








00 




42 


w 

c 


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4-( 





a 




u 


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o 


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0) 



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42 

42 

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c 

s 


00 

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u 

00 

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B 


CO 

u 

C 

CO 



dJ 

03 

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OD 

C 

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CO 

CO 


CO 


cfl 




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s 


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0) 


c 


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TJ 

x: 

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!-i 

c 




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03 

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CO 

CO 

o 


T) 

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CO 

4s; 

3 


> 

 


c 

u 

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0) 

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»— J d 

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u 

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4-» 

 



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0) 

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4-J 

d 

3 

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o 

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x: 

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0) 

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o 





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(2. 



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00 

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d 

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3 

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CO 

3 

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d 

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CJ 

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•i4 

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d 


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3 

3 

C 

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1—^ 


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a 



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x: 



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nd 

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3 

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& 

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3 


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3 

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4-J 

44 



CO 

d 

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x: 

3 

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O 

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42 

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3 

3 

3 

2 

3 


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o 

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42 

CO 

CO 

*1— 1 


U 

o 

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12 

CO 

3 

4J 

S 

4-) 


I—l 

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3 

3 

t2 

6 

22 

3 

I—l 

CM 

4J 

B 

O 

3 

44 r4 

O 

O 

is: 

!=) 

4-J 

CO 

CO 

c 

CO 


I 


s 




3 


CO 





X 

4-J 

• 

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• 


d 

c 

3 

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3 

c 

CO 

o 

> 




> 

o 


u 

O 


X 


O 

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CO 


42 

CO 

c 


42 


3 

CO 

CO 

3 

CO 


CO 

CJ 

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3 


•l— 1 




< 

>44 

> 

CO 

U-l 


• 

CO 


•H 

I—l • 

CO 

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CO 

CO 

CO 


CO 

O 3 


CO 

3 

3 



I—l 

CO 4-J 

3 

I—l 

> 

X 

3 


2 

3 3 

B 

2 


o 

B 


B 

•r4 d 

CO 

B 

o 

54 

CO 


w 

-Td 

CO 

W 

CO 

3 

CO 



3 


CO 

. 


X 


nd 

3 

(V 

c 


d 

> 

CJ 

3 


cO 

O 

cO 

M-l 

42 


X 

42 

3 

U 

X 


'V 


d 

C 


d 

3 

CO 

3 


CO 

3 


C 

u 

d 

3 


•r4 

•l— 1 

•r4 

B 


X 

CO 

X 

3 


CO 

X 

CO 

CO 





54 

d 




44 3 

•i— 1 

-X 

54 

54 

>44 44 

3 

X 

3 

3 

O 3 

54. — 1 

o 

44 

44 

3 

3 CL, 

42 

3 

3 


42 

44 

& 

s 

•' X 

44 

3 



(2- 2 

O 44 

s 

X 

X 

3 3 

2 


C 

C 

O 

54 3 


3 

3 

3 

O tlO 




42 

54 


CL. 

(2. 

3 3 

3 3 


3 

3 

> 2 

X 44 


O 

O 

3 54 

•i4 3 


CO 

CO 

X 42 

H X 


194 


*Begin with the first listed method and then proceed step by step to the more severe methods, as necessary. 


PERSONNEL DECONTAMINATION - -Continued 



Q 


*B gir with the first listed method and then proceed step by step to the more severe methods, as necessary. 


PERSONNEL DECONTAMINATION --Continued 


(/) 

 

CO 

CO 

•l— I 

Q 





(U 











4-4 







1 


o 




•t-t 


o 

• 




c 

^3 

4-1 





4J 

B 

CO 

• 


x: 

•r4 





cd 

C 

•H 


Cl) 

0) 

o 

4-1 


G 

4-1 




•rH 


(-1 

u 

> 

4-1 

=) 


O 

O 



cu 



o 

:3 

o 


o 

(D 

42 

C 

CU 


> 

CO 


4-1 

c 

rO 

cjo 

6 

4J 

CO 


42 


o 


O 


•H 

CO 

C 


CO 


t3 

4J 


B 

4-1 

cO 

C 

B 


•I— 1 

T5 

C 

»— 1 

(U 



cu 

O 

4J 

•H 


CO 

CO 

C 

•H 

CO 

C 


• 

V-i 


c 


CNJ 

CO 


cd 

B 


5-1 

O 

CO 


S-i 

o 

cn 





CO 


cd 

T— 4 

Q) 


(D 

a 


c 

0) 

c 

(U 

4-> 

•H 


1— 1 

CO 

i“H 



cu 

CO 

B 

Q) 

CO 

C 

> 


CO 

d 

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CO 

c 



CO 


O 

O 

•r4 

cu 


•r^ 


t— < 

•H 

4-1 

4-) 

C/D 

5 

G 

O 

T) 

42 

CO 

u 



c 












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42 



> 


'd 




4s5 



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CO 

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TS 

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cu 

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G 

• 

4 -» 

4-4 

u 

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o 

o 

B 

t—l 

4 -) 

42 


4 J 

c 


CO 

CO 

• 1-4 


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1— 1 

cd 



cO 

CO 

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c 

G 

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B 


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G 

O 

CO 

o 

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u 

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TG 

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54 

54 

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s 

CU 

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CO 

42 

^ 


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54 

■i4 

3: 




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CO 

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B 




S 


0 

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42 


r-4 

42 

0 


4-1 

G 

G 

O 

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cu 

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B 

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o 

54 

rH 

cd 

o 


cu 

CO 


CO 

CO 

d 

 

44 

d 

(24 

CU 

a 




44 


CO 

G 


M 42 

S: 

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G 

42 


c 


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42 


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54 

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44 

d 

54 

54 

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> 


cu 

54 

42 



•I—l 


54 


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Cd 

• 

G 

S 

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Cd 



cd 


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CO 

42 


G 

cu 

cd 

cu 

d) 

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o 

42 

44 


• 


CO 

O 

CM 

42 

B 

Td 

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nG 

42 

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r 


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0 

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Cd 



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54 


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cu 

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cd 



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44 

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cu 

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d 


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cd 



42 

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54 

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54 

0) 

44 

a 

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cd 

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44 



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cd 

54 

r-4 

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cu 


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42 

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42 

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d 


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G 

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Pi 

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CO 

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3= 

4-J 

cd 

4J 

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cu 

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& 

0 



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B 

d 


1 

• 

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54 

54 

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CO 

CO 

CO CO 


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0 


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> 

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CO 

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G 

cu 

B 

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•H 

cd 

42 

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42 


(22 

G 

4-J 

Pi 

B 

P4 42 





cu 






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CO 




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42 


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54 42 

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C/D 


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cu 

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54 

 


CO 


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4-J 

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42 

> 

CO 

CU 

G 

CO 

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B 

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M 

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cd 

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d 

M 

0 

cu 



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B 


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cu 


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cu 

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54 

0 

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G 

G 

PI I— ( 

• 

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cu 


0 


0 

• 

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B 

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cd 



0 

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0 

B 

u 

42 



CO 

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B 


TO 

d 

vD 


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a 

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cu 

d 

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> 

c/2 


cu 

c/2 


X 


4H 

G 

TO 

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0 

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cu 

cu 

cu 

0 

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0 

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MH 

d 

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d 

0 

0 

CO 

0 

0 

u 

cu 

54 

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0 

d 

0 

cd 

0 

CO 

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0 

tH 

CO 

cO 

CO 

CO 

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rH 


CO 

< 

CU 

4J 

CO 

rH 

CO 

2 

iH 


Ih 


196 


*Begin with the first listed method and then proceed step by step to the more severe methods, as necessary. 


PERSONNEL DECONTAMINATION- -Cont inued 



with the first listed method and then proceed step by step to the more severe methods, as 


PERSONNEL DECONTAMINATION- -Continued 



S 

o 

M 

H 

< 

13 

M 

H 

S 

O 

O 

H 

Q 

1-1 

C 

M 

Pi 

w 

H 


 

p. 

54 

CJ 

3 

3 

3 


C 

3 

• 

O 

•H 

CO 

Td 



3 


p. 

O 

3 

54 

CO 

6 

O 


•H 

B 

TO 

44 

54 

44 


• 

3 

4-» 

3 

CO 

P, 

CO 

O 




E 


3 


3 

54 

3 

TO 

1—1 

CO 

CO 




3 


4J 

TO 

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CO 

3 

rH 

3 

4-1 

3 

43 

3 

43 

3 

3 

4J 

c 

CO 

O 

cd 

CO 

CO 

3 

+4 

4J 

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CO 

CO 


4J 

CO 

•H 


o 

O 

3 

o 

3 

54 

CO 

c 

CO 

o 

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E 


4J 

3 

o 

B 


3 


o 


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3 

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o 

C 

54 

CO 


TO 

o 

3 

•H 

CO 

CO 


3 

CO 




4J 

CO 

u 

•H 

4J 

4-J 

CO 

3 

c 

•H 

1— ^ 

u 

3 

• r» 

1—1 

4J 

TO 

M 

I— 1 

I— H 

31 


CO 

3 

•H 

3 

1— i 

3 

E 

o. 

C 

o 


43 

54 

O 


1—1 

•H 

X 

CO 

54 

O 

3 

o 

•H 

CO 

CO 

p. 

o 

CO 

E 

CO 

3 

O 


< 

44 

3 

•r^ 

o 

CJ 

CO 

54 

o 

u 

4J 

CO 

o 

M-4 

3 

a 

CO 

IS 


CO 














54 





3 

CO 








1 

3 




3 





O 

nd 

• 


1 




E 

3 

43 




43 





54 


CO 


p. 

•rH 


3 

O 

O 


• 

4J 

54 

4-1 

bO 



CO 

O 

o 

3 


•r^ 

4-» 

CO 

43 

54 

u 


c 

O 

o 

c 



3 

CL, 

> 

o 


3 

3 

S: 


M-4 


CO 

o 

3 



•1-4 



M) 


< 

•rH 


cr 


o 

O 



E 

LP 

E 


44 

4-J 



CO 



4J 


3 

3 

1— 1 

4-) 

4J 

• 



P, TO 

O 

CO 




c 

CO 

> 

< 


QJ 

3 

cr 

c 

Xi 

o 

QJ 

H 


C 

o 

4-1 

U 

c 


QJ 

O 

CO 

M-l 

!-i 

3 

wo 


-3 

o 

-3 

4J 

0) 


M 

TO 


CJ 
• CO 
cn 0) 
C 0) i-i 

o u 

CO 

T3 C4-4 0) 

O ^4 

O 3 

O CO 


OJ 


CO 

s 

TO 
4J (U 


3 
c o 
o 

•H TO 
4J 0) 
CO *r4 
54 54 


0 ) c -H 
O O 3! 

C -H 
CO 4-> TO 
4-1 CO  4-1 C4-I 

C C4-1 
O E 3 54 

0 3 3 

3-3 4-1 
3 O 4J 1-4 
CO CCJ *H *1^ 

3) > & M-l 


M 

3 

O 

3 

>44 

54 

3 

CO 

3 

Ml 

54 

3 


4-1 

3 


O 

CM 


54 W 
3 -1-4 
4-1 TO 
3 


m 


6 

3 

E <44 


•r4 O 


3 
54 
3 44 
W CL, 3 
woo 
3 3 

3 3 


(X 3 44 


I 44 
54 3 

3 

> W 
3 
O 

3 3 
54 M4 
D, 54 

cyo 3 

W 


44 3 

3 O 
3 ->4 
44 44 


CL, TO 
I O t4 

•H 44 O 
O O > 

3 44 g 3 

•r4 O 

O ^-1 O 
44 O 44 44 

O CO 

54 
O 
& 

3 
O 

3 o 

3 0 0 

TO 44 


3 44 
1 — I O 
M) 

3 
3 


S 

O 

44 

44 

O 

43 


3 

O O 

•i4 44 
44 

3 TO 
3 3 

•l— I 


CL, W 

3 


B 

3 

44 

3 TO 
O -H 
O 54 O 
3 O > 
54 12 3 


cO 

a 


X) 




U 

43 


C 




3 



cO 




O 

4-1 






O 

CO 


CO 





3 


3 




CO 

TO 


> 

• 



3 



1—4 

CO 



> 

nd 

• 

o 

3 



o 

3 

c 

CO 




E 

4-1 

O 

CO 

o 



3 

CO 

•1-4 

•r4 

54 



Pi 

3 

4-1 

p 

3 






1 

u 







3 


o 





CO 


•r4 







4J 





CO 


CO 


CO 



3 

1—4 

CO 


3 



o 

CO 

1—4 


o 



54 

4-1 

p 


CO 



o 

3 



44 



p 

B 



54 



3 


TO 


3 



O 


3 

♦ 

CO 



3 

CO 

4J 






3 

3 

• 

a 



1—1 

o 

•r4 

o 

54 



1—4 

CO 

CO 

4J 

p 



< 

44 

p 

3 


M5 

3 

•r^ 

3 

3 

3 


6 

3 

3 

o 

3 

> 


54 

3 

44 

3 

^2 


198 


*Begin with the first listed method and then proceed step by step to the more severe methods, as necessary. 


AREA AND MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION- -Continued 



AREA AND MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION --Continued 



200 


*Begin with the first listed method and then proceed step by step to the more severe methods, as necessary. 


AREA AND MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION- -Cont inued 



o- 

0) 


XI 


CL 

(U 


T3 

(U 

(U 

U 

O 

V-I 

a 

c 

(U 

X 


methods, as necessary. 


AREA AND MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION--Continued 


I 





LW 









CO 

OJ 

i 






CO 


c 


•r4 


nd 




'V 


4-» 

4-» 

T3 

l—l 


bO 


WD 

CO 

u 

d 

• - o 


CO 

d 

c 

CO 


CO 

XI 

5 c 

0) 

(U 

o 

o 

e 


IS) 


o 

> 

jd 

X 





CO 

0) 

.—1 CO 


M 

zn 

X 

M 


C 

CO 

> 


CO 

CO —1 

a 

(U 


CU 

O 



d 


o 

> 

• 

CO 



1“^ 

CO 

C -W 


o 

CO 

d 

B 


CO 

CO 

CO 

CJ 

O -d 

4J 


(U 


d 

• 

d 


•rH 

C 

M 

u 

CU 

c 

s 

o 

i“H 

u ^ 

CU 

O 

CO 

X 

•l—l 

d 


CO 

1-^ 

U CO 

*rH 


U-l 


E 

•r-l 

Q 

S-i 


CO d 

o 

T— ^ 

M 

4-> 

d 

CO 


o 


CU X 

•H 

CO 

d 

o 

l—l 

CU 


PL, 


Pi -u 

CM 

CJ 

CO 

c 

CO 

c 



"d 










OJ 










u 








CO 

u 

CO 

*r4 







(U 

d 

c 

CO 







bO 

4-i 

•i— 1 

CO 







CO 

c 

s 

w 







4-1 

o 

CO 








c 

u 

4-> 

• 









c 

CO 







> 

e 

o 

CU • 








d 

u 

O -TO 







 


X 




1— H 

CO 

Cl 

CO 

0 


0 

CU 

 


CU 

0 


CO 

M 

4-1 

0 

4J 

CU 

CU 

•H 

• 

CO 



u 

d 

0 

6 

CO 

> 

M 

4-1 

4J 

d 

B 


•rH 

CO 



d 

0 


U 

c 


d 


4J 


CU 


•H 


CU 

d 

•f^ 

CU 

c 

B 

0 

CO 

CO 

X 

6 

TJ 

rQ 

M 

cO 

X 

•H 

d 

CO 

d 

d 


CO 

CO 


4-1 

a 


E 

•i-l 

M 

0 

CO 

d 

4-» 

CU 

4J 

CO 


4J 

d 

CO 

O. 

M 

0 

0 

d 

M 

CO 

CU 

c 

0 

l—l 

CU 

e 

0 

CU 

•l—l 

0 

CL 

d 

Q 

0 

c 

CO 

c 

M 

CL, X 

u 

0 

CO 

s 

1 

Ps r— 1 






 


l—l 

M 


c 

U 

•H 

l—l 


c 

a 

CU 


CO 

d 


•r-l 

d 


a 


•r4 

d 

l—l 


 

CU 




CO 

4-i 


4-i 


1-^ 




d 



1 

bO 


Lc 




c 

CU 

CO 

• 






0 

M 




B 

•I— 1 

CU 

•l—l 


CO 

0 



d 



0 

d 


CU 


r— 4 

X 

•H 

CU 

TO 

0 

CM 




B 


CU 


CU 


& 

M 

& 


u 

CO 

• 

CU 

0 



CO 

•l-l 

1 

4J 


CO 

0 

l—l 

pci 

0 

M 

4H 

0 




CU 

0 

0 

CO 

jd 

4-J 





•l—l 


l—l 


CL 




X 

0 

CU 


d 

d 

•H 


4J 

CO 






M 

4-i 

CO 

•l—l 

4-1 

• 1 — 1 

4-1 

CU 

4-1 


CL 

M 

CO 

l—l 

B 



5^ 

X 

M 

Q 


0 

CO 

CM 



N 

4-J 

Xl 

d 



1 


CM 




4-4 

> 

C 

X 


CU 

bO 


0 

a 


0 

d 

CL 


•H 



bO 

a- 

CO 

CU 

CO 

0 



4-> 

d 

M 

4J 

0 

CU 

0 

0 

•f— 1 

CU 

H 

> 


Jd 

u 

u 


1-^ 

M 


CU 


4-J 



c 

e 

X 

& 

CU 

•r— 


M 

d 

0 

d 

C 

4J 

M 


B 

CO 

l—l 


0 

0 

l—l 


0 




bO 

CU 


d 

CO 

bO 

•fH 

CO 



M 

4-i 


CU 

•f-l 

•H 

CO 

•H 


iu 

X 

CU 

CL Xl 

• 

B 

i-H 


M 

u 


4-1 


c 

CO 


CU 

CU 

c 

CP, X 

4-J 

X) 

CL 

cc 


4-i 

CO 

4-J 


CO 

Td 


CU 

PC 


c 

CO 

CU 



CU 



0 

X 

•rH 



> 

M 

•iH 

CL 


CO 

d 

CO 

d 


CO 

CL 

d 

d 

CL, 

CU 


jd 


bO 

CO 

M 

M 

* • 


r— 1 

X 




CL 



d 

d 

TO 

•iH 

CU 

:o 

CO 


•r" 

£-1 

& 


l—l 

0 


d 


CO 

• 

c 

jd 

CU 


d 


•r4 

l—l 

X 


d 

•iH 

CU 

• 

0 

TJ 

d 

Jd 

0 

TO 

CO 

d 

B 




0 


I— 1 

CU 

4-i 

CO 

M 

•r-l 


CL 

4-J 

0 

M 

0 


CJ 

P^ 

0 

s 

C 4 

/-N 

0 

CU 

CO 

0 

CO 



CU 

cc: 


• 

0 

CO 

d 

• 1 — 1 

4J 

d 

& 

CU 

C 

bO 

CO 

d 

• 1 — 1 

CU 

X 

m 

M 

r— 1 

•r4 


d 

4-J 


u 

CO 


CM 

TO 

CL 

CO 

4 J 


T-^ 

1 — w 


•l—l 

4-1 

CM 

•l—l 


4-i 

•H 

d 

M 

•r 4 


4J 



CO 

a 

4-i 

X 

TO 

d 

CU 

0 


T 3 

M 

•iH 

CU 

CO 

d 


CO 

l—l 

M 

CO 

C 

0 

0 

CU 

CO 

CO 

0 

u 

CO 

d 

CO 

X 

• 

4-i 

CL 

d 

d 

CU 

CU 

CO 

M 

CO 

c 

;d 

0 

CU 

CU 

0 


bO 

< 

CU 

e 

d 

CO 

CL Jd 


B 

l—l 

CO 

CL 

1-^ 

& 

1 — ^ 

0 

CO 

<: 

1 — H 

CO 

u 

bO 

Cd 

CL 

CO 

CO 

CO 

> 

iLc: 

1 — 1 

CJ 






CO 


* 


CU 

CU 


/—N 

• 

a 

0 


4 J TO 

•M 

CO 

CO 

d 

d 0 

C TO 

LM 

CM 

0 

•M 

•M 0 

M 

M 

•rH 

CO -M 

CO Jd 

d 

d 

4 J 

CL CU 

CL -M 

CO 

CO 

U 

B 

CU 



 

> 


■M M 

4 H r-H 

0 

0 


CM CO 

CM -M 

B 

B 


0 X 

0 S 

CU 

CU 



CO 

cd 

cd 






CO 

• 





CU 

CO 


CO 

CO 

1 

CJ 

CU 


CU 

CU 

M 

CO 

0 


a 

0 

CU 

CM 

CO 

d) 

cO • 

CO 

> 

M 

CM 


CM x-s 

CM 

0 

d 

Li 


^ r-H 

M 


CO 

d 


d CO 

d 

rv 


CO 


CO 4-1 

CO 

1 -H 

CO 



C 


CO 

d 

CO 


X) 0 

X 

0 

0 

d 


CU N 

CU 

•iH • 

M 

M 


4 H -iH 

4 J 

■LJ ^ 

0 

0 


d M 

d 

M nd 

CL 

CL 


•M 0 

•iH 

CU CO 

d 

d 


CO Jd 

cO 

> CU 

0 

0 


CL, 

P-, 

w j:; 


S 


tC 

xl 

Cb 



B r-s 




0 

CU 



d CU 

CU 


CU 

Jd 

M 



•M X) 

xl 

6 

XJ 

M 

d 



xl -M 

•rH 

d 

•iH 

CU 

4J 

TO 

• • 

0 g 

X 

•rH 

X 

s 

X 

— 

CO 

cb 0 d 

0 

CO 

0 


•H 

4J 

u 

M -M 

M 

CO 

M 


B 

d 

•rH 

Xl 0 

X 3 

CO 

X 3 



0 

4J 

d) r — 1 


4H 



TO 

0 

CO 

P^ io CO 

Jd 

0 

Jd 


•iH 


d 

l—l CJ 


a 



U 


CO 






< 


CJ 






CU 



•M 



CO 



Jd 



CL 



Cb 



0 



Jd 


bO 

CL 


d 


•iH 

B 


4 J 

d 

d 

CO 

•iH 

0 

CO 

Td 

•rH 

1 — H 

0 

CO 

JD 

CO 

cO 

TO 

•rH 


d 

M 

rO 

CO 

H 

< 

c /3 


202 


Begin with the first listed method and then proceed step by step to the more severe methods, as necessary. 


AREA AND MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION --Continued 



CO 

cn 

CO 

(U 

o 

cu 

c 

CO 

CO 


CO 

T) 

O 

x: 

4J 

0) 

B 

 

(U 

CO 

cu 

)-l 

o 

B 

cu 

x; 


o 

4J 

a. 

cu 

4J 

CO 

Xi 

a 

cu 

XI 

CO 

TO 

cu 

cu 

o 

o 

!-i 

CL 

c 

cu 

x: 

4-J 

TO 

c 

cO 

TO 

o 

x: 

4-J 

CU 

e 

TO 

CU 

4J 

CO 


4-J 

CO 

•H 

M-l 

CU 

x; 

4-J 

xo 

4J 

c 

•l— I 

bO 

cu 

m 


203 


RULES OF THUMB 


Alpha Particles 

1. It requires an alpha particle of at least 7.5 MeV to penetrate the protective 
layer of the skin, 0.07 mm thick. 

2. With 2rr geometry, the surface of a thick source of tuballoy will give about 
2,400 alpha cpm/cm^ ; plutonium will give about 70,000 alpha cpm/pg; 16.2 g of 
^^®Pu has an activity of 1 Ci. 

Beta Particles 

19s 

1. When working with Au, experience has shown that under certain conditions, 
the beta dose will be five times the gamma value. Therefore, only Vs of the 
total dose will be recorded by gamma dosimeters. 

2. It requires a beta particle of at least 70 keV to penetrate the protective 
layer of the skin, 0.07 mm thick. 

3. The range (R) of beta particles in g/cm^ (thickness in cm multiplied by the 
density in g/cm^) is approximately equal to the maximum energy (E) in MeV 
divided by 2 (i.e., R = E/2). 

4. The range of beta particles in air is about 12 ft per MeV; for example, a 
3 MeV beta has a range of about 36 ft in air. 

5. A chamber wall thickness of 30 mg/cm^ will reduce a flux of 1 MeV (max.) 
betas by 30% and a flux of 0.4 MeV betas by a factor of 4 or 5. 

6. The intensity of bremsstrahlung increases approximately with the energy of 
the beta particle and about the square of the atomic number of the absorbing 
material. 

7. When betas of 1 to 2 MeV pass through light materials such as water, alumi- 
num, or glass, less than 17o of their energy is dissipated as bremsstrahlung. 

8. The bremsstrahlung from 1 Ci ^^P aqueous solution in a glass bottle is about 
1 mR/hr at 1 meter. 

9 0 9 0 

9. When the beta particles from a 1 Ci source of Sr- Y are absorbed, the 
bremsstrahlung hazard is approximately equal to that presented by the gamma 
from 12 mg of radium. The average energy of the bremsstrahlung is about 
300 keV. 

10. For a point source of beta radiation (neglecting self- and air-absorption) 

of strength Ci curies, the dose rate at 1 ft is approximately equal to 300 Ci 
rads/hr. The variation with energy is small over a wide range. 

11. Beta-ray surface dose rates with 7 mg/cm^ filter: 


Source mrads/hr 


U slug 233 

UO2 (brown oxide) 207 

UF4 (green salt) 179 

UOg (N03)2 • bHgO (yellow uranyl nitrate hexahydrate) Ill 

UO3 (orange oxide) 204 

U30a (black oxide) 203 

UOgFg (cliptite or uranyl fluoride) 176 

NagU207 (soda salt or sodium diuranate) 167 


204 


Gamma Rays 


1. The air-scattered radiation (sky-shine) from a 100 Ci ®°Co source place 1 ft 
behind a 4-ft-high shield is about 100 mrads/hr at 6 ft from the outside of 
the shield. 

2. Within ±20% for point source gamma emitters with energies between 0.07 and 
4 MeV, the exposure rate (R/hr) at 1 ft is 6CE, where C is the number of 
curies and E the energy in MeV. 

Neutrons 

1. An approximate HVL for 1-MeV neutrons is 1.26 in. (3.2 cm) of paraffin; 

2.72 in. (6.93 cm) for 5-MeV neutrons. 

Miscellaneous 

1. The activity of any radionuclide is reduced to less than 1% after 7 half- 
lives (i.e., 2 ^ = 0.8%). 

2. For material with a half-life greater than six days, the change in activity 
in 24 hours will be less than 10%. 

3. For ^°Sr-^°Y in equilibrium, 5,000 cpm is equal to 1 mrem/hr when using a 
beta-gamma probe with a 30 mg/ cm^ tube. 

4. There is 0.64 mm of radon gas in transient equilibrium with 1 Ci of radium. 

5. The exposure rate from fission products at any time (t) can be represented 

by: R/unit time = I't where I is the exposure rate at unit time, and t 

is in the same time units. 


Taken from: Los Alamos Handbook of Radiation Monitoring, LA-1835 (3rd ed.); 

Health Physics Handbook - General Dynamics, OSP-379 (April 1963); 
and AERE, HP/L23. 


Maximum 'permissible body burdens and maximum permissible concentrations of radionuclides in air and m 

water for occupational exposure 


Radionuclide and type of 
decay 

Organ of reference 
(critical organ in 
boldfacel 

Maximum 
permissible 
burden in 
total body 
g(/ic) 

Maximum permissible concentrations 

For 40 hour week 

For 168 hour week*^ 

(MPC)„ 

mc/cc 

(MPC)„ 

/xc/cc 

(MPC)„ 

pc/cc 

(MPC) 

mc/cc 

,H3(HTO or H50)(/3-) 

/Body Tissue.. 

103 

0.1 

5X10-3 

0.03 

2X10-3 


(Total Body.. 

2X1Q3 

0.2 

8X10-3 

0.05 

3X 10 3 





2X10-3 


4X10-4 

l V A kJ AVy 11/ 







6 C>nco 2 )(r) 

(Fat 

300 

0.02 

4X10-3 

8X10-3 

10-3 

(Sol) 

j Total Body. . 

400 

0.03 

5X10-8 

0.01 

2X10-3 


[Bone. 

400 

0.04 

6X10-3 

0.01 

2X10-3 

f Tmmpirsinn^ 

Total Body. .. . 



5X10-5 


10-5 

(/?-) 

/Bone. .. . _ 

6 

5X10-4 

7X10-S 

2X10-4 

2 X 10-8 


Total Body 

30 

3X10-3 

4X10-7 

9X10-4 

10-7 

(Sol) 

»^ [B-, 7, e-) 


iCe'« a, B~, 7) 


s!Pm*<'(a, 5-) 




q(jic) 

(MPC)^ 
fiC cc 

(MPG), 

fiC cc 

MPC}^ 
fiC cc 

(MPC? 
mc cc 


[Bone 

4 

■3X io-< 

3X10-= 

10-5 

10-5 

(Soli 

- GI (LLD. 


10-5 

3X10-" 

4X 10-5 

9x 10-= 

iTot^ Bodv 

40 

2x10-^ 

2X10-' 

7X10-5 

6x10-5 

' Insol 

/Lung 



4X10-= 


10-= 

(GI LLI _. 


sxio-^ 

10-' 

3 X 10-5 

5X10-= 


[Bone 

2 

4X10-* 

3 X 10-10 

io-« 

10-'» 

(Sol) 

1 Total Bodv 

20 

10-5 

9X10-10 

4X10-5 

3X10-'* 


IgI (LLI), 


-10-^ 

3X10-1 

5X10-5 

10-‘ 

(Insol) 

/Lung 



5X10-i 


2X10-5 

\GI (LLI 


10-’ 

2X10-1 

4X10-5 

6X 10-= 


,GI LLI. 


2X10-5 

4X10-1 

6X10-5 

10-' 


Total Body 

20 

3 

10-1 

1 

4X10-- 


Bone. . 

30 

4 

2X10-1 

2 

6X10- 

(Sol) 

Kidnev_ 

30 

4 

2X10-1 

2 

6X10- 


Liver 

40 

6 

3X10-1 

2 

9X10-= 


.Spleen 

40 

7 

3X10-1 

2 

10-- 


TLung 



3X10-= 


10 • 








GI LLI. . 


2x10-5 

3X10-1 

6x10-5 

10-- 


/GI LLI 


3X10-5 

6X10-1 

10-1 

2X10-' 


Total Body 

40 

10 

5X10-1 

4 

2X 10-- 


Liver 

60 

20 

7X10-1 

6 

3X 10-- 

(Sol; 

Kidnev 

60 

20 

8X10-1 

6 

3X10-' 


Bone 

80 

20 

9X10-1 

*7 

3X10-- 


.Spleen 

80 

20 

10-5 


3X10-' 

(Insol) 

/Lung, 



10-1 


3X 10-' 

iGI LLI 


3X10-5 

5X10-1 

10-5 

2X 10-- 

i 

fGI LLI 


4X10-^ 

8X10-5 

10-5 

3X10-5 

(Sol) 

j Kidnev 

3 

0.01 

10-1 

4X10-5 

5X10-5 

|Bone. 

10 

0.04 

5X10-1 

0.01 

2X10-- 


(Total Bodv 

10 

0.06 

7X10-1 

0.02 

3X10-- 

(Insol) 

/Lung _, 



6X10-5 


2X10-5 

(GI “LLI - 


3Xl0-‘ 

6X10-5 

10-5 

2X10-5 


1 Thvroid 

0. 7 

6X10-5 

9X10-5 

2X10-5 

3X10-5 

(Sol) 

\ Total Bodv 

50 

5X10-5 

8X10t1 

2X10-5 

3X10-' 


(GI (LLI) 


0.03 

7X10-5 

0. 01 

2X 10-5 

(Insol) 

(GI (LLI 

;Lung 


2X10-5 

3X10-1 

3X10-1 

6X10-5 

10-' 

10-' 


/Total Body 

30 

4X10-* 

6X10-5 

2X10-5 

2X10-' 


Liver 

40 

5X10-< 

8X10-5 

2X10-5 

3X10-5 


Spleen 

50 

6X10-* 

9X10-5 

2X10-5 

3X10-5 


Muscle 

50 

7X10-^ 

10-1 

2X10-5 

4X10- 

^oOl; 

Bone 

100 

10-5 

2X10-1 

5X10-5 

7X10- 


Kidnev 

100 

10-5 

2X10-1 

5X10-5 

8X10- 


Lung 

300 

5X10-5 

6X10-1 

2X10-5 

2X 10-’ 


.GI (SI). 


0.02 

5X10-5 

8X10-5 

2X10-5 

(Insol) 

'^Lung 



10-5 


5X10-5 

\GI LLI ,. 


10-5 

2X10-1 

4X10-5 

8X 10-* 


/"Gf LLI. -. 


3X10-’ 

8X10-5 

10-5 

3X 10- = 


Bone, 

5 

0.2 

10 = 

0.08 

3X10-5 

(Sol) 

(Liver, _ 

6 

0.3 

10-5 

0.1 

4X10-5 


Kidnev,, 

10 

0.5 

2X10-5 

0.2 

7X 10-5 


.Total Bodv,, ,,, 

20 

0.7 

3X10-5 

0.3 

10- 

(Insol) 

/Lung 



6X10-5 


2a 10-5 

IGI (LLI) 


3X10-‘ 

6X10-5 

10-5 

2X 10-5 


/GI (LLi;, ,, , 


6x10-5 

io-» 

2X 10-5 

5 • 10 = 


iBone 

60 

1 

6X10-5 

O.o 

2 • 10 • 

(Sol) 

( Kidnev 

200 

4 

2X10-- 

2 

7 ■ 10- 


j Total Bodv 

300 

7 

3X10-1 

2 

10 • 


(Liver 

300 

8 

4X10-1 

3 

10 -• 

(Insol) 

Lung 



10-1 


3 • 10- 

IGI LLI 


6X10-5 

10-' 

2X 10-5 

4 • 10 ■ 


207 


Maximum permissible body burdens and maximum permissible concentrations for radionuclides in air and in 
water for occupational exposure — Continued 




Maximum 


Organ of reference 

permissible 

Radionuclide and type of 

(critical organ in 

burden in 

decay 

boldface) 

total body 
9 (mc) 


3Ta'82 (r, y) 


77lr>»2 (0-, y) 


79Au‘«« (|3-, -y) 


86Rn222t(“. |3, 7^ 

ggRa^^e y'j 

92 U 235 (a, I3~, 7 ) 


2 U «8 (a, 7, e-) 


94 Pu ”9 (a, y) 


(Sol) 

(Insol) 

(Sol) 

(Insol) 

(Sol) 

(Insol) 

(Sol) 

(Insol) 

(Sol) 

(Insol) 

(Sol) 

(Insol) 

(Sol) 

(Insol) 


GI (LLI)_._ 

Liver 

I Kidney 

Total Body. 

Spleen 

3one 

/Lung 

\GI (LLI)___ 


|G 1 (LLlj... 

Kidney 

< Spleen 

Liver 

vTotal Body. 

Lung 

GI (LLI)... 


{ GI (LLI)... 

Kidney 

Total Body. 

Spleen 

Liver 

fGI (LLI)... 
\Lung 


Lung. 


(Bone 

< Total Body. 
IgI (LLI)... 
/Lung 

\GI (LLI)... 


(GI (LLI)... 

I Kidney 

I Bone 

[Total Body. 

/Lung 

IGI (LLI)... 


[GI (LLI)... 

I Kidney 

I Bone 

[Total Body. 

(Lung 

\GI (LLI)... 


(Bone 

Liver 

( Kidney 

|GI (LLI)... 
[Total Body. 

/Lung 

IGI (LLI)... 


7 

20 

20 

30 

50 


6 

7. 

8 

20 


20 

30 

60 

80 


0.1 

0.2 


0.03 

0.06 

0.4 


5X10- 

0.06 

0.5 


0.04 

0.4 

0.5 


0.4 


Maximum permissible concentrations 


For 40 hour week 


(MFC). 

ixc/cc 


10 - 

0.9 

2 

2 

4 

6 


10-3 

10-=* 

4X10-^ 

4X10-^ 

5X10-^ 

0.01 


10 - 


2X10- 

0.07 

0.1 

0.2 

0.3 

10-^ 


4X10-’ 

6X10-7 

10-^ 


9X10-< 

8X10-< 

0.01 

0.01 

0.04 


8X10- 

10-3 

2X10- 

0.01 

0.04 


10-3 


10 -< 

5X10-< 

7X10-< 

8X10-< 

10-3 


8X10-^ 


(MFC). 

mc/cc 


3X10-7 

4X10-8 

8X10-8 

9X10-8 

10-7 

3X10-7 

2X10-8 

2X10-7 

3X10-7 

10-7 

10-7 

2X10-7 

4X10-7 

3X10-8 

2X10-7 


3X10-7 

3X10-8 

4X10-8 

8X10-8 

10-8 

2X10-7 

6X10-7 


3X10-8 

3X10-i‘ 
5X10-“ 
3X10-7 
5X 10-“ 
2X10-7 

2X10-7 
5X10-78 
6X10-;'« 
2X 10-8 
10-10 
10-7 

2X10-7 

7X10-“ 

6X10->» 

2X10-8 

10-10 

2X10-7 


2X10->3 

7X10-'3 

9X10->3 

2X10-7 

10 -“ 

4X10-“ 

2X10-7 


For 168 hour week** 


(MFC). 

|ic/cc 


4X10-« 

0.3 

0.7 

0.7 

1 

2 


4XlO-< 

4X10-1 

10-^ 

10-^ 

2X 10-^ 
4X10-^ 


4X10- 


5X10-1 

0.02 

0.04 

0.07 

0.1 

5X10-1 


10-7 

2X10-7 

5X10-1 


3X10-1 

3X10-1 

4X10-3 

5X10-3 

0.01 


3X10-1 

4X10-1 

6X10-1 

5X10-3 

0.01 


4X10- 


5X10-5 

2X10-1 

2X10-1 

3X10-1 

3X10-1 


3X10-1 


(MFC)„ 

mc/cc 


9X10-8 

10-8 

3X10-8 

3X10-8 

5X10-8 

9X10-8 

7X10-8 

7X10-8 

9X10-8 

4X10-8 

5X10-8 

6X10-8 

10-7 

9X10-8 

6X10-8 


10-7 

9X10-7 

2X10-8 

3X10-8 

4X10-8 

8X10-8 

2X10-7 


10-8 

10 -“ 

2XlU-“ 

10-7 

2X10-“ 

6X10-8 

6X10-8 

2X10-18 

2X10-'» 

6X10-‘» 

4X10-“ 

5X10-8 

8X10-8 

3X10-“ 

2X10-'“ 

6X10-‘» 

5X10-“ 

6X10-8 


6X10-'3 

2X10-'3 

3X10-“ 

6X10-8 

5X10-“ 

10 -“ 

5X10-8 


tThe daughter isotopes of Rn**® and Rn^^J are assumed present to the extent they occur in unfiltered air. For all other isotopes the daughter elements 
are not considered as part of the intake and if present must be considered on the basis of the rules for mixtures. 


208 


Maximum permissible concentration of unidentified radionuclides in water, (MPCU)ur values*, for 
continuous occupational exposure 


Limitations 


of water* 


If no one of the radionuclides Si^. I'“, I‘=«. At^", Ra“^, Ra^^S Ra“«, Ra^, Ac^s Th^, Pa“>, 

Th“, and Th-nat is present, then the (MPCU)k^ is 

If no one of the radionuclides Sr»«, P^®, Pb®'“, Po^'®, Ra“®, Ra“®, Ra^^*, Pa“', and Th-nat is present, then the 
iMPCU),r is 

If no one of the radionuclides Sr®®, P“, Pb^'®, Ra®“, and Ra-®* is present, then the (MPCU)ur is 


3x10-® 


2x10-® 

7X10-® 


* 


If neither Ra®®* nor Ra®“ is present, then the (MPCU)u^ is... 
If no analysis of the water is made, then the (MPCU)ir is, 


•Each (MPCU), value is the smallest value of (MFC), in table 1 for radionuclides other than those listed opposite the value. Thus these (MPCU), values are permis- 
sible levels for continuous occupational exposure (168 hr/wk) for any radionuclide or mixture of radionuclides where the indicated isotopes are not present (i.e., where the 
concentration of the radionudide in water is small compared with the (MPC)r value for this radionuclide). The (MPCID, may be much smaller than the more exact 
maximum permissible concentration of the material, but the determination of this (MPC)^ requires identification of the radionuclides present and the concentration 
of each. 

••Use one-tenth of these values for interim application in the neighborhood of a controlled exposure area 


Maximum permissible concentration of unidentified radionuclides in air, (MPCU)a values*, for 
continuous occupational exposure 


Limitations 


If there are no a-emitting radionuclides and if no one of the /3-emitting radionuclides Sr®®, P®®, Pb®‘®, Ac- 
Pa®®®, Pu®^", and Bk®-*® is present, then the (MPCLF)a is 


ptc/cm® 
of air** 


Ra®®», 


10 -® 


If there are no a-emitting radionuclides and if no one of the /3-emitting radionuclides Pb®'°, Ac®®®, Ra®®*, and Pu®^‘ 
is present, then the (MPCU)q is 


10-10 


If there are no a-emitting radionuclides and if the /S-emitting radionuclide Ac®®® is not present, then the 
iMPCUlais 10-" 

If no one of the radionuclides Ac®®®, Th®®®, Pa®®', Th®®®, Th-nat, Pu®®®, Pu®®®, Pu®-”*, Pu®‘'®, and Cf®^® is present, then the 
(MPCU)ais 10-'» 


If no one of the radionuclides Pa®®*, Th-nat, Pu®®®, Pu®^, Pu®^, and Cf®^® is present, then the (MPCU)a is 7xl0'** 

If no analysis of the air is made, then the (MPCU)a is 4x10-'® 


•Each iMPCU)o value is the smallest value of (MPC)a in table 1 for radionuclides other than thoee listed opposite the value. Thus these 'MPCU>« values are penm*- 
sible levels for continuous occupational exposure (168 hr/wk) for any radionuclide or mixture of radionuclides where the indicated isotopes are not preaent 0.03 MeV 

1 

Beta rays and electrons; 
<0.03 MeV 

1.7 

Thermal neutrons 

3 

Fast neutrons 

10 

Protons 

10 

Alpha rays 

10 

Heavy ions 

20 


STANDARD MAN 


The information on pages 212, 213, and 214 is from data supplied 
by Dr. Isabel H, Tipton, University of Tennessee, Knoxville. 

The data on pages 215, 216, and 217 is taken from sources too 
numerous to reference. Inquiries regarding specific details should 
be addressed to the Radiological Health Handbook Committee. 


NOTE: Numbers may differ from ICRP Committee II Report. Those using 

this information on Standard Man should be aware of the ef- 
forts of the ICRP Subcommittee on Standard Man. Reports of 
this Committee should be noted and pen and ink changes made 
on pages 212 through 217, as necessary. 


WEIGHTS OF ORGANS AND TISSUES OF STANDARD MAN 


Tissue or Organ 

Mas s 
(grams) 

Total Body 

a) 

Adipose tissue 

15000 

21 

Subcutaneous* 

7500 

11 

Other separable* 

5000 

7.1 

Interstitial 

800 

1.1 

Yellow marrow (added with skeleton) 

1700 

2.4 

Adrenals (2)* 

14 

0.02 

Aorta* 

100 

0.14 

Contents (blood)* 

190 

0.27 

Blood 

5500 

7.8 

Plasma 

3200 

4.6 

Erythrocytes 

2300 

3.2 

Blood vessels* 



(not including aorta and pulmonary) 

200 

0.29 

Contents (blood)* 

2500 

3.6 

Cartilage 

2000 

2.9 

Skeletal cartilage 

1700 

2.4 

Non-skeletal cartilage* 

300 

0.43 

Dense connective tissue 

4000 

5.7 

Tendons and ligaments* 

2000 

2.9 

Other connective tissue 

2000 

2.9 

Eye s (2) * 

15 

0.02 

Lenses (2) 

0.5 

-- 

Gall bladder* 

10 

0.01 

Contents (bile)* 

63 

0.09 

G.I. tract* 

1200 

1.7 

Esophagus 

50 

0.07 

Stomach 

150 

0.21 

Intestine 

1000 

1.4 

Smal 1 

500 

0.71 

Upper large 

250 

0.36 

Lower large 

250 

0.36 

Contents of G.I. tract* 



(food plus digestive fluids) 

1000 

1.4 

Hair* 

20 

0.03 

Heart* 

300 

0.50 

Contents (blood)* 

390 

0.56 

Kidneys (2)* 

310 

0.44 

Larynx* 

15 

0.02 

Liver* 

1800 

2.6 

Lungs (2)* 

1000 

1 .4 

Parenchyma 

580 

0.83 

Pulmonary blood 

480 

0.61 

Lymph nodes* 

250 

0.36 


212 


WEIGHT OF ORGANS AND TISSUES OF STANDARD MAN- -Continued 


Tissue or Organ 

Mass 

(grams) 

Total Body 
(%) 

Miscellaneous* (by difference) 

590 

0.84 

Soft tissue (nasopharynx, etc.) 

240 

0.34 

Fluids (synovial, pleural, etc.) 

350 

0.50 

Muscle (skeletal)* 

28000 

40.0 

Nails* 

10 

0.01 

Nervous system - central 



Brain* 

1400 

2.0 

Spinal cord* 

30 

0.04 

Contents - cerebrospinal fluid* 

120 

0.17 

Pancreas* 

100 

0.14 

Parathyroids (4)* 

0.12 

-- 

Pineal* 

0.2 

-- 

Pituitary* 

0.6 

-- 

Prostate* 

16 

0.023 

Salivary glands (6)* 

85 

0.12 

Skeleton* 

10000 

14 

Bone 

5000 

7.2 

Cortical 

4000 

5.7 

Trabecular 

1000 

1.4 

Red marrow 

1300 

1.9 

Yellow marrow 

1700 

2.4 

Cartilage 

1700 

2.4 

Blood 

300 

0.43 

Skin* 

4900 

7.0 

Epidermis 

500 

0.71 

Dermis 

4400 

6.3 

Hypodermis (see adipose tissue) 

7500 

-- 

Spleen* 

180 

0.26 

Teeth* 

46 

0.065 

Testes (2)* 

60 

0.085 

Thymus* 

20 

0.028 

Thyroid* 

16 

0.023 

Tongue 

70 

0.10 

Tonsils (2)* 

4 

0.006 

Trachea* 

15 

0.021 

Ureters (2)* 

16 

0.023 

Urethra* 

2 

0.003 

Urinary bladder* 

45 

0.064 

Contents (urine)* 

102 

0.14 

Total Body 

70000 

100 


*Sum total body (including the second column figures under "Mass" and "Total 
Body"). 


373-062 0 - 70 -15 


STANDARD MAN: TOTAL BODY CONTENT FOR SOME ELEMENTS 


Element 

Amount (grams) 

Percent of 
Total Body 

Element 

Amount (grams) 

Percent of 
Total Body 

Oxygen 

43000 

61 

Bromine 

0.20 

0.00029 

Carbon 

16000 

23 

Lead 

0.12 

0.00017 

Hydrogen 

7000 

10 

Copper 

0.072 

0.00010 

Nitrogen 

1800 

2.6 

Aluminum 

0.061 

0.00009 

Calcium 

1000 

1.4 

Cadmium 

0.050 

0.00007 

Phosphorus 

720 

1.0 

Boron 

<0. 048 

0.00007 

Sulfur 

140 

0.20 

Barium 

0.022 

0.00003 

Potassium 

140 

0.20 

Tin 

<0.017 

0.00002 

Sodium 

100 

0.14 

Manganese 

0.012 

0.00002 

Chlorine 

95 

0.12 

Nickel 

0.010 

0.00001 

Magnesium 

19 

0.027 

Gold 

<0.010 

0.00001 

Silicon 

18 

0.026 

Molybdenum 

<0.0,093 

0.00001 

Iron 

4.2 

0.006 

Chromium 

<0.0066 

0.000009 

Fluorine 

2.6 

0.0037 

Cesium 

0.0015 

0.000002 

Zinc 

2.3 

0.0033 

Cobalt 

0.0015 

0.000002 

Rubidium 

0.32 

0.00046 

Uranium 

0.0007 

0.000001 

Strontium 

0.32 

0.00046 

Beryllium 

Radium 

0.000036 

3.1X10“^^ 

— 


214 


SPECIFICATIONS FOR STANDARD MAN 



Adult 

Man 

Adult 

Woman 

Child 
10 years 

Infant 
1 year 

Newborn 

Weight (kg) 

70 

58 

-- 

-- 

3.4 

Length (cm) 

170 

160 

-- 

-- 

50 

Surface Area (cm^) 

18000 

16000 

-- 

-- 

2200 

Specific Gravity 

1.07 

1.04 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Total Body Water (ml/kgW) 

600 

500 

-- 



Extracellular Water 

260 

200 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Intracellular 

340 

300 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Total Blood Volume (ml) 

5200 

3900 




Red Cell Volume (ml) 

2200 

1350 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Plasma Volume (ml) 

3050 

2500 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Total Blood Weight (g) 

5500 

4100 




Red Cell Weight (g) 

2400 

1500 

-- 

-- 


Plasma Weight (g) 

3100 

2600 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Total Adipose Tissue (kg) 

15 

19 

-- 



Subcutaneous 

7.5 

13 




Sparable 

5.0 

4 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Yellow Marrow 

1.7 

1.4 

-- 

-- 


Interstitial 

0.8 

0.6 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Total Connective Tissue (g) 

5100 

4100 




Cartilage 

2500 

2000 

-- 

-- 


Tendons and Fascia 

850 

700 




Other 

1700 

1400 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Total Fat (kg) 

13.5 

15 




Nonessential 

12 

13.8 

-- 

-- 


Essential 

1.5 

1.2 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Hair (g) 

20 

300 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Nails (g) 

3 

3 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Skeletal Muscle (kg) 

28 

17 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Total Skin (g) 

4900 

3500 





Epidermis 

500 

400 

-- 



Dermis 

4400 

3100 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Hypodermis 

7500 

13000 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Resting Metabolic Rate 

17 

16 

25 

35 


(cal/min-kg) 






Oxygen Inhaled (g) 

920 

640 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Carbon Dioxide Exhaled (g) 

1000 

700 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Total Lung Capacity (liters) 

5.6 

4.4 




Functional Residual 

2.2 

1.8 




Vital 

4.3 

3.3 




Dead Space 

0.160 

0.130 

-- 

-- 


Minute Volume (liters/min) 






Resting 

7.5 

6.0 

4.8 

1.5 

0.5 

Light Activity 

20 

19 

13 

4.2 

:. 5 


SPECIFICATIONS FOR STANDARD MAN--Continued 



Adult 

Man 

Adult 

Woman 

Child 
10 years 

Infant 
1 year 

Newborn 

Total Air Breathed (liters) 

22800 

21120 

14784 

4700 

780 

8 hr. working (light) 

9600 

9120 

6240 

3500 

(10 hr) 

90 

(1 hr) 

8 hr. nonoccupational 

9600 

9120 

6240 

-- 

-- 

8 hr. resting 

3600 

2880 

2304 

1200 
(14 hr) 

690 

(23 hr) 

Dietary Intake (g) 






Protein 

95 

66 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Carbohydrate 

390 

270 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Fat 

120 

85 

-- 

-- 


Water in Diet 

1000 

700 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Water in Fluid 

1700 

1200 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Water in Oxidation 
Elements 

300 

200 



-- 

Carbon 

300 

210 

200 

-- 

-- 

Hydrogen 

350 

245 

230 

-- 

-- 

Nitrogen 

15 

10 

10 

-- 

-- 

Oxygen 

2600 

1800 

1700 

-- 

-- 

Milk Consumption (ml/day) 

300 

200 

-470 

-1000 

-- 

Fecal Components (g) 






Weight 

135 

-- 

85 

24 

-- 

Water 

105 

-- 

66 

19 

-- 

Solids 

30 

-- 

19 

5 

-- 

Ash 

17 

-- 

6 

1 

-- 

Fats 

5 

-- 

4 

3 

-- 

Nitrogen 

1.5 

-- 

1 

0.3 

-- 

Other Substances 
Elements 

6.5 

— ” 

8 

0.7 


Carbon 

6.7 

-- 

4.2 

1.2 

-- 

Hydrogen 

13 

-- 

8.6 

2.5 

-- 

Nitrogen 

1.5 

-- 

1.0 

0.3 

-- 

Oxygen 

98 

-- 

62 

17 

-- 

Urine (g) 






Volume (ml) 

1400 

-- 

1000 

450 

-- 

Specific Gravity 

1.001- 

1.030 

- “ 

« - 

1.002- 

1.019 

” “ 

Solids 

60 

-- 

47 

19 

19 

Urea 

22 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

"Sugars" 

1 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

Carbonates 

Elements 

2 

“ “ 



■■ 

Nitrogen 

15 

-- 

11 

5 

-- 

Hydrogen 

160 

-- 

no 

50 

-- 

Oxygen 

1300 

-- 

970 

420 

-- 

Carbon 

5 


3 

0.5 



216 


SPECIFICATIONS FOR STANDARD MAN- -Continued 



Adult 

Man 

Adult 

Woman 

Child 
10 years 

Infant 
1 year 

Newborn 

Water Balance (tnl/day) 
Total Gains 

3000 

2100 

2000 



Fluid Intake 

1950 

1400 

1400 

-- 

-- 

Milk 

300 

200 

450 

-- 


Tap Water 

150 

100 

200 

-- 

-- 

Others 

1500 

1100 

750 

-- 

-- 

In Food 

700 

450 

400 

-- 

-- 

By Oxidation in Food 

350 

250 

200 

-- 

-- 

Total Losses (tnl/day) 

3000 

2100 

2000 



Urine 

1400 

1000 

1000 

-- 

-- 

Feces 

100 

80 

70 

-- 

-- 

Insensible Loss 

850 

600 

580 

-- 

-- 

Sweat 

650 

420 

350 

-- 

-- 


') : 



lltf ir f 



SECTION IV 


ELEMENTS IN “TABLE OF ISOTOPES” 

(The numbers in parentheses refer to the Decay Scheme pages) 


Element 

Sym. 

Z 

Page 

Element 

Sym. 

Z 

Page 

Actinium 

Ac 

89 

... 365 


Mercury 

Hg 

80 

... 347 

(404) 

Aluminum 

A1 

13 

237 


Molybdenum 

Mo 

42 

... 272 

(394) 

Americium 

Am 

95 

... 373 


Neodymium 

Nd 

60 

... 310 


Antimony 

Sb 

51 

... 290 


Neon 

Ne 

10 

... 235 


Argon 

Ar 

18 

... 241 

(384) 

Neptunium 

Np 

93 

... 371 


Arsenic 

As 

33 

... 256 


Neutron 

n 

0 

... 231 


Astatine 

At 

85 

... 359 


Nickel 

Ni 

28 

... 250 

(389) 

Barium 

Ba 

56 

... 303 

(400) 

Niobium 

Nb 

41 

... 270 

(393) 

Berkel ium 

Bk 

97 

... 376 


Nitrogen 

N 

7 

... 233 


Beryl 1 ium 

Be 

4 

... 232 


Nobel ium 

No 

102 

... 379 


Bismuth 

Bi 

83 

... 354 

(406) 

Osmium 

Os 

76 

... 339 


Boron 

B 

5 

... 232 


Oxygen 

0 

8 

... 234 


Bromine 

Br 

35 

... 259 


Palladium 

Pd 

46 

... 279 


Cadmium 

Cd 

48 

... 283 


Phosphorus 

P 

15 

... 238 

(383) 

Calcium 

Ca 

20 

... 243 

(385) 

Platinum 

Pt 

78 

... 343 


Californium 

Cf 

98 

... 376 


Plutonium 

Pu 

94 

... 372 

(409) 

Carbon 

C 

6 

... 233 

(382) 

Polonium 

Po 

84 

... 356 

(406) 

Cerium 

Ce 

58 

... 307 

(401) 

Potassium 

K 

19 

... 241 

(384) 

Cesium 

Gs 

55 

... 301 

(399) 

Praseodymium 

Pr 

59 

... 309 

(402) 

Chlorine 

Cl 

17 

... 240 


Promethium 

Pm 

61 

... 312 


Chromium 

Cr 

24 

... 246 

(386) 

Protactinium 

Pa 

91 

... 368 

(408) 

Cobalt 

Co 

27 

... 249 

(388) 

Radium 

Ra 

88 

... 364 

(406) 

Copper 

Cu 

29 

... 251 

(390) 

Radon 

Rn 

86 

... 361 

(406) 

Curium 

Cm 

96 

... 374 


Rhenium 

Re 

75 

... 337 


Dysprosium 

Dy 

66 

... 321 


Rhodium 

Rh 

45 

... 277 


Einsteinium 

Es 

99 

... 377 


Rubidium 

Rb 

37 

... 263 

(391) 

Erbium 

Er 

68 

... 325 


Ruthenium 

Ru 

44 

... 276 

(395) 

Europium 

Eu 

63 

.. 315 


Samarium 

Sm 

62 

... 313 


Fermium 

Fm 

100 

... 378 


Scandium 

Sc 

21 

... 244 


Fluorine 

F 

9 

... 235 


Selenium 

Se 

34 

... 257 


Francium 

Fr 

87 

... 363 


Silicon 

Si 

14 

... 238 


Gadolinium 

Gd 

64 

... 317 


Silver 

Ag 

47 

... 281 


Gallium 

Ga 

31 

... 253 


Sodium 

Na 

11 

... 236 

(382) 

Germanium 

Ge 

32 

... 254 


Strontium 

Sr 

38 

... 265 

(392) 

Gold 

Au 

79 

... 345 

(405) 

Sulfur 

S 

16 

... 239 

(384) 

Hafnium 

Hf 

72 

... 332 


Tantalum 

Ta 

73 

... 334 


Helium 

He 

2 

231 


Technetium 

Tc 

43 

... 274 


Holmium 

Ho 

67 

322 


Tellurium 

Te 

52 

... 293 


Hydrogen 

H ■ 

1 

... 231 

(382) 

Terbium 

Tb 

65 

... 318 


Indium 

In 

49 

... 285 

(396) 

Thallium 

T1 

81 

... 350 


Iodine 

I 

53 

297 

(396) 

Thorium 

Th 

90 

... 366 

(408) 

Iridium 

Ir 

77 

... 340 

(403) 

Thulium 

Tm 

69 

... 326 


Iron 

Fe 

26 

... 248 

(386) 

Tin 

Sn 

50 

288 


Krypton 

Kr 

36 

261 

(391) 

Titanium 

Ti 

22 

... 245 


Kurchatovium* 

Ku 

104 

... 380 


Uranium 

U 

92 

... 369 

(407) 

Lanthanum 

La 

57 

306 

(400) 

Vanadium 

V 

23 

245 


Lawrencium 

Lr 

103 

380 


Wolf ramt 

w 

74 

335 


Lead 

Pb 

82 

352 

(406) 

Xenon 

Xe 

54 

299 

(398) 

Lithium 

Li 

3 

231 


Ytterbium 

Yb 

70 

328 


Lutecium 

Lu 

71 

330 


Yttrium 

Y 

39 

267 

(392) 

Magnesium 

Mg 

12 

236 


Zinc 

Zn 

30 

252 

(390) 

Manganese 

Mn 

25 

247 

(386) 

Zirconium 

Zr 

40 

... 269 

(393) 

Mendelevium 

Md 

101 

379 








* Suggested name, 
t Also called tungsten 




T able of Isotopes 


The material in this section is taken from the book, 
"Table of Isotopes," by C. M. Lederer, J. M. Hollander, 
and I. Perlman, 6th edition, published by John Wiley and 
Sons, Inc., New York, 1967. 

Table I is an exact reproduction of Table I of the 
above publication. The bibliography referred to is not 
reproduced here. 

Table II, as presented here, consists of specially 
selected decay schemes. 


Permission to reproduce this material was given to the 
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare by the 
authors and the publishers, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 
This permission is gratefully acknowledged. Further 
reproduction without permission of the authors and/or 
publishers is prohibited. 



IiiinKluctioii 


221 


TABLE I. RADIOISOTOPE DATA 


'I'liis table displays all radioactive and stable nuclei 
arranged according to atomic number with increasing 
mass number for each element. The criterion for the 
s('leefion of data on each radioactive isotope has been 
that of identifying it in terms of its rate and mode of 
decay, principal radiations, and how it is prepared. 
'I he data are arranged in six columns, each of which 
recei\'cs comment below. 

Note on references. References to the original pub- 
lications are coded according to the first author and 
the year of publication. Example: the symbol AagP57 
permits the appropriate journal reference to be found 
readily in the alphabetical listing in the bibliography. 
If the reader is already familiar with the work, he will 
recognize this symbol as referring to a 1957 paper of 
P. .\agard and co-workers. 

Column 1— Isotope. The symbols here give the iso- 
topic assignments in usual form. Stable or long-lived 
naturally occurring isotopes are indicated by under- 
lining. The superscript m following the mass number 
refers to a metastable, or isomeric, state which has a 
sufficiently long half-life to be investigated indepen- 
dently from its ground state. Likewise, the designa- 
tions 7/1 1 and 7712 refer to several metastable states of 
a nucleus. W'hen it is not established which of several 
isomers is the ground state, each isomer is referred to 
by the same symbol without the m; for example, Eu'*’" 
( 12.6 h) and Eu’®“ ( y ). 

Generally, isomeric states are included in Table I 
if their half-lives exceed ==^1 s; exceptions are made 
for a few chemically or genetically identified isomers 
of somewhat shorter half-life. The half-lives of many 
short-lived excited states have been measured because 
of their importance to nuclear structure. They are not 
listed in Table I as isomeric states but can be found in 
Table II, under the listing of the ground state of the 
appropriate isotope. 

The historical names for the naturally occurring ac- 
tivities Th-®-, U-’®, U-®®, and their descendents are 
giv'en in Column 1 beneath the isotopic assignment. 

Column 2— Half-life. An attempt has been made to 
list the most accurate value first, usually inferred from 
the stated precision. Unless otherwise stated, the value 
listed is the total half-life, which is the entity measured 
when the decay is followed. When a nucleus has more 
than one mode of decay, the percentage of each mode 
is given in Column 3. 


An exception is made for those heavy nuclei that 
have measurable spontaneous-fission rates. The appro- 
priate spontaneous-fission half-life is listed in Column 
2 and designated by the symbol fi/ 2 (SF). In a number 
of cases no radioactivity has been observed, although 
sought, and the lower limit of the half-life is listed 
for the mode of decay looked for (/? = /? decay, /3/3 
= simultaneous emission of two /3 particles, EC = 
electron capture, a = a decay ). 

If there is no special designation after the listed 
half-life, it may be assumed that the determination 
was made by direct decay measurement. ( For the very 
short lifetimes the timing is done electronically rather 
than mechanically.) For indirect half-life determina- 
tions, the methods are described by the following 
symbols: 

sp act ( -f mass spect) Determination of disintegration 
rate of a sample containing a known weight of the 
active substance (mass spectographic analysis of the 
sample to correct for other isotopes present), 
genet Decay of parent substance, followed by the periodic 
removal of a decay product which can be measured, 
(genet = genetic relation). 

yield Measurement of radioactivity from a sample con- 
taining a number of atoms calculated according to 
the expected yield of the reaction by which it was 
produced. 

est In a few instances (a emitters) the half-lives are esti- 
mated from the energies of the measured radiations, 
delay coinc Several isotopes are short-lived products of 
longer lived parents. Those whose half-lives are in the 
millisecond range or shorter were measured by re- 
cording the time-interval distribution between the 
emissions from the parent substance and the daugh- 
ter product. 

Column 3— Type of decay. Because many classes of 
data are included in this column, the entry denoting 
type of decay is preceded by the special symbol for 
radiation,^'. When the mode of decay is enclosed 
in square brackets, that mode is inferred or assumed, 
not directly measured. When independent modes of 
decay have been measured, the branching ratios are 
entered as percentages. Symbols used are 

f3 Negative /?-particle (negation) emission 

/?+ Positive /J-particIe (positron) emission 

EC Orbital electron capture 

a Alpha-particle emission 

IT Isomeric transition (decay from an excited inet.i- 

stable state to a lower state) 

SF Spontaneous fission. Listings are made here only if 
the branching is about \% or more. For other^ the 


222 


TABLE I. RADIOISOTOPE DATA 


partial half-lives for spontaneous fission are entered 
in Column 2. 

n Neutron emission from excited states promptly fol- 
lowing decay to those levels. Entry is made in 
conjunction with the emitter, 
p Proton emission from excited states promptly fol- 
lowing ^ decay to those levels. Entry is made in 
conjunction with the fj emitter. 

Wherever experimenters have searched for and 
failed to find a particular mode of decay, the indica- 
tion is, for example, “no Experimental limits are 
given but no limits predicted from theory. Limits of 
detection in cases in which no radioactivity has been 
observed are listed in Column 2 in terms of a lower 
limit on the half-life. 

Among the a emitters in the heavy element region 
closed decay cycles may almost always be employed 
to determine whether a nucleus is ^8 stable without 
resort to specific experimental evidence. Those that 
are known to be ji stable are designated by the entry 
y8 stable (cons energy) to indicate that the principle of 
conservation of energy underlies the calculations. 

Percent abundance. The isotopic abundances listed 
are on an “atom percent” basis and refer to the ele- 
ments as they exist in the earth’s crust. Some of the 
light elements have variations in composition outside 
the accuracy of determination. For these elements 
ranges are given with references to the publications in 
which the variations are discussed. Particular values 
are also given for some specific sources of the speci- 
mens analyzed. 

Isotopic mass. The atomic masses of all species 
measured by mass spectrometry or calculated from 
reaction energies are entered in the form of the mass 
excess, A(=M-A); the unified mass scale ( A(C^^) = 
0 ) is employed. It will be noted that these mass excess 
values are in units of million electron volts. Most of 
the data were taken from the compilation of Mattauch, 
Theile, and Wapstra (MTW), which should be con- 
sulted for the accuracy attached to them. The experi- 
mental decay energies of radioactive species on which 
many of their masses are based may be found as Q 
values on the decay schemes in Table II. 

Cross sections. It is not possible to list all known 
reaction cross sections in a table such as this, but values 
are given for the neutron-capture reaction (o-c) and 
for neutron-induced fission (o-f) in units of 10“^* cm^ 
(bams). Most of the cross sections shown are taken 
from a compilation by D. T. Goldman and M. D. 
Goldberg (GoldmDT64) and refer to neutrons with 
velocity 2200 meters/sec. The reader is cautioned to 
note that many nuclei have strong resonances in the 
epithermal region, and because “thermal” reactors con- 
tain epithermal neutrons in the irradiation positions 
the effective cross sections for certain nuclei can be 
larger than those indicated here. 


Our symbol refers to that part of the capture 
reaction in which fission does not result. Unless other- 
wise stated, o-c applies to the (n, y) reaction. For some 
light nuclei the principal reaction with thermal neu- 
trons may be (n, p) or some other reaction. Wherever 
such a reaction is referred to, it is so indicated. 

Column 4— class; identification; genetic relationships. 
Class. The degree of certainty of each isotopic assign- 
ment is indicated by a letter according to the following 
code: 

A Element and mass number certain 
B Element certain and mass number probable 
C Element probable and mass number certain or prob- 
able 

D Element certain but mass number not well established 
E Element probable and mass number not well estab- 
lished 

F Insufficient evidence 
G Probably in error. 

These “ratings” should not be read as levels of con- 
fidence in the experiments but rather as an indication 
of the limitations of the experiments as they relate 
isotopic assignments to the radioactive properties dis- 
cerned. In some instanees a simple cross bombardment 
( production of an isotope in two or more ways ) results 
in an unambiguous assignment. In others much more 
elaborate experiments are insufficient. Among the fac- 
tors that can limit the certainty of an assignment based 
on its means of production are targets of mixed iso- 
topic composition, low cross sections, the possibility 
of isomerism, similarity of properties to other isotopes, 
and absenee of knowledge of neighboring isotopes. 

Identification. The means by which the isotopic as- 
signments were established are tabulated next. In gen- 
eral, several references are combined, and among 
them the first refers to the discovery of the isotope 
(except for classical natural radioactivities). Indica- 
tion of the experimental methods used in making the 
various assignments may be had from the following 
symbols: 

chem Chemical separations establishing the chemical 
identity (atomic number) of the isotope, 
genet Established decay relationship (by chemical or 
other means) with another isotope whose mass as- 
signment is known. 

excit Refers broadly to energy considerations in the pro- 
duction of the isotope, some of which are 

( 1 ) excitation-function or yield experiments to estab- 
lish the nuclear reaction which produced the 
isotope; 

(2) limitation of products formed by limiting the 
energy of bombarding particles; 

(3) making use of a calculated Q value; 

(4) in a few instances use of fission-yield data to 
limit mass assignments. 

cross bomb Arrival at an assignment by producing the 
isotope in different ways. 


TABLE I. RADIOISOTOPE DATA 


223 


fi-capt Key evidence supplied by production with slow 
neutrons from which it is usually inferred that the 
(ri, y) reaction was observed. 

sep isotopes The use of target elements enriched or de- 
pleted in a particular isotope. 

mass spect Mass number determined by mass spectrom- 
etry. 

decay charac Identification of predicted decay properties 
such as deciiy energy or energy-level pattern, 
genet energy levels Energy levels of daughter nucleus 
agree with those from decay of another isotope whose 
isotopic assignment and mode of decay are known 
or with levels observed in nuclear reactions, 
atomic level spacing Atomic number of decay product 
established by measuring the characteristic energy 
differences between internal-conversion electron lines 
from a particular y transition converted in different 
shells. 

critical abs Identification of the atomic number of the 
decay product by critical absorption of X-rays accom- 
panying the decay process. 

Genetic relationships. Below the designation of how 
the isotope was identified are listed specifically those 
genetic (or parent-daughter) relations established by 
chemical or physical separation and radiochemical 
characterization of the daughter atoms. Among other 
things, this list also gives the reader some warning that 
radiations from decay products may be present with 
those from the parent. 

Column 5— Major radiations. The purpose of this 
list is to acquaint the reader at a glance with the prin- 
cipal radiations associated with each isotope. The ra- 
diations shown will often be sufficient to identify the 
isotope. Because it is the purpose here to delineate 
what is actually seen when a particular isotope is 
encountered, the X-rays and annihilation radiation 
(0.511-MeV y rays from the annihilation of positrons, 
designated by the symbol y±:), are indicated if they 
are prominent in the electromagnetic spectrum. If 
essentially all the decays proceed by positron emission, 
the notation 0.511 (200%, y±) will appear. (Several 
per cent of the positrons annihilate in flight, which 
means that a corresponding number of photons will 
not have 0.511 MeV energy. ) The notation “L X-rays” 
is used only when K X-rays are absent or very weak. 
Similarly, conversion electrons are listed if they are 
prominent in the electron spectrum. Auger electrons 
(electrons emitted in the de-excitation of atomic levels) 
are not listed explicitly; they will always accompany 
the emission of X-rays. Continuous /?" or spectra 
are usually represented by the endpoint of the highest 
energy beta group followed by the notation “max.” 
When the highest energy group is of low intensity, so 
that a spectrometer of low resolving power ( such as a 
scintillator ) would also detect the presence of a con- 
tinuous spectrum with a lower endpoint energy, this 


is also indicated. Thus the notation 1.176 max (7%), 
0.514 max” means that there is a continuous spectrum 
with endpoint 1.176 MeV and 7% intensity, but the 
major portion of the I3~ spectrum ( which may be com- 
posed of one or more beta groups) has an endpoint 
energy of 0.514 MeV. Decay products can often give 
rise to radiations that soon become prominent, and 
this is indicated by the notation “daughter radiations 
from. . .” so that the reader will look up the radiations 
that arise from these sources. The data in this column 
are derived from the references listed in Table II. 
Quantities enclosed in square brackets are calculated 
or inferred, not measured. 

The term “major radiations,” as used here, requires 
some explanation. In each of the three general cate- 
gories of radiation, a particles, /? particles and elec- 
trons, and y rays and X-rays, we have listed the most 
prominent radiations, even though they may be of 
relatively low intensity. For example, with an a emitter 
may be listed a y ray of only 10“®% intensity relative to 
the a intensity if that y ray is the most intense in its 
energy range. Conversion electrons are listed accord- 
ing to the actual energies of the electron lines and not 
in terms of the transitions that give rise to the lines. 

The intensities of radiations when expressed as per- 
centages without other qualifications refer to percent- 
ages of the total decay events. Another way of ex- 
pressing relative intensities is also sometimes employed. 
A number following the dagger ( f ) symbol is the rela- 
tive intensity for the particular mode of decay beside 
which the f appears. 

The terms “doublet” and “complex” are used to in- 
dicate y rays which would be unresolved or incom- 
pletely resolved by instruments of moderately low 
resolving power such as scintillators. It is not indicated 
when an electron line is complex. Because of conver- 
sion in diflFerent atomic shells and subshells, many of 
the electron lines listed in Column 5 are complex. 

The reader is referred to Table II for a more de- 
tailed account of radiations accompanying the decay 
of each isotope and for references to the original liter- 
ature. 

Column 6— principal means of production. The 
methods for producing each isotope selected for in- 
clusion here are those that have given the highest yield 
and those that permit greatest isotopic purit\. 'I hesc 
listings will serve principally as references to the orig- 
inal literature in which important aspects of thr prep- 
arations such as experimental conditions, yields, atul 
purity of product are discussed. 

The methods fall into three main categories, lor 
ordinary nuclear reactions in which a target isotope is 
bombarded with charged particles or neutrons the 
usual system of abbreviations is employed. For e\.mi 
pie, to make Pu‘®g tl e reaction \p '- ( in r illy 
has the percent of branching shown for l a* h nnxlt 
but other decay infonnation is given only for tin ni< ii 
or modes pertinent to the mass number under. on 
sideration. 

Energy levels in general. The hori/onf.d lin* • tl. .t 
represent energy levels have the etien;i. of. n 
entered above them in boldfaced diaraeti r> ne.ir t!.' 


373-062 0 - 70 - 16 


228 


TABLE II. DETAILED NUCLEAR LEVEL PROPERTIES 


right-hand extremity. Energies are in units of million 
electron volts. The spins and parities are in similar 
characters and similarly placed on the left. We have 
not entered other descriptive quantum numbers even 
when they have been well established, but members 
of different rotational bands (for nuclei in the major 
regions of nuclear deformation) are slightly displaced 
horizontally. Assignments appearing within paren- 
theses are consistent with available information but 
not determined uniquely. Sometimes when only two 
choices are possible both are entered. Uncertain levels 
and transitions are indicated by dashed lines. 

Half-lives of excited states are entered at either end 
of the level or, in a few cases, on the level, in large 
characters. The abbreviations have the following 
meanings: ms = 10^® sec, — 10'® sec, ns = 10“® sec, 
ps = 10“^® sec. 

Beta-decay processes. Q values for |8-decay modes 
are entered where convenient below the isotopic sym- 
bol. Those for ^ decay are designated Q^-, whereas 
for both positron decay and orbital electron capture 
they are given as (^ec- The latter designation elim- 
inates the ambiguity as to whether two electron masses 
have been added to the endpoint energy of the posi- 
tron spectrum. Thus all Q values have their exact defi- 
nition as the energy difference between the ground 
states of parent and daughter systems. Values given 
without other designation are based on decay data. Q 
values followed by the abbreviation calc were calcu- 
lated from ( a ) masses established in a variety of ways, 

(b) closed decay cycles or decay-reaction cycles, or 

(c) ratios of electron capture from different shells for 
EC decay or EC/p* ratios. Those values followed by 
the symbol est were estimated from theoretical con- 
siderations of a or jS systematics. 

The intensities of P~, p*, and electron-capture groups 
indicated near the arrows showing the transitions are 
given as percentages of total transitions {%) or as rela- 
tive intensities (f). To the right of the intensities are 
shown the log ft values {italic characters). Tie lines 
to the transition arrows are used for clarity, p branch- 
ings given are not necessarily directly measured. In 
fact, in a majority of cases they are inferred from y-ray 
and conversion-electron data. 

In some cases close-lying states are populated by p 
groups that cannot be resolved; the arrow then ter- 
minates at a bracket spanning these levels. An arrow 
that terminates away from all levels indicates that 
information is not available on the primary states 
populated. 

Alpha decay. Q values represent the total a-decay 
energy which includes the recoil energy. The symbols 
calc and est have the same meaning as they have when 
applied to p decay. 

The decay scheme for an a emitter of mass A + 4 is 
given along with the level diagram for mass A which 
includes the « daughter. The a-emitting parent is 


shown on this diagram as a line above its isotopic 
assignment (in smaller characters than those used for 
the mass A isotopes); a transitions are indicated by 
double-line arrows. The intensities are given as per- 
centages of the total a-decay events. Adjacent to the 
intensity values are “hindrance factors” {italic char- 
acters ). Because the meaning of this term may not be 
widely known, it is explained here. By means of a 
single normalizing lifetime the half-life for the ground- 
state transition of any even-even a emitter may be 
calculated rather accurately by using simple one-body 
a-decay theory. The hindrance factor for such a transi- 
tion is defined as unity. Almost all other transitions 
have half-lives longer than those given by this cal- 
culation. The factor by which the actual half-hfe ex- 
ceeds that calculated is termed the “hindrance factor.” 
All hindrance factors given on the decay schemes were 
calculated by Helen Michel ( MicH66 ) from the one- 
body spin-independent equations of Preston (PresM47); 
the reader is referred to these papers for details. They 
serve a function similar to that of the log ft value for 
P decay in that further demands are placed on the 
theory to explain the relative retardation from some 
adopted standard. 

Gamma-ray transitions. Special note should be taken 
of the system employed for indicating intensities of 
y-ray transitions (vertical lines). Because the array of 
energy levels will be populated differently by the dif- 
ferent radioactive modes that feed them, it is cumber- 
some to give intensities on a single diagram which 
relate to decay events of each parent substance. The 
intensities shown ( numbers printed diagonally in light 
characters ) are relative values for the y-ray ( photon) 
de-excitation of the particular level above which they 
appear and sum to «=I00 for each level. Occasionally 
such numbers are calculated from conversion-electron 
intensities, which is then indicated by placing them 
in parentheses. Absolute photon intensities of some 
y rays in nuclei that can be fed only by one radioactive 
parent are given to the left of the transition arrow with 
a % sign. Intensities of y rays and conversion electrons 
expressed in other ways will be found in conjunction 
with the parent substance in the tabular data accom- 
panying the decay schemes. Multipolarities of the 
transitions are entered on the vertical to the left of 
the transition arrow or above the arrow, following the 
energy. 

The energies of the y transitions are given in bold- 
faced characters beside the intensities or immediately 
above the arrows when no intensity data are listed. 
Energies of the first excited state to ground-state tran- 
sition are omitted. An asterisk following the energy of 
a y ray signifies that coincidence work (usually) has 
shown the existence of more than one y ray of ap- 
proximately the same energy. Consequently, the reader 
should search for other y rays of that energy in the 
level diagram. 


Table I 


Radioisotope data 

Half-life — type of decay — isotopic abundance — atomic mass — neutron cross- 
section (capture and fission) — class (assignment rating) — means of identifica- 
tion — genetic relationships — major radiations — means of production 




231 





Type of decay ( *•* ); 



— 



Ivtiitpc 
/ A 

luir lire 


% abundance; Mass excess 
(A^M-A). McV (C"=0); 
Thermal neutron 


Class; Identibcacion; 
Genetic relationships 

i 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of produaion 




cross section (47), barns 






1 

n*' 

11.7 m (SosA59, 


p" (ChadJ35, SneA50) 

^ 

! 

A 

recoil nuclei, conservation 

P' 

0. 78 max 

fission, (d, a), 


So»AS8, So8A39a, 
ProkYb^) 

A 

8.0714 (MTW) 


of momentum (ChadJ32) 
observation of (n, a) reaction 



Be^(a,n), H^(d.He^) 


1 Z 8 m ( Robs J 5 1 ) 




(FeaN32, HarkW33) 



Be '{Y, n) (photons from 


m (HamcMSba) 
others (SncA50) 




parent (SneA50, RobsJBO) 



electron generator) 

,h‘ 


% 

99.9852 (Lake Michigan 






J 



water) ; 99.9842 to 
99.9877 (other sources 
(BegF59a) 









99.984 9 to 99.9861 









(KirI51) 








A 

7.2890 (MTW) 








pC 

/ A 

Half life 

Type of decay (•••); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A), MeV (C’^=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (C7), barns 

1 

! 

1 

t Class; Identification; 

' Genetic relationships 


Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 


0,0186 s (MarqAbZ) 

A 

p (MarqA62) 

no n, lim 0.3% (PosA65) 

16.562 (MTW) 

1 

1 

B 

excit (HubbE53, NorE56) 
excit, genet energy levels 
(MarqA62) 

P’ 

1 Y 

1 

13.44 max 
3.68 (7%) 

B^^(t,p) (MarqA62) 

6^'' 

0. 127 s (HardJ65a) 

A 

[P^]i P» [2a] (HardJ65a) 
29.0 (CerJ66) 

B 

excit, cross bomb 
(HardJ65a) 

P 

a 

8.2 (60%). 1.1 (40%), both peaks 
broad 

[0.05, 1.6 (broad peak, with 2.90 
level of Be®) ] 

B^°(p, 2n) (HardJ65a) 
b“(p, 3n) (HardJ65a) 

c"> 

19.48 9 (EarL62) 
19.3 8 (BartiF63) 
19.1 a (SherrR49) 

A 

(SherrR49) 
15.66 (MTW) 

A 

chem, sep isotopes 

(SherrR48, SherrR49) 

P" 

Y 

1.87 max 

0.511 ( 200%, Y*), 0.717 (100%), 
1.023 ( 1.7%) 

B^‘^(p,n) (SherrR48, 
SherrR49) 

c“ 

20.34 m (KavT64) 

20.4 m (Fo 1K62, 
SmiJ41) 

20.5 m (SolA41. 

Pc rlmM48, 
ChrisDSO) 

20. 1 m ( ArnS58) 

20.3 m (MartiW52) 
others (KunD53, 

PoolM 52, SiegK44a, 
DicksJ51. Patj65) 

A 

99+%, EC(K) 0.19% 
(ScoJ57a) 

10.648 (MTW) 

A 

excit (CranH34) 
chem, excit (BarkW3 9) 


0. 97 max 
0.511 (200%, y"^) 

B^^(p,n) (BarkW39) 

B^°(p, Y) (CranH34a, 
BarkW3 9) 

B^°(d,n) (CocJ35, 
YosD35, FowW36) 

N^‘*(p, a) (BarkW39) 



% 

A 

cr 

c 

98.892 (limestone CO^) 
(NierASO) 

-0 

0.0034 (GoldmDT64) 








% 

A 

cr 

c 

1.108 (limestone CO^) 
(NierASO) 

3.125 (MTW) 

0.0009 (GoldmDT64) 






c'" 

5730 y (GodH62) 

5745 y (HugE64, 
MannWBSl) 

5680 y (01sl62) 

5568 y (LibW55) 

(all values by sp act) 
others (WatD6l, 

EngeA50, JonWM49, 
MillWWSO, ManoG51, 
HawR49, ReidA46, 
HawR48, NorLr48, 
YafL48a, CaswR54) 

A 

p' (KameM40) 
3.0198 (MTW) 

A 

chem, cross bomb, excit 
(RubeS41) 

_ 

P 

V 

0. 156 max_ 
average p energy: 

0.045 calorimetric (JenkG52) 
no Y 

N*“*(n,p) (RubeS41, 
LibW55) 


2.5 s (NelJB64) 
2.25 s (DouR 56) 
2.4 s (HudE50a) 

A 

p" (HudE50) 
9.873 (MTW) 

A 

excit, sep isotopes (HudESO) 
genet energy levels 
(WarbE65) 

P' 

Y 

9.82 max { 32%), 4.51 max (68%) 
5.299 (68%) 

C*^(d,p) (HudESO, 
HudESOa, AlhuDr'^ ) 


0.74 s (HinS61a) 

A 

[p‘], n (HinS61a) 
13.69 (MTW) 

C 

excit, decay charac 
(HinS6la) 



C^‘‘(t,p) (H1-.S61. 


0.01095 s (FishT63) 
0.0110 s (PeteRW63) 
0.0125 s (AlvL49a) 

A 

p"^, 3 q (A1vL50) 

P"^ 100%, 3a 3.0% 
(MayT62. GlasN63) 
17.36 (MTW) 

A 

excit, sep isotopes (AlvL49a) 
genet energy levels (MayT62, 
WilkD63a, GlasN63, 
PeteRW63) 

P" 

Y 

a 

16.4 max 

0.511 (200%, Y*), 4.43 (2,4 o) 

0.195 (3%), broad distribution 
to «3 MeV 

C*^(p.n) (AlvL4". 
AlvLSO) 

b'°(H< *.n| (F-t KV,b 


9.96 m (EbrX65, 
ArnS58, DaniH58, 
DaniH57b) 

10.05 m (Fo 1K62, 
BormM65, ChurJ53) 
10.08 m (WUkD55) 

9,93 m (WardAG39a) 

A 

p"^ (CranH34) 
5.345 (MTW) 

A 

excit (CuriI34, CranH34) 

Y 

1. 20 max 
0.511 (200%, Y*) 

B *^( a, n) ( -■ iril > 4. 
Ellir,!, R : I, 

c‘^:d...: : i 

H.’.fL. Ya • 
FomW h. J 

• "(P.- : 

■ * -p. Yl : 

. J 



% 

A 

cr 

99.635 (NierA50) 

2.8637 (MTW) 

(n, p) 1.81 (GoldmDT64) 





! 

ii 

j 

— — ■ 


234 


Isotope 
Z A 

Half-life 

Type of decay ( ••• ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A),MeV (C^=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (t7), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 



% 

A 

.! 

., 26m 
A1 

6.37 s (Freej65, 
Freej62a) 

6.28 s (MullT58a) 

6.74 s (MihM58) 

6.5 s (KatzLSla, 
HasR54, ArnS58) 

6.7 s (HunS54a, 

Chur J53) 

others (FrickG63, 
WhiM3 9, AllaH48, 
PerlmM48, Wa£H48) 

A 

P'^ (Fris034) 

-11.982 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

excit (Fris034) 
cross bomb (Hube043, 
BradHu48) 

i 

j 

P" 

Y 

3. 2 1 max 
0.511 (200%, Y*) 

N.»‘ ' i i. ( 

i 

i 


23b 


Isotope 
Z A 

Half-life 

Type of decay ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A),MeV (C’^=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (tJ), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 

IjAI 


% 

A 

.(41) 

Si^®(Q, n) (ElliD41. 
ElliD41a. KinL40) 


240 


Isotope 
Z A 

Half-life 

Type of decay ( ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A),MeV (C”=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (O’), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 

16® 

87. 9 d { FlyK65a) 

86.4 d (CoopR59) 

87.2 d (SelH58) 

89 d (WyaE6l. CaliJ59) 

87 d (HendR43) 

88 d (LeviH40, 
KameM41) 

others (SerL47b, 
C 00 IR 39, MauW49, 
RudG52) 

A 

P (LibW3 9) 
-28.847 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (AndeEB36a) 
chem, cross bomb, excit 
(KameM41) 

sep isotopes (KameM42) 

Y 

0. 167 max 
average p” energy: 

0.0488 calorimetric (ConnR57, 
HovV64) 
no Y 

S®^(n, Y) (SerL47b) 
Cl®^(d, a) (KameM41) 

si^ 


% 

A 

cr 

c 

0.014 (BradP56) 
0.017 (meteoritic 
sulfur) (MacnJ50a) 
-30.66 (MT'W) 

0. 14 (GoldmDT64) 







5.07 m (ElliJ59) 
5.04 m (BleE46) 
others (ScaR58) 

A 

p' (ZunW45) 
-27.0 (MTW) 

B 

chem, excit, cross bomb 
(ZimW45, BleE46) 

P" 

Y 

4. 7 max (10%), 1,6 max (90%) 
3,09 (90%) 

S®®(n,Y) 

Cl®^(n, p) (BleE46, 
ZunW45, ScaR58) 


2.87 h (NetD58) 

A 

p" (NetD58) 
- 26.8 (MT'W) 

B 

chem, genet (NetD58) 
parent Cl^^, not parent 
Cl®®"’ (NetD58) 

P" 

Y 

3. 0 max ( 5%), 1. 1 max 
1.88 (95%) 

daughter radiations from Cl^^ 

Cl®^(a, 3p) (NetD58) 

J701 

0.306 s (GlasN53) 
0.32 s (BrecS54) 
0.28 s (TyrH54) 
others (Lei056) 

A 

p'*', a =0.01% (GlasN53) 
-12.8 (MTW) 

B 

excit, genet energy levels 
(GlasN53, GlasN55, 
TyrH54) 

P" 

Y 

9. 9 max 

0.511 (200%, Y*), 2.24 (70%), 
4.29 (7%), 4.77 (14%) 

S®^(p, n) (GlasN53) 

Cl” 

2.53 s (MullT58a) 
2.9 s (■WallR60) 

2.4 s (WhiM41) 

2.8 s (HoaJ40, 
SchelA48) 
others (VasiSS62c, 
BolFSl, TyrH54) 

A 

P'*' (WhiM41) 
-21.01 (MTW) 

A 

excit (HoaJ40, WhiM41) 

P" 

Y 

4. 55 max 

0.511 (200%, V*), 2.9 (0.3%) 

S®^(d,n) (HoaJ40, 
SchelA48) 

S®®(p, n) (WhiM41) 

Cl'4 

1.56 s (Freej65. 

Janej6l) 

1.61 s (MihM58) 

1.53 s (KUR54) 
others (StahP53, 
ArbW53a, ScaR58) 

A 

p"^ (StahP53a, ArbW53) 
-24.45 (MTW) 

A 

genet (ArbW53, StahP53a) 
excit (Freej65) 

daughter Cl®^’’" (ArbW53a) 

P" 

Y 

4.46 max 
0.511 (200%, Y*) 

daughter Cl^^^ 
(ArbW53a) 
P^^(a,n) (JaneJ6l) 

Ci 34 m 

31.99 m {EbrT65) 
32.40 m {GreeD56} 
32.5 m (HinN52a) 
33.2 m (WafH48) 
33.0 m (PerlmM48) 
others (ScaR58, 
TohT60, SagR36, 
BranH38) 

A 

p"^ =50%, IT =50% 
(ArbW53, StahP53a) 

-24.31 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (Fris034, 
SagR36) 

parent (ArbW53a) 

P^ 

e 

Y 

2.48 max 
0. 142 

Cl X-rays, 0.145 (45%), 0.511 

(100%, Y*), 1.17 (12%), 2.12 
(38%), 3.30 ( 12%) 

34 

daughter radiations from Cl 

P®®(a, n) (Fris034, 
RideL37a, BranH38) 

Cli! 


% 

A 

75.53 (BoydA55) 
75.79 (ShieW62) 
75.4 (NierA36) 

Cl^^/Cl^"^ variation 
<0.2% (OweH55) 

-29.015 (MTW) 

44 (GoldmDT64) 






Cl” 

3,08 X 10^ y sp act 
+ mass spect 
(BarthR55) 

2.6 X 10^ y sp act, yield 
(WriH57) 

4.4 X 10^ y sp act 
(WuC49) 

others (SerL47b) 

A 

 : 

p. 


242 


Isotope 
Z A 

Half-life 

Type of decay ( ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A),MeV (C"=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section ((J), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 

19^ 

7.71 m (EbrT65) 

7.67 m (BormM65) 

7.7 m (HurD37, 
RideL37a, GreeD56) 
others (RamsM47, 
PerlmM48, SalG63, 
PhiE65a) 

A 

p”*" (HurD37) 
-28.79 (MTW) 

A 

chem, cross bomb (HurD37, 
HendW37) 

d 

V 

2. 68 max 

0.511 (200%, Y^^), 2.170 (100%) 

Cl^^(a, n) (HurD37, 
RideL37a, HendW37, 
RamsM47) 

Ca^°(d, a) (HurD37) 

K38m 

0.95 s (Janej61, 
StahP53b) 

0.94 s (LindKHbO, 
KliR54) 

0.97 s (MihM58) 

A 

p'*' (StahP53, StahP53b) 
no IT (GoldmD62) 
-28.66 (LHP, MTW) 

C 

excit (StahP53, StahPS3b, 
KURS4) 


5. 0 max 
0.511 (200, 

Cl®®(a, n) (LindKH60, 
Janej61) 

K®®(Y,n) (StahP53b, 
KliR54, GoldmD62) 
40 

Ca (d, a) (JaneJ63. 
MicS65, HasY59) 

id! 


% 

93.22 (KenB60) 

93.08 (NierASO) 
others (WhiFS6, ReuCS6, 
ReuC52, CookK43) 








A 

-33.803 (MTW) 








(T 

c 

2.0 (GoldmDT64) 






id! 

1-26 X 10*^ y 
assuming (|3 ) 

= 1.42 X 10^ y and 
P7(P" -1 EC) = 0.89 
‘l/2 

1.415 X 10^ y 
(LeuH65a) 

1.42 X 10® y (GleL61) 

1.37 X 10® y 
(BrinGA65, KonoS55) 

1.45 X 10® y 
(MNaiA56) 

1.47 X 10® y 
(KellWH59) 

1.48 X 10® y (FleD62) 

% 

p“ 8 9%. EC 11%, 

p”^ 0.0010% (MNaiA56, 
EngeD62) 

p" 8 9.5%, EC 10.3%, 

p'*' 0.00013% (LeuH65a) 
Others (MNaiASS, 
IngMSOb, GrafTSl, 
SutASS, SpierFSO, 
SawGSO, CecMSO, 
FauWRSO, HouFSO, 
MousuAS2, ShilHS4, 
WasGSS, AldLS6, 
WasG54, RusRS3, 
ShilHS4a, WetG56) 

0.118 (KenB60, 

ReuCS2, ReuC56, 
WMFS6) 

0.119 (NierASO) 

A 

chem (ThomJOS, CamN06) 
chem, mass spect (SmyW37) 

p 

p" 

V 

1.314 max 
0.483 max 

Ar X-rays, 1.460 (11%) 



1.35 X 10® y (SutA55) 
Others (WetG56, 
SawG50, HouFSO, 
SmaB50, GooMLSla, 
GrafT48, FloyJ49, 
StouR49, SpierFSO, 
FauWRSO, DelCSl. 
MNaiA55) 
sp act of 1 .460 V: 

(WetG57, BackeG55a, 
BurcP53, AhrL48, 
SutA55, FauWRSO, 
HouFSO, SawG49, 
SpierFSO) 
sp act of EC (K): 

A 

(T 

c 

-33.533 (MTW) 
70 (GoldmDT64) 







(HeiJ54) 








id! 


% 

6.77 (KenB60) 
6.91 (NierASO) 








A 

-35.552 (MTW) 








O’ 

c 

1.2 (GoldmDT64) 







12.36 h (Merj62) 

12. S2 h (BurcPS3) 

12.4 h (SiegK47c, 
KahBS3, MackJS9, 
HurD37) 

12. 5 h (WriHS7, 
MonaJ62, SinWSl) 

A 

p- (KuriF36) 
-35.02 (MTW) 

A 

chem, n-capt (AmaE35) 
chem, cross bomb (HevG3S, 
HevG36) 

mass spect (AndeGS4) 
daughter Ar*^^ (KatcS52) 

p- 

Y 

3. 52 max 

0.31 (0.2%), 1.524 (18%) 

K‘^^(n, Y) (AmaE35, 
HurD37, SerL47b) 

K« 

22.4 h (OveR49, 
AndeG54) 

22.0 h (LindqTS4) 

A 

p" (OveR49) 
-36.S8 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (OveR49) 
mass spect (AndeG54) 

P" 

Y 

1.82max(l%), 1.2 max (3%) 
0.83 max 

0.220 (3%), 0.373 (85%). 0.39 
(18%, doublet), 0.59 (13%), 
0.619 (81%), 1.01 (2%) 

40 

Ar (al means 
of production 


17.5 • (KuroTM) 

¥ 

A 

p- (KuroT64) 
-36.3 (MTW) 

B 

chem, sep isotopes, excit 
(KuroT64) 

P 

V 

6. 1 max (1%), 4.1 max 
2.0 (84%), 2.6 (15%) 

Ca‘*®(Y. p) (KuroT64) 


0. 173 • (HardJMa) 
0. 170 • (ReeP64) 

¥ 

A 

[p‘^], p {HardJ64a, 
ReeP64) 

-13.3 (ReeP64, MTW) 

C 

excit, decay charac (ReeP64, 
Hardj64a) 

p 

3. 10 

K®^(p, 3n) (HardJ64a) 

40 

Ca (p, d2n) (HardJ64a) 
Ar®®(He®, 2n) (ReeP64) 

C4 

0.66 s (C11J57) 

A 

p'^ (C11J57) 
-22 (MTW) 

C 

excit, decay charac (CliJ57) 

y 

0.511 [200%, 3.5 

[daughter radiations from 

Ca^°(Y. 2n) (CUJ57) 

c»^’ 

0.87 a ( LindKH60) 
0.86 a (MihM58) 

0.88 a (KiaOSS) 

0.90 a (KliR54) 
othera (WallR60, 
SumR53. BraaR53, 
Hube043, BagJ64) 

•aft 

A 

p"^ (Hube043) 
-27.30 (MTW) 

B 

excit (Hube043, MElhJ49) 

y 

5.49 max 
0.511 (200%. Y*) 

K®^(p. n) (Kis058. 
WallR60) 

Ca‘*°(Y, n) (MihM58, 
Wa£H48, Hube043, 
MElhJ49, KUR54) 



% 

A 

7x 10^® y 
Sp act (DobE59) 
others (BeliV58, 

JonJWSZ, MCarJ55, 
FremJSZ, DobE57, 
AwsM56) 

% 

A 

IOpC 

Z A 

— 

lijlf-lifc 

J 

— — 

Type of decay ( ^ ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(AsM-A), MeV (C”=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (CT), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of produaion 


— 

1.72 m (Kantj63b) 

1.7 m (ChilC63) 
other! (KochD63, 
MoriHSSa) 
no 23 m activity 

(KantJ63b. KoehD63) 

A 

p" (MoriH55a) 
-45.0 (MTW) 

C 

excit (MoriH55a) 

excit, sep isotopes (KoehD63) 

P 

V 

[ 

3. 6 max 

0.520 (100%), 1.12 (100%), 1.55 
(100%) 

Ti^°(n, p) (KoehD63, 
ChUG63, MoriH55a) 

Ca‘^®(t, n) (ShidY64a) 

^ 50m 
Sc 

0.35 a (KarrM63a, 
KantJ63b) 

V 

A 

IT, no p, lim 10% 
(KarrM63a) 

-44.7 (LHP, MTW) 

C 

excit, sep isotopes 
(KarrM63a‘ 

Y 

0.258 

daughter radiations from Sc^^ 

Ti^“(n, p) (KarrM63a) 
Ca^®(t, n) (ShidY64a) 

Ti'" 

22 

0.090 s (ReeP64) 

A 

[p"^], p (ReeP64) 

-15.9 (ReeP64, MTW) 

C 

excit, decay charac (ReeP64) 

P 

2.3 (t 8), 3.05 (T 17), 3.68 

(t 16). 4.12 (T 4), 4.64 (1 50), 
5.30 (T 5) 

4n 

Ca. (He ,2n) (ReeP64) 


0. 56 8 ( Janej6l) 
0.58 8 (TyrH54) 
other8 (SchclA48, 
VasiSSbl) 

A 

p'*^ (JaneJbl) 
-29.3 (MTW) 

c 

excit (SchelA48) 

excit, decay charac (JaneJ6l) 


5. 8 max 

[0.511 (200, y"^)] 

Ca^°(a, n) (SchelA48. 
JaneJ6l, VasiSS63) 

Ti-*-* 

48 y (MorelP65) 
46 y (WingJ65) 
others (HuiJ57) 

A 

EC (SharpRA54) 
-37.66 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (SharpRA54, 
HuiJ57, DilL63) 

44 

parent Sc, not parent 
Sc44m (sharpRA54, DilL63, 
HuiJ57) 

Y 

e 

[Sc x-rays], 0.068 (90%), 0.078 
( 98%) 

0.065, 0.073 

44 

daughter radiations from Sc 

Sc‘^^(p, 2n) (SharpRA54, 
MorelP65) 

Sc^^(d, 3n) (HuiJ57, 
WingJ65) 


3.09 h (KunDSOa) 

3. 10 h (RudG52) 
3.05 h (TPogM50) 
others (AlleJS41, 

PouA59) 

A 

p'*', EC (KunDSOa) 
-3 9.002 (MTW) 

A 

chem, cross bomb, excit 
(AlleJS41) 

mass spect (AndeG54) 

p" 

Y 

1.04 max 

Sc x-rays, V*[l70%], 0.718 
(0.4%), 1.408 (0.3%) 

Sc^^(p, n) (AlleJS41, 
TPogM50, KunD50a) 

Sc^®(d, 2n) (AUeJS41, 
TPogM50) 

^■46 


% 

A 

 

sp act (MNaiA6l) 
others (GloR57a, 
HeiJ55, CohS52, 
BaumR56) 

% 

A 

Cl>pC 

/ A 

Half life 

Type of decay ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A?M-A),McV (C’==0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (£7), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 


Z7.9 d (SchumR56, 
ClcCM, LyoWSZ. 
WriH57) 

27.9 d (KafP56) 
27.5 d (SalS65) 

¥ 

A 

EC (BradH45b, 
WalkH40a) 

no (BradH45b, 

KerB49, LyoW52) 

-51.447 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit, cross bomb 
(WalkH40a) 

daughter Mn^^ (BurgWSO) 

Y 

e 

V x-rays, 0.320 (9%) 
0.315 

Cr^°(n, Y) (SerL47b, 
WalkH40a) 



% 

83.76 (WhiJ48) 








A 

-55.411 (MTW) 








), 
1.28 (25%o), 1.45 (75%>) 

Cr^°(p, n) (SutD59) 

xi 51 
Mn 

45.2 m (KoesL54) 

44.3 m (BurgWSO) 
44 m (NozM60) 
others (MillDR48, 

LivJ38d) 

¥ 

A 

p'^ (LivJ37a), [EC] 
-48.26 (MTW) 

A 

chem, cross bomb (LivJ37a, 
LivJ38d) 

chem, genet (BurgWSO) 
parent Cr^^ (BurgWSO) 

P^ 

Y 

2. 17 max 

0.511 [ 194%., Y*], 1.56 (?), 
2.03 (?) 

Cr^°(d, n) (LivJ38d, 
BurgW50) 

Cr^°(p, Y) (DubL38. 
DelL39) 

XX 52 
Mn 

5.60 d (BurgW54) 
5.69 d (KafP56) 
5.72 d (BackoE55) 

V 

EC 66%, p"^ 34% 

(KoniJ58c, KoniJ58a) 

EC 71%, p'^ 29% 

(RemL63, WilsRR62) 
others (GooW46, 
SehR54) 

A 

chem, excit, cross bomb 
(LivJ37a, LivJ38d) 

P" 

Y 

0. 575 max 

Cr x-rays, 0.511 (67%,, Y*), 
0.744 (82%.), 0.935 (84%.), 
1.434 (100%») 

Cr^^(p, n) (HemAHO) 

Cr^^(d, 2n) (Pe*W-i6*. 
KoniJSSa) 



A 

-50.70 (MTW) 






52m 

Mn 

21.1m (JuliaJ59a) 
21.3 m (HemA40) 
22. 1 m (KayG65) 

¥ 

A 

p'^, IT 2% (KatoT60), 
[EC] 

-50.32 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem (DarB37) 
chem, excit, cross bomb 
(LivJ37a, LivJ38d) 

daughter Fe^^ (MillDR48) 

P" 

Y 

1. 63 max 

0.383 (2%«), 0.511 (193%., Y*), 
1.434 (100%o) 

daughter Fe^^ 

(MillDR48. JullaJ^4a) 

XX 53 
Mn 

1. 9 X 10^ y geochemical 
method (KayJ65) 

=2 X 10^ y yield 

(ShelR57, calc from 
WilkJR55, DobW56a) 

¥ 

A 

(T 

C 

EC (WilkJR55) 

-54.683 (JohnCH64, MTW) 
= 170 (GoldmDT64) 

B 

chem, decay charac 
(WilkJRSS) 

Y 

Cr X-rays 

Cr^^(p. n) (WtlkJR ' ■ 
Cr^^(d, n) (DobW 

XX 54 
Mn 

303 d (MartiWH64) 
291 d (BackoE55) 
313 d (WyaE6l) 

278 d (SchumR56) 
290 d (KafP56) 

300 d (WriH57) 
others {LivJ38d, 
SuwS53, SalS65) 

¥ 

A 

EC (AlvL38) 

no no p (LivJ38d, 

DeuM44) 

-55.55 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit, cross bomb 
.{lvivJ37a, LivJ38d) 

Y 

e 

Cr X-rays, 0.835 ( 100%) 
0.829 

Fe^^(d.a) (l.ivjiau, 
DeuM44) 

V*'(a.n) • 

Cr'*(d. '.I (LivJ - ’ 

1 r‘^(p. r.) (D-.kl 4 > 


248 


Isotope 
Z A 

Half-life 

Type of decay (••• ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A), MeV (C'^=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (t7), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of produaion 

55 

25^" 


% 

A 

(T 

C 

100 (SamM36a, 
WhiF56) 

-57.705 (MTW) 
13.3 (GoldmDT64) 






\A 

Mn 

2.576 h (BarthR53a, 
BarthR53b) 

2.574 h (LocE53) 

2. 586 h (BisG50) 
others (LivJ38d, 
BonaG64, BieJ64a, 
SalS65) 

A 

p" (AmaE35) 
-56.904 (MTW) 

A 

chem, n-capt (AmaE35) 
daughter Cr^^ (DroB60) 

P' 

\ 

2.85 max 

0.847 (99%). 1.811 (29%), 2.110 
(15%) 

Mn^^(n, Y) (AmaE35, 
SerL47b, OrsA49, 
HumVSl) 

itA 57 

Mn 

1.7 m (CohB54a. 
Kuml60) 

1. 9 m ( VasiSS63) 

A 

p" (CohB54a) 
-57.5 (MTW) 

B 

chem, excit (CohB54a) 

P- 

V 

2. 55 max 

[Fe x-rays, 0.014], 0.122 

(strong), 0.136 (strong), 0.22, 
0.353, 0.692 

Cr^^(a, p) (VasiSS63) 
Fe^^(n, p) (CohB54a) 

XA 57 
Mn 

7 d (SharmHS 1 ) 

- 

P (SharmHSl) 

G 

chem, cross bomb 
(SharmH51) 
activity not observed 
(CohB54a, NelM50) 



alphas on Cr, Mn 
(SharmH51) 

58 

Mn 

1. 1 m (ChitD6l) 

A 

p” (ChitD6l) 
-56 (MTW) 

B 

chem, sep isotopes 
(ChitD6l) 

V 

0.36, 0.41, 0.52, 0.57, 0.82, 1.0, 
1.25, 1.4, 1.6, 2.2, 2.8 

Fe^ (n, p) (ChitD61) 

26^® 

8.2 h (JuliaJ59a) 
7.8 h (MillDR48) 

A 

P"^ 56%, EC 44% 
( JuliaJ59a) 
others (ArbE56, 
FrieG51a) 

-48.33 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (MillDR48) 
parent Mn^^“ (MillDR48) 

not parent Mn^^, lim 5% 
(FrieG51a) 

Y 

0.80 max 

Mn X-rays, 0.165 ( 100%), 0.511 
(112%, V*) 

daughter radiations from Mn^^^ 
52 

Mn 

Cr®°(a, 2n) (FrieG51a) 


8.51 m (EbrT65) 

8.9 m (RideL37a, 
LivJ38b, JuliaJ59a) 
8.6 m (SalS65) 

A 

p'*’ (Rid^L37a), [EC] 
-50.70 (MTW) 

A 

chem (RideL37a) 
chem, excit, cross bomb 
(LivJ38b) 

P"^ 

\ 

3. 0 max 

0.38 (32%). 0.511 (196%, v"^) 

Cr®°(a, n) (NelM50, 
RideL37a, LivJ38b) 

Cr^^(ci, 3n) (JuliaJ59a) 

F^4 


% 

A 

5.84 (ValleG41a) 
-56.246 (MTW) 
2.9 (GoldmDT64) 







2.60 y (SchumR56) 
2.94 y {BrowGSO) 
others (SchumRSla) 

A 

EC, no (BradH46b, 

MaeDSla. PortF53) 
-57.474 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (LivJ39c) 
daughter Co^^ (LivJ41) 

Y 

Mn X-rays, continuous 

bremsstrahlung to 0.23 (0.004%) 

Fe^(n, V) (EmmW54a) 



% 

A 

0" 

c 

91.68 (ValleG41a) 
-60.605 (MTW) 
2.7 (GoldmDT64) 








% 

A 

4) 

neutrons on Ni 
(PreU60) 

CO 

2.0 m {Preil60) 
others (ValtA62, 
ParmT49) 

V 


G 

sep isotopes (PreiI60) 
activity not observed 
(StraJ66) 

others (ParmT49) 



. .,(64) 

neutrons on Ni 
(PreiI60) 

i.t-56 

28^^ 

6. 10 d (WelD63) 
6.4 d (ShelR52) 
6.0 d (WorW52) 

A 

EC, no p"^, lim 1% 
(ShelR52) 

-53.92 (MTW) 

A 

chem (WorW52) 
chem, sep isotopes, genet 
(ShelR52) 

parent Co^^ (ShelR52, 
WorW52) 

Y 

e 

Co x-rays, 0.163 ( 997»). 0.276 
(317.), 0.472 (357.), 0.748 
(487.), 0.812 (857.), 1.56 (147.) 
0.155 

daughter radiations from Co^^ 

Fe^‘^(a, 2n) (ShelR52, 
WorW52, OhnH65, 
JenkR64) 


36.0 h (EbrT65) 
35.7 h (RudG64) 
others {MaiF49, 
LivJ38, FrieG50, 
ChilG62. RoaJ59, 
PauA65) 

V 

A 

EC 547.. P'’’ 467. 

(KoniJ58c, KoniJ58) 

EC 507., p'^ 507. 
(FrieG50) 

EC 637., p'*' 377. 
(ChilG62) 

-56.10 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit, cross bomb 
(LivJ38) 

57 

parent Co (FrieG52) 

P"^ 

Y 

0.85 max 

Co X-rays, 0.127(14%), 0.511 
(927., V^^), 1.37 (867.), 1.89 
( 147.) 

daughter radiations from Co^"^ 

Co^^(p, 3n) (WagG52) 

Fe^^(a, n) (LivJ38, 
DorR41, NelM42, 
MaiF4 9, FrieG50, 
CanR51c) 

t.t-58 

Ni 


% 

A 

8x10 y sp act 

(BertA53) 

% 

A 

(T 

C 

48.89 (BaiK50) 
-66.000 (MTW) 
0.46 (GoldmDT64) 






Zn^5 

245 d (TobJ53, 
PerrC38) 

244 d (GeiKW57) 

246 d (WriH57, 
EasH60) 

250 d (TatV6l, 
Agarl6 1 ) 

A 

EC 98.3%, p4 1.7% 
(GleG59, RiccR60b) 
p'*' 1.2% (BereD62b) 
-65.92 (MTW) 

A 

chem (PerrC38) 
chem, excit, cross bomb 
(LivJ39a) 

daughter Ga^^ (LivJ3 9d) 

P^ 

e 

Y 

0. 327 max 
1.106 

Cu x-rays, 0.511 (3.4%, 7^^), 
1.115 (49%) 

Zn®‘^(n, 7) (SagR39, 
SerL47b) 

Zni' 


% 

A 

27.81 (BaiK50) 
-68.88 (MTW) 






Zr^ 


% 

A 

4. 1 1 (BaiK50) 
-67.86 (MTW) 








253 


Malf-lifc 


Tyf>e of decay ( ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A), MeV (C’^=0); 
Thermal neutron 
cross section ((7), barns 


Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 


Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 


Principal means 
of production 


69 


69m 


57 m ( LivJ39a) 

51 m (HopH48) 

52 m (HansA49) 


13.8 h (LivJ39a) 
others (HopHSO, 
HopH48) 


ia!? (pp) >io'S 

sp act (FremJ52) 


2.4 m {ThwT6l) 
2.2 m (LBlaJ55, 
HugD46) 


! 3.92 h (LevkVSS) 




63 


64 


Ga 


65 


65 


66 


4. 1 h (SonT64) 

I 4.0 h (ThwT6l) 


46.5 h (ThwT63) 
49 h (SiegJ51) 
i 37 h (IshM63) 


33 s (NurM65) 


2.6 m (CrasB53) 
2.5 m (CohB53) 


15.2 m (DaniH57a) 

15 m (AlvL38, LivJ39d. 
CrasB54, KoesL54, 
PoolM52) 


8.0 m (CrasB54) 


9.45 h (BangeL50d) 

9.3 h (RudG64) 

9.5 h (CarvJ59) 

9.4 h (RideL3 7a, 
BucJ38) 

9.2 h (MulcA50, 
MarmW37) 
others (FrauH5Tb) 


18.56 (BaiK50) 
-69.99 (MTW) 
1.0 (to Zn^^) 

0.1 (to Zn^^) 
(GoldmDT64) 


p (HeyF37b) 
-68.43 (MTW) 


IT (KenJ39) 

-67.99 (LHP, MTW) 


0.62 (BaiK50) 
-69.55 (MTW) 
0.10 (to Zn^S 

0.01 (to Zn^^"^) 
(GoldmDT64) 


p (HugD46) 
-67.5, (MTW) 


p (LBlaJ55) 

-67.2 (LHP, MTW) 


p (SiegJ51) 
-68.14 (MTW) 


[p'*', EC] (NurM65) 
-57 (MTW) 


P'*', (CrasB53), [EC] 
-58.93 (MTW) 


EC (AlvL38) 
p'*' >50% (AteA52) 
-62.66 (MTW) 


p 57%, EC 43% 
( CajnD63) 

-63.71 (MTW) 


chem, n-capt (HeyF37b) 
chem, excit, cross bomb 
(LivJ3 9a. KenJ3 9) 
daughter (KenJ3 9) 


chem, excit (ThorRL38) 
chem, excit, cross bomb 
{LivJ3 9a, KenJ3 9) 

parent (KenJ39) 


n-capt, cross bomb (HugD46) 
n-capt, sep isotopes 
(LBlaJ55) 


sep isotopes, n-capt 
(LBlaJ55) 
chem {SonX64) 


chem, genet (SiegJ46, 
SiegJBl) 

72 

parent Ga (SiegJSl) 


chem, excit, cross bomb, 
genet (NurM65) 

parent Zn^^ (NurMfiS) 


chem, cross bomb (CrasB53) 
chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(CohB53) 


chem, genet (LivJ3 9d) 
parent Zn^^ (LivJ39d) 
daughter Ge^^ (PoriN58) 


chem, excit, cross bomb 
(CrasB54) 

activity not observed 
(MorrD59) 


chem, excit (MannW37, 
RideL37) 

daughter Ge^^ (HopH49) 


0. 90 max 
no Y 


Zn X-rays, 0.43 9 (95%) 
0.429 

daughter radiations from Zn 


69 


6.05 max (33%), 2.8 max 

0.511 (196%, Y^^), 0.80 (15%), 
0.992 (43%), 1.25 (7%), 1.38 
(14%), 1.56 (7%), 1.78 (5%), 
2.18 (11%), 2.34 (9%), 3.32 
( 18%) 


2. 24 max ( 12%), 2. 1 1 max 
0.044, 0.053, 0.105 

Zn X-rays, 0.054 (8%), 0.061 
(12%), 0.115 (55%), 0.152 
(10%), 0.206 (4%), 0.511 

(180%, Y*), 0.75 (10%), 0.93 
(3%) 


4. i 53 max 

Zn x-rays, 0.511 (114%, Y*), 
0.828 (5%), 1.039 (37%), 1.91 
(3%), 2.183 (5%). 2.748 (25%). 
4.30 (5%) 


j A Ur"--. 

; daughter Zn (KenJ39) 

|Zn^®(n, Y) (HeyF37b, 
j HeyF36, SerL47b, 
HumV51, SagR39) 

Ga^^(d, a) (LivJ39a) 


I Z Q 

Zn (n, Y) (ThorRL38, 
LivJ39a, SerL47b) 

Ga^^(d, a) (LivJ39a) 


2.61 max 

0.120 (0.9%), 0.39 (1.3%), 0.510 
(13%), 0.92 (3%). 1.12 (1.3%) 


1.46 max 

0.13 (9%>), 0.38 5 (94%), 0.4 95 
(75%), 0.609 (65%), 0.76 (5%). 
0.99 (8%), 1.11 (4%) 


0.30 max 
0.005, 0.014 

Ga X-rays, 0.015 (8%), 0.046 
(weak), 0.145 ( 90%), 0.192 
( 10 %) 

72 

daughter radiations from Ga 


Zn (n, Y) (HugD46, 
LBlaJ55, ThwT61) 


Zn^°(n, Y) (LBlaJ55, 
ThwT61, TanP64, 
SonT64) 


fission .(SiegJSl, 
SteinESic, GoeR49, 
FolRSl, TurASla. 
ThwT63, KjeA63) 


icu^^(a, 4n) (NurM65) 

'. 60 / ,. 6 -. 

Ni (Li, 3n) + 

Ni^®(Li^, n) (NurM65) 


Cu^^(a, 3n) (CrasB53) 

Zn^(p, n) (CohB53, 
JacoT60) 

64 

Zn (d, Zn) (CratB53) 


Cu*^(a, 2n). Zn*’'*(d.n). 
Zn (p, Y) (MorrOt'^) 


alphjt • on Cu, p'- 
Zn (CritsBM) 


- 65. 

I 1. 

Rid- I. 


7a. I A.. : 


254 


Isotope 
Z A 

Half-life 

Type of decay (^ ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A),MeV (C"=0): 
Thermal neutron 
cross section ( J’), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of produaion 

3.C." 

77.9 h (TobJ55. 
TobJSl) 

79.2 h (RudG64) 

78.2 h (MCOWD48) 
others (HopHSO, 

HopH48, MannW38) 

A 

EC (AlvL38) 

no lim 0.01% 

(MeyW53) 
-66.87 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (MannW38, 
MannW38a) 

chem, excit, cross bomb 
(AlvL38) 

daughter Ge^*^ (HopH49) 

■y 

e 

Zn x-rays, 0.093 (40%), 0.184 
(24%), 0.296 (22%), 0.388 

(7%) 

0.084, 0.092 

Zn^^(d, n) (AlvL38, 
ValleG3 9) 

Cu^^(a, 2n) (HubbJ57) 

Ga'« 

68.3 m (EbrT65) 

68.2 m (BormM65) 

68 m (RideL37a, 
PerlmM48, KoesL54) 

A 

88%, EC 12% 
(RamasM5 9a, 
TayH63a) 
-67.07 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (BotW37a, 
Ride L3 7a) 

daughter Ge^® (HopH48, 
HopHBO) 

V 

1. 90 max 

Zn x-rays, 0.511 (176%, V*), 

0.80 (0.4%), 1.078 (3.5%), 1.24 
(0.14%), 1.87 (0.15%) 

daughter Ge^® (HopH48) 
Cu^^(a, n) (RideL37a, 
MannW37) 

6ft 

Zn (p, n) (DubL38, 
BucJ38, MukASO) 
Zn^^(d, n) (ValleG39) 



% 

A 

cr 

c 

60.2 (IngM48b) 
60.5 (AntkS53) 
-69.326 (MTW) 
1.9 (GoldmDT64) 






Ga'° 

21. 1 m (BunkM57) 
20 m (AjnaE35, 
MannW38) 

A 

p” (DubL38) 
-68.90 (MTW) 

A 

chem, n-capt (AmaE35) 
chem, excit (DubL38) 

P" 

V 

1.65 max 

0.173 (0.16%), 1.040 (0.5%) 

Ga^^(n, Y) (AmaE35, 
SerL47b) 

0 ^ 


% 

A 

(T 

C 

3 9.8 (IngM48b) 
39.5 (AntkS53) 
-70.135 (MTW) 
5.0 (GoldmDT64) 






Ga^2 

14.12 h (WyaE6l) 
14.08 h (BisGSO) 
14.3 h (SiegJSl, 
MandeC43a) 

14.1 h (SagR39) 
others (LangeL60) 

A 

p" (SagR3 9) 
-68.58 (MTW) 

A 

chem, n-capt, excit 
(LivJ38b, SagR3 9) 

daughter Zn^^ (SiegJSl) 

p“ 

V 

3.15 max 

0.601 (8%), 0.630 (27%), 0.835 
(96%), 0.894 (10%), 1.050 
(7%), 1.465 (3.5%), 1.60 (5%, 
complex), 1.860 (5%), 2.201 
(26%), 2.50 (20%, doublet) 

Ga^^(n, Y) (SagR39, 
Ser£47b, SiegJSl) 

Ga^^ 

4.9 h (YthC58) 
5.1 h (MarqL59) 
5.0 h (SiegJ51) 

V 

A 

P (SiegJ51) 
-69.74 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (SiegJ46, 
SiegJSl) 

chem, sep isotopes, cross 
bomb (YthCSS) 

p" 

e 

■y 

1.19 max 

0.012, 0.043, 0.053 

Ge X-rays, 0.054 ( 9%), 0.295 
(94%), 0.74 (6%) 

daughter radiations from Ge^^*^ 
included in above listing 

Ge^^(n, p) (SiegJ51, 
YthC58) 

Ge^^(d, on) (YthC58) 

Ga^" 

8.0 m (YthC59b) 
7.8 m (EicE58) 
others (MarinJ60, 
MoriH56) 

A 

p' (EicE58) 
-67.8 (MTW) 

A 

decay charac, excit 
(MoriH56) 

chem, sep isotopes, excit, 
genet energy levels 
(£ic£S8, £ic£62) 

P" 

Y 

2. 5 max 

0.50 (11%, complex?), 0.60 
(100%, doublet), 0.87 (9%, 
doublet), 1.11 (5%), 1.20 (8%, 
doublet), 1.33 (5%), 1.46 (8%, 
doublet), 1.76 (7%, doublet), 
2.35 (45%) 

Ge^^(d, a) (YthC59b) 

Ge^^(n, p) (MarinJ60, 
£ic£62, Eic£58, 
YthC59b) 

Ga^5 

2.0 m (MoriH60) 
1.5 m (YthCbOa) 

A 

p" (MoriHbO, YthC60a) 
-68.5 (MoriH60, MTW) 

D 

chem (YthC60a) 

P" 

Y 

3.3 max 

0.36 ? (1%), 0.58 (3%) 
[daughter radiations from Ge^^] 

Ge^^(n, pn) (YthC60a) 
Ge^^(Y, p) (MoriH60) 

Ga^^ 

32 s (TakaK6l) 

V 

p" (TakaK61) 

C 

genet energy levels (TakaK6l) 

P' 

Y 

6 max 

0.563, 0.96, 1.12 

Ge^^(n, p) (TakaK61) 


1.5 TTJ (PoriN58) 

V 

A 

p"^ (PoriN58), [EC] 
-56 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit, sep isotopes, 
genet (PoriN58) 

parent Ga^^ (PoriNSS) 

P" 

Y 

3. 7 max 

0.511 (197%, Y^^), 0.67 (3%), 
1.72 (2%) 

daughter radiations from Ga^^ 

Zn^^(a, 3n) (PoriN58) 

Ge^^ 

2.4 h (RiccRbOa) 

2.5 h (HopH50) 
others (RiccR56, 

ZinH65) 

A 

p”^ =62%, EC =38% 
(RiccR60a) 

EC(K) =48% (ZinH65) 
-60.7 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (HopH49) 
parent Ga^^ (HopH49) 

P^ 

Y 

2.0 max (<10%), 1.3 max 

Ga X-rays, 0.046 (37%), 0.068 
(11%), 0.114 (22%), 0.185 
(23%), 0.245 (7%), 0.27 (19%), 
0.30 (6%), 0.34 (19%), 0.38 
(48%, doublet?), 0.40 (6%), 

0.47 (19%), 0.511 (124%, Y*) 
daughter radiations from Ga^^ 

Zn^(u, 2n) (RiccR60a) 


255 


iMXopC 
L A 

Hair-lifc 

Type of decay ( ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A5M-A),MeV (C'"=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section ((7), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 


18.7 m (RiccR59) 
18.6 nr» (CogM6S) 
n m (HopHSO. 

VasiSSM) 

19 m ( AtcA53) 
others (RiccRS6) 

— ' 
¥ 

A 

EC (HopH50, 
RiccR59) 

-62.5 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (HopH49) 
parent (HopH49) 

1 V ^ 

3. 1 max 

0.170 ( 105%, doublet), 0.511 

(170%, V*). 0.84 (4%). 0.92 
(7%). 1.48 (5%) 

daughter radiations from Ga^^ 

Zn^(a, n) (RiccR59) 

c.^« 

ns d (CrasBSb) 
ZSO d (HopHSO) 

A 

EC (HopH48) 

no lim 0.4% 

(RamasM59a) 

-67 (MTW) 

A 

chem (MannW38) 
chem, genet (HopH48) 
68 

parent Ga (HopH48, 

HopHSO) 

V 

Ga X-rays 

daughter radiations from Ga^® 

Zn^^(a, 2n) (MannW38, 
Rama sM 59a, HoreD59) 


36 h (TeinJ65) 

40.4 h (NusR57) 

38.5 h (SchweC63) 
40 h (MCOWD48, 

HopHSO) 

others (MarmW38, 
Hube044a) 

A 

EC =67%. p'*' =33% 
(MCowD48) 

EC(K) =55% (ZinH65) 
-67.101 (MTW) 

A 

chem (MannW38) 
chem, excit, cross bomb 
(MCowD48) 

6 9 

daughter As (ButeF55) 

p" 

V 

1.22 max 

Ga X-rays, 0.511 (68%, V*), 

0.573 (13%), 0.872 ( 10%), 1.107 
(28%), 1.335 (3%) 

Ga^’(d, 2n) (SeaG41, 
MCowD48. HudC51, 
TemJ65) 



% 

A 

(t»pC 

/ A 

luiriifc 


Type of decay (^* ); 

% abundance; Mass e.\cess 
(A=M-A), MeV (C' =0); 
Thermal neutron 


Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 


Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 




cross section ((7), barns 







ib.4 h {HubeP53, 
HubeP53) 

36.5 h (DihB55) 
36.3 h (MUA40) 
36.8 h (WriH57. 

WeilG43) 

36. 1 h (PhiK48) 

A 

p, no lim 0.03% 

(BarbW47) 

no EC(K), lim 0.02% 
(ScoJ57) 

-72.29 (MTW) 

A 

chem, n-capt (AmaE35) 

P 

y 

2. 97 max 

0.559 (43%), 0.657 (6%), 1.22 
(5%, doublet), 1.44 (0.7%, 
doublet), 1.789 (0.3%), 2.10 
(0.9%, doublet) 

As^®(n, Y) (AmaE35, 
CurtB38, OrsA49, 
HumVSl) 

. 77 

A> 

38.7 h (BunkM53, 
SchmJ55) 

38 h (SugaN53. 
TurASla) 

39 h (EndP54, 
ReynS53) 

others (SteinESl) 

A 

p (SteinESl) 
-73.92 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (SteinE46, 
SteinESl) 

daughter (SteinESl, 

SteinE46) 

daughter Ge^^^ (ArnJ47, 
ReynSSO) 

P' 

y 

0. 68 max 

0.086 (0.1%), 0.239 (2.5%), 0.522 
(0.8%) 

daughter radiations from Se 

76/ N.t /- 77 _ 77m 

Ge (n, Y) Ge + Ge 

(p”) (LyoW57, 

ArnJ47, ReynS57) 

A 78 

A« 

91 m {SugaN53, 
KjcA59) 

90 m (SteinES 1, 
BrigRSl) 

88 m (CunJ53) 
others (SneA37, 
SagR39a, CurtB38) 

A 

p" (SneA37) 
-72.8 (MTW) 

B 

chem (SneA37) 
excit (CurtB38) 

daughter Ge^® (SteinE46, 
SteinESl, SugaNS3, 
YthCS9a) 

P" 

y 

4. 1 max 

0.614 (T 42), 0.70 (( 15), 0.83 
((8). 1.31 (1 11) 

Br®'(n, a) (SneA37, 
SagR39a, BrigRSl) 
fission (SteinE46, 
SteinESl) 

Se^®(n, p) (NemY58a) 

78m 

As 

6 m (NemY58a) 

V 

IT (? ) (NemY58a) 

G 

excit (NemYSSa) 
activity not observed 
(FritKfiSa) 



neutrons on 
(NemYSSa) 

A 79 

As 

9.0 m { CunJ53) 

9. 1 m (YthC54) 

A 

p" (VHaaP52) 
-73.7 (MTW) 

A 

chem (ButeFSO) 
chem, genet (YthCS4, 
CunJS3) 

parent Se^^^ (YthC54, 
CunJ53) 

y 

2. 1 5 max 

0.36 (2%), 0.43 (2%), 0.54 

(0.5%), 0.73 (0.5%), 0.89 (1%) 

daughter radiations from Se^^^ 

Se®^(n,a)[Ge'^®](p') 
(YthC61, YthC54) 

Of) 

Se°“(n, pn) (VHaaP52, 
YthC61) 

Se®°(Y, p) (KuroT61a) 

> 

00 

o 

15.3 s (MeaRE59) 
others (YthC54) 

A 

p" (MeaRE59) 
-71.8 (MTW) 

C 

chem, excit (YthC54) 
excit, sep isotopes 
(MeaRE59) 

p" 

y 

6. 0 max 

0.666 (42%), 0.8 (1.4%, complex), 
1.22 (4%), 1.64 (4%). 1.77 
(1.7%) 

Se®°(n, p) (MeaRE59. 
YthC54) 

A 81 

As 

33 s (YthC60) 
31 s (MoriHbO) 

A 

p” (YthC60, MoriHbO) 
-72.6 (MoriHbO. MTW) 

B 

chem, excit (MoriH60, 
YthC60) 

y 

3.8 max 
no Y 

ft? 

Se°‘(n,pn) (YthC60) 
ft? 

Se°‘(Y,p) (MoriH60) 

A 85 
As 

0.43 s (WanR55) 

V 

[p“], n (WanR55) 

F 

excit (WanRSS) 



fission (WanRSS) 


=44 m (HopH50) 

V 

p'^ (HopHSO), [EC] 

D 

chem (HopH49, HopHSO) 

y 

[As X-rays, 0.511 (Y*)] 

As^®(d. 7n) (HopHSO) 





parent As^^ (HopHSO) 


[daughter radiations from As^^] 



4.5 m (AteA57) 
5 m (BeydJ57) 

A 

p'*' (BeydJ57), [EC] 
-63.5 (MTW) 

B 

chem, excit (BeydJS7, 
AteA57) 

V 

3.4 max 

0.16, 0.511 (Y^^, [195%]) 

Ge^°(a. 3n) (AteA57) 
N*"* on Cu (BeydJ57) 


8.4 d (CumJ58) 
9.7 d (HopH50) 

A 

EC (HopHSO) 
no p"*^, lim 0. 1% 
(CumJ58) 

-68 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (HopH48) 

parent As^^ (HopH48, 
HopHSO) 

Y 

e 

As X-rays, 0.046 (59%) 

0.034. 0.044 

daughter radiations from As^^ 

As’®(d. 5n) (HopH48. 
HopHSO) 

Ge’°(a. 2n) (CumJ58) 


7. 1 h (CowW48, 

ScoFSl. HaywR56, 
RiccR60c 
others (HopHSO) 

A 

p"^ 65%. EC 35% 
(HaywR56, LHP) 
others (KuzM57, 
RiccR60c) 

no IT (RiccR60c) * 

-68.17 (MTW) 

A 

chem (HopH48) 
chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(CowW48) 

e 

y 

1.66 max? (^0.7%), 1.30 max 
0.054, 0.064, 0.347 
As X-rays, 0.066 (65%), 0.359 
(99%), 0.511 { 130%., Y*) 
daughter radiations from As^^ 

Ge^°(o. n) (Cou'.MB. 
ScoFSl. RiccR60c: 

As^®(d. 4n) (HopHSU) 


4Z m (RiccR60c) 
44 m (HooF53) 

A 

p"^. EC (HooF53, 
RiccR60c) 

-68.2 (RiccR60c, MTW) 

B 

chem, excit (ScoF53) 

Y 

1, 7 max 

As X-rays, 0.088 ? (6%), 0.251 ? 
(14%), 0.58 ? (6%) 

Cc^*^(a, n) r R - : ■ 

.r,; ( ’ ^ 



% 

0.87 (WhiJ48) 








A 

-72.212 (MTW) 








(T 

C 

30 (GoldmDT64) 





1 

I 


258 


Isotope 
Z A 

Half-life 

Type of decay ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A),MeV 10^^ y genet 
(SharmH53) 

% 

A 

9.19 (WhiJ48) 
-77,59 (MTW) 








O’ 

c 

0.004 (to Se®®) 

0.05 (to Se®®"^) 
{GoldmDT64) 






Se®® 

25 m (GleLSla) 

26 m (RutW52) 
others ( Langs A40, 

YthC54) 

A 

p" (SneA37) 

-75.4 (CocR59. MTW) 

A 

chem, excit, cross bomb 
(SneA37) 

chem, genet (LangsA40) 

parent Br^^ (LangsA40, 
GleLSla) 

P" 

Y 

1.8 max 

0.22 (44%), 0.36 (69%), 0.52 ? 
(59%), 0.71 ? (25%), 0.83 ? 
(41%, complex), 1.06? (16%), 
1.31 ? (25%), 1.88 (16%), 

2.29 ( 9%) 

Se®®(n, Y) (SneA37, 
LangsA40, SerL47b, 
CocR59) 








daughter radiations from Br®^, 
Kr®®"’ 



259 


Itofopr 
/ A 


Half-life 


Type of decay ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A^M-A), MeV (C'==0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (^7), barns 


Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 


Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 


Principal means 
of produaion 


8 im 


84 


70 ■ (CocRBS) 
69 ■ (RutWS2) 
67 • (ArnJ47) 


3.3 m (Sat J60) 


Se®^ I 39 8 genet (SatJfiO) 


Se®^ I 16 8 (SatJ60) 


I 36 m (HollaJ53, 
j GrayJH60) 

26 m (ButeF60a) 
42 m (BeydJ57a) 


75 


76 


1.7 h (BaskKfil. 

WoodwL48a) 
1.6 h (HollaJ53, 
BeydJ57a) 


16.1 h (GirR59c) 

16.2 h (Dosl63) 

16.3 h (ButeF60a) 
17.2 h (FulS52) 
17.5 h (ThuS55) 


57 h (HollaJSl) 

58 h (WoodwL48a) 


4.2 m (GooA59) 


6.5 m (SchaA6la, 
RikR6l) 

6.4 m (SneA37) 
6.2 m (PierW60) 


<6 m (SneA37) 


p (ArnJ47) 

-75.2 (CocR59, MTW) 


[(3 ] (SatJ60) 


[p ] (Satj60) 


[p ] (Satj60) 


(HollaJ53) 


r, [EC] (HollaJ53) 
-65 (MTW) 


p"^ =90%. EC =10% 
(BaskK61) 
-69.44 (MTW) 


p'*’ =62%. EC =38% 
(DosI63) 

[p"^ 67%. EC 33%] 
(GirR59c) 

EC(K) 20% (KuzM57) 
-70.6 (MTW) 


EC 99%. p 1% (SehR54) 
others (WoodwL48a) 
-73.24 (MTW) 


IT (GooA59) 

-73.13 (LHP. MTW) 


p [92%]. EC [8%] 
(RikR6l. PierW60) 

-73.45 (MTW) 


P (SneA37) 


50.52 (WilliD46) 
50.56 (CamAE55a) 

-76.075 (MTW) 

8.5 (to Br®°) 

2.9 (to Br®°™) 
(GoIdmDT64) 


chem, genet (ArnJ47) 
parent (ArnJ47) 


chem, genet (GleL46) 

84 

parent 31.8 m Br (GleLSi, 
EdwRSl, SatJ60) 

not parent 6.0 m Br®^ 
(SatJ60) 


chem, genet (SatJ60) 
parent Br®^ (SatJ60) 


chem, genet (SatJ60) 

parent Br®^ (or Br®®) 
(Satj60) 


chem, excit (HollaJ53) 


chem, excit (HollaJ53) 
chem, genet energy levels 
(BeydJ57a) 

daughter Kr^"^ (20 m) 
(GrayJH60) 

daughter Kr*^"^ ( 12 m) 
(ButeF60a) 


chem, cross bomb, sep 
isotopes ( WoodwL48a) 

daughter Kr^® (ButeF60a) 


chem (HopH48a) 

chem, sep isotopes (FulS52) 

chem, mass spect (ThuS55) 

daughter Kr*^® (CareA54, 
ThuS55, Dosl63) 


chem, sep isotopes 
( WoodwL48a) 

parent Se*^^^ (CanRSlc, 
CanR51a) 


excit, sep isotopes (GooA59) 


chem, excit (SneA37) 
cross bomb (PierW60) 


[genet] (StahP53a) 
activity not observed 
(SchaA6la, Pier W 60) 


3.8 max 

0.35 (T 16), 0.65 (T 20), 1.01 
(t 100, complex), 2.02 (T 40) 
8 3 

daughter radiations from Br, 

83m 

Kr 


Se®^(n. Y) (AmJ47. 
CocR58) 


fission (SatJ60) 


I fission (SatJ60) 


daughter radiations from Br®^ fission (Satj60) 


on Cu (HollaJ53) 


4. 7 max 

0.511 (y"^). 0.64 


Cu®®(C^^3n) (HollaJ53) 


1. 70 max 
[Se X-rays) 
Y*). 0.62 


3. 6 max 


0,285, 0.511 (180%, 


Se*^^(d, n) (WoodwL48a, 
FulS52, BaskK6l) 
Se'^'^(p, V) (WoodwL48a) 
Cu®®(C^^2n) (HollaJSl) 


As^®(a. 3n) (GirR59cl 


Se X-rays. 0.511 (133%. Y ). 
0.559 (63%). 0.65 (19%). 0.75 
(6%). 0.85 (7%). 1.21 (13%). 
1.37 (5%). 1.47 (7%). 1.86 
(11%). 2.10 (7%). 2.39 (4%). 
2.78 (5%). 2.97 (8%). 3.57 (2%) 


0. 34 max 
0.229, 0.287, 0.508 
Se X-rays, 0.24 (30%, complex), 
0.300 (6%), 0.52 (24%), 0.58 
(7%), 0.75 (2%), 0.82 (3%). 
1.00 (1.3%) 

daughter radiations from Se^^^ 


[Br x-rays]. 0.108 
0.094. 0.106 

(these radiations were formerly 
78, 


I As ^(a, 2n) (HollaJSl, 
I CanRSla, MonaS63) 


Se^®(p. Y) (CooA59) 


assigned to Br ) 


2. 55 max 

Se x-rays. 0.511 (184%. Y*), 
0.614 (14%) 


A«'^®(Q.n) (SncAl7) 

Sc*^®(p.n) (SchaA61a. 
RikR61. Pi. rW60, 
BucJ38. VallrCl'- 

Se^^(p. Y) (SchoAbl. : 
Se^^(d. n| (Snr A 7. 
Va»iSS62c: 


[daught< r Br ] 
(St4hP6vO 


373-062 0 - 70 - 18 


260 


Isotope 
Z A 

Half-life 

Type of decay ( ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A),MeV (C'-’=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section ((7), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 

3sBr 

4.8 3 (GooA59) 
5.0 s (SchaG54) 

A 

IT (SchaG54) 

-75.87 {LHP, MTW) 

B 

excit (SchaG54) 

excit, sep isotopes (GooA59) 

Y 

[Br X-rays], 0.21 

Se^®(p, y) (GooA59) 
Br^^(n, n') (SchaG54) 


17.6 m (KinA57) 

18 m (SneA37, SegE39, 
AmaE35) 

A 

p" 92%, p'*^ 2.6%, 

EC 5.7% (TrehP62) 
Others (MimWSl, 
ReynJHSO, LabJ51, 
BarbW47) 

-75.882 (MTW) 

A 

chem, n-capt (AmaE35) 
chem, excit, cross bomb 
(SneA37) 

chem, genet (SegE39) 

daughter Br^^^ (SegE39, 
DVauD40, SidR41) 

?■" 

P" 

V 

2. 00 max 
0.87 max 

Se x-rays, 0.511 (5%,, 0.618 

(7%), 0.666 (1.0%) 

Br^^(n, Y), daughter 
Br^Om (SneA37. 
SerL47b, OrsA49, 
AliA36, SegE39) 

B^SOm 

4.38 h (KinA57) 
4.40 h (SchmW60) 
4.6 h (MimWSl) 
others (SneA37, 
BucJ38, BotW3 9) 

A 

IT (SegE39) 

-75.796 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, n-capt (AmaE35) 
chem, excit, cross bomb 
(SneA37) 

parent Br^^ (SegE39, 
DVauD40, SidR41) 

Y 

e 

Br X-rays, 0.03 7 (36%) 

0.024, 0.036, 0.047 
daughter radiations from Br®® 

Br^’(n, y) (AUA36, 
SneA37, SegE39, 
SerL47b) 

Br!.! 


% 

A 

cr 

c 

49.48 (WmiD46) 
49.44 (CamAE55a) 

-77.97 (MTW) 

3 (GoldmDT64) 






Br82 

35.34 h (Merj62) 
35.9 h ( CobJSO) 
35.1 h (WintF51) 
36.0 h (BerneE50) 
35.5 h (WyaE6l) 
35.7 h (SinWSl) 

A 

p" (KurtB35) 
no EC or p^, lim 0.03% 
(ReynJH50) 

no p^, lim 0.02% 
(MimWSl) 

-77.50 (MTW) 

A 

chem, n-capt (KurtB35) 
chem, excit, cross bomb 
(SneA37) 

daughter Br^^*^ (Emej65, 
Ande065) 

P" 

Y 

0.444 max 

0.554 (66%), 0.619 (41%), 0.698 
(27%i). 0.777 (83%), 0.828 
(25%), 1.044 (29%), 1.317 
(26%), 1.475 ( 17%) 

Br®^(n, Y) (SneA37, 
KurtB35, SerL47b, 
Erne J65) 

Br®^ 

6.05 m {Ande065) 
6.20 m (Emej65) 
6. 2 m (IyeR65) 

A 

IT 97.6%, p' 2.4% 
(Emej65} 

IT, p" 50.18% (Ande065) 
-77.45 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, genet, sep isotopes 
(Ande065) 
genet (Emej65) 

parent Br^^ (Emej65, 
Ande065) 

Y 

P" 

e 

Br X-rays, 0.046 (0.3%), 0.777 
(0.15%), 1.475 (0.009%) 

[3. 138 max] 

[0.033, 0.044] 

daughter radiations from Br®® 

Br®^(n, y) (EmeJ65. 
Ande065) 

Br®® 

2.41 h (BowleB6l) 
2.39 h (PastM63) 
2.30 h (SwiP53) 

2.4 h (GleLSla, 
SneA37, VasiI58) 
2.3 h (LangsA40, 
HasR51) 

A 

p~ (SneA37) 
-79.02 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (SneA37) 

j V4. c ... 83m 

daughter Se, parent Kr 

(LangsA40, StraF40, 
MoussA41, GleLSla) 

daughter (ArnJ47) 

P" 

Y 

0. 93 max 
0.530 ( 1.4%) 

daughter radiations from Kr^^^ 

Se®®(n, y)Se®®(p") 
(SneA37, LangsA40, 
GleLSla, BowleB6l) 

tri 

00 

31.8 m (JohnN57) 
31.7 m (SatJ60) 
others (StraF40, 
DufRSl, KatcSSl) 

A 

p“ (DodR3 9) 
-77.7 (MTW) 

A 

chem (DodR39) 
chem, excit (BornH43) 

daughter Se^^ (GleLSl, 
EdwRSl, SatJ60) 

84 

not parent 6.0 m Br 
(SatJ60) 

P" 

Y 

4. 68 max 

0.81 (9%), 0.88 (51%), 1.01 
(10%), 1.21 (4%), 1.90 (18%), 
2.47 (8%), 3.93 (13%) 

Rb®^(n, a) (BornH43, 
SatJ60) 

fission (DodR39, 
Hah039c, Hah039e, 
StraF40, Mous sA4 1, 
BornH43, KatcSSl) 

Br«4 

6. 0 m (Sat J60) 

• 

p“ (SatJ60) 

A 

chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(SatJ60) 

not daughter Se^^ (SatJ60) 
not daughter 31.8 m Br^*^ 
(SatJ60) 

P" 

Y 

1. 9 max 

0.44 (68%), 0.88 (75%), 1.46 
(75%), 1.89 (16%) 

Rb®^(n, a) (SatJ60) 
fission (SatJ60) 

Br®® 

3.00 m (SugaN49) 

3.0 m (StraF40, 
BomH43) 

A 

p” (StraF40) 
-78.7 (MTW) 

A 

chem (StraF40) 
chem, genet (SeeW43) 

parent (SeeW43, 

SugaN4 9) 

daughter Se®^ (SatJ60) 

P" 

Y 

2. 5 max 
no Y 

daughter radiations from Kr®^^ 

fission (StraF40, 
BornH43, SeeW43, 
SugaN49) 

Br®® 

54 s (StehA62, 
WilliE63) 

A 

p~ (StehA62) 

no n, lim 0. 25% 
(SteinE63) 

-76 (MTW) 

B 

chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(StehA62) 

P' 

Y 

7. 1 max 

1.29 (f 12), 1.36 (( 39), 1.56 
(t 100), 1.97 (( 20), 2.34 
(f 20), 2.75 U 36) 

Kr®®(n, p) (StehA62) 

Br®^ 

55.6 s (n) (HugD48) 
54.5 s (n) (KeeG57, 
PerloG59) 

55.0 s (n) (RedW47) 

56.1 s (p-) (SugaN4 9) 
55.4 s (n) (WilliE63) 

A 

p“, p"n (=2%) (LeviJ51, 
StehA53) 

-74.6 (WUliE63, MTW) 

A 

chem (StraF40) 
chem, genet (BornH43, 
SugaN49) 

parent Kr®^ (BornH43, 
SeeW43, SugaN49) 
ft6 

parent Kr (2%) (SneA47a, 

SugaN4 9) 

R7 

daughter Se (?) (SatJ60) 

p' 

n 

Y 

8.0max(?), 2.6 max 
0.3 (mean energy) 

1.44 (t 100), 1.85 (r 18), 2.48 
(f 18), 2.64 (r 16), 2.98 (( 25),. 
3.18 (f 16). 3.80 (1 11), 4.19 
(f 21), 4.8 (r 17), 5.0 (T 17). 
5.2 (T 12) 

daughter radiations from Kr 

fission (StraF40, 
SneA47a, SugaN47, 
SugaN49, RedW47, 
HugD48) 


261 


lt«>citpc 
/ A 

Malflifc 

Type of decay ( ^ ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A),MeV (C’=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section ((7), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 


Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 

Br®* 

IS®' 

IS S • (SugaN49) 
16. } • (PerloG59) 
others (PerloGST, 
KeeGST) 

«•* 

p" (SugaN49) 
n (weak) (PerloG59, 
PerloG57) 

A 

chem, genet (SugaN49) 
parent Kr®^ (SugaN49) 

7 

0.76 

fission (SugaN49, 
KeeG57, PerloC59, 
PerloG57) 

Br®’ 

■IS* (n) (HugD48, 
RedW47) 

4 4* (n) (PerloG59) 

y 

P, P n (SneA47, 
HugD48) 

D 

chem (SneA47) 

parent Kr^^ (?), parent 
(?) (CoryC51) 

n 

0.5 (mean energy) 

fission (SugaN47, 
SneA47, SugaN49, 
RedW47, HugD48) 

Br’° 

1.6 * (PerloG59) 


[p“], n (PerloG59) 

D 

chem, decay charac 
(PerloG59) 



fi s s ion ( Pe rlo G 5 9) 


20 m (GrayJH60) 
12 m (ButeF60a) 

y 

A 

p"*", [EC] (GrayJH60) 
-62 (MTW) 

B 

chem, genet (GrayJHfiO, 
ButeFfiOa) 

74 

parent Br (36 m) 

(GrayJH60) 

74 

parent Br (26m) 
(ButeFfiOa) 

Y 

3. 1 max 
0.511 (Y*) 

74 

daughter radiations from Br 

protons on Br 
(GrayJH60) 
protons on Sr 
(ButeFfiOa) 

Kr” 

5- 5 m (ButeFSOa) 
<1 m (GrayJH60) 

y 

A 

[B'*^,EC] (ButeFbOa) 
-64 (MTW) 

E 

chem, genet (ButeFfiOa) 
activity not observed 
(GrayJHfiO) 

parent Br^^ (ButeFfiOa) 



protons on Br 
(ButeFfiOa) 

Kr^® 

14.8 h genet (Dosl63) 
9. 7 s (CareA54) 

11 h (ThuS55) 

«•» 

A 

EC, no p"', lim 1% 
(DosI63) 

no EC(K) (CareA54) 
-69 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (CareA54) 
chem, mass spect (ThuS55) 

parent Br^^ (CareA54, 
ThuS55, Dosl63) 

Y 

[Kr x-rays], 0.039, 0.104, 0.135, 
0.267, 0.316, 0.407, 0.452 

daughter radiations from Br^® 

Br^®(p, 4n) (ThuS55) 
Se^'^(a, 2n) (DosI63) 


1. 19h (ButeF60a) 
others (ThuS55, 
WoodwL48a, 
BeydJ57a) 

A 

EC =20%, p'*’ =80% 
(ThuS55) 

Others (WoodwL48a) 
-70.4 (MTW) 

A 

chem, sep isotopes 
(WoodwL48a) 

chem, mass spect (ThuS55) 

p" 

e 

Y 

1. 86 max 

0.011, 0.023, 0.094 (with Br^^”’), 

0.106 (with Br^^”*), 0.118, 

0.136 

Br X-rays, 0.024, 0.108 (with 

Br^^”'), 0.131, 0.149, 0.665 
77 

daughter radiations from Br 

Br’%, 3n) (ThuS55) 

Krl® 


% 

A 

“■c 

0.3 54 (NierA50a) 
-74.14 (MTW) 

2 (to Kr^®) 
(GoldmDT64) 






Kr"’ 

34.92 h (BonaE64) 

34. 5 h (RadP52) 
others (WoodwL48, 
CreEC40a, ChacK61) 

*A 

A 

EC 92%, p'*’ 8% (NDS, 
BonaE64) 
others (RadP52a, 
RadP52b, RadP55, 
LangeM54, BerglSld, 
Thus 54c) 

-74.46 (MTW) 

A 

chem (CreEC40a) 
chem, sep isotopes 
(WoodwL48) 
mass spect (BracD52) 

daughter Rb^^ (ChacK61) 

e 

Y 

0. 60 max 

0.031, 0.043, 0.123, 0.204, 0.248, 
0.384 

Br X-rays, 0.136(0.7%), 0.261 
(97o). 0.398 (10%), 0.511(15%, 
Y®"), 0.606 (10%), 0.836 (2.0%), 
1.119(0.5%), 1.336 (0.5%) 

Br^’(p.n) (CreEC40a) 

Br^®(d, 2n) (ClarE44, 
Bona£64) 

Kr^®(n, Y) (HoaESU, 
BergI51d) 

Kr79m 

55 s (CreEC40a) 

A 

IT (?), no p'*' 
(CreEC40a) 

-74.33 (LHP, MTW) 

D 

chem (CreEC40a) 

Y 

e 

Kr X-rays, 0.127 
0.113, 0.125 

Br^^(p, n) (CrcEC'tOal 

Kxi“ 


% 

A 

(T 

C 

2.27 (NierA50a) 
-77.89 (MTW) 

15 (GoldmDT64) 






Kr®* 

2. 1 X 10^ y sp act, 
mass spect (EasT64a, 
ReynJHSOa) 

y 

A 

EC (ReynJH50a) 
-77.7 (MTW) 

A 

chem, mass spect 
(ReynJH50a) 

Y 

Br X-rays 

SO 

Kr (n. Y) (RcynJH'G*. 
Ea«T64*) 

KrSlin 

13 s (ChacK6l, 
CreEC40a) 
others (KarrDSO) 

y 

A 

IT, no p'*’ (CreEC40a) 
-77.5 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem (CreEC40a) 
genet (KarrD50) 

daughter Rb^^ (KarrDSO) 

Y 

e 

Kr X-rays. 0. 190 (65%) 
0.176, 0.188 

daughtc r Rb^ * 
(KarrDSO) 



% 

A 

 (DilCSla) 

V 

p' (Hah042) 

B 

chem, genet (Hah042, 
SelBSl) 

parent Rb^^ (BradESl, 
DilCSla, DUC51) 

ancestor (SelBSl) 


fission (Hah042, 
DUCSla, SelBSl, 
BradESl) 

Kr^ 

1.4 5 (DUCSla) 


p" (Hah043b) 

B 

chem, genet (Hah043b, 
DUCSla) 

94 

parent Rb^ (Hah043, 
Hah043b, DilCSl) 

94 

ancestor Y (Hah043b, 

DilCSla) 


fission (Hah043b, 
DUCSla, Hah043) 

Kr’5 

short (DilCSl) 

V 

[pi (DilCSl) 

F 

chem, genet (DilCSl) 
parent Rb^^, ancestor Zr^^ 
(DilCSl) 


fission (DilCSl) 

Kr’^ 

»i s (DilCSl) 

V 

p“ (AdaRMSi) 

G 

chem, genet (AdaRMSi, 
DilCSl) 

activity not observed 
(WahA62) 


fission (DilCSl, 
AdaRM 51) 

37-^’ 

24 m (BeydJ57a, 
ChamiRS?) 

21 m genet (ChacK6l) 

V 

p'^ (BeydJ57), [EC] 

A 

chem (BeydJS7, ChamiRS7) 
chem, genet (ChacKbl) 

parent Kr^*^ (ChacKOl) 

7 1 [Kr x-rays]. 0.15(73%). 0.19 
1 (29%). 0.511 (7^^. [180%]). 

1 79 

! daughter radiations from Kr 

Cu®®(0^®. 2n) (BeydJ57, 
ChamiR57) 

Br^®(He®. 3n) (ChacK61) 

Rb«“ 

34 s (Hof£R61) 

A 

p'^, [EC] (HoffR61) 
-73 (MTW) 

A 

chem, mass spect (HoffR6l) 
80 

daughter Sr (HoffR6l) 

(3^: 4. 1 max 

7 I 0.511 (7*. [195%]). 0.618 (39%) 

daughter Sr®^ (HoffR61) 

Rb«* 

4.7 h (KarrDSO, 
DogW56, CastS52) 

V 

A 

EC 87%. p"^ 13% 
(KarrDSO) 

-75.4 (MTW) 

A 

chem, mass spect (ReynF49) 
parent Kr®^^ (KarrDSO) 

daughter Sr®^ (CastSSO, 

Casts S2) 

daughter Rb ^ (DogWSO) 
descendant Zr^^ (ZaitN65) 

1.03 max 

\jKr X-rays, 0.253, 0.450, 0.511 

1 (26%, y"^), 1.10 

■daughter radiations from Kr^^^ 

Br^^(Q, 2n) (ReynF49, 
KarrDSO) 

Rb®*"’ 

31 m (DogW56) 

*m 

A 

p'*’. [EC], IT (DogWS6) 
-75.3 (LHP, MTW) 

B 

chem, genet (DogWSO) 
parent Rb^^ (DogWSb) 

1 

|3 : 1.4 mag spect 
e"j 0.071, 0.083 

y \ [Rb x-rays, Kr X-rays, 0.085, 
i 0.511 (7^^)] 

i daughter radiations from Rb^^ 

i Kr®!-" 

Br^®(Q. 2n) (DogW56) 

Rb»® 

1.25 m (LitL53) 
1.3 m (KruP53) 
1. 1 m (KurcB55) 

A 

p"^ 96%. EC 4% (SakM62) 
-76.42 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (LitLS3, 
KruPS3) 

8 2 

daughter Sr (LitLS3, 
KruPS3, KurcBSS) 

p^i 3.15 max 

7 iKr X-rays. 0.511 (192%. 7*). 
i 0.777 (9%) 

daughter (LitLS3, 

KruP53, KurcBSS) 

Rb®®™ 

6.3 h (KarrDSO) 
6.5 h (HancJ40) 

A 

EC 94%. p’*' 6% 
(KarrDSO) 

[EC 79%. p,"^ 21%] (NDS) 
-76.14 (LHP. MTW) 

A 

chem (HancJ40) 
chem, mass spect (ReynF49) 
not daughter Sr^^, lim 0.1% 
(LitL53, CastS52) 

p"*^: 0. 78 max 

7 iSr X-rays. 0.511 (7^^). 0.554 
(66%). 0.619 (41%). 0.698 
i (277o). 0.777 (83%). 0.828 
(25%). 1.044 (29%). 1.317 
(26%). 1.475 ( 17%) 

Br^^(a, n) (HancJ40, 
ReynF49, KarrDSO) 

Kr®^(d, 2n) (HancJ40) 

Rb®® 

83 d (CastSSO) 
100 d (KurcB55) 
107 d (KarrDSO) 

•A 

A 

EC (KarrDSO) 
no p'*' (PerlmMSS) 
-79 (MTW) 

A 

chem, mass spect (KarrDSO) 

j U4. *. ir 83m 

daughter Sr, parent Kr 

(CastSSO) 

Y|Kr X-rays, 0.53 (93%, 3 V rays), 
0.79(0.9%) 
e": 0.007, 0.52 

: daughter radiations from Kr^^*^ 

Br^^(a, 2n) (KarrD* '-)! 

daughter Sr** (< ..•iS' 
DotIMa) 

Rb®4 

33.0 d (WelJ55) 
34 d (KarrDSO) 

A 

EC 76%. p"^ 21%. p" 3% 
(NDS) 

-79.753 (MTW) 

A 

chem, cross bomb (BarbW47) 
chem, mass spect (KarrDSO) 

1.66 max 
P j 0. 91 max 

7 iKr x-rays. 0.511 (42%. 7*). 0.88 
(74%), 1.01(0.5%). 1.90(0.8%) 

1 

Br®* (a, n) (K.> : ; D‘ 

1 


264 


Isotope 
Z A 


Half-life 


Type of decay (*•*); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(Am-A), MeV (C“=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (CT), barns 


Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 


Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 


Principal means 
of production 


,84m 


20 m (CohL58, 
HancJ40) 

21 m (CaiR53) 
23 m (FlaASOb) 


IT, EC (weak) (CaiR53) 
-79.289 (LHP, MTW) 


72.15 (NierA50a) 
-82.16 (MTW) 

0.9 (to Rb®^) 

0.1 (to Rb®®"’) 
(GoldmDT64) 


chem (HancJ40) 
chem, excit (FlaASOb) 


RbX-rays, 0.216(37%), 
(65%), 0.464 (32%) 
0.201, 0.214, 0.449 


Br^\a, n) (HancJ40) 
Rb®^(n, 2n) (FlaASOb) 


Rb 


86 


18.66 d (EmeE55a, 
EmeE55) 

18.64 d (NidJ55) 

18.7 d (WriH57) 

18.8 d (GleG64) 
others (HelmhA41, 

RobiR58a) 


V lp“ (HelmhA41) 


A 


-82.72 (MTW) 


A 


chem, n-capt (SneA37) 
chem, excit (HelmhA41) 


P : 1. 78 max 
Y I 1.078 (8.8%) 


Rb®®(n, V) (SneA37, 
ScheiH38, SerL47b) 


Rb 


86m 


1.02 m (SchwaR53) 
1.06 m (FlaA51) 


IT (SchwaR53) 
-82.16 (LHP, MTW) 


B 


chem, excit, n-capt (FlaASl) Y 


[RbX-rays], 0.56 


Rb®®(n, Y) (FlaASl. 
SchwaR53) 


4.8 X 10^^ y sp act 'j 

(KovA65) 0 

10 ' 

4. 7 X 10 y sp act 

(FlyK59, GleL6l) ^ 

5.2 X 10^^ y sp act ^ 

(MNaiA6la, 

BrinGA65) 

5.8 X 10^*^ y sp act 
(EgeK6l, LeuH62a) 

5.0 X 10^° y Sr®VRb®^ 
ratio (AldL56, OvcG6() 

6. 2 X 10 y sp act 
(MGreM54, CurrS51, 
FliJ54>:') 

5. 1 X 10^*^ y sp act 
(LibW57) 

5. 9 X 10^^ y sp act 
(LewisG52) 

4.3 X 10^^ y sp act 
(GeeI54) 

others (FritK56, 

StraF38, Hax048a, 
Hax048, KemM49, 
CharGSl, EklS46, 
BahI52) 


P (ThomJOS, CamN06) 
27.85 (NierASOa) 
-84.591 (MTW) 

0.12 (GoldmDT64) 


’J'corrected for 27.85% 
abundance (NDS) 


A 


chem (ThomJ05, CamN06) 
chem, genet (Hah037, 
MattaJ3 7) 

chem, mass spect (HemA37) 

parent (mass spect) 

(Hah037, MattaJ37) 


P i 0.274 max 
Y : no Y 


17.8 m (GlasG40, 
BunkM 5 1 ) 

17.7 m (ThuS52b) 
17.5 m (WeilG42) 
18 m (HahO40b, 
SneA37) 


y ip (Hah039c) 


A 


-82.7 (MTW) 


, complex), 
3.06 (1.3%), 3.53 (1.1%) 

fission (Hah043, 
Hah043b, KatcS48, 
KniJD59, FritK6l, 
DUCSla) 

Zr®®(d, a) (SchoG53) 

y’5 

10.9 m (FritK61) 
10.5 m (KniJD49) 

A 

p” (KniJD49) 
-81 (MTW) 

B 

chem, sep isotopes, excit 
(KniJD49) 

daughter Sr^^ (FritK6l) 

y 

1.30 (?), 1.80 (?) 

fission (FritK6l, 
KniJD59) 

Zr®®(Y, p) (KniJD49) 


2. 3 m (ValllD61) 

A 

p” (ValliD61) 
-79 (MTW) 

B 

chem, excit (ValliD6l) 

P" 

y 

3. 5 max 

0.7, 1.0, 1.5 (complex) 

9A 

Zr (n, p) (VaUiD61) 


7-15 m genet (ZaitN65) 


[p'^. EC] (ZaitN65) 

E 

chem, genet ( ZaitN 6 5 ) 

, - 81 „,81 
ancestor Sr, Rb 

( ZaitN65) 



. 1,89 

protons on Y 

(ZaitN65) 

Zr«' 

10 m genet (ZaitN65) 

V 

[p'^. EC] (ZaitN65) 

D 

chem, genet (ZaitN65) 

* ^82 ^ ^ 82 
parent Y, ancestor Sr 

(ZaitN65) 



8 9 

protons on Y 
(ZaitN65) 

7 83 
Zr 

5-10 m genet (ZaitN65) 

fm 

[EC. p"^] (ZaitN65) 

E 

chem, genet (ZaitN65) 

8 3 

ancestor Sr { ZaitN65) 



8 9 

protons on Y (ZaitN65) 

7 84 
Zr 

16 m genet (ZaitN65) 

V 

[EC, p"^] (ZaitN65) 

B 

chem, genet (ZaitN65) 
parent (ZaitN65) 



8 9 

protons on Y (ZaitN65) 

Zr®5 

Zr 

15 m (ZaitN65) 
6 m (ButeF63) 

• 

[EC. p"^] (ButeF63) 

B 

chem, genet (ButeF63, 
ZaitN65) 

, __85m. _ 85m 

parent Y, ancestor Sr 

(ButeF63, Dosl63a, 

ZaitN65) 



8 9 

Y (p, 5n) (ButeF63) 

7 85 
Zr 

1.4 h genet (ZaitN65) 


[EC. p'^] (ZaitN65) 

B 

chem, genet (ZaitN65) 
parent Y®® (ZaitN65) 



8 9 

protons on Y (ZaitN65) 

7 86 
Zr 

16.5 h (AwaY64) 

17 h genet (HydE51) 
15 h genet (ZaitN65) 

A 

EC, no lim 0.1% 

(HydE66, HydE54a) 
-78 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (HydESl) 
parent (HydESl) 

y 

e 

Y x-rays, 0.028 (20%), 0.243 
(96%), 0.612 (5%) 

[0.015] 

86 

daughter radiations from Y 

Y®’(p,4n) (Aw»Y64) 

„ 87 
Zr 

1.6 h (HydE51) 

1.5 h (ButeF63. 

HoltzR52, ZaitN65) 
2.0 h (RobeB49) 

V 

A 

P"^, EC (RobeB49) 

[p'^ 83%. EC 17%] (NDS) 
-79.7 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(RobeB49) 

chem, genet (HydESl) 
parent Y®"^^ (HydESl) 

y 

2. 10 max 

Y x-rays, 0.511 (Y*, [166%]), 
1.2, 2.2 

daughter radiations from Y®^^, 
^87 

Y®’(p. 3n) (ButrF6>. 
AwaYM) 

_ 88 
Zr 

85 d (HydE53a) 

M 

A 

EC (HydESl) 
no p"*” (HydE55) 
-84 (MTW) 

B 

chem, genet (HydESl) 
parent Y®® (HydESl) 
descendant Mo®® (ButeFfnlc) 

y 

e 

Y X-rays, 0.394 (97%) 

0.377 

daughter radiations from Y®® 

protr.n* on Nb 'Hy • 

7 89 
Zr 

78.4 h (VPatD64) 
79.0 h (Hamij60) 
79.3 h (ShuK51) 
others (HydE51, 
KatzL53, DubL40, 
ShoF53, HowD62) 

A 

EC 78%, p'^ 22% 
(VPatD64, MonaSbl) 

-84.85 (MTW) 

A 

chem excii (SagR38, DubL40) 
parent Y®^ (GoldhMSl) 

daughter Nb®^ (DiaR54, 
MathHSS 

descendant Mo®^ (ButeF64c) 

e 

y 

0. 90 max 
0.89 (with Y®’^) 

Y X-ray«, 0.511 (44%. Y*). 0 91 
(99%. with Y®’^). 171(1%) 

VPalDM) 

M. if * U 


270 


Isotope 
Z A 

Half-life 


Type of decay ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A),MeV (C'==0); 
Thermal neutron 


Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 


Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 




cross section (t7), barns 






7 89m 
40^^ 

4. 18 m (VPatD64) 

4.4 m (ShoF53, ShoFSl, 
MangS63) 

4.3 m (KatzL53) 

4.5 m (DubL40) 

V 

A 

IT 94%. EC 4.7%, p'* 
1.4% (VPatD64) 

IT 93%. EC 5.6%. p'* 
1.8% (ShoF53) 

-84.26 (LHP. MTW), 

A 

chem, excit {DubL40) 

daughter Nb®^^ (DiaR54, 
MathH55) 

e 

V 

2.40 max (0.2%), 0.89 max (1.2%) 
0.570 

Zr, Y X-rays, 0.588 (87%). 1.51 
(6%) 

Y®’(p.n) (VPatD64, 
DubL40) 



% 

51.46 (WhiJ48) 








A 

-88.770 (MTW) 








IT 

C 

0,1 (GoldmDT64) 







0.80 s (WagR63) 
0.83 s (SchmW63, 
CamE55) 

0.86 s (WhiW62) 

Y 

A 

IT (CamE55) 

-86.45 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

excit (CamE55) 
genet energy levels 
(SchmW63, BjoS59) 

V 

e 

Zr X-rays. 0.133(4%), 2.18 
(14%). 2.32 (86%) 

0.115. 0.130 

Nb^^(p, a) (WhiW62) 

Zr^*^(n, n') (CamE55. 
WagR63, SchmW63) 



% 

11.23 (WhiJ48) 








A 

-87.893 (MTW); 








O’ 

C 

1 (GoldmDT64) 






7 92 
Zr 


% 

17.11 (WhiJ48) 








A 

-88.462 (MTW) 








(T 

C 

0,2 (GoldmDT64) 






7 93 
Zr 

1. 5 X 10^ y sp act 
(SteinE65) 

V 

A 

(T 

C 

P (SteinE50) 

-87.11 (SteinE65, MTW) 
<4 (GoldmDT64) 

A 

chem (SteinESO) 
mass spect (GleL53) 
parent Nb’^*” (GleL53) 

V 

0.060 max 
no Y 

daughter radiations from Nb^^*^ 

fission (SteinESO) 

7 94 
Zr 


% 

17.40 (WhiJ48) 








A 

-87.267 (MTW) 








(T 

C 

0.08 (GoldmDT64) 






7 95 
Zr 

65. 5 d (FlyK65a) 

65 d (BradE51a, 
GrumW46, CorkJ53b) 

66 d (GrossA48) 

63 d (SagR40a) 

y 

A 

P (SagR40a) 
-85.663 (MTW) 

A 

chem (GrossA40, SagR40a) 
chem, genet (GoldsB51) 

parent Nb^^^, parent Nb^^ 
(HudJ49. BradESla, 
JacoL51, SteinESla) 

P' 

Y 

0.89 max (2%), 0.396 max 
0.724 (49%), 0.756 (49%) 

95 

daughter radiations from Nb, 

Zr^^(n, y) (SagR40a, 
SerL47b) 
fission (HudJ49, 

BradESla, JacoLSl, 
SteinESla, FinBSlc) 






9 5 

descendant Kr, descendant 









Rb’^ (DUC51) 




7 96 
Zr 

>3-6 X 10^^ y 

% 

2.80 (WhiJ48) 







sp act (AwsM56) 

A 

-85.430 (MTW) 







tj/2 (PP) >5 X 10^^ y 

■"c 

0.05 (GoldmDT64) 







sp act (AwsM56) 









*1/2 ^PP) ^ ^ ^ 

sp act (MCarJ53) 








7 97 
Zr 

17.0 h (BurgW50a, 
MandeC52, GrossA40, 
KatcSSlb, Vasil 58) 

¥ 

A 

P (GrossA40) 
-82.93 (MTW) 

A 

chem (GrossA40) 
chem, n-capt, sep isotopes 
(BurgWSOa, MandeC52) 

parent (BurgWSOa) 

P‘ 

Y 

1.91 max 

0.747 (92%, with Nb’^*") 

97 

daughter radiations from Nb 

Zr^^(n, Y) (BurgW50a, 
MandeC52, SagR40a, 
SerL47b) 

fission (GrossA40, 
Hah041, KatcS48) 

7 98 
Zr 

1 m (OrtC60) 

V 

[p~] (OrtC60) 

E 

chem, genet (OrtC60) 



fission (OrtC60) 



A 

-82 (MTW) 


[ parent <2 m Nb^^j, not 









parent 51 m Nb^^ (OrtC60) 




7 99 
Zr 

35 s genet (OrtC60) 



G 

chem, genet (OrtC60) 
activity not observed, 



fission (OrtC60) 






<1.6 s genet (TroD63) 




,v,u88 

4lNb 

14 m (KorR64, HydE65) 
21 m (ButeF64b) 

¥ 

A 

P"* (HydE65), [EC] 
-77 (MTW) 

B 

chem, genet (KorR64, 
HydE65, ButeF64b) 

88 

daughter Mo (ButeF64c) 

Y 

3. 2 max 

0.076, 0.141, 0.272. 0.399, 0.511 
(y*), 0.671, 1.058. 1.083 

Br^’(C*^. 3n) (KorR64, 
HydE65) 

ktu89 

Nb 

1.9 h (HydE65, DiaR54, 
MathH55) 

2.0 h (ButeF64b) 

¥ 

A 

p"*" (DiaR54), [EC] 
-81.0 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (DiaR54, 
MathH55) 

8 9 

parent Zr (DiaR54, 

MathH55) 

Y 

2. 9 max 

0.511 (y*), 1.626, 3.577. 3.838 
8 9 

daughter radiations from Zr 

C*^ on Br (MathH55, 
HydE65) 

Y®’(a, 4n) (MathH55) 


271 


luKupc 
Z A 

Half-life 


Type of decay ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A), McV (C’^=0); 
Thermal neutron 

I 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 


Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of produaion 




cross section ((7), barns 






^,Nb 

42 m (ButeF64b) 
a*48 m (DiaRS4) 

V 

A 

p'* (DiaR54), [EC] 
-80.2 (LHP. MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (DiaR54, 
MathH55) 

parent (DiaR54, 

MathH55) 

8 9 

daughter Mo (ButeF64c) 

. 

e 

y 

3, 1 max 

0.570 (with Zr®*") 

0.511 (Y*), 0.588 (93%. with 

_ 89m 
Zr ) 

daughter radiations from Zr 

on Br (MathH55) 
protons on Zr (DiaR54) 

Nb’O 

14.6 h (OngP54a, 
ShelR57a) 

14.7 h (DiaR53, 
ButeF64b) 

others (KiinD49, 
JacoLSl) 

A 

P”^, EC (BjoS59, 
LazN58, ShelR57a) 
EC(K) =50% (KuzM57) 

-82.66 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit, cross bomb 
( JacoE51) 

chem, sep isotopes, cross 
bomb (KunD4 9) 

90 

descendant Mo ^ (DiaR53, 
MathH55b) 

e 

Y 

1. 50 max 
0.115, 0.123 

Zr X-rays, 0.142 (75%), 0.511 

(Y^^), 1.14 (97%,), 2.18 (14%,), 
2.3 2 (82%,) 

dau^ter radiations from Zr^^^ 
included in above listing 

Zr^°(p, n) (BjoS59, 
LazN58) 

90 

Zr (d, 2n) (KunD49, 
JacoLSl) 

descendant Mo^ 

( Bute F 64b, DiaR53) 

Nb’®^ 

24 s (MathHSSb) 

M 

A 

IT (MathH55b) 
-82.54 (LHP. MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (MathH55b) 

90 

daughter Mo’ (MathH55b) 

Y 

e 

Nb X-rays, 0.122 (71%) 
0.104, 0.120 

90 

daughter Mo 
(MathH55b) 

Nb’* 

long (OvaJSl) 


[EC] (OvaJ51) 

B 

genet (OvaJSl) 

Y 

[Zr X-rays] 

Zr^°(d,n) (OvaJ51) 



A 

-86.8 (MTW) 


[daughter Nb^^^] (OvaJSl) 




Nb’'"’ 

64 d (BoydG4 9) 
60 d (JacoL51) 

A 

IT 97%, EC 3% (NDS) 
-86.6 (LHP. MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (JacoLSl) 
chem, sep isotopes (OvaJSl) 

Y 

e 

Nb x-rays, 0.104(0.5%,), 1.21 
(3%) 

0.086, 0.102 

o g 

Y (a, 2n) (HaywR55a) 

Zr’°(d. n) (OvaJ51. 
HayvrR55a, JacoLSl) 

Nb’^ 

>3 50 y or < 1 h 
(BunkM62) 

A 

-86.45 (ShelR64, MTW) 

F 

93 

levels observed in Nb (d, t) 
reaction (ShelR64) and in 









Nb (p, d) reaction 
(SweR64) 




Nb’^ 

10.16 d (BunkM62) 
10. 15 d (WestH59) 
others (GlagV61, 
MacD48, SagR40b, 
SagR38a) 

M 

A 

EC 99-f%>. p'^ 0.06% 
(WestH59. BunkM62) 

no p, lim 0.05% 
(PreiP51) 

-86.32 (ShelR64, MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (SagR38a) 

Y 

Zr X-rays, 0.934 (99%,) 

Y®’(n.n) (BunkM62) 

Nb’^ 

13 h (JameR54) 



G 

chem, excit (JameR54) 
activity not observed (SilE58, 
BramE62, BunkM62, 
BosH64b) 



93 

protons on Nb 
( JameR54) 

Nbl' 


% 

100 (SamM36a. WhiF56) 








A 

-87.204 (MTW) 








(T 

C 

0.1 (to Nb^) 

1 /a. •i.Ti_94m. 

1 (to Nb ) 

(GoldmDT64) 






Nb^^”’ 

13.6 y (FlyK65a) 
=4 y (Sch\imR54) 

•A 

A 

IT (SchumR54) 
-87.173 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (GleE53) 
daughter Zr^^ (85%) (GleL53) 
daughter Mo^^ (HohK64) 

Y 

e 

Nb X-rays 
0.011, 0.028 

daughter (ClcL53* 

Nb^^(n, n ') (SchumR54. 
HohK64) 

Nb’^ 

4 

2.0 X 10 y sp act, mass 
spect (SchumR59a) 

4 

1.8 X 10 y sp act 
(RolW55) 

•A 

A 

no EC (DouDL53) 
no EC(K), lim 6% 
(SchumR5 9a) 

-86.35 (MTW) 

A 

n-capt (GoldhM46a) 
chem, n-capt (HeiR52) 

P' 

Y 

0.49 max 

0.702 ( 100%), 0.871 (100%) 

Nb’®(n. Y) (ColdhM4M. 
HeiR52) 


2. 2 X 10^ y sp act 
(DouDL53) 

O' 

c 

=15 (GoldmDT64) 






Nb’^ 

6.29 m (KilP62) 
6.6 m (SagR40b) 

•A 

IT 99-t%, p" 0.2% 
(ReicC63. YinL62) 
IT 99+%. p“ 0.5% 
(KHP62) 

A 

n-capt, excit (PoolM37, 
SagR38a, GoldhM48a. 
KunD46) 

Y 

e 

Nb X-rays, 0.871 (0.2%) 
0.023, 0.039 

Nb’^(n, 11 fPoclM 
SagR38i, SagH4‘b. 
SerL47b) 



A 

-86.31 (LHP, MTW) 






Nb’^ 

35.0 d (WyaE6l) 

35.6 d (PierA59) 

35 d (CorkJ53a, 
EngeDSl) 
others (JacoE51, 

LangeL63, FlyK6Sa) 

•A 

A 

<7 

C 

p" (GoldsBSl) 
-86.784 (MTW) 
=7 (GoldmDT64) 

A 

chem (GoldsB46, GoldsBSl) 
chem, excit, cross bomb 
(JacoLSl) 

daughter Zr^^ (HudJ49, 
BradESla, SteinESla, 
JacoLSl) 

Y 

0. 160 max 
0.765 (100%) 

da light f 7 H * 4 

Brad: ' ,4 Ja -t ', 

Strlr> ' 






daughter Nb^^^ (SteinESla, 
LeviJSla) 

-, - .1 





Ill 


Isotope 
Z A 

Half-life 

Type of decay ( ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A).MeV (C^=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section ((7), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 


90 h (SteinESla, 

HudJ4 9, DrabGSS) 

84 h (SlaH52a, SlaH53) 

A 

IT (SteinESla) 
-86.549 (LHP. MTW) 

A 

chem (EngeD46, EngeD51a) 
chem, genet (SteinESla) 

daughter Zr^^ (HudJ49, 
BradESla, JacoLSl, 
SteinESla) 

parent Nb^^ (SteinESla, 
LeviJSla) 

V 

e 

Nb x-rays, [0.235] 

0.216 

95 

daughter radiations from Nb 

daughter Zr^^ (HudJ49, 
BradESla, JacoLSl, 
SteinESla) 

Mo^^(d, a) (JacoL51, 
BoydG49) 

Zr^^(d, n) (JacoL51) 

t.,u96 

Nb 

23.35 h (KunD49) 
23.5 h (MonaS62) 

A 

p' (KunD49) 
-85.64 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(KunD4 9) 

f 

y 

0. 7 max 

0.459 (28%), 0.569 (59%), 0,778 
(97%), 0.811 (14%), 0.851 
(22%). 1.092 (49%), 1.200 
(21%) 

96 

Zr (p, n) (KunD49) 
Mo^^(d, a) (BornP63c) 

ivtu97 

Nb 

72 m (MandeC52) 

74 m (BurgWSOa) 

75 m (GrossA40) 

A 

P (GrossA40) 
-85.61 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (GrossA40) 
daughter Nb^"^^ (SaraB55a) 

P" 

V 

1. 27 max 
0.665 (98%) 

97 

descendant Zr 

(GrossA40, BurgWSOa) 

... 97m 
Nb 

1.0 m (BurgWSOa) 

A 

IT (BurgWSOa) 
-84.86 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, excit, sep isotopes, 
genet (BurgWSOa) 

daughter (BurgWSOa) 

parent Nb^*^ (SaraBSSa) 

Y 

e 

0.747 (98%) 

0.728 

97 

daughter radiations from Nb 

■ 

97 

daughter Zr 
(BurgWSOa) 

Nb 

51 m (OrtCbO, WahA62, 
TakaK61) 
others (BoydG49) 

A 

(BoydG49) 

-83.5 (OrtC60, MTW) 

B 

chem, sep isotopes 
(BoydG49) 

chem, genet energy levels 
(OrtC60) 

98 

not daughter Zr (OrtC60) 

P" 

Y 

3.1 max 

0.330 (9%). 0.720 ( 75%), 0.787 

(100%), 1.16 (30%), 1.44 (10%), 
1.52 (4%), 1.68 (10%), 1.88 
(4%). 1.93 (8%) 

Mo^®(n, p) (OrtC60, 
TakaK61, WahA62) 

ivtu98 

Nb 

<2 m (OrtCbO) 


p" (OrtCbO) 

F 

genet, excit (OrtC60) 
go 

[daughter Zr ] (OrtC60) 

p" 

high-energy |3 

fission, daughter Zr^^ 
(OrtC60) 

99 

Nb^^ 

2.4 m (OrtC60) 
2.3 m (TroD63) 
2. 5 m (Du£R50) 

A 

p* (DufRSO) 
-83 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(DufRSO) 

chem, genet (OrtC60) 

99 

parent Mo (OrtC60) 

P" 

Y 

3. 2 max 

0. 100 (t 1), 0,260 (t 1) 

fission (OrtC60, TroD63) 
Mo^°°(Y, p) (Du£R50) 

99 

Nb^^ 

10 s genet (TroD63) 

V 

p” >52% (TroD63) 

C 

chem, genet (TroD63) 
99 

parent Mo (TroD63) 



fission (TroD63) 

T.T0.100 

Nb 

3.0 m (OrtCbO) 

A 

[p“] (OrtC60) 
-80 (MTW) 

B 

chem, genet energy levels 
(OrtC60) 

Y 

0. 140 (T 10). 0.36 (t 55). 0.45 
(t 40), 0.53 (t 100, complex), 
0.65, 2.2, 2.3, 2.65, 2.85 

fission (OrtC60) 

IVTulOO 

Nb 

11 m (TakaKbl) 

A 

p~ (TakaKbl) 
-80 (MTW) 

C 

chem, genet energy levels 
(TakaK6l) 

P” 

Y 

4.2 max (£10%), 3. 5 max 

0.535 (t 100). 0.62 (t 60), 1.04 
(T 10), 1.15 (t 10), 1.47 (t 5) 

Mo^°°(n, p) (TakaKbl) 

TVTvlOl 

Nb 

1.0 m genet (OrtCbO) 

V 

[p"l (OrtC60) 

B 

chem, genet (OrtC60) 
parent Mo^*^^ (OrtC60) 



fission (OrtC60) 

>< 88 
42>^° 

27 m (ButeF64c) 

'i* 

p'^ (ButeF64c), [EC] 

B 

chem, genet (ButeF64c) 

parent Nb^^, ancestor Zr^^ 
( ButeF64c ) 

P" 

Y 

2. 5 max 

0.511 (Y^^), 2.69 

daughter radiations from Nb^^ 

protons on Nb, Mo 
(ButeF64c) 

XX 89 
Mo 

7 m (ButeF64c) 

V 

P'^ (ButeF64c), [EC] 

B 

chem, genet (ButeF64c) 

, -.,89m. - 89 

parent Nb, ancestor Zr 

(ButeF64c) 

P^ 

Y 

4. 9 meLX 
0.511 (V*) 

daughter radiations from Nb^^ 

protons on Mo 
(ButeF64c) 

XX 90 
Mo 

5.67 h (PettH66) 
5.7 h (DiaR53) 

6.3 h (KU2M57) 
others (KurcB55) 

A 

EC 75%. p'*' 25% 
(CoopJ65) 

-80.17 (PettH66. MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (DiaR53, 
MathHSSb) 

90 

ancestor Nb (DiaR53, 

MathHSSb) 

parent Nb^^^ (MathHSSb) 

P" 

e 

Y 

1. 2 max 

0.104, 0.120, 0.239, 0.255 

NbX-rays, 0.122(71%), 0.257 
(85%), 0.445 (9%), 0.511 (50%, 
Y^), 0.945 (10%), 1.273 (8%), 
1.389 (4%), 1.46(4%, doublet) 

90 

daughter radiations from Nb 

(daughter radiations from Nb 
included in above listing) 

Nb^^(p, 4n) (DiaR53, 
MathHSSls, CoopJ65) 

Zr^^(a, 4n) (CoopJ65) 


273 


Ivocopr 
/ A 


llulflifc 


Type of decay (••• ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 

(A=M-A), McV (C‘=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (t7), barns 


Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 


Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 


Principal means 
of production 


Mo 


93 


IS -19 m (EbrT65) 
IS. 5 m (DufR4 9b, 
WalH48, KatzL53) 
others (AxeP55. 
BotW39. SagR38) 


64 B ( PrenJ57) 

66 8 (KatzL53, AxePSS) 
73 B (WafH48) 

75 B (DufR49b) 


(ECEC) >4x 10 y 
(WintR55) 


93m 


>100 y genet (HohK64) 


6.95 h (BoydG52b) 
6.75 h (KunD50) 


Mo 


95 


96 


99 


66.7 h ( CrowP65) 

66.0 h (GunS57) 

67.0 h (WriH57) 
others (SeaG39, 

CorkJ49a, VasiI58, 
WafH48, SagR40a) 


tj /2 (PP) ^3 X 10^'^ y 
sp act (WintR55) 
others (FremJSZ) 


14.6 m (MauW41, 
WileDR54, OKelG57) 


p'* (SagR38), [EC] 
-82.3 (MTW) 


IT =57%, p + EC =43% 
(SmiF56) 

IT =70%. p”^ + EC =30% 
(AxeP55) 

-81.6 (LHP, MTW) 


15.86 (WilliD46) 
-86.804 (MTW) 
<0.3 (to Mo^^) 

<0.006 (to Mo^^™) 
(GoldmDT 64) 

EC (BoydG4 9a) 
-86.79 (MTW) 


IT (KunDSO) 

-84.36 (LHP, MTW) 


9.12 (WilliD46) 
-88.407 (MTW) 

15.70 (WilliD46) 
-87.709 (MTW) 

14 (GoldmDT64) 

16.50 (WilliD46) 
-88.794 (MTW) 

1 (GoldmDT64) 

9.45 (WilliD46) 
-87.539 (MTW) 

2 (GoldmDT 64) 

23.75 (WilliD46) 
-88.110 (MTW) 
0.51 (GoldmDT64) 

P" (SagR38) 

-85.96 (MTW) 


9.62 (WilliD46) 
-86.185 (MTW) 
0.2 (GoldmDT 64) 

J (SagR40a) 

A -83.50 (MTW) 


A i excit (BotW37) 

ichem, excit (SagR38) 
ichem, sep isotopes, excit 
i (K\inD4 9a. DufR4 9b) 


I 

. 

chem, sep isotopes (DufR49b)'p 


chem, n-capt (BoydG49a) 
genet (HohK64) 

parent Nb^^™ (85%) 
(HohK64) 


chem, excit (KunD46) 
chem, excit, cross bomb, 
sep isotopes (KunDSO) 
chem, excit (BoydGSZb) 
chem, mass spect (AlbuD53, 
BernaR53) 

93 

not daughter Tc (BoydGSO) 


chem, n-capt, excit (SagR38, 
SagR40a) 

parent Tc^^^ (SeaG39, 
SagR40a, MedH49*, 

GleLSld, MihJSl) 

' ^ 

daughter Z.4 m Nb (OrtC60) 
QQ 

daughter 10 s Nb^ (TroD63) 
99 

ancestor Tc (MotE47a) 


chem, n-capt (SagR40a) 

parent Tc^^^ (SagR40, 
BotW41, Hah041a, 
Hah041b, MauV.'41) 

daughter Nb^^^ (OrtC60) 


3.44 
Nb X- 


-rays, 0.511 (y"^) 


3.99 max (T 15), 
0.638 


Nb X-rays, Mo X-rays, 0.511 (Y 
[76%]), 0.658 (54%), l.Zl 
(ZZ%), 1.53 (15%) 

91 

daughter radiations from Mo 


Mo^^(n, 2n) (KunD49a, 
HeyF37, SagR38, 
SagR40a, BrolJ52, 
EbrT65) 


92, 


2.78 max (T 100) Mo (Y,n) (DuIR49b) 


Nb X-rays 
daughter radiations from Nb 


93m 


Mo X-rays, 0.264 (58%), 0.685 
(100%), 1.479 (100%) 

0.244, 0.261 


2. 23 max 
0. 170 

0. 191 (25%), 0.51 ( 15%), 0. 7 
(21%), 0.70 ( 1 1%), 0.89 (1 
1.02 (25%), 1.18 ())' ,. 1.38 
(9%), 1.56 ( 11-.). 2.08 ( 16 .) 
daughter radiations from Tc*^* 


Mo^^(n, V) (BoydG49a) 
Nb’^(p, n) (HohK64) 


Nb’^(d, 2n) (AlbuD53, 
KunD46, WieM46, 
KunDSOa) 

90 

Zr (a,n) (KunDSO) 

Nb^^(p, n) (BoydG52b, 
- ForC53) 


1. 23 max 

Tc X-rays, 0.041 (2%), 0.181 
(7%), 0.372 ( 1%), 0.740 ( 12%), 
0.780 (4%) 

daughter radiations from Tc^^ 


qo 

Mo"" (n, V) (S*gR40, 
SagR40a, MauW4 1. 
ScrL47b. HumV^l. 
fission (HahO:'9b, 
SagR40a. Katc"-^ Ic, 
KatcS48, FinB U) 


%cH4ol 
> rL;T'.. 


274 


Isotope 
Z A 

Half-life 

Type of decay (^* ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A), MeV (C'==0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (£7), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (McV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 

42M0 

11.5 m (FleJ54) 

11.0 m (WileDR54a) 
12 m (Hah041a) 

A 

p“ (Hah041a) 
-84 (MTW) 

D 

chem (Hah041a) 

parent 5 s (Hah041a, 

Hah041b, FleJ54) 

p 

1. 2 max 

daughter radiations from 5 s 
Tc''’^ 

fission (Hah041a, 
FleJ54, WileDR54a) 

103 

Mo 

62 s genet (VBaeA65) 
70 s (KieP63a) 

M 

[p“] (KieP63a) 

B 

chem, genet (KieP63a) 
parent (KieP63a) 



fission (KieP63a, 
VBaeA65) 

104 

Mo 

1. 1 m (KieP62) 
1.6 m (TerG64) 

V 

p" (TerG64) 

B 

chem, genet (KieP62) 
chem, excit (TerG64) 

1 04 

parent Tc (KieP62) 

P" 

Y 

4.8 max 
0.070 

104 

daughter radiations from Tc 

fission (TerG64, KieP62) 

105 

Mo 

40 s (KieP62a) 

42 s genet (VBaeA65) 
others (FleJ55a, 
FleJ56a, SeeW47) 


p” (BomH43b) 

B 

chem, genet (BornH43b, 
KieP62a) 

ancestor (BornH43b, 

KieP62a) 

parent Tc^^^, ancestor Rh^*^^ 
(KieP62a, BomH43b, 
FleJ55a) 



fission (BornH43b, 
FleJ55a, FleJ56a, 
KieP62a, VBaeA65) 


4.4 m (VLieR64) 

A 

p"^ =92%, EC =8% 
(VLieR64) 

-78.8 (MTW) 

B 

chem, sep isotopes 
(MotE48, VLieR64) 

P" 

V 

4. 1 max 

Mo X-rays. 0.090 (20%), 0.14 
(67%). 0.24 (30%). 0.33 (90%), 

Mo^^(d, 2n) (MotE48, 
VLieR64) 








0.511 (184%, Y*). 0.79 (95%). 
1.54 ( 100%) 


Tc’2 

2.75 h (KunD48a) 

2.7 h (VinG62, MotE48, 
DelL3 9) 

A 

EC 87%. p"^ 13% 

(VinG62, LeviC54a) 

-83.60 (MTW) 

A 

chem (SeaG3 9) 
chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(KunD48a) 

not parent Mo^^*^ (BoydGSO) 

P^ 

Y 

0.80 max 

Mo x-rays, 0.511 (26%, Y*), 
1.35 (65%). 1.49 (33%) 

Mo’^(d, n) (KunD48a, 
MotE48, SeaG3 9, 
VinG62) 

Mo’^(p, Y) (KunD48a, 
DelL3 9) 


43 m (MedHSO, VinG62) 
47 m (K\inD48a) 

A 

IT 82%, EC 18% 
(VinG62) 

-83.21 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(KunD48a) 

mass spect (BernaR54) 
chem, mass spect (LeviC54a) 

Y 

e 

Tc X-rays, Mo X-rays, 0.390 
(63%), 2.66 (18%) 

0.369 

93 

daughter radiations from Tc 

Mo’^(d,n) (EasH53, 
BernaR54, VinG62) 

Mo’^(p, Y) (EasH53) 
Nb’^(a, 4n) (EasH53) 


293 m (Matuj63) 
270 m (MonaS62a) 

V 

EC 89%, p"^ 11% 
(Hamij64) 

EC 93%, p'^ 7% 
(Mat\iJ63) 

A 

excit (MonaS62) 
chem, excit, cross bomb 
(Matuj63) 

Y 

0.816 max 

Mo X-rays, 0.511 (22%, Y*), 
0.702 (100%), 0.849 ( 100%), 
0.871 (100%) 

Nb^^(a, 3n) (Matuj63) 

Mo’^(d, 2n) (MatuJ63, 
MonaS62a, HamiJ64) 




EC 86%, p"^ 14% 
(MonaS62a) 








A 

-84.15 (MTW) 






Tc94m 

53 m (MedHSO, 
MonaS 62) 

50 m (MotE48a) 


p"^ 66%, EC 34% 
(Hamij64) 

p'*’ 72%, EC 28% 
(MonaS 6 2a) 

p”^ 61%, EC 39% 
(Matuj63) 

A 

chem, excit (GugP47) 
chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(MotE48a) 
genet energy levels 
(HamiJ64) 

daughter Ru'^'^ (VWieA52) 

P^ 

Y 

2.47 max 

Mo x-rays, 0.511 (132%, Y*), 
0.871 (91%). 1.53 (10%). 1.87 
(9%), 2.73 (5%). 3.20 (2%) 

Nb’^(a, 3n) (MatuJ63) 
04 

Mo (d, 2n) (MotE48a, 
MonaS62, MatuJ63, 
Hamij64) 

04 

Mo^(p,n) (GugP47, 
Hube048a, MedHSO) 



A 

-84.04 (LHP, MTW) 







20.0 h (VinG62, 
EggD48) 

20 h (MotE48a) 

A 

EC (EggD48) 
no p'^ (MedHSO) 
-86.05 (MTW) 

A 

chem, sep isotopes (EggD48, 
MotE48a) 

Y 

Mo X-rays. 0.768 (82%), 0.84 
(11%), 1.06(4%) 

Mo^^(p, n) (EggD48, 
MedHSO) 

Mo^(d,n) (VinG62) 
Mo^^(d, 2n) (MotE48a) 

T,.95nt 

61 d (UniJ59) 
60 d (MedHSO) 

62 d (CacB39) 
52 d (EdwJ47) 

V 

A 

EC 95%, p'^ 0.42%, IT 4% 
(UniJ59, MedHSO. 
MedHSOa, CreT65a) 

-86.01 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem (CacB37, CacB39) 
chem, sep isotopes 
(MotE48b) 

P^ 

e 

Y 

0. 68 max 

0.019, 0.036, 0.184 

Mo X-rays. 0.204 (70%), 0.584 
(36%), 0.78 (12%. complex). 
0.823 ( 9%), 0.838 (27%), 1.042 
(4%) 

Mo^®(p,n) (EdwJ47) 

Mo^(d.n) (CacB37, 
CacB39, UniJ59) 
Mo’^(d, 2n) (MotE48b) 








daughter radiations from Tc 



4.35 d (MedHSO) 
4.20 d (CobJSO) 
4.3 d (MonaS62, 
EdwJ47) 

4.2 d (MotE48b) 

A 

EC (MotE48b) 
no p"^ (MedHSO) 
-85.9 (MTW) 

A 

chem (EwiD39) 
chem, excit, cross bomb 
(EdwJ47) 

chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(MedH52) 

Y 

e 

Mo x-rays, 0.32 (5%). 0.778 
(100%), 0.81 (84%), 0.851 
(100%), 1.12 (16%) 

0.30, 0.75, 0.79, 0.82 

Nb^^(a, n) (EdwJ47) 


275 





Type of decay ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 


Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 


Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

1 

Principal means 
1 of production 

tv4iIi>|K 

/ A 

lUIMifc 


(A=M-A), MeV (C'==0); 
Thermal neutron 






cross section (<7), barns 





i 

T, 

62m (MedH50, EasH53) 

L 

IT (MedH50) 

B 

chem, excit (MedHSO) 


Tc X-rays 

Nb^^(Q,n) (EasH53) 


1 

A 

p'^ =0.01% (EasH53) 
-85.8 (LHP. MTW) 


chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(MedH52) 

e 

0.013, 0.032 

daughter radiations from Tc*^^ 



T,” 

6 X 10^ y yield 


EC (BoydG54) 

A 

genet (BoydGSla) 

V 

Mo X-rays 

96 97 - 

Ru’ (n, Y)Ru’ (p ) 


(K.itcS58a) 
others (BoydG54) 

A 

-87 (MTW) 


chem (KatcS58a) 

[daughter Tc^^^] (BoydGSla) 
daughter Ru^'^ (99+%) 



(KatcS58a) 

Mo^^(d, 2n) (BoydG54) 






(KatcS58a) 




Tc97m 

91 d (BoydG54, 

... 

IT (HelmhA41a, EdwJ47) 

A 

chem (PerrC37, CacB37) 

V 

Tc X-rays 

Mo^^(d,n) (CacB37, 


HelmhA4 la) 

A 

-87 (LHP, MTW) 


chem, genet (MotE47) 


0.075, 0.094 

PerrC37, CacB39) 


90 d (MotE48b, 
GugP47, CacB37) 
87 d (UniJ59) 

95 d (EdwJ47) 


excit, sep isotopes (MotE48b) 
97 

daughter Ru (0.04%) 
(KatcS58a) 


Mo^^(p, n) (EdwJ47) 

Mo^^(d, 2n) (MotE48b) 
96 97 

Ru’ (n, Y)Ru’ (p ) 









(KatcS58a) 

Tc’8 

1. 5 X 10^ y sp act 

M 

p" (KatcS55) 

A 

chem, mass spect (BoydG55) 

p" 

0. 30 max 

go 

Mo’ (p,n) (BoydG55) 


(OKelG56b) 
others (KatcS55) 

A 

-86.5 (MTW) 
3 (to Tc^*") 



y 

0.66 ( 100%). 0.76 ( 100%) 

Ru’^(n, Y)Ru’^(|3”) 
Tc^^(n, Y) (KatcS55, 



O’. 








(GoldmDT64) 





KatcS58a) 

Tc’’ 

2. 12x lO^ysp act 

V 

P {LincD51, SchumR51) 

A 

chem (LincD46, SchumR46) 

p" 

0. 292 maix 

fission (IngM47g, 


(FrieSSl) 

2. IBxlO^ysp act 
(BoydGbO) 

A 

(T 

C 

-87.33 (MTW) 
22 (GoldmDT64) 


chem, mass spect (IngM47g) 

daughter Tc^^ (SeaG39, 
Hah041a) 

99 

descendant Mo (MotE47a) 

V 

no Y 

LincDSl, SchumR51) 

Mo^®(n, Y)Mo’^(p”) 
(MotE47a) 

Tc’’™ 

6.04 9 h (GleG64) 

... 

IT (SeaG39) 

A 

chem, genet (SeaG39) 

Y 

Tc X-rays, 0. 140 ( 90%) 

99 

daughter Mo (SeaG39, 


6.00 h (ByeD58) 
others (GleLSld, 
BaiK53, PortR60, 

A 

-87.18 (LHP, MTW) 


99 

daughter Mo (SeaG39, 

SagR40a, MedH49, GleLBid, 

e 

0.001, 0.119 

SagR40a, MedH49, 
GleLSld, MihJ51) 


CreT65) 




MihJSl) 

99 

parent Tc (SeaG39, 









Hah041a) 




T,100 

15.8 s (BoydG52a) 

V 

p' (HouR52) 

A 

sep isotopes (HouR52) 

p" 

3. 38 max 

Tc’’(n, Y) (BoydG52a, 


17. 5 s (HouR52) 
17 s (CsiG63) 

A 

-85.9 (MTW) 


sep isotopes, n-capt 
(BoydG52a) 

Y 

0.540 (strong), 0.60 (strong), 
0.71, 0.81, 0.89, 1.01, 1.31, 

OKelG58) 

Mo^°°(p,n) (HouR52) 








1.49, 1.8 

Rh^°^(n,a) (C81G63) 

Tc'O' 

14.0 m (OKelG57, 

... 

p" (SagR40) 

A 

chem, genet (SagR40) 

p" 

1.32 max 

Mo^°°(n, Y)Mo*°'(p') 


MauW4i, Hah041b) 
14.3 m (WileDR54) 
14.5 m (PerlmM48) 
16. 5 m (MacD48) 

A 

-86.32 (MTW) 


daughter Mo (BotW41, 
Hah041a, Hah04ib, 
MauW41, SagR40) 

Y 

0.13 (3%, complex), 0.307 
(Y 91%), 0.545 (Y 8%) 

(SagR40, SagR40b, 
MauW41) 

Tc'°^ 

4.5 m (FleJ54, FleJ57) 

V 

p“ (FleJ56a) 

B 

chem, genet energy levels 

p" 

2 max 

Ru*°^(n,p) (FlcJ57) 



A 

-85 (MTW) 


(FleJ56a, FleJ57) 

Y 

0.47 

fission (FleJSfia) 


5 s (FleJ54) 

... 

p" (Hah041a) 

C 

chem, genet (Hah041a, 

p" 

4.4 max 

daughter Mo 


Others (Hah041a) 

A 

-85 (MTW) 


FleJ54) 



(Hah041a, HahCMlb. 





daughter Mo (Hah041a, 



Fie J 54) 






Hah041b, FleJ54) 





50 s (KieP63a, 

V 

p" (KieP63b) 

B 

excit (FleJ57) 

p" 

2. 2 max 

fission (Ki‘jp6’, 


VBaeA65) 
72 s (FleJ57) 

A 

-84.9 (MTW) 


chem, genet (KieP63a) 
.parent Ru^^^] (KieP63a) 
daughter Mo (KieP63a) 

Y 

0.135 (f 17), 0.21 (t 10), 0.35 

KicP63b, VB 
Ru (n, np) 1 ■ ' J ' i 

T,104 

18 m (FleJ56a, KieP62) 

V 

p” (FleJ56a, KieP62) 

B 

chem (FleJ56a) 

p“ 

[5.8 max] (weak), 4.6 max 

fis lion ( Flc J *76., 



A 

-82.2 (MTW) 


chem, genet energy levels 
(KieP62) 

Y 

0.36, 0.53, 0.89, 1.15, 1.25, 
1.37, 1.6 (complex), 1.9, 2.2 

Ki. P62;. 

Ru*°' (1.. p) ■ r • ■ 






daughter Mo (KieP62) 


2.7, 3.2, 3.4, 3.7, 4.0, 4.4. 4.7 


7. 7 m (KieP62a) 

... 

p" (BornH43b) 

B 

chem, genet (BornH43b) 

p" 

3.4 max 

fi ..-n :) r ; 


7.8 m (VBaeA65) 

A 

-82.6 (MTW) 


4. r, 105, , ^ 105 

parent Ru, daughter Mo 

Y 

0. no 

r*. J, }. • ' 


FleJ56a) 




(BornH43b. FleJ55a, 
KieP62a) 


daughter radiations from 







ancestor Rh^^^ (KieP62a) 

L 



1 

1 

1 

1 


373-062 0-70-19 


276 


Isotope 
Z A 

Half-life 

Type of decay (*•*); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A),MeV (C^=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (£7), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 


37 s {VBaeA65) 

V 

[p“] (VBaeA65) 

B 

chem, genet (VBaeA65) 
parent Ru^*^^ (VBaeA65) 



fission (VBaeA65) 


29 s (VBaeA65) 
others (BornH43b) 

V 

[p"] (VBaeA65) 

B 

chem, genet (VBaeA65) 

1 07 

ancestor Rh (VBaeA65) 



fission (VBaeA65) 

44 

50 s (AteA55a) 


P''' (?) (AteA55a) 

E 

chem, excit (AteA55a) 



Mo’^(a, 3n) (AteA55a) 

Ru'4 

57 m genet (V"WieA52) 

- 

EC (VWieA52) 

D 

chem, genet (VWieA52) 
parent (VWieA52) 

y 

[T c X-rays] 

daughter radiations from Tc^^^ 

Mo'^^(a. 2n) (VWieA52) 

Ru” 

1.65 h (SchaE56, 
EggD48) 

1.7 h (KurcB55) 
1.6 h (MocD48) 

A 

EC 85%. p’*' 15% (RieP63) 
-84.02 (MTW) 

A 

chem, cross bomb, sep 
isotopes (EggD48) 

y 

1.33 max 

Tc X-rays, 0.340 (70%), 0.511 

(30%, 0.625 ( 13%), 1.09 

(21%), 1.43 (5%) 

95 

daughter radiations from Tc 

Mo^^(a, n) (EggD48) 

Ru^^(n, 2n) (EggD48, 
SchaE56, RieP63) 

Rui' 


% 

A 

(T 

C 

5.46 (OrdK60) 

5.57 (WhiF56) 

5.50 (FrieL53) 

5.7 (EwaH44) 
-86.07 (MTW) 

0.2 (GoldmDT64) 






97 

Ru 

2.88 d (KatcS58a) 

2.8 d (MocD48, SulW46, 
AteA55b, ShpV56) 

2.44 d (CorkJ55a) 

A 

EC (SulW46) 
-86 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (SulW46) 
chem, cross bomb, sep 
isotopes (EggD48) 

parent Tc^^"’ (0.04%). 

parent Tc’^ (99+%) 
(KatcS58a) 

daughter 32 m Rh^*^ (AteA55b) 

y 

e 

Tc x-rays, 0.215 (91%). 0.324 
(8%) 

0. 194 

Ru^^(n, \) (Su 1W46, 
KatcS58a, CorkJ55a) 
94 

Mo’ (^»n) (EggD48) 

D 98 
Ru 


% 

A 

. 
Sc -1 

*<8 

d. 1 

Rh">° 

20.8 h (MarqL53a) 
19.4 h (LindriM48a) 
18 h (AntoN64b) 

21 h (SulW51k) 

A 

EC 93%, p*" 7% (KoiM64) 
-85.58 (MTW) 

A 

chem (SulW51k, LindnM48a) 
excit, sep isotopes (BasuB62) 

daughter Pd (LindnM48a) 

P^ 

e 

Y 

2. 62 max 
0.516 

Ru X-rays, 0.444 (8%), 0. 11 

d.>. ,t- r ' 

(L 

R ‘ : p It. » 








(13%, Y*), 0.540 (88‘ ), 0 820 
(25%), 1.11 (13%), 1. ‘ ■ 20' -. 
1.55 ( 23%), 1.91 (lO'.), 7 

(39%), all Y rays compl* x 

i (d. 

J 


278 





Type of decay (••• ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 


Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 


Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 

Isotope 
Z A 

Half-life 


(A=M-A), MeV (C'-=0); 
Thermal neutron 






cross section (O'), barns 






45^^ 

3.0 y (HisK65) 


[EC] (FarmDSS) 

B 

chem (FarmD55) 

Y 

[Ru x-rays], 0.127 (88%), 0.198 

Ru^^ ^ (p, n) (SharmB60, 

5 y (Fa rm D 5 5 ) 
10 y (PerrN60) 

A 

-87.39 (MTW) 


genet energy levels, excit 
(SharmB60) 

e 

(75%), 0.325 ( 11%) 
0.105, 0.124, 0.176 

FarmDSS, PerrN56) 


4.4 d (EvaJS65) 

... 

EC 90%, IT 10% 

A 

chem, excit (SulWSlj) 

Y 

Ru X-rays, Rh X-rays, 0.307 

Ru^*^^(p, n) (ScoC52, 


4.7 d (KatcS56a) 


(EvaJS65) 


genet energy levels, excit 


(83%), 0.545 (6%) 

FarmD55, SharmB60) 


4.3 d (FarmDSS, 
LindnM48a) 

4. 5 d (ScoC52) 

5. 9 d (SulW51j) 


no (KatcS 56a, 


(SharmB60) 

e 

0.134, 0.154 

Ru^°°(d, n) (SulWSlj, 


A 

LindrLM48a) 

-87.24 {LHP, MTW) 


daughter Pd (LindnM48a, 

EvaJS65) 



ScoC52) 

Rh'°^ 

206 d (HisK61) 

V 

EC, p’*', p'; 

A 

chem, excit (Mina041) 

p" 

1.15 max 

Ru^°^(p,n) (FarmDSS, 


ZIO d (Mina041) 
205 d (MGowF6la) 
others (HoleN47) 

A 

pVp~ 0-75 (HisKPl) 

0.84 (MarqL54) 

-86.77 (MTW) 



Y 

1.29 max 

RuX-rays, 0.475 (57%), 0.511 
(25%, V*), 0.628 (4%), 1.103 

HisK6l, MGowF61a) 

_ 101,,, „ 102,,, , 
Ru (d,n), Ru (d, 2n) 

(BesD55, BomP61, 
SulWSli) 








(3%), 1.37 (0.5%), 1.57 (0.2%) 

Rh^°^(n, 2n) (Mina041, 









HoleN45a) 

Rhl°^ 

2. 9 y (BornP63a) 

... 

EC (MGowF6la, 

B 

chem, excit (MGowF6la) 

Y 

RuX-rays, 0.418(13%), 0.475 

Ru^^^(p, n) (MGowF6la) 


others (MGowF6la, 


BornP63a) 




(95%), 0.63 2 (54%, doublet). 

deuterons on Ru 


HisK65) 






0.698 (41%), 0.768 (30%), 1.05 
(41%), 1.11 (22%, doublet) 

(BornP63a) 

Rhii' 


% 

100 (CohAA43) 








A 

-88.014 (MTW) 








(T 

104 

144 (to Rh ) 









11 (to Rh^°‘^’^) 









(GoldmDT64) 







57.5 m (JonG56) 

... 

IT (FlaA44, WieM45b) 

A 

chem, excit (FlaA44) 

Y 

Rh X-rays, 0.040 (0.4%) 

, ,• ^ 103 

daughter Ru 


57 m (GleLSle) 
56 m (MeiJSOa) 
45 m (WieM45b) 
others (FlaA47a, 

A 

-87.974 (LHP, MTW) 


chem (GleL46a, GleLSle) 
chem, genet (SulWSlf) 

daughter Ru^*^^ (SulWSlf) 
103 

daughter Pd (MeiJSOa, 

e 

0.017, 0.037 

(SulWSlf) 

daughter Pd^^^ 
(MeiJSOa) 


FlaA44) 












BrosA46) 




Rh‘°4 

43 s (Csij63) 


p" (PonB38a) 

A 

n-capt (AmaE35) 

p' 

2.44 max 

j 1-i. TM-iO^m 

daughter Rh, 


44 s (AmaE35, 
PonB38a) 

42 s (CriE39) 


EC 0.5% (FrevL65a) 


genet (PonB38a) 
daughter Rh (PonB38a, 

Y 

RuX-rays, 0.56(2.0%), 1.24 

Rh^°^(n, Y) (AmaE35, 



no p, lim 5x10 % 



(0. 13%) 

PoolM37, PoolM38, 



( LanghH6 lb) 


FlaA47a) 


GrumW46, SerL47b, 



A 

-86.95 (MTW) 





PonB38a, FlaA47a, 
HumVSl) 



), 0.362 
(0.067o), 0.498 (O.OllTo) 

daughter radiations from Rh^^^”' 

Pd'°^(n, Y) (Brf ■ A ;■ 1 
Rh“^"{d. /M.iil '7i7. 

LlndnM 4 « ■ ) 

Rh'° (p.n) (J.£,mn: ■ 

Pdl“4 


% 

10.97 (SitJ53) 
9.3 (SamM36a) 








A 

-89.41 (MTW) 






Pd^” 


% 

22.2 (SitJ53) 
22.6 (SamM36a) 








A 

-88.43 (MTW) 







280 


Isotope 

Z A 

Half-life 

Type of decay ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A), McV (C'^=0); 
Thermal neutron 
cross section (C7), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 

.. j 

46 


% 

A 

(T 

C 

27.3 (SitJ53). 

27.2 (SamM36a) 

-8 9.91 (MTW) 

0.29 (GoldmDT64) 







~1 X 10^ y sp act 
(ParkG4 9) 

A 

p“ (ParkG49) 
-88.368 (MTW), 

B 

chem (ParkG49) 

(3 

Y 

0. 04 max 
no Y 

fission (ParkG49) 


21.3 s (StriT57a) 
23 s (SchinU58, 
FlaA52a) 

A 

IT (FlaA52a) 

-88.16 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

excit (FlaA52a) 
n-capt, sep isotopes 
(SchinU58, WeirW64) 
genet energy levels (CujB63) 

Y 

e 

Pd X-rays, 0.21 
0.19, 0.21 

Pd^°^(n,7), Pd^°®(n, 2n) 
(SchinU58, WeirW64) 

Pdl°« 


% 

A 

cr 

c 

26.7 (SitJ53) 

26.8 (SamM36a) 

-8 9.52 (MTW) 

12 (to Pd^°^) 

0.2 (to Pd^°*") 
(GoldmDT64) 






Pdl°^ 

13.47 h (BranHW62) 
13.6 h (MeiW53, 
BonaG64) 

13. 1 h (WafH48) 

14. 1 h (MacD48) 
others {KraJD37, 

SeiJSl, KondE52, 
DzaB57) 

A 

(3" (KraJD37) 
-87.60 (MTW) 

A 

n-capt (AmaE35) 
chem, excit (KraJD37) 
chem, mass spect (RalW46, 
BergI49) 

parent Ag^^^^ (SegE41, 
SiegK49a, SeiJSl) 

[daughter Rh (SeiJSl) 

p' 

e 

Y 

1. 028 max 

0.062 (with Ag^°^), 0,084 (with 

. 109m. 

Ag ) 

Ag X-rays, 0.088 (5%, with 

^gl09rri)^ 0.129(0.013%), 0.31 

(0.010%, doublet), 0.41 
(0.010%, doublet). 0.60 (0.03%), 
0.64 (0.010%) 

Pd^°®(n,V) (AmaE35, 
KraJD37, SerL47b, 
OrsA4 9, HumVSl) 

pdl09m 

4. 69 m (StarJ59) 

4.75 m (StriT57a) 
others (FlaA52a, 
MangS62, OkaM63) 

A 

IT (KahJSl, FlaA52a) 
-87.41 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

n-capt (KahJSl) 
excit, cross bomb, n-capt 
(FlaA52a) 

n-capt, sep isotopes, excit 
(SchinU58) 

genet energy levels (CujB63) 

Y 

e 

Pd X-rays, 0. 188 ( 58%) 
0.164, 0.185 

Pd^°®(n, V) (FlaA52a, 
SchinU 58) 

Pd“° 


% 

A 

c 

11.8 (SUJ53) 

13.5 (SamM36a) 

-88.34 (MTW) 

0.2 (to Pd^^^ 

0.04 (to Pd^^^™) 
(GoldmDT64) 






Pd“i 

22 m (DzaB57, 
MGinC52) 
others (SegE41) 

A 

(3~ (KraJD37) 
-86.0 (MTW) 

A 

n-capt (AmaE35) 
chem, genet (SegE41) 

parent Ag^^^ (KraJD37, 
SegE41, JohaSSO) 

parent Ag ^ ^ (SchinU57) 

P" 

Y 

2. 2 max 

0.38 (t 5), 0.60 (t 13, doublet), 
0.81 (t 1). 1.4 (t 8, doublet) 

daughter radiations from Ag^^^^ 

Pd^^^(n, Y), daughter 

Pd^^^^ (AmaE35, 
KraJD37, SerL47b) 

p^nim 

5.5 h (MGinC52, 
DzaB57) 

A 

IT 75%. 25% 

(MGinC52) 

-85.8 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (MGinC52, 
DzaB57) 

parent Ag^^^ (MGinC52, 
DzaB57) 

P" 

e 

Y 

2. 0 max 
0.148, 0.169 
Pd X-rays, 0. 17 

daughter radiations from Pd^^\ 

.111m .111 

Ag, Ag 

Pd^^°(n,V) (DzaB57, 
PraW60) 

Pd^^°(d,p) (MGinC52, 
EccS62) 

Pd“2 

21.0 h (GirR59k) 
21 h (SeiJSl) 

A 

p" (NisY40b) 
-86.27 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (NisY40b, 
SegE41) 

parent Ag^^^ (NisY40b, 
NisY40, SegE41, SeiJSl) 

p" 

e 

Y 

0. 28 max 
[0.016] 

[Pd L X-rays], 0.019 (20%) 
daughter radiations from Ag^^^ 

fission (SegE41, 
TurASla, KatcS48, 
NisY40b, NisY40, 
SeiJSl, GoeR49, 
NewA49) 

Pd“' 

1.4 m (AlexJ58) 

1.5 m (HicH54, 
PouA60) 


[p“] (HicH54) 

A 

chem, genet (HicH54, 
AlexJ58) 

parent 5.3 h Ag^^^ (HicH54, 
AlexJ58) 

. 1 A 113 

parent 1.2 m Ag 

(AlexJ58) 

Y 

no Y 

daughter radiations from 5.3 h 

A, , ,. 113 

Ag and 1.2 m Ag 

fission (AlexJ58, 
HicH54) 

Cd^^^(n, a) (PouA60) 

Pd 

2.4 m (AlexJ58) 


[p‘] (AlexJ58) 

D 

chem, genet (AlexJ58) 
parent 5 s Ag^^"^ (AlexJ58) 

. * ^ A 114 

not parent 2 m Ag 

(AlexJ58) 

Y 

no Y 

fission (AlexJ58) 


281 





Type of decay ( ^ ); 






Uocopc 
/ A 

lUlf-lifc 


% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A), MeV (C"=0); 
Thermal neutron 


Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 


Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 




cross section (C7), barns 






46^-*“' 

45 ■ genet (AlcxJSS) 

V 

[p‘] (AlexJ58) 

B 

chem, genet (AlexJ58) 
parent 20 m Ag^^^, parent 



fission (AlexJ58) 






20 s Ag^^^ (AlexJ58) 





15 m (AmcObO) 

V 

[EC, (EnnT39, 

c 

excit (EnnT3 9) 



Pd^°^(p,n) (AmeO60, 

16 m (EnnT39) 


AmeObO) 


excit, sep isotopes (AmeObO) 



EnnT3 9) 



A 

-83 (MTW) 






A 

Ag 

66 m (PatA62b, 

... 

p'^. EC (HaldB54) 

A 

chem (BendW53) 

p^ 

1. 6 max 

Rh^°^(Q, 4n) (GirR59e) 

HaldB54, BendW53) 
69 m ( Preil60a) 

59 m (JohnFA55) 

A 

EC(K) =70% (KuzM57) 
-84.9 (MTW) 


chem, genet (HaldB54) 
chem, excit (GirR59e) 
excit, sep isotopes (AmeObO, 

y 

Pd X-rays, 0.12 (T 2b, doublet), 
0.15 (f 23), 0.24 (T 10 ), 0.27 

Pd^^"^(p, 2n) (AmeObO) 
Pd^®^(d,n) (BendW53) 






PatA62b) 

103 

parent Pd (HaldB54) 

daughter Cd^*^^ (PreilbOa) 


(T 34), 0.511 (T 100, V*), 1.01 
(T 10, complex), 1,16 (t 9), 
1.28 (t 13) 

Pd^°^(p, Y) (PatA62b) 







daughter radiations from Pd^*^^ 


A i03m 
Ag 

5.7 8 (WhiW62) 

... 

IT (WhiW62) 

C 

excit (WhiW62) 

V 

Ag X-rays, 0,138 

1 04 

Pd ^^(p, 2n) (WhiW62) 



A 

-84.7 (LHP, MTW) 



e 

[0.113, 0.135] 


A 104 
Ag 

65 m (NutH60) 

V 

EC (EindnMSOa) 

A 

excit (EnnT3 9) 

p"^ 

0. 99 max 

Rh^°^(a, 3n) (GirR59c. 

70 m (GirR59e) 
69 m (AmeObO) 

A 

-85.14 (MTW) 


chem, excit (GirR59e) 

sep isotopes, excit (AmeObO) 

e 

0.532, 0.743 

NutH60, EwbW59) 


others (EnnT39) 





Y 

Pd x-rays, 0.511 (V*), 0.556 









(84%), 0.764 (48%), 0.854 
(30%), 1.34 ( 8 %), 1.53 (7%), 
1.62 ( 8 %), 1.81 (7%) 


. 104m 
Ag 

29.8 m (NutH50) 

V 

p'*', EC (JohnFA55, 

A 

chem (JohnFA55) 

p"^ 

2. 70 max 

Rh*°^(a, 3n) (GirR59e, 

27 m (GirR59e, 


GirR59e) 


excit (GirR59) 


0.532 

Pd X-rays, 0.511 (120%, V^^), 
0.556 ( 100%) 

daughter radiations from Ag 

NutH60, EwbW59) 


AmeObO, JohnFA55) 

A 

IT 20-40% (AmeO60) 
-85.12 (LHP, MTW) 


excit, sep isotopes (AmeObi) 
104 

daughter Cd (JohnFA55, 

PreilbOa) 

V 

daughter Cd 

(JohnFA55, PrcU60a) 

A 105 

Ag 

40 d (GumJSO) 

V 

EC, no p'*' (GumJSO) 

A 

excit (EnnT3 9) 

V 

Pd x-rays, 0.064 ( 10%), 0.280 

Rh^°^(a, 2n) (BradH47a, 


others (EnnT3 9) 

A 

-87 (MTW) 


chem, excit (BradH47a) 


(32%), 0.344 (42%, complex), 

GumJ50, MeiJSOb) 






0.443 (10%), 0.62-0.68 ( 12%, 

protons, deuterons on 








complex), 1.088 ( 2 %) 

Pd (EnnT39, GumJSO, 







e 

0.040, 0.060, 0.256, 0.320 

MeiJ50b, SutT61a, 
BoeR58, EwbW63) 

A 106 

Ag 

23.95 m (EbrT65) 

... 

P''’ (KraJD37) 

A 

chem, excit (BotW37, 


1. 96 max 

Rh*°^(Q,n) (PoolM38, 


24.3 m (MocD48) 
24.0 m (BendWSl, 


p’*', EC, p” (? ) ~1% 
(BendW53) 


HeyF37) 

cherp, excit, cross bomb 

Y 

Pd x-rays, 0.511 (140%, 0.512 

BradH47a) 


BendW53) 



(KraJD37, PoolM38) 


Y + y"^) 



others (PoolM38, 

A 

-86.94 (MTW) 







ForS52, DubL38, 
EnnT3 9) 








. 106m 

Ag 

8.5 d (SmiW 6 lb) 

... 

EC (HurL44) 

A 

chem, excit, cross bomb 

Y 

Pd X-rays, 0.221 (9%), 0.451 

Rh*°^(a,n) (P 00 IMI 8. 


8.2 d (POOLM38) 


no p^, lim 0. 1 % 
(BendW53) 


(KraJD37, PoolM38) 


(9%). 0.512 ( 86 %), 0.616 (23%), 

BradH47a, MeiJSOb. 


8.4 d (RobiR60) 





0.717 (31%, complex), 0.748 
(13%), 0.80 (41%. complex). 

SmiW 6 lb) 



A 

- 86.6 (LHP, MTW) 




1.046 (29%), 1.128 (9%>). 1.199 
(9%), 1.528 ( 15%), 1.58 ( 8 %). 
1.83 (3%) 








e 

0.197, 0.382, 0.405, 0.426, 0.487, 









0.508, 0.592, 0.693 




% 

51.35 (WhiJ48) 








A 

-88.403 (MTW) 








cr 

35 (to Ag ) 









(GoldmDT64) 






AglOVm 

44.3 s (BradH4Va, 

... 

IT (AlvL40a) 

A 

chem, genet (AlvL40a, 

Y 

Ag X-rays. 0.094 (5%) 

J 1.. ^107 

daughtv r > d 


BradH45b) 
others (WoliEJSl, 
AlvL40a) 

A 

-88.310 (LHP, MTW) 


HelmhA41b) 

daughter Cd^^^ (AlvL40a, 
HelmhA41b, BradH45a, 

e 

0.068, 0.090 

: AlvL4''. :{*• V 

BradH4. U. A4/.. 

BradH4 ) 






HelmhA4b, BradH47a) 




Ag^°« 

2.42 m (WahM60) 

... 

p' 97.5%, EC 2.2%, 

A 

chem, n-capt (AmaE35) 

p" 

1. 64 ma 

.- ..M.r ■ 


2.41 m (EbrTb5) 
others (SehM57, 

AmaE35, PerlmM48, 


P'^ 0.28% (FrevL65, 
FrevLb2) 


excit, cross bomb (PoolM38) 
daughter Ag^^®*^ (WahMbO) 

Y 

0. 90 max 

Pd X-rays, 0.434 (0.45r.j. 0. 11 

'.M 

Ag*' "(. (. 


MocD48, BotW39, 


P 95.7%, EC 3.9%, 







FlaA44) 


p’*' 0.36% (WahM60) 




(0.56%, Y ), 0.615 (0.16 i. 
0.632 ( 1.7%) 

Li 



A 

-87.61 (MTW) 







282 


Isotope 
Z A 

Half-life 

Type of decay (*•• ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A), MeV (C’^-'^O); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (O'), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means ' 

of production 

. 108m 

47^g 

>5 y (WahM60) 

A 

EC 90%, IT 10% 
CWahMOO) 

-87.50 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, n-capt, genet 
(WahM60) 

parent Ag^^^ (WahM60) 

y 

e 

Pd X-rays, Ag X-rays, 0.080 
(5%), 0.434 (89%), 0.614 (90%), 
0.722 (90%) 

0.027 

daughter radiations from Ag^*^® 

Ag^°^(n,y) (WahM60) 

Aali’ 


% 

A 

cr 

c 

48.65 CWhiJ48) 
-88.717 (MTW) 

89 (to Ag“°) 

^, llOm, 

3 (to Ag ) 

(GoldmDT64) 







39.2 s (BradH46, 
BradH47a) 

40 s (WoliEJSl, 
WieM45, SchinUS?) 

A 

IT (HelmhA41b) 
-88,630 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (HelmhA41b) 

daughter Pd^^^ (SegE41, 
SiegK49a, SeiJ51) 

daughter Cd^°'^ (HelmhA41b), 
BradH46, HelmhA46, 
BradH45a) 

y 

e 

Ag X-rays, 0.088 ( 5%) 
0.062, 0.084 

109 

daughter Cd 

(HelmhA41b, BradH46, 
HelmhA46) 

109 

daughter Pd (SegE41, 

SiegK49a, SeiJSl) 

A 110 

Ag 

24.4 s {MalmS62) 

24.5 s (Hirz046) 
others (SehM57, 

BolF54, ThieP62, 
AmaE35, PoolM38, 
FlaA44, GaeE36, 
SerL47b, Hirz047a) 

A 

(P001M38) 

EC 0.3% (FrevL65) 

no p^, lim 10 ^% 
(BereD62b) 

p"! ~b X 10“^% (BadN62) 
-87.47 (MTIV) 

A 

n-capt (AmaE3 5) 
sep isotopes, n-capt 
(FlaA44b) 

chem, genet (MiskJSO) 
daughter Ag^^^^ (MiskJ50) 

|3’ 

y 

2.87 max 
0.658 (4.5%) 

j Ui. A 110m 

daughter Ag 

(MiskJSO) 

109 

Ag ’(n,Y) (AmaE35, 
GaeE36. FlaA44, 
SerL47b, FrevL63) 

A 110m 

Ag 

255 d (EasH60) 

253 d (GeiKW57, 
ThirH57) 

249 d (NilR62) 
others (CaliJ59, 
Schinj64, GumJSO, 
Coloj64, CorkJ50h, 
LivJ38c, CorkJ48b) 

A 

(T 

C 

p“ 98.7%, IT 1.3% (calc 
fromSutT63, NewW 64, 
Geij65 by LHP) 

-87.35 (LHP, MTW) 

80 (GoldmDT64) 

A 

chem, n-capt (RedH38) 
resonance neutron activation 
(GoldhM46) 

chem, mass spect (BergI49) 
parent Ag^^^ (MiskJSO) 

p‘ 

e 

Y 

1.5max (0.6%), 0.53 max (31%), 
0.087 max 

0.090, 0.113 

0.658 (96%), 0.68 (16%, doublet), 
0.706 ( 19%), 0.764 (23%), 

0.818 (8%), 0.885 (71%), 0.937 

(32%), 1.384 (21%), 1.505 

(11%) 

daughter radiations from Ag 

109 

Ag (n, Y) (RedH38, 

LivJ38c, AIexK38, 
MitA38, SerL47b) 

A 111 

Ag 

7.5 d (JohaS50, 
KraJD37, PoolM38, 
StorASO) 

7.6 d (SteinE51b) 

7.3 d (DzaB57) 
others (KunD47, 

Hirz047a, DufR49, 
LindnM50a, GoeR4 9, 
DConP48, NisY40b, 
TurA51a, FinB51c) 

A 

[3‘ (KraJD37) 
-88.20 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (KraJD37) 
chem, excit, cross bomb 
(P001M38) 

daughter Pd^^^ (KraJD37, 
SegE41, JohaSSO) 

daughter Pd^^^”^ (MGinC52, 
DzaB57) 

P" 

Y 

1.05 max 

average p energy: 

0.38 ion ch (BrabJ53) 

0.247 (1%), 0.342 (6%) 

Pd“°(n,V)Pd^^^ + 

Pd'^^™(p") (KraJD37) 

Pd^^°(d,n) (KraJD37, 
PoolM38, 2imK49) 

. 11 Im 

Ag 

74 s (SchinU57) 

A 

IT, no p, lim 1% 
(SchinUS 7) 

-88.13 (LHP, MTW) 

B 

chem, genet (SchinU57) 
daughter Pd^^^ (SchinU57) 

Y 

e 

[Ag X-rays], 0.065 
[0.040, 0.062] 

daughter Pd^^^ 
(SchinU57) 

A 112 
Ag 

3. 14 h (InoH62) 
3.2 h (PoolM38, 
Hirz047a) 

A 

p" (PoolM38a) 
-86.57 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit, cross bomb 
(PoolM38) 

daughter Pd^^^ (NisY40b, 
NisY40, SegE41, SeiJSl) 

P" 

Y 

3. 94 max 

0.617 (41%), 1.40 ( 5%). 1.63 
(3%), 2.11 (3%). 2.55 (2%), 
many others between 0.3 and 3.3 

daughter Pd^^^ 

(NisY40b, NisY40, 
SegE41, SeiJSl) 

In^^^(n, a) (PoolM38) 
Cd^^*^{d, a) (InoH62) 

A 113 
Ag 

5.3 h (AlexJ58, 
TurA47, Du£R4 9, 
VasiI58) 

A 

p" (TurA47) 
-87.04 (MTW) 

A 

chem (TurA47) 
chem, sep isotopes, excit 
(DufR4 9) 

daughter Pd^^^ (HicH54, 
AlexJ58) 

P" 

Y 

2. 0 max 

0.12 (T 10), 0.30 (t 100), 0.58 
(t 5), 0.67 (T 17), 0.88 (t 4), 
0.98 (t 5), 1.18 (t 4) 

fission (TurA47, 
FolRSl) 

Cd^^^(V,p) (DufR49) 

A 113 
Ag 

1.2 m (AlexJ58) 

- 

p" (AlexJ58) 

B 

chem, genet (AlexJ58) 
daughter Pd^^^ (AlexJ58) 

P" 

Y 

<2.0 max 

0.14, 0.30. 0.39. 0.56, 0.70 

fission (AlexJ58) 

A 114 
Ag 

4.5 s (PouA60) 
5s (AlexJ58) 

A 

p" {AlexJ58) 
-85.4 (MTW) 

C 

chem, genet (AlexJ58) 
daughter Pd^^^ (AlexJ58) 

P" 

Y 

4. 6 maix 
0.57 

1 14 

fission, daughter Pd 
(AlexJ58) 

Cd^^'^(n,p) (PouA60) 

A 114 
Ag 

2 m (DufR4 9) 

3 m (SeeW47) 


p" (DufR4 9) 

E 

chem (TurA47, SeeW47) 
chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(DufR4 9) 

not daughter Pd^^"^ (AlexJ58) 

p" 

hard p 

Cd^^‘^(n,p) (DuIR49) 
fission (TurA47, 
SeeW47) 
not observed in 

Cd^^‘^(n, p) (AlexJ58) 


283 


l\4»U)pC 

/ A 

Huir-Ufc 

]“ 

1 

Type of decay ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A), MeV (C'==0); 
Thermal neutron 


Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

T“ 

i 

! 

1 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 




cross section (t7), barns 






. 115 

47^« 

20.0 m (BahE64) 

21. 1 m (AIexJ58) 
others (DufR49, 

SeeW47. WahA52) 

A 

p" (TurA47) 
-84.8 (MTW) 

A 

chem (TurA47, SeeW47) 
chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(D\ifR49) 

parent Cd^^^ (91%), parent 
CdllSm (WahA52) 

parent Cd^^^ (92%), parent 
Cdll5m (HicH55) 

daughter Pd^^^ (AlexJ58) 

1 

3. 2 max 

0.14 (12%, complex), 0.22 (49%, 
complex), 0.28 (13%), 0.36 
(11%), 0.42 (7%), 0.47 (10%), 
0.64(4%, complex), 1.48(11%), 
1.66(8%), 1.89(10%, complex), 
2.12 (13%) 

fission (TurA47, 
SeeW47, BahE64, 
AlexJ58) 

Cd^^^(Y,p) (DufR49) 

» >'5 
Ag 

=20 » (AlexJBS) 


[p“] (AlexJ58) 

B 

chem, genet (AlexJ58) 

daughter Pd, parent Cd 

(AlexJ58) 



fission (AlexJ58) 

A 

Ag 

2. 5 m ( AlexJ58) 

V 

p” ( Alex J 58) 

D 

chem (AlexJ58) 

p' 

5.0 max 

fission (AlexJ58) 



A 

-83 (MTW) 



V 

0.52, 0.70 


A 

Ag 

1. 1 m ( AlexJ58) 

V 

[p"] (AlexJ58) 

B 

chem, genet (AlexJ58) 

parent Cd^^"^ and/or Cd^^^^ 
( AlexJ58) 



fission (AlexJ58) 

48^'* 

10 m (PreU60a) 


p'*'. [EC] (PreU60a) 

A 

chem, genet (PreilfiOa) 
parent Ag^^^ (PreilfiOa) 

V 

Ag X-rays, 0.22, 0.511 (Y*), 
0.63, 0.85 

daughter radiations from Ag^^^ 

on Mo (PreiI60a) 

Cd“>4 

57 m (Preil60a) 
54 m (KurcB55) 
59 m ( JohnFA55) 

A 

EC, no p'*^ (JohnFA55) 
-84 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet, excit 
( JohnFA55) 

parent (JohnFA55, 

PreU60a) 

Y 

e 

Ag X-rays, 0.084 
0.041, 0.058, 0.080 

daughter radiations from Ag^^"^^ 
A 104 
Ag 

Ag^°^(p.4n) (JohnFA55) 
on Mo (Preil60a) 

Cd*°5 

55m (JohnFA53) 
57 m (GumJSO) 

A 

EC, p'*' (GtimJSO) 
-84 (MTW) 

B 

cross bomb (GumJSO) 
chem, excit (JohnFA53) 

P" 

e 

1. 69 max 

0.282, 0.295, 0.321, 0.408, others 

Pd^°^(Q,n) (GumJSO) 
Ag^^^(p, 3n) (JohnFA53) 







Y 

[Ag X-rays, 0.308, 0.320, 0.347, 









0.433, 0.511 (Y*), others to 
2.3] 









daughter radiations from Ag 


Cd^°^ 


% 

A 

1.22 (LelW48) 
-87.128 (MTW) 








(T 

C 

1 (GoldmDT64) 






cd^o^ 

6.49 h (LarN62) 
6.7 h (DelL39, 
HelmhA41b) 
6.4 h (VaUeG39) 

A 

EC 99+%, p”^ 0.28% 
(LarN62) 

-86.99 (MTW) 

A 

chem (DelL39) 
chem, n-capt, sep isotopes 
(HelmhA46) 

parent (AlvL40a, 

HelmhA41b, BradH45a, 
HelmhA46, BradH47a) 

p" 

Y 

0. 302 max 

Ag x-rays, 0.511 (0.56%, Y^^), 
0.796 (0.08%), 0.829 (0.21%) 

daughter radiations from Ag^^"^*^ 

Cd*°^(n,Y) (HelmhA46) 

Ag'°’(d. 2n) (AlvL40«, 
KriR39, KriR40a, 
HelmhA41b) 

Ag^°^(P, n) (DelL. ?. 
ValleG39) 

Cd^8 


% 

0.88 (LelW48) 








A 

-89.248 (MTW) 








O' 

c 

3 (GoldmDT64) 






Cdl°’ 

453 d (LeuH65) 
470 d (GumJ50) 
others (MangS62, 
BradH46) 

A 

EC (HelmhA41b) 
no p"'' (DreBSl) 

-88.55 (MolR65, MTW) 

A 

chem (KriR40a) 
chem, n-capt, sep isotopes 
(HelmhA46) 

parent Ag^^^^ (HelmhA41b, 
BradH45a, HelmhA46, 
BradH46) 

Y 

e 

Ag X-rays, 0.088 (with Ag^^*^), 
0.062 (withAg^®^), 0.084 

/ - 4 .U A 109m. 

(with Ag ) 

Cd*°®(n, Y) (HelmhA46. 
CorkJSOg) 

Ag*°’(d, 2n) (Kr>R4i .. 
HelmhA4 lb, Gi 9 

Cdii° 


% 

A 

O' 

c 

12.39 (LelW48) 
-90.342 (MTW) 
0.1 (to Cd^^^"’) 
(GoldmDT64) 






Cd“l 


% 

12.75 {LelW48) 








A 

-89.246 (MTW) 





I 

cdi“- 

48.6 m (MGinCSl) 

48.7 m (WieM45) 

A 

IT (FelJ41, WieM45) 
-88.850 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem (DodM38) 
chem, sep isotopes, n-capt 
(GoldhM48a) 

daughter In^ ^ ^ (0.01%) 
(MGinC51a) 

Y 

c 

Cd X-ray«, 0. 150 ( 30' ». 0.24 7 
(94%) 

0.123, 0.146 

1 

d * ■ 7 ' ,. ' '+.V I 1 

»rw1M "*'■■■ 1.1 

(M« 1 

-» 


284 


Isotope 
Z A 

Half-life 

Type of decay (••• ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A).MeV (C'==0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (i7), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 

48^'* 


A 

u 

c 

24.07 (LelW48) 
-90.575 (MTW) 
0.03 (to Cd' 
(GoldmDT64) 







>1.3 X 10^^ y sp 
act (WatD62a) 

% 

A 

(T 

C 

12.26 (LelW48) 
-89.041 (MTW) 

20, 000 (GoldmDT64) 







13.6 y (FlyK65a) 
14 y (WahA59) 

5 y (CarsWSO) 

A 

p' {CarsW50) 

IT weak (DMatE56) 

-88.77 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(CarsW50) 


0. 58 max 

[Cd x-rays), 0.265 (=0.1%) 

Cd^^^(n, Y)+Cd^^^(n, n' ) 
(CarsW50) 
fission (WahA52, 
WahA59) 



% 

A 

10^^ y sp act 
(WintR55) 

% 

A 

7.58 (LelW48) 

-88.712 (MTW) 

117 

1.4 (to Cd ) 

(GoldmDT64) 

0.7 (to Cd^^^"’) 

(TanC66a, GoldmDT64) 






Cd“^ 

2.4 h (TanC66) 

»3 h (SharmR64, 
MancR65) 
others (CoryC53, 
AteA52, LawJL40, 
MetR51b) 

A 

p (SharmR64) 
-86.41 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet, n-capt 
(SharmR64, TanC66) 

parent ( 93%), 

parent In^^^ (*?%) (TanC66) 

not daughter Cd^^^^ 
(SharmR64) 

others (CorkJ39, GoldhM38, 
LawJL40, MetR51b, 
MGinC55) 

P" 

e 

Y 

2. 23 max 
0.286 (with 

In X-rays ( with In ^ ^, 0.089 
(7%), 0.273 (31%). 0.314 (16%. 

with In^^^"’), 0.345 (18%), 
0.434 (13%), 0.832 (4%), 0.880 
3%), 0.95 (4%, doublet), 

1.052 (5%), 1.303 (19%), 1.577 
(17%) 

daughter radiations from In, 

T 

In 

Cd"^(n, V) (TanC66a) 
Cd"^(d, p) (TanC66a) 

Cd“^- 

3.4 h (TanC66) 

=3 h (SharmR64, 
MancR65) 
others (CoryC53, 
AteA52, LawJL40, 
MetR51b) 

A 

p (SharmR64) 
-86.27 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, genet, n-capt 
(SharmR64, TcinC66) 

parent In^^^ (56%), parent 

(44%) (TanC66) 

117 

not parent Cd (SharmR64) 

others (CorkJ39, GoldhM38, 
LawJL40, MetRSlb, 
MGinC55) 

P" 

e 

Y 

[l.91 max (weak)], 0.67 max 
0.286 (with In^^^"') 

In X-rays (with In' ^^"^). 0.273 

(18%), 0.314 (8%. within"^"’), 
0.345 (4%). 0.434 (4%), 0.565 
(6%). 0.715 (4%). 0.880 (10%), 
1.065 (9%). 1.117 (4%), 1.24 
(11%, complex), 1.338 (8%), 
1.408 (8%), 1.433 (10%), 1.562 
(6%). 1.998 (15%), 2.319 (3%) 

Cd"^(n,V) (TanC66a) 
Cd"^(d, p) (TanC66a) 

Cd“^ 

=50 m (CoryC53) 



G 

chem, genet (CoryC53) 
activity not observed 
(SharmR64, TanC66) 





285 


iMltopC 

Z A 

llalflifc 

Type of decay (*•* ); 

96 abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A), McV (C'^=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (t7), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 


49 m (CleC61) 

* 

A 

(3" (CoryC53) 
-87 (MTW) 

B 

chem, excit (CoryC53) 
chem, genet (GleC6l) 

parent 5.0 s (CoryC53, 

GleC6l) 

not parent 4.4 m In^^^ 
(CoryC53, GleC6l) 


daughter radiations from 5.0 s 

, 118 
In 

fission (CoryC53, 
GleC6l) 

Cd“’ 

2.7 m (GleC&la) 

A 

(GleC61a) 
-84.1 (MTW) 

B 

chem, genet (GleC6la) 

, T 119, T 119m 

parent In, parent In 

(GleC6la) 

p" 

3. 5 max 

daughter radiations from In^^^^, 
In“^ 

fission (GleC6la) 

Cd“’ 

10 m (NusN57, 
GleC6la) 

A 

p' (NusN57, GleCOla) 
-84.1 (MTW) 

B 

chem, genet (NusN57, 
GleC6la) 

parent In^^^^ (NusN57, 
GleC6la) 

p" 

3. 5 max 

daughter radiations from In^^^, 

T 119 
In 

Sn*^^(d,ap) (NusN57) 
fission (GleC6la) 

Cd'^‘ 

12.8 s (WeisH65) 

V 

[p-] (WeisH65) 

B 

chem, genet (WeisH65) 
ancestor Sn^^^ (WeisH65) 



fission (WeisH65) 


3.5 m (NusN57) 


[p“] (NusN57) 

G 

chem, excit (NusN57) 

^ T (121? ) 

parent 11.5 m In and 

/ 121? \ 

32 m In' ‘ ’ (NusN57) 

Daughter In isotopes are 
probably incorrectly 
assigned (NDS, YutH60) 



deuterons on Sn 
(NusN57) 

, 106 
49^ 

5.3 m (CatR62) 
others (CatR65) 

A 

p''' (CatR62), [EC] 
-80.6 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(CatR62) 

Y 

4. 9 max 

[Cd x-rays], 0.511 (Y^^). 0.63, 
1.65, 1.85, many others 

Cd^°^(p, n) (CatR62) 

T lO'^ 

In 

33 m (MallE49) 
31m (BasuB63) 
30 m (MaclK52) 

A 

p'*’. EC (BasuB63) 
-83.5 (MTW) 

A 

chem, sep isotopes (MallE49) 
mass spect (MaclK52) 

p" 

V 

2. 2 max 

Cd X-rays, 0.22 (46%), 0.32, 

0.511 (y"^), 0.73. 0.84, 0.94, 
1.05, 1.25 

daughter radiations from 
A 107ni 

Ag 

Cd^“^(d,n) (MallE49, 
CassW 55a) 

Cd^°^(p,Y) (MallE49, 
BasuB63) 

. 108 
In 

57 m (KatoT63) 

55 m (MeaS55, 
MallE49) 

others (KatoT62b, 
MGinC5i) 

A 

EC, p'*' (KatoT62b) 
-84.14 (KatoT62b, MTW) 

A 

chem, sep isotopes (MallE49) 
mass spect (MaclK52) 

p'^ 

e 

Y 

1.29 max 

0.123, 0.147, 0.216, 0.238, 0.260, 
0.606, 0.845 

Cd X-rays, 0.150, 0.175, 0.243, 
0.511 (V^^), 0.633, 0.872 

Ag^°^(a, 3n) (KatoT62a, 
KatoT62b) 

- 108 
In 

39 m (KatoT63) 

40 m (MeaS55. 
KatoT62b) 

A 

EC. p’*' (KatoT62b) 

-84.10 (KatoT62b, MTW) 

B 

chem, excit (MeaS55) 
genet energy levels 
(KatoT62b) 

daughter Sn^^^ (MeaS55) 

p'^ 

e 

Y 

3. 50 max 
0.606 

Cd x-rays, 0.383, 0.511 (Y*), 
0.633, 0.842 

Ag*°^(a, 3n) (KatoT62i. 
KatoT62b) 


4.3 h (MallE49, 
NozM62) 

4.2 h (MGinC51) 

5.2 h (GhoS48) 
others (TenD47a) 

A 

EC 94%, p"*^ 6% 
(PetrM56a) 

-86.53 (MTW, MolR65) 

A 

chem, excit (TenD47a) 
chem, mass spect (GhoS48) 
chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(MallE49) 

109 

descendant Sn (PetrM 56a) 

p”^ 

e 

Y 

0. 79 max 

0.033, 0.056, 0.178, 0.201 

Cd X-rays, 0.205, 0.28 

(complex), 0.35 (complex), 
0.65 (complex), 0.91 (complex) 

Ag^^^(a, 2n) (Nor.M62, 
KatoT62a, TcnD47a) 

Ini'”-! 

1.3 m (AlexKF65) 
<2m (PetrM56a) 

A 

IT (PetrM56a) 
-85.87 (LHP, MTW) 

C 

genet (PetrM 56a) 

109 

daughter Sn ~ (PetrM 56a) 

Y 

e 

0.658 

0.630 

j u. c 10' 

daughti r Sn 
(PetrM - 

I^109m2 

0.20 s (AlexKF65) 
0. 21 s { DemiA65) 
0.22 s (PoeG63) 

A 

IT (AIexKF65, DemiA65) 
-84.42 (LHP, MTW) 

C 

excit, cross bomb (AlexKF65, 
DemiA65, PoeG63) 

Y 

0.17 (12%), 0.21 (12%), 0.40 
(20%), 0.68 (100%), 1.04 ( 20%), 
1.43 (77%) 

Ag*°^(o, ;,-l. K,V6\ 

D-. mlAOS 

R h 1 - > 

(AU'= Kl- ■ 

In“° 

66 m (KatoT62a, 
BarnS3 9a) 

69 m (Hamij63) 
65 m (GhoS48) 

A 

p'*' 71%. EC 29% (NaiT64) 
-86.41 (MTW) 

A 

chem (BarnS3 9a) 
chem, excit, mass spect 
(GhoS48) 

daughter Sn^ (MeaS55) 

P^ 

c 

Y 

2. 25 max 
0.631 

Cd x-rays, 0.511 ( 142S, V*), 
0.658 (95%) 

d-i'.. '-It. ^ ^ ■ .■ r 1 

A.;'-',,.. 

A,.*' (, i <■ 

1 


286 


Isotope 
Z A 

Half-life 

Type of decay ( ^ ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A),MeV (C’^=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (CT), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 

T 110 

49^ 

4.9 h {BleE51, 
KatoT62a) 

5.0 h (MGinC51) 
others (GhoS48) 

V 

EC. ? (weak) 

(KatoT62a) 
no IT, lim 0.008% 
(Hamij63) 

A 

chem (GhoS48) 
chem, genet energy levels 
(MGinCSla, BleESl) 

not daughter (MeaS55) 

7 

e 

Cd X-rays, 0.66 (t 160, 
complex), 0.91 (T HO, 
complex) 

0.094. 0.558, 0.615, 0.631, 0.653, 
0.680, 0.858, 0.910 

10 9 

Ag ^(a, 3n) (FukS65, 
KatoT62a) 


2.81 d (MaiA57) 
2.84 d (MGinC51) 
others (BarnS39a, 
CorkJ39) 

A 

EC (LawJL40) 
no lim 0.06% 

(MGinCSl) 
-88.2 (MTW) 

A 

chem (CorkJ3 9) 
chem, excit (TenD47, 
GhoS48) 

mass spect (GhoS48) 

parent Cd^^^^ (0.01%) 
(MGinC51a) 

Y 

e 

Cd X-rays, 0.173 (89%). 0.247 
( 94%) 

0.146, 0.220, 0.243 

109 

Ag (a, 2n) (FukS65, 

LawJL40, TenD47, 
GhoS48, MGinCSl) 


14.4 m (FukS65) 
12 m (Ruaj62a) 
11m (GirR59i) 
15 m (BleE53) 

A 

44%, p’’' 22%, EC 34% 
(calc) (Ruaj62a) 
others (BleE53) 

-87.98 (MTW) 

A 

chem, cross bomb, excit 
(SmiRN42) 

chem, excit (TenD47) 

daughter In (SmiRN42, 
TenD47, GoldsGSO) 

p' 

V 

0. 66 max 
1. 56 max 

Cd x-rays, 0.511 (44%, v"^), 
0.617 (6%) 

10 9 

Ag (o-. n) (FukS65, 

SmiRN42, TenD47, 
Rua J 6 2a, Kato T 6 2a ) 

Ir^llZm 

20.7 m (BleE53) 
others (RuaJ62a, 
GirR59i, BarnS39a, 
TenD47) 

A 

IT (SmiRN42, TenD47) 
-87.83 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem (BarnS39a) 
chem, cross bomb, excit 
(SmiRN42) 

chem, excit (TenD47) 

parent (SmiRN42, 

TenD47, GoldsGSO) 

Y 

e 

In X-rays, 0.156 (9%) 

0.128, 0.152 

daughter radiations from In^^^ 

109 

Ag (a, n) (SmiRN42, 

TenD47, Ruaj62a, 
KatoT62a) 



% 

A 

cr 

c 

4.23 (WhiJ48) 
4.33 (WhiF56) 

-89.34 (MTW) 

4 (to In ) 

o /. T 114m, 

8 (to In ) 

(GoldmDT64) 






T 1 13m 
In 

99.8 m (GleG64) 
104 m (LawJL40) 
103 m (GirR58) 
others (BarnS3 9a, 
CatR6S) 

A 

IT (BarnS39a) 

-88.95 (LHP. MTW) 

A 

chem, excit, genet 
(BarnS39a) 

daughter Sn^ (BarnS39a) 

Y 

e 

In X-rays. 0.3 93 (64%) 
0.365, 0.389 

daughter Sn^^^ (GirR58, 
BarnS3 9a) 

^ 114 
In 

72 s (LawJL37, 
BarnS39a) 

A 

p“ 98%, EC 1.9%, 
p'*' 0.004% (GrodL56) 
p4 0.0039% (DzhB57c) 
-88.58 (MTW) 

A 

excit (ChanW37, BotW37, 
LawJL3 7) 

n-capt, sep isotopes 
(GoldhM48a) 

daughter In (GoldsG50) 

p" 

p^ 

y 

1. 988 max 
0.42 max 

Cd X-rays, 1.299 (0.17%) 

j u a. T 1 1 4m 

daughter In 

(GoldsGSO) 

In^^^(n, \) (GoldhM48a) 

- 114m 
In 

50.0 d CWriH57) 

50.1 d (CaliJ59) 
others (BendW58, 

BoeF4 9a, HoffK57, 
BarnS39a, MaiF49, 
LawJL40) 

A 

IT 96.5%, EC 3.5% 
(GrodL56) 

-88.39 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, n-capt, excit 
(LawJL37, MitA38) 

parent In^^'* (GoldsGSO) 

Y 

e 

In x-rays, 0.192(17%), 0.558 
(3.5%), 0.724 (3.5%) 

0.164, 0.188 

1 14 

daughter radiations from In 

In^^^(n, Y) (LawJL37. 
MitA38, MaiF49) 

T 115 
In 

14 

6 X 10 y sp act 

(MarteE50) 

5. 1 X 10^*^ y sp act 
(WatD62a) 

14 

7 X 10 y sp act 
(BearG6la) 

others (CohS51) 

% 

A 

(T 

C 

p (MarteE50, CohS51) 

95.77 (WhiJ48) 

95.67 (WhiF56) 

-89.54 (MTW) 

45 (to In^^^) 

154 (to In^^"’!) 

4 (toIn^^’^Z) 
(GoldmDT64) 

A 

chem, sep isotopes 
(MarteESO) 

P" 

Y 

0.48 max 
no Y 


T 115m 
In 

4.50 h (DunwJ47) 
4.53 h (LawJL40) 
4.48 h (SalS65) 

A 

IT 95%, p” 5% 

( LangeL52a) 

-89.21 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (GoldhM38) 

daughter Cd^^^ (GoldhM38, 
CorkJ39, NisY40, MetRSla, 
WahA52, LangeL52a) 

p" 

e 

Y 

0. 83 max 

0.308, 0.331 

In X-rays, 0.335 (50%) 

114 115- 

Cd^^^(n, Y)Cd^^''(P ) 
(GoldhM38, SehM62) 

In^^^(n.n') (GoldhM38, 
CohS48) 

In^^^(p, p') (BarnS3 9a, 
BarnS39) 

In“®(a,a') (LarK39) 

^ 116 
In 

13.4 s (DomF60) 

14.0 s (DucA60) 

14.5 s (CapP57) 

15.6 s (Brzj65) 

13 s (AmaE35, 

CorkJ39, WilhZ53, 
LawJL37) 

A 

p" (LawJL37) 
-88.20 (MTW) 

A 

n-capt (AmaE35) 
excit, n-capt (LawJL37) 

P" 

Y 

3.3 max 

0.434 (0.12%), 0.95 (0.1%), 
1.293 ( 1.2%) 

In^^^(n,Y) (AmaE35, 
LawJL37, SerL47b) 


287 


Isotope 
/ A 

Hair-life 

i Type of decay ( ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
; (A=M-A), MeV (C‘=0); 

1 Thermal neutron 

i cross section (C)y barns 

j 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 

, 1 1 6m 1 

64.0 m (LocE53, 
CravA47) 

53.9 m (SilLBl, 
E>omF60) 

55.1 m (CapP57) 
57 m (BrzJ65) 

A 

p (LawJL37) 
no IT, lim 0.5% 
(Colaj60) 

-88.14 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, n-capt (AmaE3 5) 
chem, excit, n-capt 
(LawJL37) 

P 

V 

1. 00 max 

0.138 (3%), 0.417(36%), 0.819 
(17%), 1.09 (53%). 1.293 
(80%), 1.508 (11%). 2.111 
(20%) 

In^^^(n, Y) (AmaE35. 
MitA38a, SerL47b, 
HumV51, BolH64) 

, 1 1 6m j 
In * 

2, 16 » (AlexKF63) 

2.2 s (HecP61) 

2. 5 B (AlexKF60, 
FctP62a) 

2.3 B (WhiW62) 

A 

IT (AlexKF60, FetP62a) 
-87.98 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

n-capt, sep isotopes 
(AlexKFbO, HecP61, 
FetP62a) 

excit, sep isotopes, cross 
bomb (WhiW62) 

V 

e 

In X-rays, 0.164 
0.138, 0.160 

In^^®(n, Y) (AlexKF60, 
HecP61, FetP62a, 
WhiW62, AlexKF63) 

r 117 

In 

45 m (Needj63, 
BrzJ65) 

38 m (DudN6l) 

43 m (Wolfej6l) 
others (MGinC55, 
CoryC53) 

A 

p" (MGinC55) 
-88.93 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (CoryC53) 
daughter daughter 

Cd^^"^ (TanC66, CoryC53) 

not parent lim 1% 

(MGinC55) 

daughter In ^ (MGinCSS) 

P" 

e 

Y 

0. 74 max 
0. 132 

Sn X-rays, 0.158 (87%), 0.565 
(100%) 

117m 

Cd (n, Y) Cd ’ 

(P ); daughter Cd^^^”^ 
(TanC66a) 

, 117m 
In 

1.93 h (DudN6l, 
BrzJ65) 

1.96 h (NeedJ63) 
1.90 h (MGinCSS, 
MetRSlb) 

1.95 h (LawJL40) 
others (Wolfej61, 
CoryC53) 

A 

IT 47%, p“ 53% 
(TanC66b) 

IT 28%, p" 72% 
(Wol£eJ61) 

IT 22%, p“ 78% 
(MGinC55) 

-88.61 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (CorkJ3 9) 
daughter Cd^^^, daughter 

Cdll7rn 

MGinC55) 

parent In^^^ (MGinCSS) 

P" 

e 

V 

1. 78 max 
0.286 

In X-rays, 0.158 (14%). 0.314 
(31%) 

117 

daughter radiations from In 

-,116, 117m 

Cd (n, Y) Cd 

(P") (TanC66a) 

, 118 
In 

5.7 s (BrzJ65) 

5.0 s (KantJ64a) 

5.1 s (GleC61) 

A 

p“ (CoryC53) 
-87.5 (MTW) 

B 

genet (CoryC53) 
chem, genet energy levels 
(GleC6l) 

excit, sep isotopes 
(Kantj64a) 

daughter Cd^^® (CoryC53, 
GleC6l) 

P" 

Y 

4. 2 max 
1.230 (15%) 

J u. 

daughter Cd 

(CoryC53, GleC61) 

Sn^^^(n, p) (KantJ64a) 

In“« 

4.35 m (KantJ64a) 
4.5 m (WUhZ53, 
DufR4 9a) 

4. 7 m (MeyP65) 

4. 9 m (Brzj65) 

A 

p" (DufR49a) 

-87.4 (KantJ64a, MTW) 

B 

excit, sep isotopes (DufR49a) 
excit, sep isotopes, genet 
energy levels (KantJ64a) 

not daughter Cd^^^ (CoryC53, 
GleC6l) 

P“ 

Y 

2. 0 max 

0.69 (41%). 1.05 (80%). 1.230 
(97%), 2.04 (3%) 

Sn^^^(n, p) (Kantj64a) 

In“9 

2.1 m (KuoC60) 
2.0 m (GleC61a) 
2.3 m (YutH60) 
2.8 m (BrzJ65) 

A 

p“ (KuoC 60, YutH60, 
GleC61a) 

-87.6 (MTW) 

B 

sep isotopes, excit (KuoC60, 
YutH60) 

chem, genet (GleC6la) 
daughter In (GleC6la) 

daughter 2.7 m Cd^^^ 
(GleC6la) 

P” 

Y 

1. 6 max 
0.82 (95%) 

Sn^^°(Y, p) (KuoC60, 
YutH60) 

,. 119m - 

daughter In, nation 

(GleC6la) 

I^119m 

17.5 m (KuoC 60) 
18 m (DufR49a, 

GleC6la) 

22.6 m (BrzJ65) 

A 

P~ 95%. IT 5% (GleC61a) 
-87.3 (LHP, MTW) 

B 

chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(DufR4 9a) 

parent In^^^ (GleC6la) 

daughter 10 m Cd^^^ 
(NusN57, GleC6la) 

daughter 2.7 m Cd^^^ 
(GleC6la) 

P' 

Y 

2. 7 max 

[in X-rays, Sn L X-rays], 0.024, 
0.30, 0.91 (doublet) 

119 

daughter radiations from In 

Sn*^“(Y,p) (Du£R4 9b, 
KuoC60) 

fission (GlcC6la) 

T 120 

In 

3.2 s (KantJ64a) 
3 s (PouA60) 

A 

p” ( Kant J 64a) 

-86 (KantJ64a, MTW) 

B 

sep isotopes, cross bomb 
(PouA60) 


5. 6 max 
1.171 (15%) 

Sn^^^(n.p) (PouA60. 
KanU64. i 

Sb^^^(n.a) (PouA* 

T 120 

In 

44 s { Kant J 64a) 
48 s (MeyP65) 

50 s (PouA 60) 
=55 s (MGinC58) 

A 

p“ (PouA60) 

-85.8 (Kantj64a, MTW) 

B 

excit (MGinCSS) 
sep isotopes, genet energy 
levels (PouA60) 

P 

Y 

3. 1 max 

0.090 (12%), 0.198 (9%). 0.71 
(12%), 0.86 (34%). 0.94 (12%!. 
1.02 (61%), 1.171 (100%), 

1.28 (14%), 1.47 (6%). 1.87 
(7%), 2.01 (6%) 

Sn'^°(n,p) (WGi>-^ 
PouA60, 

, 121 
In 

30 s (YutH60) 

A 

[p“] (YutH60) 
-86 (MTW) 

C 

excit, sep isotopes (YutH60) 

Y 

0.94 

1.1., 

4. : (4 • 

, 121 
In 

3. 1 m (YutH60, 
WeisH65a) 

A 

p" (YutH60) 
-86 (MTW) 

C 

excit, sep isotopes (YutH60) 

p" 

3. 7 max 

' : t 1, r' ' * 

1 


288 


Isotope 
Z A 

HalMife 

Type of decay (^ ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A), MeV (C"-0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (CJ), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 


11.5 m (NusN57) 

V 

(3 (NusN57) 

G 

chem, genet (NusN57) 

daughter 3.5 m Cd ^ ^ ^ 

(NusN57) 

V 

0.85 

deuterons on Sn 
(NusN57) 






Assignment probably 

incorrect (NDS, YutHfiO) 





32 m {NusN57) 

V 

p” (NusN57) 

G 

chem, genet (NusN57) 
daughter 3.5 m Cd^ 131?) 
(NusN57) 

Y 

0.52 

deuterons on Sn 
(NusN57) 






Assignment probably 

incorrect (NDS, YutH60) 





8 s (Kantj63a) 

A 

P (KantJ63a) 
-83 CMTW) 

B 

sep isotopes, genet energy 
levels (Kantj63a) 

P" 

Y 

5 max 
0.99, 1.14 

Sn^^^(n, p) (Kantj63a) 

^ 123 
In 

36 s (YutHOO) 

V 

p“ (YutH60) 

E 

excit, sep isotopes (YutH60) 

p" 

4. 6 max 

174 

Sn (Y,p) (YutH60) 



A 

-83 (MTW) 







10 s (YutHOO) 

... 

[p“] (YutH60) 

F 

excit, sep isotopes (YutH60) 

Y 

1. 1 

174 

Sn (Y, p) (YutH60) 



A 

-83 (MTW) 


May be identical to 8 s In 
(LHP) 





=3.6 s (KarrM64) 

A 

p (KarrM64) 
-81 (MTW) 

B 

sep isotopes, genet energy 
levels (KarrM64) 

P" 

Y 

5 max 

0.99 (T 3), 1.13 (t 10), 3.21 
(t 3) 

\ 74 

Sn (n, p) (KarrM64) 

c 108 

50®" 

9.2 m (HahR65) 

9 m genet (MeaS55) 

V 

[EC] (MeaS55) 

A 

genet (MeaS55) 
chem, excit (HahR65) 

parent 39 m In^^® (MeaS55) 

Y 

In X-rays, 0.28, 0.42 

daughter radiations from 39 m 
^ 108 
In 

Cd^°^(a, 2n) (HahR65) 

e 109 
Sn 

18.1 m (PetrM56a) 

V 

EC, p'*' (PetrM56a) 

B 

chem, genet (PetrM56a) 
ancestor In parent 

e 

1. 6 max 

0.305, 0.491, 0.86, 1.09 

Cd^°^(a,n) (PetrM56a) 






j^l09mi (petrM56a) 

Y 

In X-rays, 0.335, 0.521, 0.89, 
1.12 









daughter radiations from In 1, 

T 109 
In 


c 110 

Sn 

4.0 h (MeaS55, 
MGinC51) 

4.5 h (MallE49) 

V 

EC (MallE49) 

A 

chem, sep isotopes 
(MallE49) 

chem, genet (MeaS55, 
NaiT 64) 

Y 

e 

In X-rays, 0.283 (95%) 

0.255 

daughter radiations from 67 m 

In^^®(p, 6n) (NaiT64) 

Cd^°®(a, 2n) (MeaS55. 
MallE49) 






parent 67 m not parent 


. no 

In 







4.9 h (MeaS55, 

NaiT 64) 




„ 111 
Sn 

35.0 m (HinR49) 
35 m (MGinC51, 
Snyj65) 

A 

EC 73%. p"^ 27% (SnyJ65) 

EC 71%, p"^ 29% 
(MGinCSl) 

-85.6 (MTW) 

A 

chem, sep isotopes (HinR4 9) 
excit, cross bomb (SnyJ65) 

P" 

Y 

1.51 max 

In x-rays, 0.511 (54%, V*), 0.75 
(1.1%), 0.97 (0.7%), 1.14 
(1.8%), 1.54(0.5%), 1.59(0.6%) 
(0. 9%), 1.89 ( 1.0%), 2. 11 
(0.3%), 2.3 2 (0.2%) 

Cd^^°(a. 3n) (MGinCSl) 

e 112 

Sn 


% 

0.95 (BaiKSO) 




daughter radiations from In^^^ 




A 

cr 

c 

-88.64 (MTW) 
0.9 (to Sn“^) 
0.4 (to 

(GoldmDT64) 






c 113 
Sn 

115 d (GleG64) 

118 d (CorkJ51f) 

119 d (AviP56) 
130 d (GardG56) 
others (DesY53, 

BarnS3 9a) 

A 

EC, no p^ (BarnS39a) 
-88.32 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (BarnS3 9a, 
LivJ39b) 

parent In^^^^ (BarnS39a) 

Y 

In X-rays, 0.255 ( 1.8%) 
daughter radiations from In^^^^ 

Sn^^^(n, V) (NelC50, 
CorkJSlf, SerL47b, 
Bov/eJSl) 

In^^^(p,n) (BarnS39a) 

In^*^(d, 2n) (ColeK47, 
GirR58) 

c 1 13m 
Sn 

20 m (SchmM6l) 
27 m (Sell60) 

A 

IT 91%, EC 9%, no p'*'. 

lim 10“^% (SchmM61) 
-88.24 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (Sell60) 
crit abs (SchmM6l) 

daughter (SelI60) 

Y 

e 

Sn X-rays, In X-rays, 0.079 
(0.6%) 

0.050, 0.075 

Sn“^(n, Y) (SchmM61) 

Sn^^^(d,n)Sb^^^(EC), 

_ 114,, 113,c-^, 

Sn (p, 2n)Sb (EC) 

(SelI60, SelI59) 

c 114 

Sn 


% 

0.65 (BaiK50) 








A 

-90.57 (MTW) 







289 


lM)lupr 
/ A 

Hjlf-lifc 

1 Type of decay ( *** ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A),MeV (C"=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (. 
CO. (U ^ 

0.42 max 
[0.007, 0.033] 

Sb x-rays, 0.037 

Sn^^°(n,V) (NelCSO. 
SnyR65) 

fission (DroB62) 



% 

A 

c 

c 

4.71 (BaiKSO) 
-89.943 (MTW) 
0.001 (to Sn^^^) 
0.2 (to 

(GoldmDT 64) 






- 123 
Sn 

125 d (CorkJSlf) 
130 d (LeeJ49, 

LeadGSl) 

126 d (NelC50) 
136 d (GrumW46) 

A 

p” (LeadGSl) 
-87.80 (MTW) 

A 

chem (LeadG46, LeadGSl) 
chem, sep isotopes, cross 
bomb (LeeJ4 9) 

P 

Y 

1.42 max 
1.08 ? (weak) 

Sn*^^(n,7) (LeeJ4t. 
NelCSO) 

e 1 23m 
Sn 

39.5 m (DufR49c) 

40 m (LivJ39b, LeeJ49. 
NelC50. MajN63) 

41.5 m (MocD48) 

A 

p" (LivJ39b) 

-87.78 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem (LivJ39b) 
chem, sep isotopes, excit 
(LeeJ49, NelCSO) 

p" 

e 

Y 

1. 26 max 
[0.130] 

Sb X-rays, 0. 160 [84%] 

Sn‘^^(n. V) (SerL47V.. 

Dum4 4c, Le-:J4, 
NelCSO) 

Sn*^'*(n. 2n:. PoolM. 
LeeJ4<‘) 

e 124 
Sn 

(PP) lO^'^y 

sp act (KalkM52, 
FireE52, HogB52) 

% 

A 

(7 

C 

5.98 (BaiKSO) 
-88.237 (MTW) 
0.004 (to Sn^^®) 

ft 1 /a. f 12 5m. 
0. 1 (to Sn ) 

(GoldmDT 64) 



- 




290 


Isotope 
Z A 

Half-life 

— 

Type of decay (*•• ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A), MeV (C"=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (<7), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 

<; 125 
50®" 

9.4 d (NelCSO) 
10.0 d (LeeJ4 9) 

A 

p (LivJ3 9b) 
-85.93 (MTW) 

A 

chem (LivJ39b) 
chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(LeeJ49) 

chem, sep isotopes, n-capt, 
genet (NelCSO) 

parent (NelC50) 

P 

V 

2. 34 max 

0.342 (0.3%), 0.468 (0.4%), 0.811 
(1.5%), 0.904 (1.4%), 1.068 
(4%), 1.17 (0.14%), 1.41 
(0.14%), 1.97 (0.6%), 2.23 
(0.05%) 

daughter radiations from Sb^^® 

124 

Sn (n, Y) (LeeJ49, 

NelCSO, LivJ3 9b, 
SerL47b) 

_ 125m 
Sn 

9.5 m (NelCSO) 
9.8 m (LeeJ49) 
9. 7 m (MajN63) 

A 

p” (LivJ39b) 

-85.91 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, excit, n-capt 
(LivJ39b) 

chem, sep isotopes 
(DufRSOa, LeeJ49) 

P" 

\ 

2. 04 max 
0.325 (97%) 

Sn^^‘^(n, Y) (LeeJ49, 
NelCSO, DufRSOa, 
LivJ3 9b, SerL47b) 

c 126 

Sn 

= 10^ y yield (DroB62) 

A 

[p“] (DroB62) 
-86 (MTW) 

B 

chem, genet (DroB62) 
parent 19 m Sb^^^, ancestor 
12.5 d (DroB62) 

Y 

0.060, 0.067, 0.092 

fission (DroB62) 

„ 126 
Sn 

'50 m yield (BarnJ51) 

- 

p (BarnJSl) 

G 

chem, genet (BarnJSl) 
reassigned to Sn (DroB62) 



fission (BarnJSl) 


2.05 h (CannH56) 
2. 10 h (UhlJ62) 

2.2 h (DroB62, 
HageE62) 
others (DMarP62, 
MajN63) 

A 

p" (BarnJSl) 
-84 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (BarnJSl, 
CarmH56, DroB62, 
HageE62) 

chem, mass spect (UhlJ62) 
127 

parent Sb (BarnJSl, 

CarmHS6, DroB62, 
HageE62) 

P" 

Y 

1.45 max ? 

0.44, 0.49, 0.82, 1.10, 2.00, 2.32, 
2.58, 2.68, 2.82 

127 

daughter radiations from Sb 

fission (BarnJSl, 
DroB62, HageE62, 
UhlJ62) 

Te^^°(n,a) (CarmH56, 
MajN63) 


4. 1 m (KauP65) 

4.6 m genet (HageE62) 
=2. 5 m genet (DroB62) 

A 

p" (KauP65) 

-83.5 (KauP65, MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (HageE62, 
DroB62) 

chem, sep isotopes (KauP65) 
1?7 

parent Sb (HageE62, 

DroB62) 

P” 

Y 

2. 7 max 
0.49 ( 100%) 

fission (HageE62, 
DroB62) 

1 ^0 

Te (n, Q) (KauP65) 

c 128 

Sn 

59 m (UhlJ62) 

57 m (FranISS, 
HageE62) 

62 m (DMarP62) 

58 m (DroB62) 

A 

p” (DMarP62) 
-83.4 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (FranISS, 
HageE62, DroB62) 
chem, mass spect (UhlJ62) 

parent 11m Sb^^^ (FranISS, 
DroB62, HageE62, UhlJ62, 
DMarP62) 

ancestor 9hSb^^^ (=3%) 
(FranI56, DroB62) 

not ancestor 9 h Sb^^^, lim 
5% (HageE62) 

P" 

Y 

0.80 max 

Sb X-rays. 0.044 (7%), 0.072 
(19%), 0.50 (61%), 0.57 (22%) 

daughter radiations from 11m 
Sb'^» 

fission (FranISS, 
DroB62, HageE62, 
DMarP62, Uhlj62) 

c 129 
Sn 

9 m genet (HageE62) 
6 m { DroB 62) 

- 

[p ] (HageE62, DroB62) 

B 

chem (DroB62) 
chem, genet (HageE62) 

parent Sb^^^ (HageE62) 

Y 

1.15, others 

129 

daughter radiations from Sb 

fission (HageE62, 
DroB62) 

c 129 
Sn 

1.0 h genet (HageE62) 

- 

[p‘] (HageE62) 

B 

chem, genet (HageE62) 
1 ? 0 

parent Sb (HageE62) 


129 

daughter radiations from Sb 

fission (HageE62) 

c 130 
Sn 

2. 6 m ( PapA56) 

• 

[p-] (PapA56) 

D 

chem, genet (PapAS6) 

parent 7 m Sb^^^ (PapAS6, 
DroB62) 

not parent 3S m Sb^^^, lim 
10% ( DroB62) 


daughter radiations from 7. 1 m 

Sb^'O 

fission (PapA56, 
FranISS, DroB62) 

c 131 
Sn 

3.4 m (PapA56) 
<2 m (DroB62) 

V 

[p“] (PapA56) 

E 

chem, genet (PapAS6) 
activity not observed 
(DroB62) 

parent Sb^^^ (PapAS6) 



fission (PapA56) 

c 132 
Sn 

2.2 m genet (PapA56) 

V 

[p‘] (PapA56) 

B 

chem, genet (PapAS6) 
parent Sb^^^ (PapA56) 



fission (PapAS6) 

5lSb 

0. 9 m (SelI59) 


p”^, EC (SelI59) 

B 

chem, excit (SelI59) 

Y 

Sn X-rays, 0.511 (Y*), 1.27 

Sn“^(p,n) (SelI59) 


291 


lu)ll>pc 

/ A 

Huir-iifc 


Type of decay ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A5M-A).MeV (C”=0); 
Thermal neutron 


Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 


Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 




cross section (£7), barns 







6.4 m (PatA62) 

7 m (SelI58. SelI59) 

L 

A 

EC. (SelI58, SeU59, 

SelI60) 

-83.85 (MTW) 

A 

chem (RhoA57) 
chem, excit, sep isotopes 
cross bomb (Sell60, SelI59, 
SelI58) 

excit, sep isotopes (PatA62) 
parent {Sell60) 

Y 

2.42 max 

Sn x-rays, 0.32, 0.511 (Y^^), 
0.6-0. 9 (complex), 1.03, 1.2 
(complex), 1.52 ? 

daughter radiations from Sn^^^^ 

Sn^^^(d,n) (SeU58. 
SelI60, RhoA57) 

Sn^^^(p, 2n) (SelI59) 

sb'*-* 

i. i m (SelI59) 

V 

A 

p'*’, EC (SelI59) 
-84.3 (MTW) 

B 

chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(SelI59) 

V 

2. 7 max 

Sn X-rays, 0.9, 1.30 

_ 114,, _ 115,, , 

Sn (p, n), Sn (p, 2n) 

(SeU59) 

Sb“^ 

31 m (SelI58, SclI59) 
36 m (FinR61) 

32 m (SehM62) 

M 

A 

EC 67%, 33% 

(VarN63) 

EC 65%, p"^ 35% (SelI60) 

EC 88%, p'^ 12% 
(SehM62) 

-87.00 (MTW) 

A 

chem (RhoA57) 
chem, sep isotopes, excit, 
cross bomb (SelI58, SeU59, 
Sell6l) 

chem, mass spect (FinR6l) 

daughter Te^^^ (Sell60a, 
ReisR65) 

Y 

1.51 max 

Sn X-rays, 0.499 (100%), 0.511 

(67%. V*), 0.98 (5%), 1.24 
(5%). 2.22 (1%) 

Sn“^(d, n) (SeU58, 
SelI61) 

Sn^^^(p, 2n) (SelI59) 
In'^^(a, 2n) (SehM62) 

Sb"<> 

16 m (StahP53a) 

14 m (AteA54) 

15 m (KuzM58) 

A 

EC 72%, p'^ 28% (FinR61) 
-87.0 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (StahP53a) 
genet (FinR6l) 

daughter Te^^^ (FinR6l) 

P" 

Y 

2.3 max 

Sn x-rays, 0.511 (v"^, 56%), 
0.93 ( 26%), 1.293 (85%), 2.23 
( 14%) 

daughter Te^^^ (FinR6l) 
In^^^(a, 3n) (AteA54) 

Sb‘“'"’ 

60 m (TemG49. 
AteA54) 

A 

EC 81%, p'^ 19% 
(BolH64a) 

-86.5 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, excit, mass spect 
(TemG49) 

not daughter Te^^^ (FinR6l) 

p'^ 

e 

Y 

1. 16 max 

0.070, 0.095, 0.111 

Sn X-rays, 0.099 (30%), 0.140 
(30%), 0.406 (36%). 0.511 

In^^^(a, 3n) (TemG49) 
In^^^(a.n) (JensB60) 








(38%, Y*). 0.545 (68%), 0.96 
(75%), 1.06 (27%), 1.293 
( 100%) 


Sb“^ 

2.8 h (FinR61. 
ColeK47, TemG49, 
KuzM 58) 


EC 97.4%, p"^ 2.6% 
(MGinC55) 

EC 97.7%, p'*' 2.3% 
(BaskK64) 

A 

chem (LivJ3 9) 
chem, excit, mass spect 
(TemG49) 

daughter (FinR6l) 

P" 

Y 

0. 57 max 

Sn X-rays, 0.158 (87%), 0.511 
(5%. Y*) 

In*^^(a, 2n) (TemG49) 



A 

-88.57 (MTW) 






Sb*”"' 

-4 

1.6 X 10 s delay coinc 
(GhoA63) 



F 

crit abs (GhoA63) 

same as 0.726 level of Sn^^^? 

Y 

0.080 (T 10), 0.17 (t 8), 0.24 
(T 9), 0.46 (T 24) scint spect 
(GhoA63) 

protons on Sb (GhoA63) 
not produced by protons 
on Sn (GritV65a) 

Sb“8 

3.5 m {LindaM48, 
FinR6l) 

3.6 m (RisJ40) 

A 

EC. p"^ (FinR6l) 
-87.96 (MTW) 

A 

excit (RisJ40) 

chem (LarK3 9) 

genet (FinR6l, LindnM48) 

daughter Te^^® (LindnM48, 
LindnMSOa, FinR6l) 


2. 67 max 

Sn x-rays, 0.511 (150%, Y*), 

0.83 (0.4%), 1.230 (3%, doublet) 

118 

daughter Te 

(LindnM48a, FinR61) 

In*^^(a,n) (LarK39, 
Ris J40) 

SbHSmi 

5.1 h (ColeK47, 
TemG49) 

V 

EC 99+%, p'*' 0.16% 
(Bo1H61) 

no p"*^, lim 0. 1% 

A 

chem, cross bomb (ColeK47) 
chem, excit, mass spect 
(TemG49) 

Y 

Sn X-rays. 0.041 (29%), 0.254 
(93%), 1.049 (100%), 1.230 
(100%) 

In*'^(a,n) (ColeK47, 
TemG49. Bo 1H61. 
Rama8M6la. Bod£62a) 




( JensB60) 


not daughter Te^^® (FinR61) 

e 

0.012, 0.036, 0.223 




A 

-87.77 (LHP, MTW) 






118m 2 

0.87 s (WhiW62) 

V 

[IT] (WhiW62) 

E 

excit (WhiW62) 

Y 

0.14 (T 4), 0.30 (T 10). 0.38 

(t 10) 

protons on Sb (WhiW62) 

Sb“’ 

38.0 h (01sJ57) 
others (ZaitN60a, 
ColeK47, LindnM48) 

A 

EC (ColeK47) 
-89.48 (MTW) 

A 

chem, cross bomb (ColeK47) 
chem, genet energy levels 
(01sJ57) 

daughter Te^^^^ (LindnM48, 
LindnMSOa, FinR6l) 

daughter Te^^^ (FinR6l) 

Y 

e 

Sn X-rays, 0.024 (16%) 
0.020 

Sb*^'(p, 3n)Tc**’fEC; 
(FinR61) 

„ 119,, _ 118,. 

Sn (p, n), Sn (d. n- 

(ColcK47) 


15.89 m (EbrT65) 
16.4 m (JohnHSO) 
16.6 m (PerlmM48, 
StahP53a) 

17 m (HeyF37, 
LivJ38c) 

A 

p'*', EC (BlasJSO) 
-88.42 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (BotW3 9, 
HeyF37, ChanW37) 
chem, excit, cross bomb 
(LivJ37) 

■“+ 

1. 70 max 

Sn x-rays, 0.511 (87%. Y*), 
1.171 ( 1.3%) 

Sn (p, n) ( fiU 

Sn‘^0;d. :L - • +, 

Sn’*’).!,;. (Lv* 


5.8 d (MGinC55a) 
6. 0 d {LindnM48) 


EC (LindnM48) 

no or IT, lim 0.3% 

(MGinC55a) 

A 

chem, sep isotopes 
( Lin.dnM48) 
chem, cross bomb 
(MGinC55a) 

chem, mass spect (JensB60) 

Y 

e 

Sn X-rays, 0.090 (81%), 0.200 
(88%), 1.03 (99T.). 1.171 
( 100%) 

0.061, 0.096, 0.171, 0.196 



373-062 0 - 70 - 20 


292 


Isotope 
Z A 

Half-life 

Type of decay (••• ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A), McV (C '= 0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (C7), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 

3jSb 


% 

57.25 (WhiJ48) 








A 

cr 

c 

-89.593 (MTW) 
6 (to Sb^^^) 
0.06 (to 

(GoldmDT64) 







2.80 d (BlasJSla) 
2.75 d (CorkJ54) 
2.73 d (PerlmM58) 

A 

p“ 97%, EC 3.0%, 
p+ 0.006% (GlauM55, 
PerlmM58) 

p" 97%, EC 3.1% 
(FarrB55) 

-88.32 {MTW) 

A 

chem (AmaE35) 

chem, cross bomb (LivJ39) 

p" 

Y 

1. 97 max 
0. 56 max 

Sn X-rays, 0.564 (66%), 0.686 
(3.4%), 1. 140 (0.7%), 1.26 
(0.7%) 

Sb^^^n.Y) (AmaE35, 
LivJ3 9, SerL47b, 
HumV51) 


4.2 m (DMatE63, 
EngeR62) 
others (DMatE47, 
Vanj62) 

V 

IT (DMatE47) 

no p^, no p lim 0.5% 
(DMatE62) 

A 

chem, n-capt, sep isotopes 
(DMatE47) 

y 

e 

Sb x-rays, 0.061 (50%), 0.075 
( 17%) 

0.021, 0.030, 0.045, 0.056, 0.071 

Sb^^^(n, Y) (DMatESl) 


A 

-88.16 (LHP, MTW) 







^1-3 X 10^^ y sp 
act (WatD62a) 

% 

A 

10*^ y sp 

A 

-89.16 (MTW) 







act (HeiJ55) 

O’ 

c 

400 (GoldmDT64) 







117 d (AndeC65) 
104 d (HillR51) 
121 d (CorkJ51f) 

A 

IT (HilIR4 9a) 

-88.92 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, n-capt, sep isotopes 
(HUlR49a) 

Y 

e 

Te X-rays. 0. 159 (84%) 
0.057, 0.084, 0.127 

Te*^^(n,V) (HUlR49a, 
KatzRSO, HammBSl, 
CorkJSlf) 









Sb*^^(d, 2n) (KatzR50) 



% 

A 

(T 

c 

4.61 (BaiKSO) 
-90.50 (MTW) 

2 (to Te*^^) 

5 (to Te*^®'*’) 
(GoldmDT64) 






Te*“ 


% 

6.99 (BaiKSO) 








A 

-89.03 (MTW) 








(7 

c 

1.5 (GoldmDT64) 






TeliSm 

58 d (HU1R51, 
An de G 6 5 ) 

A 

IT (FrieG48) 

-88.89 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (FrieG48) 

daughter Sb^^^ (FrieG48, 
KerB49) 

e 

Y 

0.004, 0.030, 0.078, 0.105 

Te X-rays, 0.035 (7%), 0.110 
(0.3%) 

daughter Sb*^^ (FricG48, 
KerB4 9) 

Te'^‘*(n,\) (HillR49a) 






not daughter lim 0.05% 

(FrieGSla) 






% 

A 

(T 

c 

18.71 (BaiKSO) 

-90.05 (MTW) 
127 

0.9 (to Te^""') 
0.1 (to Te*^^™) 
(GoldmDT64) 







9.4 h (KniJD56, 
MajN63) 

9.3 h (SeaG40, 
MangS62) 

9.5 h (BonaG64) 

A 

p" (AbeP39) 
-88.30 (MTW) 

A 

chem (TapG38, AbeP39) 
chem, excit, cross bomb 
(SeaG40) 

daughter Te (SeaG40, 

GleLSlh, WilliRRSl) 

daughter Sb^^^ (84%) 
(AbeP39, GleLSlh, 
BeydJ48) 

P" 

Y 

0.70 max 

I X-rays, 0.058 (0.010%), 0.21 
(0.03%, doublet), 0.360 (0.05%), 
0.417 (0.3%) 

Te Y), daughter 

Tc*^^^ (SeaG40, 
SerL47b) 
fission (AbcP39, 
ScaC40, WiUiRR48. 
GleLSlh) 

^gl27m 

109 d { AndeG65) 
105 d (KniJD56) 
115 d (CorkJSlf) 
90 d (SeaG40) 

A 

IT 99.2%, p” 0.8% 
(AubR65) 

IT 98%, p" 2% (KniJD56) 
-88.21 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, excit, genet (SeaG40) 
127 

parent Te (SeaG40, 

GleLSlh, WilliRRSl) 
daughter Sb*^"^ (16%) 
(BeydJ48) 

Y 

e 

P" 

Te X-rays, 0.059 (0.19%), 

0.089 (0.08%), 0.67 (0.004%) 
0.057, 0.084 
[0. 73 max] 

daughter radiations from Tc^^^ 

Tc'^^(n, V) (HillR4 <.. 

ScaG40. Sc-rL47b) 
fission (CrumW-i6, 
GleLSlh. 

GrumW48) 

T^8 


% 

31.79 (BaiKSO) 








A 

(T 

C 

-88.98 (MTW) 

0.14 (to Te*^^) 

0.017 (to Te*^^) 
(GoldmDT64) 







296 


Isotope 
Z A 

Half-life 

Type of decay (*•;•); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A),MeV (C"=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (O'), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 


68. 7 m ( BrzJ 63,. 
BrzJ65) 

67 m (WafH48, MajN63) 
72 m (SeaG40, 

BonaG64) 

70 m (AbeP39, 

GleLSlh, MangS62) 

74 m (GravW56) 

A 

p (SeaG40) 
-87.02 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (BotW39, 
SeaG40) 

daughter Te^^^ (SeaG40, 
GrumW46, WilliRRSl) 

daughter Sb^^^ (AbeP39) 

P 

e 

\ 

1.45 max 
0.022, 0.026 

I X-rays, 0.027 ( 19%), 0.275 
(1.7%, doublet), 0.455 (15%), 
0.81 (0.5%, complex), 1.08 
(1.5%) 

, ,. „ 129m 

daughter Te 

(SeaG40, GrumW46, 
WiIliRR5I) 

Te^^®(n, V) (MangS62, 
SeaG40, SerL47b) 
fission (AbeP39, 

Hah043a, GrumW46, 
WilliRR48, NoveTSla) 

Tel29m 

34. 1 d (AndeG65) 

33.5 d (CorkJ51£) 

33 d (MajN63) 

32 d (Brzj65) 
others (SeaG40, 
NoveTSlb, GravW56, 
WafH48) 

A 

IT 64%, p" 36% 
(DevaS 64a) 

IT 68%, p" 3 2% 
(AndeG62) 

-86.92 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (SeaG40) 
129 

parent Te (SeaG40, 

GrumW46, WilliRR51} 

p" 

e 

Y 

1. 60 max 

0.074, 0.102 

Te X-rays. 0.69 (6%) 

129 

daughter radiations from Te 

Te^^®(n, Y) (HillR49a, 
SeaG40, SerL47b) 
fission (Hah043a, 

GrumW46, WilliRR48, 
NoveTSlb, PapASla, 
GrumW48) 

Te'30 

h/2 

Xe ratios, mass spect 
(TakaN65) 

1 X 10^^ y Xe ratios, 
mass spect (IngMSO) 
others (FremJSZ, 
SharmH53, FulH52) 

% 

A 

cr 

c 

34.49 (BaiKSO) 
-87.34 (MTW) 

0.2 (to Te^^^) 
0.04 (to Te^^^"') 






Tel^l 

24.8 m (GeiK52) 
others (MangS62, 
SeaG40, AbeP39) 

A 

p" (SeaG40) 
-85.16 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (SeaG40) 

daughter Te^^^*^ {AbeP39, 
SeaG40, WilliRR51) 

parent (AbeP39, 

SeaG40, PapASl, CookGSl, 
LivJ38e, Hah03 9c) 

daughter Sb^^^ (PapA51, 
CookG51, SaraD65) 

p" 

e 

Y 

2. 14 max 
0.116, 0.144 

I X-rays, 0.150 (68%), 0.453 
(16%), 0.493 ( 5%), 0.603 
(4%), 0.95 (3%, complex), 1.00 
(4%, doublet), 1.147 (6%) 

Te^^°(n, Y) (SeaG40, 
SerL47b, GeiK52) 

j v* 'T- 13 Im 

daughter Te 

(AbeP39, SeaG40, 
WilliRRSl) 

Tel31m 

30 h (AbeP39. SeaG40) 

A 

p” 82%, IT 18% 

(BedeA61, DevaS65) 

p" 78%, IT 22% (HebE55) 
-84.98 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (SeaG40) 

parent Te^^^ (AbeP3 9, 
SeaG40, WilliRR51) 

daughter Sb^^^ (CookG51, 
PapASl, SaraD65) 

P“ 

e 

Y 

2.46 max (5%), 0. 9 max 

0.048, 0.069, 0.149, 0.177 

Te X-rays, I X-rays, 0.081 (2%), 
0.102 (5%), 0.200 (8%), 0.241 
(8%), 0.336 (9%), 0.78 (60%, 
complex), 0.85 (31%, doublet), 
1.127 (13%), 1.206 ( 11%), 1.629 
(3%), 1.860 ( 1%), 1.965 (2%) 

daughter radiations from Te^^^ 
ll31 

Te^^°(n,\) (SeaG40, 
Ser L4 7b) 
fission (SaraD65, 
AbeP3 9, Hah039c, 
KatcSSld, WilliRRSl, 
PapASla) 


77.7 h {PapASla) 

78 d (AndeG65) 
others (AbeP39, 
CheeG58, FleW56, 
Hah03 9b) 

A 

p” (AbeP39) 
-85.21 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (AbeP39) 
fission fragment range 
(KatcS48) 

parent (AbeP39, 

Hah039c, Hah03 9b, 
NoveTSla. WinsW51) 

daughter Sb^^^ (AbeP39) 

P" 

e 

Y 

0. 22 max 

0.020, 0.048, 0.197 
I X-rays, 0.053 ( 17%). 0.230 
(90%) 

daughter radiations from 

fission (AbeP3 9, 
Hah03 9a, Hah03 9b, 
PapASla, KatcS48) 

Te'“ 

12.5 m ( PruS 65) 

V 

[p”l (PruS65) 

B 

chem, genet (PruS65) 
daughter Te^^^^, parent 
I*^^ (PruS65) 

Y 

0.15, 0.31, 0.41, 0.73, 1,02, 1.33, 
1.71, 1.85 

r- ■ j t .. rr^ 133m 

fission, daughter Te 

(PruS65, SaraD65) 


50 m (FergJ62) 

63 m (PapA52) 

53 m ( AlvT57) 

60 m (AbeP39, WuC40) 


p“ 87%, IT 13% (AlvT57) 

A 

chem, genet (AbeP39) 
parent 12.5 m Te^^^ (PruS65) 
daughter Sb^^^ (PapASl) 

ancestor (AbeP39, 

Hah039c, SegE40, WuC40, 
WuC45, PapASl) 

p‘ 

e 

Y 

2.4 max 

0.303 

Te X-rays, 0.31 (21%), 0.432 
(50%), 0.47 (22%), 0.557 
(35%), 0.63 (18%), 0.70 ( 24%), 
0.754 (85%), 0.91 (57%), 1.01 
(10%), 1.33, 1.71, 1.85 

daughter radiations from 

daughter radiations from Te 
included in above listing 

fission (AbeP39, 
Hah039c, SegE40, 
WuC40, PapASl, 
KatcS48, SaraD65) 

Te'” 

2 m {PapA52) 


p" (PapA52) 

G 

chem, genet (PapA52) 
activity not observed 
( PruS65) 



daughte r Te ^ ^ 
(PapA52) 

Te^34 

42 m (FergJ62) 
44 m (PapASla) 

43 m (AbeP39) 


p” (AbeP39) 

A 

chem, genet (AbeP39) 

parent (AbeP39, 

Hah039c, PapASla) 
others (KatcS48, PolA40a) 

Y 

I X-rays, 0.08(13%), 0.17(16%), 
0.204 (21%), 0.262 ( 19%) 

134 

daughter radiations from I 

fission (KatcS48, 
Hah039c, AbeP39, 
PolA40a, PapASla, 
FergJ62) 


297 


Itailopc 

/ A 

lUlflifc 

i 

1 

Type of decay ( ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A). MeV (C'-=0); 
Thermal neutron 


Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 


Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of produaion 



I 

cross section ((7), barns 






i 

m (GlcLSli. 
DodR40. KatcSSlf) 

i— 

i 

p“ (DodR40) 

E 

genet (DodR40) 

parent (GleLSli, 

KatcSSlf) 



fission (GleL51i, 
DodR40, KatcSSlf) 

T- ’ 

• 1 m (Hah043a) 


p' (Hah043a) 

E 

chem (Hah043a) 



fission (Hah043a) 


7 m ( AjideC65) 


p'*’ (AndeG65), [EC] 

C 

mass spect, [chem] 
(AndeG65) 

y 

0.16, 0.34, 0.522 (V*) 

j protons on La (AndeG65) 

,1.7 

14. 5 m genet 
(ButcF65a) 


[p'^] (ButeF65a) 

F 

chem, genet (ButeF65a) 
parent 61 m Te, parent 



protons on I (ButeF65a) 






1.9 h Te^^^ (ButeF65a) 




,118 

13.9 m (AndeG65) 
17 m (ZaitN60a, 


p''" =54%. EC =46% 
(AndeG65) 

B 

mass spect (AagP57) 
chem, genet (ZaitN60a) 

y 

Te X-rays, 0.511 (108%, V*), 
0.55, 0.60, 1.15 

protons on I (ZaitN 60a, 
ButeF65a) 


ButeFSSa) 
others (AagP57) 

A 

—81 (ButeF65a, AndeG65, 
MTW) 


parent Te^^^ (ZaitN60a) 
daughter Xe ^ (AndeG6S) 




lU9 

19.5 m (AndeG65) 

18 m (RosG54) 

Z\ m genet (2aitN60, 
2aitN60a) 

19 m (AagP57) 

Z6 m (ButeF65a) 

• 

p"^ 51%. EC 49% 
(AndeG65) 

A 

chem (MarqLSO) 
mass spect (AagP57) 
chem, genet (ZaitN60, 
ZaitN60a) 

119 

parent Te (ZaitN60, 

ZaitN 60a) 

y 

Te X-rays, 0.26, 0.511 ( 102%, 
Y^^), 0.78 

119 

daughter radiations from Te, 

on Pd (RosG54) 

( protons on I (ZaitN60, 
ZaitN60a) 






daughter Xe^^^ (AndeG65) 




,130 

1.35 h (AndeG65) 
1.30 h (ButeF65) 
1.4 h (AagP57) 

A 

EC 54%, p"^ 46% 
(AndeG65) 

-83.8 (ButeF65, 
AndeG65, MTW) 

A 

mass spect, chem (AagP57, 
AndeG6S) 

chem, genet (ButeF6S) 
daughter Xe (ButeF6S) 

V 

4. 0 max 

Te x-rays, 0.511 (92%, V*), 
0.56, 0.62, 1.52 

protons on I, daughter 
Xe^^° (ButcF65) 

,120 

30 m (MarqLSO, 
KuzM 58a) 

V 

P'*' (MarqL50) 

G 

chem (MarqLSO, KuzM 58a) 
activity not observed 
(AndeG65) 



! alphas on Sb (MarqLSO) 
' protons on I (KuzM 56a) 

,121 

2. 12 h (AndeG55) 

2.0 h (AagP57, 
ButeP65) 

1.5 h (MathH54a, 
DroB52) 

2. 1 h (ZaitN60) 
1.4 h (RosG54) 
1.8 h (MarqL50, 

KuzM 58a) 

A 

EC 91%, p"^ 9% 
(AndeG65) 

-86.0 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (MarqLSO) 
mass spect (AagP57) 

parent Te^^^ (MarqLSO) 

daughter Xe (MathH54a, 

DroBSZ) 

p" 

y 

1. 2 max 

Te X-rays, 0.212(90%). 0.27 
(3%), 0.32 (6%), 0.511 (18%. 

Y*) 

Sb^^^(o,4n) (MarqL50) 

,122 

3.5 m (MathH54a) 
3.4 m (DroB52) 

3.6 m ( YouJ51) 

4 m (MarqL50) 

A 

(MarqLSO), [EC] 
-86.15 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (MarqLSO) 
sep isotopes (YouJSl) 

daughter Xe^^^ (TilDESZ, 
DroBSZ) 

p" 

y 

3. 1 max 

Te x-rays, 0.511 [130%, Y*j, 
0.564, 0.69, 0.78 

Sb^^^ (q, 3n) (MarqLSO) 
Te^^^(p.n) (YouJ51) 

,123 

13.3 h (AndeG65) 

13.0 h (MitA49a) 

13 h (MarqLSO, 
MathH54a, KuzM58a) 

A 

EC (MarqL50) 
no p"*^ (MitA59) 
-88 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (MarqLSO) 
chem, sep isotopes (MitA49a) 
123 

daughter Xe (DroB52, 

MathH54a, TilDESZ) 

y 

e 

Te X-rays, 0. 159 (83%) 
0. 127 

Sb'^‘(Q, 2n) (MarqLSO, 
MitA4 9a, M it A 59, 
GupR60b) 

,124 

4. 15 d (AndeG65) 

4.2 d (DysN58, MitA59) 
4. 1 d (GirR59g) 

4.0 d (LivJ38e) 

4. 5 d (MarqL50) 

3.4 d (AagP57) 


EC 74%. p"^ 26% 
(DysN58) 

EC 75%. p"^ 25% 
(GirR59g) 

EC 71%. p"^ 29% 
(MitA59) 

A 

chem, excit, cross bomb 
(LivJ38e) 

P" 

y 

2. 14 max 

Te x-rays, 0.511 (50%, Y*), 
0.605 (67%), 0.644 (12%). 

0.73 (147o), 1.37 (3%). 1.51 
(4%), 1.69(14%). 2.09(2.0%), 
2.26 ( 1.5%) 

Sb^^\o,n) (MarqL9C, 
LivJ38e) 

Sb*^''(a, in) (M.irqL 




no p, lim 0. 1% 
(MerC6l) 
EC(K)/EC(L) 9 
(MitA59) 








A 

-87.33 (MTW) 






,125 

60.2 d (LeuH64, 
GleG64) 

60.0 d (FrieG51a) 
57.4 d (MatthC60) 
others (KuzM 58a, 
ReidA46a) 

A 

e of decay ( ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A),MeV (C’^=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (<7), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 


45 m (MathH54) 
49 m ( Preil62) 

A 

EC 51%. 49% 

(FrieG62) 

-84 (MTW) 

A 

chem, mass spect (MathH54, 
MicM 54) 

parent Xe (=0.1%), 

parent (MathH54) 

daughter Ba^^^ (Preil62) 
[descendant La^^^] (Preil63) 

^ ' + 

2. 05 max 
0.077, 0.107 

Xe X-rays, 0.112, 0.511 (98%, 
\+) 

125 

daughter radiations from Xe 

Xel25m 

I^^^(a, 6n) (MathH54) 

In“®(N^^,4n)Ba^^^(P+) 

(PreiI62) 


1.6 m (Kaltdv! 54) 

A 

p'*' 82%, EC 18% 
(KalkM54) 
-84.4 (MTW) 

A 

chem, mass spect (KalkM54) 
daughter Ba^^^ (KalkM54) 

+0. ^ 

3.8 max 

Xe X-rays, 0.386 (38%). 0.511 
(164%, V*) 

J 126 

daughter Ba 
(KalkM54) 

Csl" 

6.2h (MathH54, 

Preil63) 

6. 1 h (MicM54, NijG55) 
5.5 h (FinRSOa) 

A 

EC 96.5%, p"^ 3.5% 
(FrieG62) 

-86.4 (MTW, WintG65a) 

A 

chem, mass spect (FinRSOa, 
MicM 54) 

127 

parent Xe (FinR50a) 

parent Xe^^^^ (0.01%) 
(MathH54) 

127 

daughter Ba (LindnM52, 

Preil62) 

descendant (YafL63) 

Y 

e 

P" 

Xe X-rays, 0.125(10%), 0.406 
(72%), 0.511 (7%, V+) 

0.090, 0.119, 0.371 
1. 08 max 

daughter radiations from Xe^^^ 

I^^^(a, 4n) (FinRSOa, 
MicM 54, MathH54) 


3.8 m (LindnMSZ) 
3. 9 m (WapA53a} 

3.5 m (FinR53) 

2.5 xn (MurA55) 

A 

p’^ =51%. EC =49% 
( JhaS6l) 

p'^ 75%. EC 25% 
(HollaJ55) 
-85.92 (MTW) 

B 

chem, genet (FinR51) 

daughter Ba^^^ (FinRSl, 
LindnM52, HollaJ55) 
descendant La^^^ (YafL63) 

e 

Y 

2. 9 max 
0.407 

Xe X-rays, 0.441 (27%), 0.511 

110%, \+), 0.528, 0.576, 0.97 
(1%), 1.12 (1%) 

See also 7*5 of Ba^^^ 

daughter Ba^^^ (FinRSl, 
LindnM52, HollaJ55) 


32. 1 h (SheraE65) 
30.7 h (NijG55) 

31 h (FinR50a) 

A 

EC. no p"^ (FinR50a) 
-88 (MTW) 

A 

chem, mass spect (FinRSOa, 
MicM 54) 

129 

daughter Ba ( Thom C 50, 

FinRSO) 

Y 

e 

Xe X-rays, 0.040 (2%), 0.280 
(3%), 0.320 (4%), 0.375 (48%), 
0.416 (25%), 0.550 (5%) 

0.005, 0.034, 0.057, 0.336, 0.376 

I^^^(a, 2n) (FinR50a, 
JhaS60a, NierW58) 

j V,. = 129 

daughter Ba 

(ThomCSO, FinRSO) 


30 m (SmiA52a, 
MicM54) 

others (FinR50a) 

A 

P+, EC, p' (P+/P’ 27.5) 
(SmiA52a) 

-86.89 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (SmiA52a) 
chem, mass spect (MicM54) 

P" 

p 

Y 

1. 97 max 
0.442 max 

Xe X-rays, 0.511 (Y^) 

I^^^(a, n) (FinRSOa, 
SmiA52a, NierW58) 


9.70 d (GleG64) 

9.69 d (LarN60) 
others (LyoW63, 
YafL49, KatcS47a, 
YuF49, KondESO, 
JosB60) 

A 

EC, no p+ (FinB47, 
CanR51b, KondE50) 

-88.06 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (KatcS47a) 
chem, mass spect (KarrD49) 

daughter Ba^^^ (KatcS47a, 
YuF47, YafL49, CanRSlb) 

... ... V 13 Im 

not parent Xe 

(CanRSlb, SaraB54) 

Y 

Xe X-rays 

_ 130, 131,^-.. 

Ba (n, Y)Ba (EC) 

(KatcS47a, YuF47, 
YafL49, CanRSlb) 


6. 59 d (DeaP64) 

6. 54 d (RobiR62a) 
6.48 d (WhyG60) 
othe r s ( CamM 44 ) 

A 

EC 97%, p+ 0.6%, p" 2% 
(RobiR62a, TayH63) 

P+ 1.2% (JhaS61b) 

-87.19 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (CamM44) 
genet energy levels (BhaK56, 
RobiR62a) 

P" 

p 

Y 

0.40 max 
[0. 7 max] 

Xe X-rays, 0.48 (4%, complex), 
0.668 ( 99%), 1. 138 (0.5%), 
1.320 (0.6%) 

Cs (p,pn) (JhaS6lb, 

RobiR62a, TayH63) 

Xe^^^(p,n) (NierW58) 

Cs^^^(n, 2n) (CamM44, 
LangeLSla) 



% 

A 

cr 

c 

100 (NierA37a, WhiF56) 

- 88.16 (MTW) 

1 34 

28 (to Cs ) 

^ 134m, 

2.6 (to Cs ) 

(GoldmDT64) 







2.046 y (DieL63) 

2.05 y (EasH60) 

1.99 y (FlyK65a) 

2.07 y (WyaE61, 
GeiKW57) 

2. 19 y (Mei-W57) 

2.26 y (EdwJ58) 
others (BayJ58, 

GleLSim, KalbD40, 
ScheiH38, SerL47b) 

A 

(T 

C 

p” (KalbD40) 

no EC, lim 1% (KeiG55) 

no p^, lim 0.00 9% 
(MimWSl) 

-86.79 (MTW) 

136 (GoldmDT64) 

A 

n-capt (AlexK38) 
chem, n-capt, excit 
(KalbD40) 

P" 

Y 

0. 662 max 

0.57 (23%, complex), 0.605 
(98%), 0.796 (99%, complex), 
1.038 ( 1.0%), 1.168 (1.9%), 
1.365 (3.4%) 

Cs^^^(n, Y) (AIexK38, 
ScheiH38, KalbD40, 
SerL47b) 


2.895 h (KeiB6l) 

2.91 h (BaeA60, 
WarhH64) 
others (SlaH45, 
KalbD40, SerL47b) 

A 

IT (GoldhM48a, CaldRSO) 
p" =1% (KeiG55) 

-86.65 (MTW, LHP) 

A 

chem, n-capt (AmaE35, 
MLenJ35a) 
chem, excit, n-capt 
(KalbD40) 

Y 

e 

P” 

Cs X-rays, 0.128 (14%) 
0.005, 0.009, 0.092, 0.122 
0. 55 max 

Cs^^^(n,V) (AmaE35, 
MLenJ35a, KalbD40, 
SerL47b) 


303 


/ A 

iijunrc 

^ Type of decay ( ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(AsM-A),MeV (C"=0); 
Thermal neutron 
1 cross section (<7), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 

■ approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 

. MS 

•■•i' ** 

i. 0 X 10^ y »p act 
(ZclH4 9) 

J. 1 X 10^ y yield 
(SugaN49a) 

1 

A 

lon ;■ I ■ ■ 

Cob: A 1. - 

Br.T .. C r 1 

Dll* 

F itKt. N 









daughter radiations from 

i 


306 


Isotope 
Z A 

Half-life 

Type of decay (f** ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A),MeV (C'’ = 0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (tJ), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 

56®^ 

11 m (SchumR59, 
FritK62a) 
others (Hah042a) 

A 

(3 (Hah042a) 

-77.9 (MTW) 

B 

chem, genet (Hah042a) 

142 

parent La (Hah042a) 

others (Hah03 9a, Hah03 9, 
LangeA40) 

P 

7 

1. 7 max 

La X-rays, 0.080 (t 30), 0.26 
(t 100), 0.89 (t 40), 0.97 
(t 15), 1.08 (t 10), 1.20 
(t 35) 

fission (SchumRS9, 
FritK62, Hah042a) 








daughter radiations from La^^^ 



12 s (WahA62) 

- 

(3~ (Hah042a) 

B 

chem, genet (Hah042a) 
chem (WahA62) 



fission (Hah042a, 
WahA62, FritK62a) 






parent La^"^^ (Hah042a) 





short (DilCSla, DilC51) 

V 

[p“] (DilCSla) 

F 

genet (DilCSla) 

[descendant Xe^^^, ancestor 
Ce^^^] (DilC51a, DUC51) 



144 

descendant Xe from 

fission (DilCSl, 
DilCSla) 

, 125 

5vLa 

<1 m (Preil63) 

V 


F 

chem, genet 

[ancestor (Preil63) 



on In (Preil63) 

, 126 
La 

1.0 m (ShelR61, 
PreiI63) 

• 

[p'*', EC] (ShelR6l) 

B 

chem, cross bomb, genet 
(ShelR6l) 
chem (Preil63) 

parent Ba^^^ {PreU63, 
ShelR6l) 

y 

Ba x-rays, 0.256, 0.511 (7^^) 

5n) (ShelR61, 

PreiI63) 

Sb^^\c^^, 7n) (ShelR61) 

T 127 
La 

3.5 m genet (YafL63) 
3.8 m genet (Preil63) 

• 

[p'’’.EC] (PreU63, 
YafL63) 

B 

chem, genet (Preil63, 
YafL63) 

127 

parent Ba (Preil63) 

ancestor Cs^^*^ (YafL63) 



C^^ on Sb (YafL63) 
on In (Preil63) 

, 128 
La 

4.2 m (PreiI63) 
4.6 m (YafL63) 
6 m (ShelR61) 


[p'^.EC] (ShelR6l) 

B 

chem, cross bomb (ShelR6l) 
chem, genet (YafL63, 
Preil63) 

parent Ba^^^ (Preil63, 
YafL63) 

ancestor Cs^^^ (YafL63) 

Y 

Ba X-rays, 0.279, 0.511 (v"^) 

Sb^^^(C^^, 5n) (ShelR61, 
YafL63) 

Sb^^^(C^^, 7n) (ShelR61, 
YafL63) 

ln^^^(0^^, 3n) (ShelR61, 
PreiI63) 

, 129 
La 

10.0 m (YafL63) 

7.2 m genet (Preil63) 
=24 m ( LavA63) 

A 

[p''',EC] (PreiI63, 
LavA63, YafL63) 

-81 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (Preil63, 
LavA63) 

chem, sep isotopes, cross 
bomb, genet (YafL63) 



C^^ on Sb (YafL63) 
on In (Preil63) 






parent Ba^^^ with 2.20 h 









(YafL63), 2. 1 to 2.4 h 
(LavA63) 









daughter Ce^^^ (LavA63) 




T 130 
La 

8.7 m (YafL63) 
9 m (ShelR61) 

A 

p'*', EC (ShelR61, 
YafL63) 

-82 (MTW) 

A 

chem, cross bomb, genet 
energy levels (ShelR6l) 
chem, sep isotopes (YafL63) 

Y 

Ba X-rays, 0.356, 0.45, 0.511 

(V*), 0.55, 0.72, 0.81, 0.91, 
1.01, 1.19, 1.45, 1.55 

Ba^^°(p, n) (YafL63) 
Sb^^^C^^, 3n) (ShelRbl) 
Sb^^^(C^^, 5n) (SheIR61) 

T 131 
La 

56 m genet (YafL63) 
61 m (CreC60) 

58 m (GranM51) 

#.% 

A 

EC 72%, p"^ 28% 
(CreC60) 
-83.9 (MTW) 

A 

chem, mass spect (GranMSl) 
chem, genet (YafL63) 

parent Ba^^^ (YafL63) 

not parent Ba^^^*^, lim 1% 
(HoreD63a) 

e 

Y 

1. 94 max 
0.078, others 

Ba X-rays, 0.115(23%), 0.169 
(5%), 0.214 (8%), 0.285 ( 17%), 
0.3 64 (20%), 0.417 (20%), 0.455 

Ba^^°(d,n) (CreC60) 

Sb^^^(C^^, 4n) (YafL63, 
HoreD63a) 








(8%), 0.511 (56%, V^^), 0.597 
(7%), 0.878 (4%) 


, 132 
La 

4.5 h (GranMSl) 
4.8 h (WareW60) 
4.2 h (GrigE60) 

A 

P’^ (GranMSl). [EC] 
-83.1 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, mass spect (GranMSl) 
daughter Ce^^^ (WareW60) 

P" 

Y 

3.8 max 

Ba x-rays, 0.47, 0.511 (v"^), 

0.56, 0.66, 0.90 (doublet), 1.03, 
1.22, 1.58, 1.92 

protons on Ba (GranMSl) 

^ 133 
La 

4.0 h (NauR50) 

V 

EC, p'*‘ (weak) (NauRSO) 

A 

chem, mass spect (NauRSO) 

Y 

Ba X-rays, 0.511, 0.8 

Cs^^^(u,4n) (NauR50) 



A 

-85.5 (MTW) 


daughter (StovBSl) 

p"^ 

1. 2 max 








e 

0.26 


, 134 

La 

6.8 m (GirR59a) 
6. 5 m (StovB51) 

V 

p'*' 62%, EC 38% 
(GirR59a) 
p'*' =44%, EC =56% 
(StovB51) 

B 

chem, genet (StovBSl) 
daughter Ce^^"^ (StovBSl) 

Y 

2. 7 max 

Ba x-rays, 0.511 (124%, V*), 
0.605 (6%) 

daughter (StovBSl) 

133 

Cs (a, 3n) (GirRS9a) 



A 

-85.1 (MTW) 







307 


/ A 

Half life 

Type of decay ( y ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A), MeV (C' =0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (£7), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 

1 I 

Ifl.-t h (MoriS65) 
19.8 h (MitA58) 
19. 5 h (ChubJ48) 
other! (NauRSO, 
WcimK-13) 

A 

EC (MounK42, ChubJ48) 

no lim 0.002% 

(MoriS65) 
others (GrenH65, 
MitA58) 

-87.0 (MoriS65, MTW) 

A 

chem (MounK42) 
chem, excit (ChubJ48) 
chem, mass spect (NauRSO) 
135 

daughter Ce (ChubJ48) 

not parent (MoriSfiS) 

V 

e 

Ba x-rays, 0.481 (1.9%), 0.588 
(0.13%), 0.87 (0.24%, complex) 

0.181, 0.444, 0.475 

■ 

Cs^^^(Q, 2n) (ChubJ48, 
NauRSO, MitA58) 

134 

Ba (d,n) (MovinK42, 

WeimK43) 

Ba^^®(p, 4n) (MoriS65) 
Ba^^^(p,n) (WeimK43) 


9.5 m (NauRSO) 

9.0 m (RobeBSO) 

10.0 m (GirR59) 
other! (MauW47) 

A 

EC =67%, p'*’ =33% 
(NauRSO) 

-86.3 (MTW) 

A 

chem (MauW47) 
chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(RobeBSO) 

p" 

V 

1. 9 max 

Ba x-rays, 0.511 (66%, 7*), 
0.818 (2.5%) 

Cs^^^(a,n) (RobeBSO, 
NauRSO, GirR59) 

Ba^^^(d,n), Ba^^^(d, 2n) 
(RobeBSO) 

I 1 

La 

6x10 y sp act 
(BrosA56) 
others (ChubJ48, 
IngM48c, BrosA55) 

A 

EC (BrosA56) 
-88 (MTW) 

A 

mass spect (IngM48c) 
chem (BrosASfi) 

y 

Ba X-rays 

Ce^^^(n, Y)Ce^^^(p") 
(IngM48c, BrosA56, 
BrosASS, ChubJ48) 

^138 

l.lZx 10^^ y sp act 
(GloR57) 

1. 1 X 10 ^ ^ y sp act 
(TurW56) 
others (PriRSl, 
MulhG52a) 

... 

% 

A 

EC =70%, p" =30% 
(GloR57) 

EC 53%, p” 47% 
(TurW56) 

EC =94%, p" =6% 
(MulhG52a) 

0.089 (IngM47e, WhiF56) 
-86.7 (MTW) 

A 

chem, mass spect (IngM47e) 

V 

0.21 max 

Ba X-rays. 0.81 (30%). 1.426 
(70%) 


I *39 
' 

1 

' 


% 

A 

2. 9x lO^^ysp act 
(HohK65) 

% 

A 

(T 

C 

0. 193 (IngM47e) 

-86.6 (MTW) 

1 37 

6.0 (to Ce“ ) 

0.6 (to Ce”^”’) 
(GoldmDT64) 






cel” 

9.0 h {DanbG58) 
8.7 h (BrosASS) 

A 

EC 99+%, pi" SO. 00 9% 
(StonN65a, LHP) 
-86 (MTW) 

A 

chem, n-capt (BrosASS) 
chem, genet (DanbG58) 

daughter (DanbG58) 

daughter Pr^^^ (DanbG58, 
DahC58) 

Y 

e 

La x-rays, 0.446 ( 2.3%, 
complex), 0.481 (0.06%, 
complex), 0.698 (0.04%), 0.92 
(0.10%, complex) 

[0.004, 0,009], 0.408 

137 

daughter Pr 

(DanbGSS, DahC58) 

La”'^(p, 3n) (DanbGSS) 
Ce^^^(n,Y) (FranR64) 
alphas on Ba (BrosASS) 

C^137m 

34.4 h (DanbG58) 
others (BrosASS, 
DanbGSe, ChubJ48) 

A 

IT 99.4%, EC 0.6% 
(StonN65a, LHP) 

-87 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (ChubJ48) 
n-capt, sep isotopes 
(HillRSla) 

137 

parent Ce ^ (DanbG58) 

137 

not daughter Pr (DanbG58) 

Y 

e 

Ce X-rays, 0.168(0.4%), 0.255 
(11%), 0.762 (0.16%), 0.'82S 
(0.5%, complex) 

0.214, 0.248 

daughter radiations from Ce^^^ 

La”^(p, 3n) (DanbGSS) 

Ce^^^(n,Y) (HillRSla, 
KellHSl, FranR64) 
alphas on Ba (BrosASS) 



% 

A 

(T 

C 

0.250 (IngM47e) 

-87.7 (MTW) 

13 9 

1.0 (to Ce^^’) 
0.04 (to Cel^'^) 
(GoldmDT64) 






cel” 

140 d (P001M48, 
PoolM43) 
others (WilleROO) 

A 

EC (EC(L)/EC(K) 0.37) 
(KetB56) 

EC(L) /EC(K) 0.21 
(PruC54) 

-87.16 (MTW) 

A 

chem (PoolM43) 
chem, excit, cross bomb 
(P001M48) 

n-capt, sep isotopes 
(HillRSla) 

daughter Pr^^^ (StovBSl, 
HandT54c, DanbGSS) 

descendant Nd^^^ (StovBSl) 

Y 

La X-rays, 0.165 (80%) 
0.126, 0.159 

Ce^^®(n,Y) (HUlRSla, 
KellHSl, MosASO) 

La^^^(d, 2n) (PoolM43, 
PoolM48) 

Cel'^ 

54 s (JameR60) 
60 s (KotK60) 

55 s (KetB56) 

A 

IT (KetB56) 

-86.41 (LHP, MTW) 

B 

n-capt (KetBS6) 

not daughter Pr^^^ (DanbGSS) 

Y 

e 

Ce X-rays, 0.746 ( 93%) 
0.706, 0.740 

Ce^^®(n, Y) (KetB56) 
La^^^(p,n) (JameR60) 

Cell° 


% 

A 

0" 

c 

88.48 (IngM47e) 
-88.13 (MTW) 

0.6 (GoldmDT64) 






Cel^l 

32.5 d (FreeM SOa) 
33. 1 d (WalkD49a) 
others (PoolM48, 
WilleR60) 

A 

(opr 
/ A 

Half life 

I 

Type of decay ( y ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A 2 M-A),McV (C =0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (C7), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 


t, ^ (a) *5 X 10 *^ y sp 

% 

11.07 (IngM47e) 







act (Mac(K 6 la) 
otherp (SvnF59, 
RU-W57) 

V 

®'c 

no a (MacfR 6 la, SenF59) 
Q (RieW57) 

-84.63 (MTW) 

1 (GoldmDT64) 






^ 14 t 
Ce 

}J h (Va«iI58. 
M»rtiDW56. BallNSld, 
StovBSO. BotW46a) 

14 h (KondESlc, 
WiUeR60) 
others (BunyD49, 
PoolM4 3) 

A 

3 X 10^^ y sp 

% 

100 (IngM48a, CollT57) 







act (PorsW54) 

A 

-86.07 (MTW) 








cr 

c 

12 (GoldmDT64) 







1 9. 2 h ( WyaE6l, 
BotW46a) 

19.3 h (DWirJ42) 
19. 1 h { JensE50) 
others (WilleR60) 

A 

p~ (DWirJ42) 

no EC or lim 0.5% 

(ReynJH50b) 

-83.85 (MTW) 

A 

n-capt (AmaE35, MarsJK35) 

P" 

Y 

2. 1 6 max 
1.57 (3.7%) 

Pr^^^(n, Y) (-AmaESS, 
MarsJK35, PoolM37, 
PoolM38a, DWirJ42, 
SerL47b) 



d 

c 

20 (GoldmDT64) 







13.59 d (PepD57) 

13.76 d (WriH57) 

13.6 d (HoffD63) 
others (FelL4 9, 
BallNSlf, RoyL56, 
PoolM48, MartiDW56) 

A 

(T 

C 

p“ (BallN51e, JoliF44) 
-83.11 (MTW) 

89 (GoldmDT64) 

A 

chem (BallNSie, JoliF44) 
mass spect (HaydR46a) 

143 

daughter Ce (PoolM43, 

BotW46a, BallN51d) 
others (Hah043a. FinBSlc) 

P" 

Y 

0. 933 max 

average (3 energy: 

0.31 calorimetric (HovV64) 

no Y 

142 143 

Ce^^‘^(n, Y)Ce^^''(p ) 
(P001M43, BotW46a, 
BallNSld) 
fission (Hah043a, 
JoliF44, BallNSie, 
FinBSlc) 

P^144 

17.27 m (PepD57) 
17.30 m (HoffD63) 
others (NewA51a, 
SeiJSlb, Hah043a, 
Grum W46) 

A 

p (NewA51a) 
-80.81 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (NewASla. 
Hah043a) 

144 

daughter Ce (Hah043a, 

NewASla) 

P" 

Y 

2. 99 max 

0.695 ( 1.5%), 1.487 (0.29%), 
2.186 (0.7%) 

144 

daughter Ce 

(Hah043a, NewASla) 

Pr^45 

5.98 h (DroB59) 

5.9 h (MarkS54, AlsJ60) 

A 

p' (MarkS54) 
-79.66 (MTW) 

B 

chem, excit (MarkS54) 
chem, sep isotopes (HoffD64) 
145 

daughter Ce (MarkS54) 

P“ 

Y 

1.80 max 

0.072, 0.68, 0.75, 0.92, 0.98, 
1.05, 1.16 

£ission (MarkS54, 
DroB59, AlsJ60, 
Ho££D64) 

146 

Nd (Y,p) (Ho££D64) 

_ 146 

Pr 

24.0 m {HoffD64) 
others (SchumR45a, 
CareA53, GotH46) 

A 

p" (GotH43) 
-76.8 (MTW) 

B 

chem, genet (GotH43) 
146 

daughter Ce (GotH43, 

Hah043a, GotH46, 
CareA53) 

P‘ 

Y 

3. 7 max 

0.455 (77%), 0.74 (16%), 0.78 
(15%), 0.92 (6%), 1.37 (6%), 
1.51 (27%), 1.72 (4%), 2.23 
(4%), 2.39 (3%), 2.73 (1.7%) 

fission (GotH43, 
Hah043a, SchumR45, 
GotH46, BernsW54, 
HoffD64) 

14f» 

Nd (n,p) (RamayA65) 

_ 147 
Pr 

12.0 m (HoffD64) 
12 m ( WilleR60) 

A 

p” (Hof£D64) 

-75.5 (Ho££D64, MTW) 

B 

chem, genet (HoffD64) 

.T.T..147, u* 147 

parent Nd, daughter Ce 

(HoffD64) 

P" 

Y 

2. 1 max 

0.078 (17%, complex?), 0.127 
(9%, complex?), 0,32 (47%, 
complex), 0.56 (3 9%), 0.61 
(10%), 0.65 (24%), 1.26 (11%) 

Nd ( Y, p), fission 

(HoffD64) 

„ 148 
Pr 

2.0 m (HoffD64) 

A 

p“ (Ho££D64) 

-72.9 (Ho££D64, MTW) 

B 

chem, genet energy levels 
(HoffD64) 

148 

daughter Ce (HoffD64) 

P’ 

Y 

4. 2 max 
0.30 

fission (HoffD64) 

o 149 
Pr 

2.3 m (Ho£fD64) 

V 

p" (Ho££D64) 

E 

excit, sep isotopes (HoffD64) 

p‘ 

2.8 max 

Ndl^°(Y,p) (Ho££D64) 







Y 

0.08, 0.155, 0.325, 0.36, 0.745 


Tvtjl37 

60^^ 

55 m (GromK65) 


P'^, [EC] (GromK65) 

B 

chem, atomic level spacing, 
genet (GromK65) 

1 37 

parent Pr (GromK65) 

P^ 

e 

Y 

3 max 
0.067 

[Pr x-rays, 0.109, 0.511 (Y*), 
0. 55 ( complex) ] 

protons on Ta, Er 
(GromK65) 








daughter radiations from Pr^^^, 

cel” 



311 


luiCiipC 

/ A 

Mulflifc 

Type of decay ( ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(Am-A), MeV (C’=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (a), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 

imh'*** 

boN** 

IZ m (StovBSl) 

V 

(StovBBl), [EC] 

D 

chem, excit (StovB51) 

V 

2.4 max 

[Pr X-rays, 0.511 (V*)] 

Pr^“^^(p, 4n) (StovB51) 

Nd‘^» 

■5 h ( GromK64) 

V 

(GromK64) 

F 

chem (GromK64) 



protons on Ta, Er 
( GromK64) 

Nd*'’ 

[«5 hi (GromK63b) 

A 

[EC.p'^j 
-82 (MTW) 

F 

[genet] ( GromK63b) 

[daughter 

(GromK63b) 


..,139m 
see Nd 

[daughter 

(GromK63b) 


5.5 h (StovB51) 
5.2 h (BoncN6l) 

A 

IT {+EC+P'''? ) 
(GromK63b) 

EC =90%, p'*' =10% (with 
(StovBBl) 

-82 (LHP, MTW) 

B 

chem, genet (StovB51) 
atomic level spacing 
(GromK63b) 

139 

ancestor Ce (StovBSl) 

e 

V 

3. 1 max 

0.072, 0.107, 0.189, 0.226 

Nd X-rays, Pr X-rays, 0.114 
(t 80), 0.327 (t 50), 0.511 
(t 1400), 0.73 (t 210, complex), 
0.82 (T 70, complex), 0.90 
(t 25), 0.983 (t 70), 1.03 
(t 30), 1.10 (t 30), 1.24 (T 20), 
1.34 (t 20), 1.48 (t 10), 1.58 
(t 8), 2.05 (T 10) 

139 

daughter radiations from Pr 

139 

daughter radiations from Nd 
included in above listing 

141 

Pr (p, 3n) (StovBSl) 

Nd‘^“ 

3.3 d (WilkG4 9c) 

A 

EC (BrowCI52) 
EC(K)/EC(L) 6 
(BiryE60) 

-84 (MTW), 

A 

chem, excit, genet 
( WilkG49c) 

parent Pr^^^ (WilkG4 9c, 
BrowCI52) 

V 

Pr X-rays 

daughter radiations from Pr^"^^ 

Pr^'^^(p, 2n) (StovB51) 

Pr^^^(d, 3n) (WilkG49c, 
BrowCI52) 

Nd‘^> 

2.42 h (WilkG49c) 

2.5 h (KurbJ42) 

2.6 h (BiryE63) 
others (WilleRbO) 

A 

EC 96%, p'*' 4% (BiryE63) 

EC 98%, p'*' 2% (PolH58) 
others (A1IWL63) 

-84.27 (MTW) 

A 

excit (KurbJ42) 
chem, excit (WilkG49c) 
others (PoolM38a) 

Y 

0.79 max 

Pr X-rays, 0.145(0.2%), 0.511 

(6%, Y^), 1.14 (2%, complex?), 
1.30 ( 1%) 

Pr^^^(p, n) (KurbJ42, 
WilkG49c) 

Pr*‘^^(d, 2n) (WilkG49c, 
PolH58) 

Nd^^*'" 

64 s (JameR60) 
61 s (KotK60) 

A 

[IT] (KotK60) 

-83.52 (LHP, MTW) 

C 

excit (JameR60) 
chem (KotK60) 

Y 

0,755 

Pr^‘*'(p,n) (JameR60) 

Ndllf 


% 

A 

(T 

C 

27.13 (IngM48a) 
27.09 (WalkW53) 
27.3 (WhiFBb) 

-86.01 (MTW) 

17 (GoldinDT64) 






Ndli^ 


% 

A 

6=^ 10^^ y 
(Iso1A65) 

% 

A 

(T 

C 

8.29 (WhiF56, WalkW53) 

8.30 (IngM48a) 

-81.47 (MTW) 

50 (GoldmDT64) 






ktj146 

Nd 


% 

A 

C 

17.18 (IngM48a) 
17.26 (WalkW53) 
17.1 (WhiF56) 
others (IngMBOa) 

-80.96 (MTW) 

2 (GoldmDT64) 







312 


Isotope 
Z A 

Half-life 

Type of decay ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A), MeV (C" = 0); 
Thermal neutron 
cross section (C7), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 

60^-1 

11,06 d (WriH57) 

11.02 d (HoffD63) 

11.1 d (A1 sJ 60) 
others (KondESla, 
RutW52, MarinJSl, 
EmmWSl, BotW46a) 

A 

P (MarinJ47, MarinJSl) 
-78.18 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (MarinJ47, 
MarinJSla) 

147 

parent Pm (MarinJ47, 

MarinJSla) 

147 

daughter Pr (HoffD64) 

P 

e 

V 

0. 8 1 max 
0.046, 0.084 

0.091 (28%), 0.319 (3%), 0.43 
(4%, complex), 0.533 ( 13%) 

147 

daughter radiations from Pm 

Nd*“^®(n, V) (BotW46a, 
MarinJ47, CorkJ48a, 
MarinJSlc) 
fission (MarinJSl) 



% 

A 

<7 

C 

5.72 (IngM48a) 
5.74 (WalkW53) 
5.67 (WhiF56) 
others (IngMSOa) 
-77.44 (MTW) 

4 (GoldmDT64) 







1.8 h (RutW52, 
WilleR60, HoffD64) 
2.0 h (BotW46a, 
PooIM38a) 
others (MarinJ51c) 

A 

p" (PoolM38a) 
-74.41 (MTW) 

A 

excit (PoolM38a) 
chem, genet (MarinJSlc) 

parent Pm^"^^ (KruP52, 
MarinJSlc) 

^ 1 1 

1. 5 max 

0.051, 0.068, 0.079, 0.090, 0.165, 
0.195 

Pm X-rays, 0.114 (18%), 0.156 
(4%), 0.210 (27%), 0.27 (26%, 
complex), 0.327 (5%), 0.424 
(9%), 0.541 (10%), 0.654 ( 9%) 
14 9 

daughter radiations from Pm 

Nd*'*®(n,Y) (PoolM38a, 
BotW46a, MarinJ51c, 
GopK64) 

TVTjlSO 

Nd 

*1/2 >10^^ y sp act 

(DixD54a) 

tj /2 (PP) >2x 10*® y 
sp act (CowC56) 
others (MulhG52) 

% 

A 

5.60 (IngM48a) 
5.63 (WalkW53) 
5.56 (WhlF56) 
others (IngMSOa) 

-73.67 (MTW) 

1.5 (GoldmDT64) 






IVTjlSl 

Nd 

12 m (RutW52, 
MarinJSlc) 
others (WilleR60) 

A 

p“ (RutW52) 
-71.0 (MTW) 

B 

n-capt (MarinJSlc) 
sep isotopes, n-capt, atomic 
level spacing (RutW52) 

parent Pm^^^ (RutW52) 

P 

e 

y 

2. 0 max 
0.072 

Pm X-rays, 0.086 (5%), 0.118 
(40%), 0.138 (6%), 0.174 (10%, 
complex), 0.256 ( 11%), 0.425 
(5%), 0.737 (5%), 0.797 (3%), 
1.122 (2%), 1.180 (9%) 

Nd*®°(n, Y) (RutW52, 
MarinJSlc, SchmL59a, 
FosD65) 

r>„141 

61^^ 

22 m (GratI59) 
20 m (FiscV52) 

A 

p*" 57%, EC 43% 
(GratI59) 
-80.7 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (FiscV52) 
mass spect (GratI59) 

y 

2. 6 max* 

NdX-rays, 0.195(13%), 0.511 
(114%, Y*) 

141 

daughter radiations from Nd 

Pr*'**(Q, 4n) (GratI59) 
142 

Nd (p, 2n) (FiscV52) 

T3 142 
Pm 

40 s (GratI59) 
others (MarsT58) 

A 

p'* =95%, EC =5% 
(GratI59) 

-81.2 (MTW) 

B 

chem, genet (MarsT58) 
excit (GratI59) 

142 

daughter Sm (MarsTSS) 

V 

3.78 max (MarsT58) 
NdX-rays, 0.511 (190%, v"*") 

142 142 

Nd ^(a, 4n)Sm (EC) 
(GratI59, MarsT58) 

Nd*“*^(p, n) (GratI59) 


0.73 y (PagI63, 
BunnL64, FunE60) 
0.78 y (WilkGSOe) 

A 

EC (WUkGSOe) 
-82.9 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (WilkGSOe) 
chem, mass spect (BallNSS) 

Y 

e 

NdX-rays, 0.742 (47%) 
0.698 

Sm*‘*‘*(p, 2n)[Eu*“*®](EC) 
14^ 

Sm (EC) (FunE60) 

Pr*“**(a, 2n) (WUkG50e, 
FiscV52, OfeS59, 
BunnL64) 

14^ 

Nd (p, n) (Pagl63) 


0.96y (BunnL64) 
1.03 y (Pagl63) 

1. 1 y (FunE60) 

1.2 y (TotK59c) 
others (FiscV52) 

A 

EC (FiscV52) 

no p'*, lim 0.2% (OfeS59) 

-82 (MTW) 

A 

chem (FiscV52) 

chem, mass spect (BallN58) 

excit (OfeS59) 

Y 

e 

NdX-rays, 0.474(45%), 0.615 
(99%), 0.695 ( 99%) 

0.430, 0.571, 0.651 

Pr^‘^^(Q,n) (OfeS59, 
TotK59c, FiscV52) 

1 44 

Nd (p, n) (Pagl63, 

SugiyK61, FiscV52) 

t^144? 

Pm 

60 d (PagI63) 

'• 

(PagI63) 

F 

sep isotopes (Pagl63) 

Y 

Y spectrum may be identical to 
144 

1.1 y Pm (Pagl63) 

144 

Nd (p,n) (Pagl63) 

«™145 

Pm 

17.7 y (BrosA59) 
others (ButeFSl) 

A 

EC (ButeFSl) 
a 3 X 10“^% (NurM62) 
-81.33 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (ButeFSl) 
chem, mass spect (BallN58) 
145 

daughter Sm (ButeFSl) 

Y 

e 

NdX-rays, 0.067 (1.0%), 0.072 
(2.3%) 

0.023, 0.028, 0.061 

_ 144, 145,-,.,. 

Sm (n,Y)Sm (EC) 

(ButeFSl, Bros AS 9) 

d™145 

Pm 

16 d (LongJ52a) 


P* (LongJ52a) 

F 

sep isotopes (LongJ52a) 

p" 

0.45 max 

protons on Nd 
(LongJ52a) 


313 




T~ 

Type of decay ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 


Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

r" 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of produaion 

luilopc 
/ A 

lUU-lifc 

1 

(A=M-A), MeV (C 0); 
Thermal neutron 






cross section ((7), barns 







4 •» y (PagI63) 

V 

EC 65%. p" 35% (FunE60 

A 

chem, excit (FiscV52) 

p" 

0. 78 max 

146 

Nd (p, n) (Pagl63, 


1.9 y (FunE60) 

1 y (FiicV52) 

1-2 y ( LongJ52a) 

A 

EC 69%. p" 31% (PagI63) 
-79.52 (MTW) 


chem, sep isotopes, genet 
energy levels (FunEfiO, 
FunE62) 

V 

Nd X-rays, 0.453 (65%), 0.75 
(65%, doublet) 

FiscV52, LongJ52a) 
Nd^'^®(p. 3n) (FunE60) 

Pn,'-’ 

2.62 y ( WheeE65) 


p" (BallNSlg) 

A 

chem (MarinJ47, MarinJ51a) 

p" 

0. 224 max 

146 147 - 

Nd (n,Y)Nd (p ) 


2.60 y (FlyK65a) 
2.64 y (MerW57) 
2.66 y (SchumR56) 

A 

®‘ 

27.8 h (HoffD63) 

V 

p“ (RutW52) 

A 

genet, atomic level spacing 

p~ 

1. 19 max 

Nd^®°(n. V)Nd‘®'(p") 


28.4 h (BunnL60) 

27.5 h (RutW52) 

A 

-73.40 (MTW) 


(RutW52) 
chem (BunnLbO) 

e 

0.003, 0.018, 0.053, 0.058 

(RutW52, BunnL60) 






daughter Nd^^^ (RutW52) 

Y 

Sm X-rays, 0.07 (5%, complex), 
0.10 (7%, doublet), 0.17 (18%, 









complex), 0.24 (5%, complex), 
0.275 (6%), 0.340 (21%), 0.45 
(5%, complex), 0.66 (3%, 
complex), 0.72 (6%, complex), 
others to 0. 96 


*> 

Pm* 

12.5 h (FolR51, 

V 

p” (PoolM38a) 

E 

(PooIM38a) 



deuterons on Nd 


(PoolM38a) 




chem (FolRSl) 



(PoolM38a) 
fission (FolRSl) 


6.5 m (WilleR58, 

#.* 

p“ (WilleR58) 

B 

sep isotopes, excit 

p" 

2. 2 max 

Sm'®^(n,p) (WillcR58. 


WilleR60) 

A 

-71 (MTW) 


(WilleR58) 

genet energy levels (AteA59) 

Y 

[Sm x-rays], 0.122. 0.245 

WillcR60, AtcA59) 


5. 5 m (KotK62) 


p” (KotK62) 

E 

excit, sep isotopes (KotK62) 

p" 

1. 65 max 

Sm*®^(Y,p) (K01K62I 



A 

-70.8 (MTW) 



Y 

0.090 (?), 0.12, 0.18 



2.5 m (WilleR58, 

V 

p“ (WilleR60) 

c 

excit, sep isotopes 

p“ 

2. 5 max 

Sm*®‘‘(n,p| (Will.R t. 


WilleR60) 




(WUleR58) 



WlIIvR60) 

c 142 
62®"" 

73 m (GratI59) 

... 

EC =50%. p4 =50% 

B 

chem (MarsT58) 

Y 

Pm X-rays, 0.15-0.35 (complex). 

Nd*^^(Q. 4n) (Cratl 

72 m (MarsT58) 


(DCapG59) 


excit (GratI59) 

142 

parent Pm (MarsT58) 


0.511 (100%, •»*) 

142 

daughter radiations from Pm 

MarsT'fj. 


„ 143 

Sm 

9.0 m (SUE56) 

V 

EC 52%. p"" 48% 

B 

chem (ButeFSO) 

Y 

Pm x-rays, 0.511 (100%, Y*) 

Nd*'‘''(-.. ■> 


8.9 m (AlfWL63a) 


(DCapG59) 


excit (SUE56) 


-144, 


8.6 m (Gratis 9) 
8.5 m (WilleR60) 
8.3 m (MirM56) 
8.8 m (KotK60) 
others (ButeFSO) 


EC =63%. p'*' =37% 
(Gratis 9) 

Others (SUE56, 
MirM 56) 


chem, sep isotopes (MirM 56) 



MirM *. • > 

M4 

I { si 

p »i4 F. } tr*. 

D* M 



A 

-79.6 (MTW) 







314 


Isotope 
Z A 

Half-life 

Type of decay ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A), MeV (C"=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (C7), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 

<- 143m 

62®"^ 

64 s (KotK60) 

65 s (AlfWL63a) 
61 s (BroaK65) 
others (JameR60) 

A 

[IT] (KotK60) 

-78.8 (LHP, MTW) 

C 

chem (KotK60) 
excit (AlfWL63a) 

Y 

0.748 

144 

Sm (n, 2n) (AlfWL63a) 

144 

Sm (Y,n) (KotK60) 

144 

Sm (p, pn) (JameR60) 

c 144 
Sm 


% 

3.16 (IngM48) 
3.15 (CollT57) 
3.02 (AitK57) 








A 

-81.98 (MTW) 








(T 

C 

=0.7 (GoldmDT64) 






e 145 
Sm 

340 d (BrosA59) 
others (ButeFSl, 
CorkJ48a, IngM47c) 

A 

(7 

C 

EC (ButeF51, RutW52) 
-80.67 (MTW) 

= 100 (GoldmDT64) 

A 

mass spect (IngM47c) 
chem (ButeF51) 

145 

parent Pm (ButeFSl) 

y 

e 

Pm x-rays, 0.061(13%), 0.485 
(3 X 10"^%) 

0.016, 0.054 

145 

daughter radiations from Pm 

144 

Sm (n, Y) (ButeF51, 

RutW52, IngM47c, 
BrosA59) 

e 146 
Sm 

7 

7 X 10 y sp act 
(NurM 64) 

7 

5x10 y yield 
(DunlD53) 

% 

A 

a (DunlD53) 

<2 X 10“'^ (Mac£R60) 
-81.05 (MTW) 

B 

chem, decay charac 
(DunlD53) 


2.46 

147 

Sm (n, 2n) (NurM64) 

alphas on Nd (DunlD53) 

„ 147 

Sm 

1.05 X 10^^ y sp act 
(WriP6l) 
others (DonhD64, 
Mac£R61a, GraeG6l, 
BearG54, BearG58, 
KarrM 60, KarrM 60a, 
LatC47, HosR35, 
PicE4 9) 

% 

A 

(T 

c 

a (HevG32, Lib'W33) 

15.07 (IngM48) 

15.1 (C011T57) 

14. 9 (AitK57) 

-79.30 (MTW) 

= 90 (GoldmDT64) 

A 

chem (HevG32) 
sep isotopes, mass spect 
WeaBSO) 

chem, genet, mass spect 
(RasJ50) 

147 

daughter Pm (RasJSO) 

a 

2.23 


00 

ti /2 (°-) y sp 

act (Mac£R6la) 

*1/2 1.2 X 10*^ y 

Sp act (KarrM60) 

% 

11.27 {IngM48) 
11.35 (C011T57) 
11.22 (AitK57) 

no a (MacfR61a) 
a (KarrM60) 








A 

-79.37 (MTW) 






c 149 
Sm 

>1 X 10^^ y sp act 
{MacfR6la) 

14 

4 X 10 y sp act 
(KarrM60) 

% 

13.82 (AitK57) 
13.84 (IngM48) 
14.0 (C011T57) 

no a (MacfR61a) 
a (KarrM 60) 








A 

-77.15 (MTW) 








(T 

C 

41, 500 (GoldmDT64) 






c 150 
Sm 


% 

7.47 (IngM48, CollT57) 
7.40 (AitK57) 








A 

-77.06 (MTW) 








•‘3 
6i^“ 

3.3 m (KotK65) 

V 

p'*' (KotK65), [EC] 

E 

excit, decay charac (KotK65) 

P" 

4. 0 max 

144 

Sm (d, 3n) (KotK65) 






Y 

0.511 (V*) 


» 144 
£u 

10.5 s (MesR65) 

V 

p'*' (MesR65). [EC] 

c 

excit, decay charac (MesR65) 

p^ 

5. 2 max 

144 

Sm (p.n) (McsR65) 



A 

-75.66 (MesR65, MTW) 



Y 

0.511 (V*) 


Eu‘^“ 

18 m (HoffR52) 

V 

p"^ (HoffR52) 

G 

excit, sep isotopes (HoffR52) 
activity not observed 
(01kJ59b, MesR65) 



144 

protons on Sm 
(HoffR52) 

_ 145 
Eu 

5. 9 d (FrieA63) 
5.6 d (GrovJ59) 
others (HoffR51) 

A 

EC 99%, p'*' 1% (FrieA63) 
-77.9 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(GrovJ59) 

chem, mass spect (FrieA63) 
daughter Gd^"^^ (GrovJ59) 

Y 

Sm X-rays, 0.23?, 0.33?, 0.53 
(complex), 0.656 (t 30), 0.766 
(t 10), 0.894 (t 100), 1.66 (T 16) 

2.00 (T 8) 

Sm‘^^(a, 3n)Gd'‘‘^(EC) 
(GrovJ59, 01kJ59b, 
FrieA63) 

Sm*‘^'^(d,n) (GrovJ59) 






daughter Tb^^'’ (HoffRSl) 

e” 

0.063, 0.103, 0.847 









145 

daughter radiations from Sm 


F 146 
Eu 

4.59 d (TakekE64) 
others (FrieA63, 
GrovJ59, FunE62, 
GoroG58, AntoN59a, 
GoroG57a) 


EC 96.5%, p'*’ 3.5% 
(FunE62) 

EC 95.5%, p'*' 4.5% 
(TakekE64) 
others (FrieA63) 
-77.18 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (GoroG57a, 
GoroG58, GrovJ59) 
chem, mass spect (FrieA63) 
146 

daughter Gd (GoroG58, 

GrovJ59) 

Y 

Sm x-rays, 0.511 (7%, V*), 0.634 
(77%, doublet), 0.666 (12%), 
0.71 (13%, complex), 0.749 
(100%), 0.90 (8%, complex), 
1.058 (7%), 1.16 (6%, complex), 
1.298 (6%), 1.408 (5%), 1.535 
(8%), others to 2.93 

Sm^‘‘^(a, 2n)Gd'^^(EC) 
(GrovJ59, F rieA63) 







P" 

2. 11 max (0.14%), 1.47 max 
(3.3%) 








e 

0.586, 0.702 



38 h (HoffRSl) 
others {FunE62) 


(HoffRSl) 

E 

excit, sep isotopes (HoffRSl) 
chem (FunE62) 

146 

not daughter 50 d Gd 
(FrieA63, AntoN6l) 

1469 

daughter 7 h Gd 
(GuseI57) 

Y 

Y-ray spectrum may be identical 
to that of 4. 59 d Eu^"^^ 

147 

Sm (d, 3n), alphas on 

Sm'"’"’ (HoftR51) 
Sm‘‘‘’(p, 2n) (FunE62) 

Eu'"^ 

21.5 d (FrieA63) 

24 d (SchweC62, 
HoffRSl, RasJ53, 
MackRC53) 

25 d (AntoN58c) 

• 

EC 99.5%, p"*" 0.5% 
(MNulJ64) 
a 0.002% (SUA62, 
TotK64) 

others (HoffRSl, 
FrieA63) 

A 

chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(HoffRSl) 

chem, mass spect (FrieA63) 
147 

daughter Gd (GoroG57a) 

Y 

e 

Sm X-rays, 0.122 ( 20%), 0.198 
(24%), 0.600 (7%). 0.680 (11%), 
0.800 (6%), 0.957 (9%), 1.079 
(9%), 1.25 (1.2%) 

0.030, 0.075, 0.114, 0.151 

Sm‘‘‘^(p,n) (HoffR5l, 
RasJ53, SchweC62) 

Sm*‘*®(p, 2n) (MNulJ64) 
dcuterons on Sm 
(RaBJ53) 



A 

-77.5 (MTW) 



a 

2.91 


_ 148 
Eu 

54 d (WilkGSOc) 
50 d (HoffRSl) 

58 d (SchweC62a) 
53 d (MarinJ51d) 

A 

EC 99+%, p'*' 0.13% 
(BabC63b) 

a 9 X 10"^% (TotK64) 
-76.26 (BabC63b, MTW) 

A 

chem (MarinJSld) 
excit, sep isotopes (HoffRSl, 
MackRC52) 

mass spect (BabC63b) 

Y 

Sm X-rays, 0.413 (18%, complex), 
0.551 (120%, complex), 0.62 
(90%, complex), 0.72 (18%, 
complex), 0.872 (7%), 0.917 
(5%). 0.967 (5%), 1.033 (7%), 
1,16 (5%, complex), 1.345 
(8%), 1.62 (11%, complex) 

Sm***®(p,n) (HorfRM. 
MackRC52. WilkG'Ua. 
SchwcC6fc‘ » ) 

Sm *** ^(d, n) (KurbJ4 ■. 
MarinJ^'ld) 

Sm^***(d. 2n) (BjI*' 







e 

0.02-0.04, 0.51, 0.193, 0.366. 
0.505, 0.544, 0.584 








P^ 

0. 92 max 









2.63 


Eu'4’ 

106 d (Harl061) 
others (AntoN59, 
DzhB62d, WanF62) 

A 

EC (Harl06l, HarmB6l, 
AntoN59) 

_7 

no a, lim 4 x 10 % 

(SiiA62) 

-76 (MTW) 

A 

sep isotopes, excit (HoffR52) 
chem, excit (MackRC53, 
Harl06i, Harl063) 
genet energy levels (JhaS62b, 
AlfV64) 

Y 

e 

Sm X-rays, 0.277 (f 10), 0. .28 
(t 10) 

0.015, 0.021, 0.230, 0.281 

14 ' 

:^m (p. n ) 1 H •i:‘ 

HarM i. 1!.. r 
1 ' 0 

sm ( p. • ' » 1 n j f > r *. 

HArt06i > 


316 





Type of decay ); 




1 




% abundance: Mass excess 


Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 



Principal means 
of production 

Isotope 
Z A 

Half-life 


(A=M-A),MeV (C'-O); 
Thermal neutron 



approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 




cross section ((7), barns 






„ 150 
Eu 

12.55 h (SiiA62) 

V 

90%, EC 9%, p'*' 0.4% 

A 

chem, excit (ButeFSO) 

p" 

1.01 max 

Sm^^°(p.n) (Hof£R52, 

63 

12.8 h (YosY63) 


(GutM65) 


chem, excit, sep isotopes 


1. 24 max 

MackRC52, WilkGSOc, 


13.7 h (MackRC53) 


p" 95%, EC 4%, p'*' 1% 
(YosY63) 

p" 95%, EC 5% (SiiA62) 


{Hof£R52) 

P 

HarmB61, YosY63) 


14.0 h (RiccR62) 

15.0 h (WilkG50c) 
others (WilleR60, 

ButeF50) 



excit, sep isotopes 
(MackRC52) 

parent Gd^^® (KarrM6l, 

Y 

Sm x-rays, 0.334 (4%), 0.406 

(3%). 0.511 (0.8%, Y^^), 0.619 
(0.2%), 0.713 (0.2%), 0.831 

Sm^®°(d, 2n) (YosY63) 


A 

-74.81 (MTW) 


SUA62) 


(0.5%), 0.921 (0.4%, doublet), 
1.165 (0.4%), 1.224 (0.4%), 
1.224 (0.3%), 1.630 (0.09%), 











1.964 (0.2%) 


Eu'50 

=5 y (GutM61) 

V 

EC (HarmB6l, GutM6l) 

A 

chem, genet energy levels 

Y 

Sm X-rays, 0.334 (96%), 0.439 

Sm^^^(p,n) (HarmB6l, 


>5 y (HarmB6l) 




(HarmB61, GutM61) 


(86%), 0.584 (60%), 0.74 
(21%, doublet), 1.049 (9%), 
1.248 (5%), 1.347 (4%) 

GutM61) 







e 

0.287, 0.327, 0.392 




% 

47.77 (HessD48) 
47.86 (CollT57) 








A 

-74.67 (MTW) 








O’ 

5900 (to Eu^^^) 









2800 (to 









(GoldrtiDT64) 






IT 

Eu 

12.7 y ( LocE56, 


EC 72%, p" 28%, p”^ 

A 

n-capt, mass spect (IngM47) 

p” 

1.48 max 

Eu^^^(n,V) (IngM47, 


LocE53) 


0.021% (LHP) 


chem (MarinJ49) 


0 07R, n M n 1 ?n 

SerL47b) 


12.2 y (GeiKW57) 
others (KarrD52, 

A 

-72.89 (MTW) 



P" 

0. 71 max 



KasJ53) 

, complex) 

( WinsL5 Ic) 

TT 157 
Eu 

15. 1 h (DaniW63) 


p" (WinsL51b) 

A 

chem (WinsL51b) 

p" 

1. 3 max 

Gd*^°(p, o) (HarmB62) 


15.4 h (WinsL51b) 

A 

-69.43 (LHP, MTW) 


genet energy levels 
(HarmB62) 

e 

0.004, 0.014, 0.046, 0.056 

neutrons on Gd (KantJ64) 






cross bomb (DaniW63) 

Y 

Gd X-rays, 0.055 ( 5%,), 0.064 







sep isotopes (ShidY64) 


(27%), 0.32 (5%, doublet), 0.37 
(14%,, doublet), 0.413 (27%), 
0.477 (5%,), 0.623 (6%,) 



317 


iMlIupC 

/. A 

HjUlifc 

Type of decay ( ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A). MeV (C' =0); 
Thermal neutron 
cross section (^7), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

1 

Principal means 
1 of production 

6)^“ 

•16 m (MunH65, 
SchlmF65a. DaniW63) 
60 m ( WineLSlb) 

i 

' A 

p" (WinsLBlb) 
-67.1 (MTW) 

B 

chem (WinsLSlb) 
chem, genet energy levels 
(DaniW63) 

y 

2. 5 max 
[0.049, 0.072] 

0.080 (T 100), 0.182, 0.52 (t 25, 
complex), 0.61 (t 8), 0.95 
(t 95, complex), 1.11 (t 11), 
1.19 (t 16) 

! 

;Gd^^°(d, a) (DaniW63) 
'fission (WinsL51b) 

\ 


18. 1 m (MunH65) 

19.0 (IwaT65) 
others (IwaX64, 

ButeFSO, KuroT61b) 

V 

A 

P~ (KuroTblb) 

-66.02 (IwaT65, MTW) 

C 

excit (ButeF50) 

sep isotopes, genet (IwaT64) 

parent Gd^^^ (IwaT64) 

Y 

2. 6 max 

0.07 (42%). 0.09(18%). 0.15(14%), 
0.22(5%), 0.67(21%), 0.73 
(10%), 0.8(11%, complex? ), 1. 1 
(11%, complex), 1.5(5%, 
complex? ) 

'cd^^°(Y,p) (IwaT64, 
j KuroT61b, ButeF50) 

1 

Eu‘‘° 

■2.5 m (TakaK6i) 

A 

p" (TakaK6l) 
-64 (MTW) 

F 

decay charac (TakaK6l) 

P" 

Y 

3.6 m ax 
no Y 

Gd^^°(n,p) (TakaK61) 


^5 m (G^ovJ59) 
others (01kJ59b) 


EC, p"*" (GrovJ59, 
01kJ59b) 

A 

chem, excit, sep isotopes, 
genet (GrovJ59) 

145 

parent Eu (GrovJ59) 

p" 

Y 

2.4 max 

EuX-rays, 0.511 (y"^), 0.80 (t 9) 
1.03 (t 10), 1.75 (t 100, 
complex? ) 

Sm^^^(a, 3n) (GrovJ59, 
01kJ59b) 

Cd‘^‘ 

50 d (FrieA53) 

46 d (GrovJ59) 
others (AntoN59a, 
GoroG58, GoroG57a, 
01kJ59) 

A 

EC (GoroG58) 

EC =99%, p'*' =1% 
(FrieA63) 

-76 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (GoroG57a, 
GoroG58) 

chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(GrovJ59) 

chem, mass spect (FrieA63) 
146 

parent Eu (GoroG58, 

GrovJ59) 

Y 

EuX-rays, 0.078 (T 30), 0.115 
(t 100, complex), 0.155 (T 45) 

0.066, 0.106 

daughter radiations from 4.59 d 

„ 146 
Eu 

144 

Sm (a, 2n) (GrovJ59, 

FrieA63) 


7 h (01kJ59, SunKSla) 
12 h genet (GuseI57) 

V 

Q (SunKSla) 
a, [EC] (01kJ59) 

F 

chem (GuseI57, 01kJ57) 

4. u r- 146? 

parent 38 h Eu 
(GuseI57) 

Y 

0.22, 0.34, 0.55, 0.72 

alphas on Sm (SunKSla) 
protons on Tb (01kJ59) 
protons on Ta (GuseI57) 

Gd‘4^ 

35 h (AntoN58c) 
ZZ h (FrieA63) 
29 h (ShirV57) 

A 

EC, no p^, lim 1.2% 
(ShirV57) 

p^ (weak) (FrieA63) 
-75 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (GoroG57a) 
chem, excit (ShirV57) 
chem, mass spect (FrieA63) 
147 

parent Eu (GoroG57a) 

147 

daughter Tb (TotK60) 

Y 

e 

EuX-rays, 0.229 (t 150). 0.39 
(t 85, complex), 0.64 (t 70, 
complex), 0.77 (T 60, complex), 
0.932 (t 60), 1.10 (t 19, 
complex) 

0.181, 0.221, 0.321, 0.348, 0.388 
147 

daughter radiations from Eu 

144 

Sm (2 is highly improbable 
(LHP) 

p' 

2. 34 max 

alphas on Eu (RolM53) 

Tbt<157] 

>17 h (RolM53) 


p*' (RolMB3) 

G 

chem (RolM53) 
probably a mixture of 

Tb*5^ Tb*5^ and Tb*^^ 
(LHP) 

e 

3. 1 max 

0.076, 0.088, 0.126, 0.153, 0.20 

alphas on Eu (RolM53) 


319 


Ivilopc 

/. A 


6i‘ 


Tb 


Tb 


15Z 


Tb 


155 




Type of decay ); 






iijir-lifc 


% abundance; Mass excess 
(A = M-A), MeV (C“-'=0); 
Thermal neutron 


Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 


Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 



cross section (^7), barns 






4 10 h (TotKbOa) 

V 

EC 84%, a =16%. no p''' 

A 

chem, mass spect (RasJSO, 

7 

Gd X-rays, 0.16, 0.35 

Pr^‘^^(C^^, 4n) (TotK59) 

4 ^ h (BruniE65) 


(TotK60a, RasJ53, 


TotK60a) 

e 

0.115, 0.127, 0.157, 0.301, 0.338, 

Eu^^^(a, 6n) (RasJ53) 

othert (RasJ53, 


RolM 53 ) 


parent Eu^^^(HoffR51) 


0.587 

SurY 57) 


-71.4 (MTW) 


daughter (TotK59) 

a 

3.95 






daughter (MaefRfiZ) 

descendant Er^^^ (MacfR63a) 


daughter radiations from Gd^^^ 


4- 3 m (MacfR62, 

V 

[IT+EC4P'''] 99+%, 

B 

excit, cross bomb, genet 

V 

[Tb X-rays] 

_ 139,^16, , 

La (O, 6n) 

MacfR64) 


Q 0.0Z5% (MacfR64) 


(MaefRfiZ) 

149 

parent Tb (MaefRfiZ) 

a 

3.99 

149 

daughter radiations from Tb 

(MaefRfiZ, MacfR64) 

3. 1 h (TotK59d, 

#.* 

EC, p'*' (TotK59d, 

A 

chem, mass spect (TotK59d, 

p" 

3. 6 max 

protons on Gd 

TotKbOa, BoncN6l) 


TotK60, BoncN6l) 
no a, lim 0.05% 
(TotK60a) 


TotK60a) 

V 

Gd x-rays, 0.511 (T 100, v"^), 
0.637 (t 100), 0.93 (T 35) 

(TotK59d, TotK60a) 


A 

-71.03 (MTW) 






18 h (TotKbOa, 


EC 99+%, a 0.0005% 

A 

chem, excit (RasJ53, 

V 

Gd X-rays, 0.108 (35%). 0.18 

Eu^®^(u,4n) (TotK58a, 

BaranVSS) 


(MacfR64) 


MihJ57a, TotK58a) 


(18%, doublet). 0.252 (35%). 

MacfR64) 

19 h (RasJ53) 


-71.6 (MTW) 


chem, genet (BaranV58) 


0.Z88 (3Z%), 0.40 (complex), 

protons on Gd (TotK60a, 

20 h (MihJ57a) 



chem, mass spect (TotK60a) 


0.44 (complex), 0.48 

HarmB62) 

Others (TotK58a, 
AntoN58) 




parent Gd^^^ (BaranV58) 


(complex), 0.60 (complex), 
0.7Z (complex). 0.87 







e 

0.058, 0.100, 0.130, O.ZOZ, 0.Z37 







a 

3.42 


17.4 h (TotKbOa) 


EC =80%. p"^ =20% 

A 

chem, genet energy levels 

p'^ 

Z. 8Z max 

Eu^®^(a, 3n) (TotK59b) 

18.5 h (TotK59b) 


( GromK65a) 


(TotK59b) 


0.221, 0.263, 0.294, 0.336, 0.382, 
0.536, 0.565, 0.607 

protons on Gd (TotKfiOa, 

19.6 h (StriA62) 




chem, mass spect (TotKfiOa, 


StriA62) 

Others (BoncNbO, 


(TotK59b) 
-70.5 (MTW) 


StriAfiZ) 



BoncN 6 1, AbdurA60a ) 

A 


daughter (BasiA60a) 

Y 

Gd X-rays, 0.271 ( T 13), 0.344 
(t 100), 0.411 (T 6), 0.586 








(T 14), 0.779 (T 14), 0.974 
(t 10), I.IZ (f 10, complex), 
1.31 (f 11, complex), 1.60 
(t 7, complex), 1.95 (t 8, 
complex), Z.40 (t 9, complex), 
Z.70 (T 6, complex) 


4.0 m (01kJ59a) 

V 

EC, p’*', a 0.002% 

C 

excit, cross bomb, sep 

Y 

Tb x-rays, 0.14, 0.23, 0.511 (v"^) 

_ 151,, , -.152, 

Eu (a, 3n), Gd (p»n) 



(01kJ59a) 


isotopes (01kJ59a) 



(01kJ59a) 

55 h (TotKbOa) 

... 

EC (MihJ57a) 

A 

chem, excit, genet 

Y 

Gd X-rays, 0.083 ( 11%, complex), 

protons on Gd (MihJ57a, 

63 h (StriA61) 


-71 (MTW) 


(MihJ57a) 


0.11 (12%, complex), 0.17 (9%, 

HarmB62, TotKfiOa) 

62 h (MihJ57a) 



chem, genet (BaraV58) 


complex), O.ZiZ (30%), 0.Z50, 


Others (TotK59a, 




chem, mass spect (TotKfiOa) 


0.33, 0.88 


Bara V 58, AntoN58) 




parent (MihJ57a, 

e 

0.012, 0.034, 0.037, 0.040, 0.044, 






BaraV58) 


0.052, 0.057, 0.162 






daughter Dy^^^ (DobA58) 


daughter radiations from Gd^^^ 


21.0 h (TotK60a) 

... 

EC. p''' =0.5% (?) 

A 

chem, excit (WilkGSOc) 

Y 

Gd x-rays, 0.123, 0.187, 0.248, 

Eu‘^'(o,n) (WilkGSOc) 

17 h (WilkGSOc, 
RolM53, HandT55b) 
Others (MihJ57a, 
AntoN58, HenrR59, 
TotK59a) 

A 

( WUkGSOc) 
-70 (MTW) 


chem, genet energy levels 
(MihJ57a) 

chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(HandT55b) 

chem, mass spect (TotKfiOa) 

e 

0.30 (complex), 0.347, 0.53 
(complex), 0.65 (complex), 
others to 2. 5 

0.073, 0.115, 0.122, 0.198 

Eu*^^(a, 3n) (TotK59a) 
protons on Gd 

(HandTSSb, MihJ57a, 
TotK60a) 





not daughter Dy 








(MacfRPl) 




8. 5 h (TotK60a) 

V 

EC. p'*' (? ) (HandT55b) 

A 

chem, excit (HandT5 5a) 

Y 

Gd X-rays, 0.123, 0.18?. 0.248, 

protons on Gd H, 

=7.5 h (HandT55b) 


-70 (MTW) 


chem, genet energy levels 


0.53 (complex), 0.65 (complex) 

MihJ57.-i, TotK60a) 

8 h (MihJ57a) 



(MihJ57a) 

chem, mass spect (TotK60a) 

e 

0.073, 0.115, 0.122, 0.198 






not daughter Dy 








(Mac£B.6l) 




5.6 d (MihJ57a) 

... 

EC (MihJ57a, HarmB6Z) 

A 

chem, excit (WilkGSOa) 

Y 

Gd x-rays, 0.087 (37%), 0.105 

protons on C<‘ O V* J 7. 

5.4 d (TotK60a) 


-71 (MTW) 


chem, sep isotopes, genet 


(25%), 0.163 (8%, complex). 

Hand! b. 

4.5 d (DzhB58) 



energy levels (MihJ57a) 


0.180(8%), 0.262 (7%), 0 468 


Others (AntoN58) 




chem, mass spect (TotKfiOa) 


(4%) 






others (HandT55b) 
daughter Dy^^^ (GoroG57a, 

e 

0.011, 0.034, 0.053, 0.078, 0.1 10, 







0.129, 0.210 






DobA58, MayM64) 



1 


320 


Isotope 
Z A 

. — 

Half-life 

Type of decay ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A),MeV (C'=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (^7), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 

1 

65^*’ 

5. 1 d (TotKbOa) 

5.3 d (HenrR59) 

5.6 d (MihJ57a) 
others (HandT55b» 
WilkG50a, ButeF49, 
AntoN58, HolloJ59) 

A 

EC, p (weak), no 
(HandT55b) 

no p” (HolloJ59, 
OfeS59a) 

-70 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (HandTSSb) 
chem, genet energy levels 
(MihJ57a) 

V 

Cd x-rays, 0.089 ( 17%), 0.199 
(40%), 0.356 ( 13%), 0.535 
(70%), 1.065 ( 12%), 1. 16 
(17%, complex), 1.22 (29%), 
1.42 (15%), 1.65 (5%), 1.85 
(4%) 

Eu^®^(a,n) (HansP59. 
OfeS59a, WilkC50a) 

Cd^^^(p.n) (WilkC50c) 







e 

0.039, 0.081, 0.087, 0.149 



5.5 h (MihJ57, 
HandT55b) 

5.0 h (WilkGSOa) 

■ 

IT (MihJ57, MihJ57a) 
EC, <25% (WilkGSOa) 

P (weak), no p^ 
(HandT55b) 

B 

chem, excit (WilkGSOa, 
HandTSSb) 

chem, sep isotopes (MihJ57) 
chem, mass spect (TotK60) 

V 

e 

[Tb L X-rays, Tb K X-rays 
(weak), 0.088 (weak)] 

0.036, 0.081 

daughter radiations from Tb^^^ 

Gd^^^(p,n) (HandTSSb, 
MihJ57) 



A 

-70 (LHP, MTW) 






Tb'57 

1. 5 X 10^ y sp act 
(Fujl64) 

3 X 10^ y sp act 
(GrigE64) 
others (IwaS63) 

A 

EC (BhaM62, FujI64, 
IwaS63) 

-70.71 (MTW) 

A 

chem, mass spect (NauRSOa, 
TotK60a) 

chem, sep isotopes, cross 
bomb (BhaM62) 

daughter Dy^^^ (IwaS63, 
Fujl64) 

Y 

Gd X-rays 

Dy^^^(n, V)Dy^^'^(EC) 
(NauR60a, BhaM62) 

Cd^^^(p.n) (BhaM62) 

Cd'^^(a.3n)Dy^^^(p") 
(IwaS63, Fujl64) 

Tbl58 

1.2 X 10^ -/ (LewisH61) 
Others (TotK60a, 
HandT55b, GovN58) 

A 

EC 86%, p“ 14%, no p’*', 
lim 2% (BhaM62) 

-69.43 (MTW) 

A 

chem (ButeFfiO) 
chem, mass spect (NauR60a) 
chem, cross bomb, sep 
isotopes (BhaM62) 

p" 

e 

V 

0.85 max 

0.029, 0.044, 0.072, 0.078, 0.092, 
0.132 

Gd X-rays, 0.080 (12%). 0.182 
(10%), 0.782 ( 10%), 0.95 (69%, 
doublet), 1.110 (2.2%), 1.190 
(1.8%) 

Dy^^^(n.’y)Dy^^'^(EC) 
Tb^^^Vn. V) (NauR60a, 
BhaM62, LewisH61, 
NauR62) 

T^lSSm 

10.5 s (SchmW65, 
GovN58) 

n.O s (HammC57) 
iO.2 s (BroaK65) 
others (HandT55b, 
P001M38) 

A 

IT (HandTSSb) 
no p (lim 0.6%), no p^ 
(lim 0.04%), no EC. 
(lim 1.5%) (SchmW65) 

-69.32 (LHP, MTW) 

C 

excit (GovN58, HammC57) 

e 

Y 

0.060, 0.102 

Tb X-rays, 0.110 (0.5%) 

Tb^^’(n, 2n) (SchmW65) 

Tb^^’(V,n) (CovN58, 
HammC57) 


tj /2 >5 X 10^^ y 

% 

100 (HessD48, CollT57) 







sp act (PorsW54) 

A 

-69.53 (MTW) 








(T 

C 

46 (ColdmDT64) 






Tb'^° 

72. 1 d (HoffD63) 

72.3 d (KreK54) 

73.0 d (ThirH57) 
others (BotW46a, 
BursS50, SmiRR56, 
IngM47c, KriN48, 
CorkJ50e, CorkJ48a) 

A 

(T 

c 

p” (BotW43) 
no EC(K). lim 0.5% 
(ClarM57) 

-67.85 (LHP, MTW) 
525 (ColdmDT64) 

A 

n-capt (BotW43) 
mass spect (IngM47c) 
chem (FolR51) 

e 

Y 

1.74 max (0.4%), 0.86 max 
0.033, 0.079, 0.085 

Dy X-rays, 0.087 ( 12%), 0.197 
(6%), 0.299 (30%), 0.879 
(31%), 0.966 (31%, complex), 
1.178 (15%), 1.272 (7%) 

Tb'^^(n,V) (BotW43, 
BotW46a, SerL47b) 

Tbl^^ 

6.9d (Hof£D63, BisA56) 
6.8 d (ButeF4 9, 
SmiRR56) 

7.2 d (BaranS58, 
FunL64, HeiR50, 
CorkJ56a) 
others (CorkJ52c, 
BarlR55a) 

A 

p“ (KriN48) 
-67.47 (MTW) 

A 

excit (KriN48) 
chem, excit (KetB49c) 
genet energy levels 
(CorkJ56a, SmiW56b) 

daughter Cd^^^ (KetB49c) 

P" 

e 

0.59 max (10%), 0.52 max 
0.017, 0.040, 0.048 

Dy X-rays, 0.026 (21%), 0.049 
(19%), 0.057 ( 5%), 0.075 
(10%) 

Gd (n, Y) Gd (P ) 

(KetB49b, KetB49c) 

Tb'^^ 

7.48 m (SchnT65) 

A 

[p"] (SchnT65) 
-65 (MTW) 

B 

genet energy levels, excit 
(SchnT65) 

Y 

Dy X-rays, 0.040 (t 17). 0.081 
(t 8), 0. 140 (t 6), 0. 180 (T 26), 
0.258 (t 100), 0.81 (t 44), 0.89 
(T 54) 

Dy^^^(n,p) (SchnT65) 







e 

[0.027, 0.072] 


Tb'^^ 

2.24 h (SchnT65) 
2 h (FalK57) 

A 

[p'l (FalK57) 
-65 (MTW) 

C 

chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(FalK57) 



Cd^^°(a, pn) (FalK57) 

Tb'^2 

6.5 h (AlsJ60, 
TakaK62) 
others (FalK57) 

A 

p” (TakaK62) 
-64.7 (MTW) 

B 

chem, excit (fission yield) 
(Alsj60) 

sep isotopes (TakaK62) 

Y 

1.65 max 

Dy X-rays, 0.025, 0.235, 0.330, 
0.510 

Cd^^°(a, p) (FalK57) 
Dy^^^(V.p) (TakaK62) 
high energy fission 
(AlsJ60) 

Tb'^^ 

7 m (WilleR60) 


[p“] (WilleR60) 

E 

sep isotopes, excit 
( WilleR60) 

possibly identical to 7.5 m 
Tb'^^ 

Y 

0. 18 

Dy‘^^(n, p) (WilleRbO) 

^^162, 163 

14 m (ButeFSO) 



F 

excit (ButeFSO) 



gammas on Dy (ButeFSO) 


321 


/ A 

Half-life 

r~ 

Type of decay ( y ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A), MeV (C -O); 
Thermal neutron 


Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 


Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 




cross section (C7), barns 







23 h (AUJ60) 

— ' 

V 

A 

[p"] (Alsj60) 
-62 (MTW) 

D 

chem, excit (fission yield) 
(AlsJfiO) 



high energy fission 
(AlsJ60) 


10-20 m (TotK59, 
TotK58a) 

V 

EC (TotK58a, TotK59) 

C 

excit, genet (TotK59, 
TotK58a) 



Pr*‘^*(N*‘*, 6n) (TotK59, 
TotK58a) 






parent Tb*^^ (TotK59) 




Dy‘^“ 

7. i m (MacfR64) 
8 m (TotK59) 

7 m (RasJ53) 

M 

A 

EC, p'*, a (TotK59) 

EC-tp'* 82%, Q 18% 
(MacfR64) 

-69 (MTW) 

c 

cross bomb (RasJ53) 
excit (TotK5 9) 

1 fiO 

daughter Ho (MacfR63) 

daughter Er^^^ (MacfR63) 

Y 

a 

Tb x-rays, 0.39, 0.511 (V*) 
4.23 

daughter radiations from Tb^^^ 

14 1 14 

Pr (N, 5n) (TotK59) 

Ce‘^°(0*^, 6n) 

(MacfR64) 

159 

Tb^^^(p, lOn) 

(RasJ53) 

Dy‘®‘ 

18.0 m (MacfR64) 

19 m (TotK59, RasJ53) 

A 

p"* -3 EC 94%, Q 6% 
(MacfR64) 

-69 (MTW) 

B 

cross bomb (RasJ53) 
excit (TotK5 9) 

daughter 35.6 s Ho^^^ 
(MacfR63) 

a 

Y 

4.06 

Tb X-rays, 0.145, 0.511 (Y^*) 
daughter radiations from Tb 

14 1 14 

Pr (N ,4n) (TotK59) 

_ 140, _16., 

Ce (O, 5n) 

(MacfR64) 

Tb*^^(p, 9n) (RasJ53) 

n ‘52 
Dy 

2.41 h (SiiA62) 

2.3 h (MacfR64, 
Ra8j53, SurY57, 
BasiA60a) 

2.5 h (TotK58a) 

A 

EC, p'* (? ), a (RasJ53, 
TotK59) 

Q 0.05% (Mac£R64) 
-70.11 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (RasJ53, 
TotKSSa) 

chem, genet (BasiAbOa) 
parent 18 h Tb^^^ (BasiAbOa) 

daughter 52.35 
(Mac£R63) 

Y 

a 

Tb X-rays, 0.257, 0.511 ? (Y"*") 
3.65 

daughter radiations from 18 h 

Tb*5^ 

14 1 14 

Pr (N. 3n) (TotK59) 

Gd*^^(a, 4n) (TotK58a, 
Mac£R64) 

‘53 

Dy 

6.4 h (MacfR64) 
5. 5 h (RydH62) 
5.0 h (TotK58a) 
6.4 h (DzhB6la) 
others (DobA58, 
GoroG57a) 

A 

EC, Q 0.0030% (MacfR64) 
-69.2 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(TotKSSa) 

chem, mass spect, genet 
(DobA58) 

parent Tb^^^ (DobA58) 

Y 

e 

Tb X-rays, 0.08 (complex), 

[0.25 (complex)], others 

0.029, 0.047. 0.072, 0.091, 0.192, 
0.202 

3.48 

Gd*^^(a, 3n) (TotK58a, 
Mac£R64) 








daughter radiations from Tb^^^ 


n *54 
Dy 

>10 y (MacfR61) 

V 

a (MacfR6l) 

B 

chem, excit (MacfRbl) 

a 

2.85 

Gd*^‘*(a,4n) (MacfR61) 


*1/2 

act (MacfR6l) 

A 

-70.5 (MTW) 


not parent 21 h or 8.5 h 
Tb*^'^ (Mac£R61) 




^ 154m 
Dy 

13 h (TotK58a) 

V 

a (TotKSSa) 

B 

chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(TotKSSa) 


3.37 

Gd‘^^(a, 4n) (TotK58a) 

r. *55 
Dy 

10.2 h (PersL63c, 
PersL64a) 
others (MayM64, 
TotK58a, GoroG57a, 
BoncN60, DzhB58a, 
DobA58, MihJ57a) 

A 

EC (TotK58a) 
p^ 2% (PersL63c) 
-69 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (MihJ57a) 
chem, mass spect (DobA58) 

parent Tb^^^ (GoroG57a, 
DobA58, MayM 64) 

daughter Ho^^^ (DalBbOa, 
KalyA59, BasiAbl) 

Y 

TbX-rays, 0.227 (68%), 0.52 
(8%, complex), 0.65 (5%, 
complex), 0.74 (4%, complex), 
0.91 (5%, complex), 1.000 (6%), 
1.091 (5%), 1.16 (6%. complex), 
1.250 (4%), 1.39 (3%), 1.45 
(4%). 1.66 (2%) 

Tb'^’(p, 5n) (MihJ57a, 
PersL64a) 

Gd'^^(a, 2n), 

Gd*^'*(a, 3n) (TotK58a) 
Gd'^^(o,n) (TotK61) 







p" 

1.08 max (0.14%), 0.85 max (2%) 








e 

0.013, 0.038, 0.057, 0.175 









daughter radiations from Tb^^^ 


o ‘56 

2l 

*1/2 <“> y 

sp act (RieW 58) 

% 

A 

0.0524 (IngM48d) 
0.057 (CollT57) 
-70.9 (MTW) 








0" 

c 

=3 (GoldmDT64) 






n *57 
Dy 

8. 1 h (PersL63b) 

8.2 h (MayM64, 
HandT53. RayG63) 

others (DobA58, 
GoroG57a) 

A 

EC, no p'* (HandT53) 
-70 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (HandT53) 
chem, sep isotopes (TotKbl) 
chem, mass spect (DobA58) 

parent Tb^^^ (IwaS63, 

Fujl64) 

Y 

e 

Tb X-rays, 0.326 ( 91%) 

0.009, 0.031, 0.052, 0.074, 0.274 

Tb‘^’(p, In) (HandT ., 
PoriL63b) 

Gd*^‘*(a,n) (ToiK61) 

n ‘58 

2s 


% 

0.0902 (IngM48d) 
0.100 (CollT57) 








A 

-70.37 (MTW) 








(T 

C 

100 (GoldmDT64) 






‘59 

Dy 

144 d (KetB59) 

151 d (HoffD63) 
138 d (RayG63, 
MayM 64) 

others (ButeFSla, 
KetB49, BjoS61, 
GrigE60a) 

A 

EC (KetB49) 
-69.15 (MTW) 

A 

chem, n-capt (KetB49) 
chem, cross bomb (ButeFSla; 
genet energy levels (MihJ57a) 

1 

y 

1_ 

TbX-rays, 0.058 (4%), 0.148 
(9 X 10"'*%) 

0.006, 0.04 9, 0,056 

Dy * *'(n, 1 • ( 1.1 !■ 

B It. 1 4 • 1! 

3 b‘ '( (J • 

Tb* ' p, K ■ 


322 


Isotope 
Z A 

Half-life 

Type of decay ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A),MeV (C'^=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section ((7), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 



% 

A 

2.294 (IngM48d) 
2.3 5 (CollT57) 

-69.67 (MTW) 






exii' 


% 

A 

c 

18.88 (IngM48d) 
-68.05 (MTW) 

600 (GoldmDT64) 








% 

A 

0 

parent Dy (MacfR63) 



^ 141,^16 _. 
Pr (O, 7n) 

(MacfR63) 

ry 151 
Ho 

35.6 s (MacfR63) 

• 

P'1 + EC 80%. a 20% 
(MacfR63) 

B 

excit, cross bomb, genet 
(MacfR63) 

parent Dy^^^ (MacfR63) 

a 

y 

4.51 

[Dy X-rays, 0.511 (V^^)] 

151 

daughter radiations from Dy, 

Tb‘^^ 

Pr^‘^^(0^^, 6n) 
(MacfR63) 

u 151 
Ho 

42 s (MacfR63) 

• 

a =30%, p"^ + EC =70% 
(MacfR64) 

C 

excit, cross bomb (MacfR63) 

y 

4.60 

[Dy X-rays, 0.511 (V*)] 
daughter radiations from Dy^^\ 
Tb'"^ 

0^^ on Nd'“^^ (MacfR63) 

„ 152 
Ho 

52.3 s (MacfR63) 


[EC-lp'^] 81%, a 19% 
(MacfR63) 

B 

excit, genet (MacfR63) 
parent Dy^^^ (MacfR63) 

a 

4.45 

„ 141,^16., 
Pr (O, 5n) 

(MacfR63) 



323 


U.i»pc Half life 

/. A 


Type of decay ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A),McV (C”=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section {(J), barns 


Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 


Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 


Principal means 
of produaion 


Ho'^“ 2 •» m (MacfR63) 

*4 m (RasJ53) 


I m (MayM64) 


7 m (LagP66) 


Ho*®® i 50 m (LagP65, 
KalyA59) 

46 m (DalBbOa) 


Ho*®® I 55 m (LagP56, 

I BasiAfil) 

I 57 m (Grig£60d) 

! others (MihJ57a) 


Ho*®^ 14 m (LagP66) 


Ho*®® i 11.5 m (SchepH62) 
11m (StenT65a) 


Ho*®®'" '< 29 m (SchepH62) 

I 27 m (DneI60, 
j GromKfila) 

I 22 m (LagP66) 

I others (BasiAfii, 
I BoncNfila) 


159 


159m 


160 


33 m ( LagP66, 
TotK58) 

35 m (MayM64) 


6. 9 s ( BorgJ66) 


25.6 m (StenT65, 
StenT65a) 

28 m (TotK58. 
MayM 64) 

22.5 m (WilkGSOa) 
==33 m (GoroG57a) 
=22 m (HandT54a) 


[EC+p"*] =70%, 
(MacfR63) 
-63.8 (MTW) 


=30% 


[EC+p'*], Q 0.3% 
(MacfR63) 

-65.0 (MTW) 


[q] (MayM 64) 


p'*. Leg] (LagP66) 
-65 (MTW) 

[EC], p"* (KalyA59) 


[EC] (MihJ57a) 
P'* (GrigE60d) 


p*", [EC] (LagP66) 


EC, no p, lim 10% 
(SchepH62) 

-66.33 (MTW) 


IT (AbdurA6l, 
GromK6la) 

[EC], p'* (BoncN61a) 
-66.26 (LHP, MTW) 


EC (TotK58) 
-67 (MTW) 


IT (BorgJ66) 

-67 (LHP, MTW) 


EC 99+%, p =0.4% 
(GrigE59d) 
others (WilkGSOa) 

-66.4 (MTW) 


excit (RasJ53) 

excit, cross bomb (MacfR63, 
MacfR64b) 

daughter (MacfR63a) 


excit (Mac£R63) 

genet (MayM64) 

145 

ancestor Eu (MayM 64) 
chem, mass spect (LagP66) 


chem, genet (KalyA59, 
DalB60a, BasiA6l) 
mass spect (LagP66) 

parent Dy^^^ (DalB60a, 
KalyA59, BasiA61) 


chem, sep isotopes 
(MihJ57a) 

chem, mass spect (LagP66) 


[chem], mass spect (LagP66) 


chem (Dnel60) 

chem, excit (SchepH62) 

chem, genet (StenT65a) 

daughter (StenT65a) 


chem (Dnel60) 

chem, excit (SchepH62) 

mass spect (LagP66) 

daughter Er^^^ (GromK6la, 
BoncN61a, AbdurA6l) 

parent Ho^^® (StenT65a) 


chem, excit (TotK58) 
chem, sep isotopes (MayM64) 
1 *^9 

daughter Er (AbdurA6la) 


excit 

ene 


sep isotopes, genet V 
Jrgy levels (Borgj66) 


excit (WilkGSOc) 
chem (HandT54a) 
chem, sep isotopes, excit 
(MayM 64) 

daughter Ho (GrigE62b) 

not daughter Er^^^, lim 5% 
{DzhB63e) 


3.92 


Pr*“^*(0*®, 5n) 
(MacfR63) 


„ 141 ,_16 ,. 
Pr (O, 4n) 

(MacfR63) 


protons on Dy (MayM64) 


[Dy X-rays], 0.335, 0.511 CY ) protons on Dy (LagP66) 


2. 1 max 

Dy X-rays, 0.092, 0.138, 0.511 

(Y^) 


i protons on Dy, Ho 
j (LagP66) 


daughter radiations from Dy 


155 


[Tb x-rays], 0.138 (t 100), 0.266 Dy 

(T 99), 0.367 (t 23), 0.511 (y'*'),' 
0.685, 0.89, 1.20, 1.41, 

0.084, 0.130, 0.213 
2. 9 max (t 1), 1.8 max (t 18) 


156 


(p,n) (MihJ57a) 


Dy X-rays, 0.087, 0.152, 0.190, 

0.227, 0.511 ('y'*'), 0.71, 0.86, 
0.90, 1.20 

daughter radiations from Dy 


157 


Dy X-rays, 0.099, 0.218, 0.329, 
0.412, 0.52, 0.647, 0.73, 0.86, 
0.940, 1.21, 1.47, 1.6, 1.8, 
2.05, 2.21, 2.87, 3.1 

0.045, 0.062, 0.091, 0.097, 

0. 164 


Dy X-rays, Ho L X-rays, 0.099, 
0.218, 0.32 (complex), 0.356, 
0.412, 0.46 (complex), 0.52, 
0.63 (complex), 0.73 (complex), 
0.85 (complex), 0.95 (complex), 
1.21, 1.47, 1.60, 1.80, 2.06, 
2.20, 2.62 


protons on Dy, Ho 
(LagP66) 


Tb*®^(Q, 5n) (SchepH62) 


Tb*®®(o, 5n) (SchepH62) 


0.029, 0.044, 
0.132 


0.072, 0.078, 0.092, 


daughter radiations from Ho 
included in above listing 


Dy X-rays, 0.057, 0.080, 0.13, 
0.18 (complex?), 0.253, 0.309 

[0.026], 0.048, 0.071, 0.121, 
0.198, 0.243, 0.256, 0.300 


Ho 


X-rays, 0.206 
150. 0.197 


Tb*®®(Q,4n) (TotK58) 
Dy*®®(p, 2n) (M.'yMb4: 


1 C. Q 

daughter Er 

(AbdurA6h. L. Tr'. 

Dy*®®(p, .i.) iBo. +Jl' 


see radiations of Ho 


I60m 


dr Mght* r Ho 
(Crigr ^ 

* '(a. 


Tb 


r>lK 


prot. 


373-062 0 - 70 - 22 


324 


Isotope 
Z A 

Half-life 

Type of decay (^* ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A5M-A),MeV (C”=0); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (O'), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 

„ I60m 
67«° 

5.0 h (StenT65, 
NerW55, MihJ57, 
HandT 54a, RayG63) 
4.8 h (GrigE60a) 

4.6 h (WilkG50a) 

5.3 h (DzhB57) 
others (DzhB57g) 

A 

IT 66%, EC+p'*' 34% 
(NDS) 

P"^ =0.1% (GrigE59d) 
-66.3 (LHP, MT'W) 

A 

chem, genet (NerW55) 
chem, sep isotopes (MihJ57) 
chem, excit, sep isotopes 
(MayM 64) 

daughter Er (NerW55) 

parent Ho^^^ (GrigE62b) 

y 

e 

Dy x-ray, 0.087 (14%), 0.197 
(20%), 0.53 9 (5%), 0.646 
(20%), 0.729 ( 50%), 0.880 
(26%), 0.965 (37%, complex), 
others to 2.8 

0.033, 0.051, 0.058, 0.079, 0.085, 
0.144, 0.188 

Tb^^^(a, 3n) (TotK58, 
TotK59a, WilkG50a) 
daughter Er^^*^ (BjoS61, 
RayG63, NerW55, 
GrigE62b) 

protons on Dy (MayM64) 








L 9 max 

daughter radiations from Ho"^ 
included in above listing 



2.4 h (DneI58) 

2. 5 h (RayG63, 
HandT54a, HandT54) 
others (BjoS61, 

BasiA61, WilkG50c) 

A 

EC (HandT54a, HandT54) 
-67 (MTW) 

A 

chem, genet, excit 
(HandT54a, HandT54) 

daughter Er^^^ (HandT54, 
HandT54a) 

y 

e 

Dy x-rays, 0.026 (23%), 0.075 
(15%), 0.157 (1%), 0.176 (2%) 

0.017, 0.024, 0.049, 0.069, 0.076 

Tb^^’(a, 2n) (WilkG50a) 
protons on Dy (MayM64) 

Tj 

Ho 

6. 1 s (BorgJ66) 
6.8 s (StenT65a) 

A 

IT (StenT65a, BorgJ66) 
-67 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, genet (StenT65a, 
StenT65) 

excit, sep isotopes (BorgJ66) 

daughter Er^^^ (StenT65a, 
StenT65) 

y 

€ 

Ho X-rays, 0.211 (53%) 
0.155, 0.202 

j IT 161 

daughter Er 

(StenT65a, StenT65) 

Dy^^^(p, 2n) (BorgJ66) 

„ 162 
Ho 

15 m (StenT65, 
StenT65a) 
12m ( JorM 6 1 ) 

A 

EC 95%, p"^ 5% (JorM61) 
-66.02 (MTW) 

A 

genet (JorM6l) 
chem, genet (StenT65, 
StenT65a) 

daughter Ho (JorM6l, 

StenT65, StenT65a) 

y 

e 

Dy x-rays, 0.081 (8%), 0.511 
(9%, Y*) 

1. 10 max 

0.027, 0.072, 0.079 

j 1 -... TT 162m 

daughter Ho 

(JorM61, HarmB6l) 


68 m (JorM61, 
MayM64) 

67 m (MihJ57a) 

A 

IT 63%, EC 37% 

( JorM61) 

-65.92 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, sep isotopes (MihJ57a) 
chem, mass spect (JorM6l) 
others (HandT54a, 

WilkG50a) 

parent Ho^^^ (JorM6l, 
StenT65, StenT65a) 

y 

e 

Ho X-rays, Dy X-rays, 0.081 
( 10%). 0. 185 ( 26%), 0.283 
( 12%), 0.940 ( 13%), 1.224 
(24%) 

0.027, 0.036, 0.048, 0.072, 0.079, 
0.131, 0.177 

Tb^^^(a,n) (JorM61) 
protons on Dy (MayM64) 








daughter radiations from Ho^^^ 


„ 163 
Ho 

^10^ y sp act 

(NauR60) 
others (BjoS6l) 

A 

-66.35 (MTW) 

A 

chem, mass spect (NauR60) 



Er^^^(n,Y)Er^^^(EC) 

(NauR60) 

„ I63m 
Ho 

1.1s (Borgj66) 
0.8 s (HammC57) 

A 

IT (GovN58) 

-66.05 {LHP, MTW) 

B 

excit (GovN58) 

excit, sep isotopes (BorgJ66) 

y 

e 

Ho X-rays, 0.305 
0.249, 0.296 

Ho^^^CY, 2n) {HammC57, 
GovN58) 

o 164 
Ho 

36.7 m {BrowHN54) 
34.0 m (WilkG50a) 
41.5 m (WafH50) 

47 m (PoolM38a) 
others (HandT54a) 

A 

p" 53%, EC 47%, no p'^, 
lim 0.05% (BrowHN54) 

-64.84 (MTW) 

A 

excit (PoolM38a) 

. 

p 

e 

y 

0. 99 max 

0.019, 0.034, 0.065, 0.071, 0.083, 
0.089 

Dy, Er X-rays, 0.073, 0.091 

protons on Dy (WilkG50a, 
MihJ57a) 

Ho^^^(Y,n) (WafH48, 
BrowHN54) 

Ho^^^(n. 2n) (PoolM38a, 
WafHSO) 

TT 165 
Ho 

’^l-/2 ^ ^ 

% 

100 (LelW50, CollT57) 







act (PorsW54) 

A 

(7 

C 

-64.81 (MTW) 

64 (to Ho^^^) 

, ,, 166m. 

= 1 (to Ho ) 

(GoldmDT64) 






„ 166 
Ho 

26.9 h (GranP49, 
CorkJ58) 

27.0 h (HoffD63) 
others (FunL63, 
IngM47, BotW46a, 
AntoN50, AntoN50a, 
KetB4 9b, CorkJ4 9b) 

A 

p" (HevG36) 
-63.07 (MTW) 

A 

n— capt (HevG36) 
mass spect (IngM47) 
chem (KetB49b) 

daughter Dy^^^ (KetB49, 
ButeF50a) 

P" 

e 

y 

1.84 max 

0.023, 0.072, 0.078 

Er X-rays, 0.081 (5.4%), 1.380 
(0.9%), 1.582(0.20%), 1.663 
(0. 10%) 

Ho^^^(n,V) (HevG36, 
PoolM38a, MeiL40, 
SerL47b) 

daughter Dy^^^ (KetB49, 
ButeF50a, HoffD63) 

166m 

Ho 

1.2 X 10^ y sp act, mass 
spect (FalK65) 
others (ButeF52) 

A 

(ButeF52) 

-63.06 (LHP, MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (ButeF52) 
chem, genet energy levels 
(MiltJ55) 

p" 

e 

y 

[0.07 max] 

0.023, 0.072, 0.078, 0,127, 0.175 

Er X-rays, 0.081 (12%), 0.184 
(90%), 0.280 (30%), 0.412 
(12%), 0.532 ( 12%), 0.711 
(58%), 0.810 (60%), 0.830 
(11%), others to 1.43 

Ho^^®(n, V) (ButeF52) 

167 

Ho 

3. 1 h (WilleR60) 
3.0 h (HandT55) 

A 

p" (HandT55) 
-62.3 (MTW) 

A 

chem, excit (HandT55) 
genet energy levels 
(HarmB62) 

p" 

e 

0. 96 max 

0.024, 0.048. 0.073, 0.150, 0.180, 
0,199, 0.263 

Er'^®(p,Q) (HandT55) 

Er‘^^(n, p) (WilleR60, 
HandT55) 







V 

Er x-rays, [0.079, 0.083, 0.208, 
0.238, 0.321, 0.348, 0.387] 



325 


*’*’'»)» Half life 

/ A 

Type of decay ( ); 

% abundance; Mass excess 
(A=M-A),McV (C'-O); 

Thermal neutron 
cross section (C7), barns 

Class; Identification; 
Genetic relationships 

Major radiations: 
approximate energies (MeV) 
and intensities 

Principal means 
of production 


J 1 m (WilleRbO) 
J S m (TakaK61) 


Ho*®’ .4 8 m (MiyK63) 


Ho 45 • (TakaK6l) 
40 a (WilIeR60) 


68 


Er*®^ 10.7 a (MacfR63a) 


Er*®^ I 36 s (MacfR63a) 


Er*®** 5 m (MacfR63a) 


Er*®^ »25 m (I^gP66) 


GromK61a) 

2.4 h (DneI60) 

2.5 h (BoncN61a) 


Er*®’ I 36 m (LagP66) 

1 h (AbdurA61a) 


Er 


160 


161 


162 


Er 


163 


75.1 m (PersL63d) 
others (HandT53a, 
BjoS61, StenT65) 


29.4 h (NerW55) 

28.7 h (BjoS61) 

29.5 h (RayG63) 
others (MicM54, 

DzhB57, GoroG57a, 
LagP66) 


3. 1 h (NerW55, 
RayG63, GrenHbl) 

3.2 h (BjoS61. 
GromK61a, DneI60a) 

others (HandT54, 
MicM54) 


p TakaK61) 
-59.7 (MTW) 

p" (MiyK63) 
-58.8 (MTW) 

(ButeFSO) 


P (TakaK61) 
-55.8 (MTW) 


a =90%, [EC+p"*] 

= 10% (MacfR63a) 


Q >75%, EC+p'^ <25% 
(MacfR63a) 


a (MacfR63a) 

-63 fMTW) 

P"*, [EC] (LagP66)