welsh american architect ( 1867–1959 )

Frank Lloyd Wright ( June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959 ) was an american architect, designer, writer, and educator. He designed more than 1,000 structures over a creative period of 70 years. Wright played a key character in the architectural movements of the twentieth century, influencing architects global through his works and hundreds of apprentices in his Taliesin Fellowship. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Wright believed in designing in harmony with humanness and the environment, a philosophy he called organic architecture. This doctrine was exemplified in Fallingwater ( 1935 ), which has been called “ the best all-time ferment of american architecture ”. [ 3 ] Wright was the pioneer of what came to be called the Prairie School bowel movement of architecture and besides developed the concept of the Usonian home in Broadacre City, his vision for urban planning in the United States. He besides designed original and advanced offices, churches, schools, skyscrapers, hotels, museums, and other commercial projects. Wright-designed inside elements ( including leaded glaze windows, floors, furniture and even tableware ) were integrated into these structures. He wrote several books and numerous articles and was a popular lecturer in the United States and in Europe. Wright was recognized in 1991 by the American Institute of Architects as “ the greatest american english architect of all time ”. [ 3 ] In 2019, a survival of his solve became a listed World Heritage Site as The 20th-Century Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright.

Raised in rural Wisconsin, Wright studied civil engineering at the University of Wisconsin and then apprenticed in Chicago, briefly with Joseph Lyman Silsbee, and then with Louis Sullivan at Adler & Sullivan. Wright opened his own successful Chicago commit in 1893 and established a studio apartment in his Oak Park, Illinois home in 1898. His fame increased and his personal life sometimes made headlines : leaving his first wife Catherine Tobin for Mamah Cheney ( 1909 ) ; the murder of Mamah and her children and others at his Taliesin estate by a staff member ( 1914 ) ; his stormy marriage with second wife Miriam Noel ( 1923–1927 ) ; and his courtship and marriage with Olgivanna Lazović ( 1927–1959 ) .

early on years [edit ]

ancestry [edit ]

Frank Lloyd Wright was born on June 8, 1867, in the town of Richland Center, Wisconsin, but maintained throughout his life that he was born in 1869. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] In 1987 a biographer of Wright suggested that he may have been christened as “ Frank Lincoln Wright ” or “ Franklin Lincoln Wright ” but these assertions were not supported by any evidence. [ 6 ] Wright ‘s don, William Cary Wright ( 1825–1904 ), was a “ talented musician, orator, and erstwhile preacher who had been admitted to the banish in 1857 ”. [ 7 ] He was besides a published composer. [ 8 ] primitively from Massachusetts, William Wright had been a Baptist minister, but he late joined his wife ‘s syndicate in the unitarian faith. Wright ‘s mother, Anna Lloyd Jones ( 1838/39–1923 ) was a teacher and a penis of the Lloyd Jones kin which had emigrated from Wales to Wisconsin. [ 9 ] One of Anna ‘s brothers was Jenkin Lloyd Jones, an significant figure in the outspread of the unitarian religion in the Midwest .

Childhood ( 1867–1885 ) [edit ]

According to Wright ‘s autobiography, his mother declared when she was expecting that her first child would grow up to build beautiful buildings. She decorated his greenhouse with engravings of english cathedrals torn from a periodical to encourage the baby ‘s ambition. [ 10 ] Wright grew up in a “ unstable family, [ … ] constant lack of resources, [ … ] undiminished poverty and anxiety ” and had a “ profoundly agitate and obviously unhappy childhood ”. [ 11 ] His father held pastorates in McGregor, Iowa ( 1869 ), Pawtucket, Rhode Island ( 1871 ), and Weymouth, Massachusetts ( 1874 ). Because the Wright kin struggled financially besides in Weymouth they returned to Spring Green, where the supportive Lloyd Jones family could help William find employment. In 1877, they settled in Madison, where William taught music lessons and served as the secretary to the newly formed unitarian club. Although William was a distant parent, he shared his beloved of music with his children. [ 11 ] In 1876, Anna saw an exhibit of educational blocks called the Froebel Gifts, the initiation of an advanced kindergarten course of study. Anna, a train teacher, was excited by the program and bought a set with which the 9-year old Wright spend much time play. The blocks in the set were geometrically shaped and could be assembled in diverse combinations to form two- and cubic compositions. In his autobiography, Wright described the influence of these exercises on his approach to design : “ For several years, I sat at the little kindergarten table-top … and played … with the cube, the sphere and the triangle— these legato wooden maple blocks … All are in my fingers to this day … “ [ 12 ] In 1881, soon after Wright turned 14, his parents separated. In 1884, his don sued for a divorce from Anna on the grounds of “ … emotional cruelty and physical ferocity and spousal desertion ”. [ 13 ] Wright attended Madison High School, but there is no evidence that he graduated. [ 14 ] His church father left Wisconsin after the disassociate was granted in 1885. Wright said that he never saw his father again. [ 15 ]

education ( 1885–1887 ) [edit ]

In 1886, at old age 19 Wright wanted to become an architect ; he was admitted to the University of Wisconsin–Madison as a particular student and worked under Allan D. Conover, a professor of civil mastermind, before leaving the school without taking a academic degree. [ 16 ] Wright was granted an honorary doctor’s degree of very well arts from the university in 1955. [ 17 ] In 1886 Wright collaborated with the Chicago architectural tauten of Joseph Lyman Silsbee —accredited as draftsman and construction supervisor— on the 1886 Unity Chapel for Wright ‘s family in Spring Green, Wisconsin. [ 18 ]

early career [edit ]

Silsbee and other early work experience ( 1887–1888 ) [edit ]

In 1887, Wright arrived in Chicago in search of employment. As a result of the devastating Great Chicago Fire of 1871 and a population boom, fresh development was ample. Wright late recorded in his autobiography that his first impression of Chicago was as an despicable and chaotic city. [ 19 ] Within days of his arrival, and after interviews with respective big firms, he was hired as a draftsman with Joseph Lyman Silsbee. [ 20 ] While with the tauten, he besides worked on two other family projects : All Souls Church in Chicago for his uncle, Jenkin Lloyd Jones, and the Hillside Home School I in spring Green for two of his aunts. [ 21 ] other draftsmen who worked for Silsbee in 1887 include future architects Cecil Corwin, George W. Maher, and George G. Elmslie. Wright soon befriended Corwin, with whom he lived until he found a permanent home. [ citation needed ] Feeling that he was underpaid for the quality of his work for Silsbee at $ 8 a workweek, the unseasoned draftsman depart and establish work as a architectural designer at the firm of Beers, Clay, and Dutton. however, Wright soon realized that he was not fix to handle build design by himself ; he left his new job to return to Joseph Silsbee—this time with a raise in wage. [ 22 ] Although Silsbee adhered chiefly to Victorian and Revivalist architecture, Wright found his make to be more “ gracefully picturesque ” than the other “ brutalities ” of the period. [ 23 ]

Adler & Sullivan ( 1888–1893 ) [edit ]

Wright learned that the Chicago tauten of Adler & Sullivan was “ … looking for person to make the finished drawings for the interior of the Auditorium Building “. [ 24 ] Wright demonstrated that he was a competent impressionist of Louis Sullivan ‘s ornamental designs and two short interviews late, was an official apprentice in the firm. [ 25 ] Wright did not get along well with Sullivan ‘s other draftsmen ; he wrote that respective crimson altercations occurred between them during the first years of his apprenticeship. For that count, Sullivan showed identical little respect for his own employees deoxyadenosine monophosphate well. [ 26 ] In hurt of this, “ Sullivan took [ Wright ] under his fly and gave him capital invention responsibility. “ [ citation needed ] As an act of regard, Wright would late refer to Sullivan as Lieber Meister ( German for “ dear Master ” ). [ 27 ] He besides formed a adhesiveness with office foreman Paul Mueller. Wright later engaged Mueller in the construction of several of his public and commercial buildings between 1903 and 1923. [ 28 ] By 1890, Wright had an position next to Sullivan ‘s that he shared with acquaintance and draftsman George Elmslie, who had been hired by Sullivan at Wright ‘s request. [ 28 ] [ 29 ] Wright had risen to head draftsman and handled all residential design workplace in the office. As a general principle, the firm of Adler & Sullivan did not design or build houses, but would oblige when asked by the clients of their important commercial projects. [ citation needed ] Wright was occupied by the firm ‘s major commissions during position hours, indeed house designs were relegated to evening and weekend overtime hours at his home studio apartment. He late claimed full duty for the design of these houses, but a careful inspection of their architectural manner ( and accounts from historian Robert Twombly ) suggests that Sullivan dictated the overall mannequin and motif of the residential knead ; Wright ‘s design duties were frequently reduced to detailing the projects from Sullivan ‘s sketches. [ 29 ] During this meter, Wright worked on Sullivan ‘s bungalow ( 1890 ) and the James A. Charnley bungalow ( 1890 ) in Ocean Springs, Mississippi, the Berry-MacHarg House, James A. Charnley House ( both 1891 ), and the Louis Sullivan House ( 1892 ), all in Chicago. [ 30 ] [ 31 ] Despite Sullivan ‘s loanword and overtime wage, Wright was constantly short on funds. Wright admitted that his poor finances were likely due to his expensive tastes in wardrobe and vehicles, and the excess luxuries he designed into his house. [ citation needed ] To supplement his income and repay his debts, Wright accepted independent commissions for at least nine houses. These “ bootlegged ” houses, as he late called them, were conservatively designed in variations of the fashionable Queen Anne and Colonial Revival styles. Nevertheless, unlike the prevailing architecture of the period, each firm emphasized dim-witted geometric mass and contained features such as bands of horizontal windows, occasional cantilevers, and exposed floor plans, which would become hallmarks of his later ferment. Eight of these early on houses remain today, including the Thomas Gale, Robert Parker, George Blossom, and Walter Gale houses. [ 32 ] As with the residential projects for Adler & Sullivan, he designed his bootleg houses on his own clock time. Sullivan knew nothing of the freelancer works until 1893, when he recognized that one of the houses was signally a Frank Lloyd Wright invention. [ citation needed ] This particular house, built for Allison Harlan, was only blocks away from Sullivan ‘s townhouse in the Chicago community of Kenwood. [ citation needed ] Aside from the location, the geometric purity of the composition and balcony tracery in the like dash as the Charnley House probably gave away Wright ‘s engagement. [ citation needed ] Since Wright ‘s five-year sign forbade any outside make, the incident led to his deviation from Sullivan ‘s fast. [ 31 ] several stories recount the break in the relationship between Sullivan and Wright ; even Wright by and by told two different versions of the happening. In An Autobiography, Wright claimed that he was unaware that his side ventures were a breach of his narrow. When Sullivan learned of them, he was angered and offended ; he prohibited any farther outside commissions and refused to issue Wright the deed to his Oak Park house until after he completed his five years. Wright could not bear the new hostility from his master and thought that the position was unfair. He “ … threw down [ his ] pencil and walked out of the Adler & Sullivan agency never to return ”. Dankmar Adler, who was more charitable to Wright ‘s actions, by and by sent him the deed. [ 33 ] however, Wright told his Taliesin apprentices ( as recorded by Edgar Tafel ) that Sullivan fired him on the spot upon determine of the Harlan House. Tafel besides recounted that Wright had Cecil Corwin sign several of the bootleg jobs, indicating that Wright was aware of their forbid nature. Regardless of the right series of events, Wright and Sullivan did not meet or speak for 12 years. [ 31 ] [ 34 ]

transition and experiment ( 1893–1900 ) [edit ]

After leaving Adler & Sullivan, Wright established his own practice on the exceed floor of the Sullivan-designed Schiller Building on Randolph Street in Chicago. Wright chose to locate his position in the build because the tugboat placement reminded him of the office of Adler & Sullivan. Cecil Corwin followed Wright and set up his architecture practice in the lapp function, but the two worked independently and did not consider themselves partners. [ 35 ] In 1896, Wright moved from the Schiller Building to the nearby and newly completed Steinway Hall construct. The loft outer space was shared with Robert C. Spencer, Jr., Myron Hunt, and Dwight H. Perkins. [ 36 ] These unseasoned architects, inspired by the Arts and Crafts Movement and the philosophies of Louis Sullivan, formed what became known as the Prairie School. [ 37 ] They were joined by Perkins ‘ apprentice Marion Mahony, who in 1895 transferred to Wright ‘s team of drafters and took over production of his presentation drawings and watercolour renderings. Mahony, the third base woman to be licensed as an architect in Illinois and one of the first license female architects in the U.S., besides designed furniture, leaded methamphetamine windows, and light fixtures, among early features, for Wright ‘s houses. between 1894 and the early 1910s, respective early leading Prairie School architects and many of Wright ‘s future employees launched their careers in the offices of Steinway Hall. [ 38 ] [ 39 ] Wright ‘s projects during this period followed two basic models. His first independent committee, the Winslow House, combined Sullivanesque ornamentation with the stress on simpleton geometry and horizontal lines. The Francis Apartments ( 1895, demolished 1971 ), Heller House ( 1896 ), Rollin Furbeck House ( 1897 ) and Husser House ( 1899, demolished 1926 ) were designed in the same mode. For his more conservative clients, Wright designed more traditional dwellings. These included the Dutch Colonial Revival expressive style Bagley House ( 1894 ), Tudor Revival style Moore House I ( 1895 ), and Queen Anne style Charles E. Roberts House ( 1896 ). [ 40 ] While Wright could not afford to turn down clients over disagreements in taste, even his most conservative designs retained simplified mass and occasional Sullivan-inspired details. [ 41 ] soon after the completion of the Winslow House in 1894, Edward Waller, a acquaintance and former node, invited Wright to meet Chicago architect and planner Daniel Burnham. Burnham had been impressed by the Winslow House and other examples of Wright ‘s sour ; he offered to finance a four-year education at the École des Beaux-Arts and two years in Rome. To top it off, Wright would have a side in Burnham ‘s firm upon his come back. In malice of guarantee achiever and corroborate of his class, Wright declined the offer. Burnham, who had directed the authoritative plan of the World ‘s columbian exposition and was a major advocate of the Beaux Arts apparent motion, thought that Wright was making a foolish mistake. [ citation needed ] Yet for Wright, the classical education of the École lacked creativity and was raw at odds with his vision of mod american architecture. [ 42 ] [ 43 ] Wright relocated his commit to his family in 1898 to bring his work and syndicate lives closer. This move made further sense as the majority of the architect ‘s projects at that meter were in Oak Park or neighboring River Forest. The give birth of three more children prompted Wright to sacrifice his original home studio apartment space for extra bedrooms and necessitated his plan and construction of an expansive studio apartment summation to the north of the main house. The space, which included a hang balcony within the two-story blueprint board, was one of Wright ‘s first experiments with advanced social organization. The studio embodied Wright ‘s developing aesthetics and would become the lab from which his following 10 years of architectural creations would emerge. [ 44 ]

Prairie Style houses ( 1900–1914 ) [edit ]

By 1901, Wright had completed about 50 projects, including many houses in Oak Park. As his son John Lloyd Wright wrote : [ 45 ] Hillside Home School, Taliesin, Spring Green, Wisconsin ( 1902 ) between 1900 and 1901, Frank Lloyd Wright completed four houses, which have since been identified as the attack of the “ Prairie Style “. Two, the Hickox and Bradley Houses, were the last transitional step between Wright ‘s early designs and the Prairie creations. [ 46 ] meanwhile, the Thomas House and Willits House received recognition as the first mature examples of the modern style. [ 47 ] [ 48 ] At the lapp time, Wright gave his newfangled ideas for the American house far-flung awareness through two publications in the Ladies’ Home Journal. The articles were in response to an invitation from the president of the united states of Curtis Publishing Company, Edward Bok, as part of a project to improve modern family design. [ citation needed ] “ A Home in a Prairie Town ” and “ A Small House with Lots of Room in it ” appeared respectively in the February and July 1901 issues of the daybook. Although neither of the low-cost house plans was ever constructed, Wright received increase requests for similar designs in following years. [ 46 ] Wright came to Buffalo and designed homes for three of the company ‘s executives : the Darwin D. Martin House ( 1904 ), the William R. Heath House 1905 ), and the Walter V. Davidson House ( 1908 ). other Wright houses considered to be masterpieces of the Prairie Style are the Frederick Robie House in Chicago and the Avery and Queene Coonley House in Riverside, Illinois. The Robie House, with its extended cantilevered roof lines supported by a 110-foot-long ( 34 megabyte ) channel of sword, is the most dramatic. Its support and dining areas form about one uninterrupted quad. With this and other buildings, included in the publication of the Wasmuth Portfolio ( 1910 ), Wright ‘s work became known to european architects and had a profound determine on them after World War I. Wright ‘s residential designs of this earned run average were known as “ prairie houses ” because the designs complemented the state around Chicago. [ citation needed ] Prairie Style houses frequently have a combination of these features : one or two stories with one-story projections, an assailable deck plan, low-pitched ceiling with broad, overhanging eaves, strong horizontal lines, ribbons of windows ( frequently casements ), a outstanding central lamp chimney, built-in conventionalized cabinetwork, and a across-the-board use of natural materials—especially stone and wood. [ 49 ] By 1909, Wright had begun to reject the upper-middle-class Prairie Style single-family house model, shifting his concenter to a more democratic architecture. [ 50 ] Wright went to Europe in 1909 with a portfolio of his work and presented it to Berlin publisher Ernst Wasmuth. [ 51 ] Studies and Executed Buildings of Frank Lloyd Wright, published in 1911, was the first major exposure of Wright ‘s make in Europe. The work contained more than 100 lithograph of Wright ‘s designs and is normally known as the Wasmuth Portfolio. [ citation needed ]

noteworthy public works ( 1900–1917 ) [edit ]

Wright designed the house of Cornell ‘s chapter of Alpha Delta Phi literary society ( 1900 ), the Hillside Home School II ( built for his aunts ) in jump Green, Wisconsin ( 1901 ) and the Unity Temple ( 1905 ) in Oak Park, Illinois. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] As a lifelong unitarian and member of Unity Temple, Wright offered his services to the congregation after their church burned down, working on the build up from 1905 to 1909. Wright subsequently said that Unity Temple was the building in which he ceased to be an architect of social organization, and became an architect of outer space. [ citation needed ] Some other early noteworthy public buildings and projects in this era : the Larkin Administration Building ( 1905 ) ; the Geneva Inn ( Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, 1911 ) ; the Midway Gardens ( Chicago, Illinois, 1913 ) ; the Banff National Park Pavilion ( Alberta, Canada, 1914 ) .

Designing in Japan ( 1917–1922 ) [edit ]

Hotel Imperial, 1930s While working in Japan, Frank Lloyd Wright left an impressive architectural inheritance. The Imperial Hotel, completed in 1923, is the most important. [ 54 ] Thanks to its solid foundations and steel construction, the hotel survived the Great Kanto Earthquake about unharmed. [ 55 ] The hotel was damaged during the bombard of Tokyo and by the subsequent US military occupation of it after World War II. [ 56 ] As land in the center of Tokyo increased in measure the hotel was deemed disused and was demolished in 1968 but the anteroom was saved and later re-constructed at the Meiji Mura architecture museum in Nagoya in 1976. [ 57 ] Jiyu Gakuen Main Building Yodoko Guesthouse Jiyu Gakuen was founded as a girls ‘ school in 1921. The construction of the independent building began in 1921 under Wright ‘s management and, after his deviation, was continued by Endo. [ 58 ] The school build, like the Imperial Hotel, is covered with Oya stones. [ citation needed ] The Yodoko Guesthouse ( designed in 1918 and completed in 1924 ) was built as the summer villa for Tadzaemon Yamamura. Frank Lloyd Wright ‘s architecture had a firm charm on young japanese architects. The japanese architects Wright commissioned to carry out his designs were Arata Endo, Takehiko Okami, Taue Sasaki and Kameshiro Tsuchiura. Endo supervised the completion of the Imperial Hotel after Wright ‘s passing in 1922 and besides supervised the construction of the Jiyu Gakuen Girls ‘ School and the Yodokō Guest House. Tsuchiura went on to create alleged “ luminosity ” buildings, which had similarities to Wright ‘s late work. [ 59 ]

Textile concrete block system [edit ]

Wright in 1926 In the early on 1920s, Wright designed a “ fabric “ concrete auction block system. The organization of precast blocks, reinforced by an inner arrangement of bars, enabled “ fabrication as countless in color, texture, and kind as in that rug. ” [ 60 ] Wright first used his textile freeze system on the Millard House in Pasadena, California, in 1923. typically Wrightian is the connect of the structure to its site by a serial of terraces that reach out into and reorder the landscape, making it an integral part of the architect ‘s vision. [ 61 ] With the Ennis House and the Samuel Freeman House ( both 1923 ), Wright had further opportunities to test the limits of the fabric auction block system, including express use in the Arizona Biltmore Hotel in 1927. [ 62 ] The Ennis house is frequently used in films, television, and print media to represent the future. [ 61 ] Wright ‘s son, Lloyd Wright, supervised construction for the Storer, Freeman, and Ennis Houses. Architectural historian Thomas Hines has suggested that Lloyd ‘s contribution to these projects is much overlooked. [ 63 ] After World War II, Wright updated the concrete block organization, calling it the “ Usonian Automatic ” system, resulting in the structure of respective noteworthy homes. As he explained in The Natural House ( 1954 ), “ The original blocks are made on the site by ramming concrete into forest or metal wrap-around forms, with one away face ( which may be pattered ), and one raise or inside face, generally coffered, for elation. ” [ 60 ]

Midlife problems [edit ]

family abandonment

[edit ]

antenna photograph of Taliesin, Spring Green, Wisconsin In 1903, while Wright was designing a house for Edwin Cheney ( a neighbor in Oak Park ), he became enamored with Cheney ‘s wife, Mamah. Mamah Borthwick Cheney was a modern charwoman with interests outside the home. She was an early feminist, and Wright viewed her as his intellectual peer. Their relationship became the speak of the town ; they often could be seen taking rides in Wright ‘s automobile through Oak Park. [ citation needed ] In 1909, Wright and Mamah Cheney met up in Europe, leaving their spouses and children behind. Wright remained in Europe for about a year, first in Florence, Italy ( where he lived with his eldest son Lloyd ) and, late, in Fiesole, Italy, where he lived with Mamah. During this time, Edwin Cheney granted Mamah a divorce, though Kitty still refused to grant one to her conserve. [ citation needed ] After Wright returned to the United States in October 1910, he persuaded his mother to buy land for him in spring Green, Wisconsin. The land, bought on April 10, 1911, was adjacent to land held by his mother ‘s class, the Lloyd-Joneses. Wright began to build himself a new home, which he called Taliesin, by May 1911. The recurring composition of Taliesin besides came from his beget ‘s side : Taliesin in Welsh mythology was a poet, sorcerer, and priest. The family motto, “ Y Gwir yn Erbyn y Byd “ ( “ The Truth Against the World ” ), was taken from the Welsh poet Iolo Morganwg, who besides had a son named Taliesin. The motto is silent used nowadays as the cry of the druids and foreman caparison of the Eisteddfod in Wales. [ 64 ]

tragedy at Taliesin [edit ]

On August 15, 1914, while Wright was working in Chicago, a handmaid ( julian Carlton ) set fire to the live quarters of Taliesin and then murdered seven people with an axe as the displace burned. [ 65 ] [ 66 ] [ 67 ] The dead included Mamah ; her two children, John and Martha Cheney ; a gardener ( David Lindblom ) ; a draftsman ( Emil Brodelle ) ; a workman ( Thomas Brunker ) ; and another workman ‘s son ( Ernest Weston ). Two people survived the havoc, one of whom, William Weston, helped to put out the ardor that about completely consumed the residential wing of the house. Carlton swallowed hydrochloric acerb immediately following the attack in an attempt to kill himself. [ 66 ] He was about lynched on the spot, but was taken to the Dodgeville jail. [ 66 ] Carlton died from starvation seven weeks after the fire, despite checkup care. [ 66 ]

Divorce and further troubles [edit ]

In 1922, Kitty Wright last granted Wright a divorce. Under the terms of the divorce, Wright was required to wait one year before he could marry his then-mistress, Maude “ Miriam ” Noel. In 1923, Wright ‘s mother, Anna ( Lloyd Jones ) Wright, died. Wright wed Miriam Noel in November 1923, but her addiction to morphine led to the failure of the marriage in less than one year. [ 68 ] In 1924, after the separation, but while still married, Wright met Olga ( Olgivanna ) Lazovich Hinzenburg. They moved in together at Taliesin in 1925, and soon after Olgivanna became fraught. Their daughter, Iovanna, was born on December 2, 1925. [ citation needed ] [ 69 ] On April 20, 1925, another fuel destroyed the bungalow at Taliesin. Crossed wires from a newly installed telephone system were deemed to be responsible for the blaze, which destroyed a collection of japanese prints that Wright estimated to be worth $ 250,000 to $ 500,000 ( $ 3,863,000 to $ 7,726,000 in 2021 ). [ 70 ] Wright rebuilt the life quarters, naming the family “ Taliesin II I ”. [ 71 ] In 1926, Olga ‘s ex-husband, Vlademar Hinzenburg, sought hands of his daughter, Svetlana. In October 1926, Wright and Olgivanna were accused of violating the Mann Act and arrested in Tonka Bay, Minnesota. [ 72 ] The charges were late dropped. [ 73 ] Wright and Miriam Noel ‘s divorce was finalized in 1927. Wright was again required to wait for one year before remarrying. Wright and Olgivanna married in 1928. [ 74 ] [ 75 ]

subsequently career [edit ]

Taliesin Fellowship [edit ]

In 1932, Wright and his wife Olgivanna put out a predict for students to come to Taliesin to study and work under Wright while they learned architecture and spiritual development. Olgivanna Wright had been a scholar of G. I. Gurdjieff who had previously established a alike school. twenty-three came to live and work that class, including John ( Jack ) H. Howe, who would become Wright ‘s head draftsman. [ 76 ] A total of 625 people joined The Fellowship in Wright ‘s life. [ 77 ] The Fellowship was a informant of workers for Wright ‘s subsequently projects, including : Fallingwater ; The Johnson Wax Headquarters ; and The Guggenheim Museum in New York City. [ 78 ]

considerable controversy exists over the living conditions and education of the fellows. [ 79 ] [ 80 ] Wright was reputedly a difficult person to work with. One apprentice wrote : “ He is barren of consideration and has a blind spot regarding others ‘ qualities. Yet I believe, that a year in his studio apartment would be deserving any sacrifice. ” [ 81 ] The Fellowship evolved into The School of Architecture at Taliesin which was an accredit school until it closed under acrimonious circumstances in 2020. [ 82 ] [ 83 ] In June 2020 the school moved to the Cosanti Foundation, which it had worked with in the by. [ 84 ]

Usonian Houses [edit ]

Wright is responsible for a series of concepts of suburban growth united under the term Broadacre City. He proposed the idea in his book The Disappearing City in 1932 and unveiled a 12-square-foot ( 1.1 m2 ) mannequin of this community of the future, showing it in several venues in the follow years. [ citation needed ] Concurrent with the development of Broadacre City, besides referred to as Usonia, Wright conceived a fresh type of dwelling that came to be known as the Usonian House. Although an early version of the form can be seen in the Malcolm Willey House ( 1934 ) in Minneapolis, the Usonian ideal emerged most wholly in the Herbert and Katherine Jacobs First House ( 1937 ) in Madison, Wisconsin. [ citation needed ] Designed on a gridded concrete slab that integrated the theater ‘s beaming heating system arrangement, the house featured new approaches to construction, including walls composed of a “ sandwich ” of wood siding, plywood cores and build paper—a significant deepen from typically framed walls. [ citation needed ] Usonian houses normally featured flat roof and were normally constructed without basements or attics, all features that Wright had been promoting since the early twentieth hundred. [ 85 ] Usonian houses were Wright ‘s reply to the transformation of domestic life that occurred in the early twentieth century when servants had become less outstanding or wholly absent from most american households. By developing homes with increasingly more open plans, Wright allotted the womanhood of the house a “ workspace ”, as he often called the kitchen, where she could keep track of and be available for the children and/or guests in the dine room. [ 86 ] As in the Prairie Houses, Usonian living areas had a fireplace as a point of focus. Bedrooms, typically disjunct and relatively little, encouraged the family to gather in the chief live areas. The concept of spaces rather of rooms was a development of the Prairie ideal. [ citation needed ] The built-in furnishings related to the Arts and Crafts drift ‘s principles that influenced Wright ‘s early study. [ citation needed ] Spatially and in terms of their construction, the Usonian houses represented a new model for autonomous support and allowed dozens of clients to live in a Wright-designed house at relatively abject cost. [ citation needed ] His Usonian homes set a new style for suburban design that influenced countless postwar developers. many features of advanced american homes date back to Wright : capable plans, slab-on-grade foundations, and simplified structure techniques that allowed more mechanization and efficiency in construction. [ 87 ]

significant later works [edit ]

Fallingwater, one of Wright ‘s most celebrated private residences ( completed 1937 ), was built for Mr. and Mrs. Edgar J. Kaufmann, Sr., at Mill Run, Pennsylvania. Constructed over a 30-foot waterfall, it was designed according to Wright ‘s desire to place the occupants close to the natural surroundings. The family was intended to be more of a family pickup, quite than a live-in home. [ 88 ] The construction is a series of cantilever balconies and terraces, using limestone for all verticals and concrete for the horizontals. The house cost $ 155,000, including the architect ‘s fee of $ 8,000. It was one of Wright ‘s most expensive pieces. [ 88 ] Kaufmann ‘s own engineers argued that the design was not sound. They were overruled by Wright, but the contractile organ secretly added extra sword to the horizontal concrete elements. In 1994, Robert Silman and Associates examined the construction and developed a plan to restore the social organization. In the late 1990s, steel supports were added under the lowest cantilever until a detail geomorphologic analysis could be done. In March 2002, post-tensioning of the lowest patio was completed. [ citation needed ] Taliesin West, Wright ‘s winter dwelling and studio complex in Scottsdale, Arizona, was a lab for Wright from 1937 to his death in 1959. It is now the home of the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation. [ 89 ] The design and construction of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York City occupied Wright from 1943 until 1959 [ 90 ] and is credibly his most recognized masterpiece. The building ‘s alone cardinal geometry was meant to allow visitors to easily experience Guggenheim ‘s collection of abstract geometric paintings by taking an elevator to the top grade and then viewing artworks by walking down the slowly descending, cardinal spiral ramp. [ citation needed ] The entirely realized skyscraper designed by Wright is the Price Tower, a 19-story column in Bartlesville, Oklahoma. It is besides one of the two existing vertically oriented Wright structures ( the other is the S.C. Johnson Wax Research Tower in Racine, Wisconsin ). The Price Tower was commissioned by Harold C. Price of the H. C. Price Company, a local anesthetic oil grapevine and chemical firm. On March 29, 2007, Price Tower was designated a National Historic Landmark by the United States Department of the Interior, one of only 20 such properties in Oklahoma. [ 91 ] Monona Terrace, primitively designed in 1937 as municipal offices for Madison, Wisconsin, was completed in 1997 on the original site, using a variation of Wright ‘s final examination design for the outside, with the inside blueprint altered by its newfangled determination as a convention center. The “ as-built ” invention was carried out by Wright ‘s apprentice Tony Puttnam. Monona Terrace was accompanied by controversy throughout the 60 years between the original purpose and the completion of the structure. [ 92 ] Florida Southern College, located in Lakeland, Florida, constructed 12 ( out of 18 planned ) Frank Lloyd Wright buildings between 1941 and 1958 as depart of the Child of the Sun project. It is the world ‘s largest single-site collection of Frank Lloyd Wright architecture. [ 93 ]

personal expressive style and concepts [edit ]

design elements [edit ]

An open agency area in Wright ‘s Johnson Wax headquarters complex, Racine, Wisconsin ( 1939 ) His Prairie houses use themed, coordinated blueprint elements ( frequently based on plant forms ) that are repeated in windows, carpets, and other fittings. [ citation needed ] He made innovative use of new building materials such as precast concrete blocks, glass bricks, and zinc cames ( alternatively of the traditional moderate ) for his leadlight windows, and he excellently used Pyrex glaze tube as a major element in the Johnson Wax Headquarters. [ citation needed ] Wright was besides one of the inaugural architects to design and install custom-made electric light fittings, including some of the first electric floor lamps, and his very early use of the then-novel spherical glass lampshade ( a plan previously not possible due to the physical restrictions of boast lighting ). [ citation needed ] In 1897, Wright received a apparent for “ Prism Glass Tiles ” that were used in storefronts to direct light toward the interior. [ 94 ] Wright in full embraced glass in his designs and found that it fit well into his philosophy of organic architecture. According to Wright ‘s organic hypothesis, all components of the build should appear unite, as though they belong in concert. nothing should be attached to it without considering the impression on the solid. To unify the firm to its site, Wright much used large expanses of glass to blur the boundary between the indoors and outdoors. [ 95 ] Glass allowed for interaction and see of the outdoors while still protecting from the elements. In 1928, Wright wrote an test on glass in which he compared it to the mirrors of nature : lakes, rivers and ponds. [ 96 ] One of Wright ‘s earliest uses of glass in his works was to string panes of glass along whole walls in an try to create unaccented screens to join solid walls. By using this big measure of glass, Wright sought to achieve a balance between the lightness and airiness of the glass and the solid, hard walls. arguably, Wright ‘s best-known art glaze is that of the Prairie style. The elementary geometric shapes that yield to very ornate and intricate windows represent some of the most integral ornamentation of his career. [ 97 ] Wright besides designed some of his own dress. [ citation needed ] His manner sense was singular and he normally wore expensive suits, flowing neckties, and capes. [ citation needed ] He had a captivation with automobiles, purchasing his first car in 1909, a Stoddard-Dayton buggy, and owned many alien vehicles over the years. During the cash-strapped Depression, Wright drove cheaper vehicles. Some of his last cars in the 1950s included four Volkswagens and a Chevrolet Nomad beach wagon along with brassy articles such as a Jaguar Mark VII. He owned some 50 cars between 1909 and his death, of which 10 are known to survive. [ 98 ]

Influences and collaborations [edit ]

inside from the Marin County Civic Center. Designed toward the end of Wright ‘s life, the expansive public undertaking was built posthumously in the 1960s. Wright strongly believed in individualism and did not affiliate with the American Institute of Architects during his career, going so far as to call the organization “ a harbor of recourse for the incompetent, ” and “ a form of polish gangsterism ”. [ citation needed ] When an consort referred to him as “ an old amateur ” Wright confirmed, “ I am the oldest. ” [ 99 ] Wright rarely credited any influences on his designs, but most architects, historians and scholars agree he had five major influences : [ citation needed ]

  1. Louis Sullivan, whom he considered to be his Lieber Meister (dear master)
  2. Nature, particularly shapes/forms and colors/patterns of plant life
  3. Music (his favorite composer was Ludwig van Beethoven)
  4. Japanese art, prints and buildings
  5. Froebel Gifts[100]

He routinely claimed the oeuvre of architects and architectural designers who were his employees as his own designs, and that the perch of the Prairie School architects were merely his followers, imitators, and subordinates. [ 101 ] As with any architect, though, Wright worked in a collaborative process and drew his ideas from the study of others. In his earlier days, Wright worked with some of the exceed architects of the Chicago School, including Sullivan. In his Prairie School days, Wright ‘s office was populated by many talented architects, including William Eugene Drummond, John Van Bergen, Isabel Roberts, Francis Barry Byrne, Albert McArthur, Marion Mahony Griffin, and Walter Burley Griffin. The Czech-born architect Antonin Raymond worked for Wright at Taliesin and led the construction of the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo. He subsequently stayed in Japan and opened his own practice. Rudolf Schindler besides worked for Wright on the Imperial Hotel and his own work is frequently credited as influencing Wright ‘s Usonian houses. Schindler ‘s ally Richard Neutra besides worked briefly for Wright and became an internationally successful architect. In the Taliesin days, Wright employed many architects and artists who former become celebrated, such as Aaron Green, John Lautner, E. Fay Jones, Henry Klumb, William Bernoudy, and Paolo Soleri .

Community plan [edit ]

Frank Lloyd Wright was concern in site and community planning throughout his career. His commissions and theories on urban design began deoxyadenosine monophosphate early as 1900 and continued until his death. He had 41 commissions on the scale of community plan or urban design. [ 102 ] His thoughts on suburban design started in 1900 with a proposed subsection layout for Charles E. Roberts entitled the “ quadruple Block plan ”. This design strayed from traditional suburban batch layouts and set houses on little square blocks of four equal-sized lots surrounded on all sides by roads rather of directly rows of houses on parallel streets. The houses, which used the same design as published in “ A Home in a Prairie Town ” from the Ladies’ Home Journal, were set toward the center of the auction block to maximize the yard space and included secret space in the center. This besides allowed for far more interesting views from each house. Although this plan was never realized, Wright published the invention in the Wasmuth Portfolio in 1910. [ 103 ] The more ambitious designs of stallion communities were exemplified by his submission into the City Club of Chicago Land Development Competition in 1913. The contest was for the development of a suburban quarter section. This design expanded on the Quadruple Block Plan and included several social levels. The design shows the placement of the upscale homes in the most desirable areas and the gloomy collar homes and apartments separated by parks and common spaces. The design besides included all the amenities of a modest city : schools, museums, markets, etc. [ 104 ] This opinion of decentralization was later reinforced by theoretical Broadacre City design. The doctrine behind his community design was decentralization. The newly development must be aside from the cities. In this decentralized America, all services and facilities could coexist “ factories side by side with farm and home ”. [ 105 ] luminary community plan designs :

japanese art [edit ]

Though most celebrated as an architect, Wright was an active dealer in japanese art, chiefly ukiyo-e woodblock prints. He frequently served as both architect and artwork dealer to the lapp clients ; he designed a home, then provided the art to fill it. [ 107 ] For a meter, Wright made more from selling art than from his work as an architect. Wright was besides an avid collector of japanese prints and used them as teaching aids with his apprentices in what were called “ print parties ”. [ 108 ] Wright first traveled to Japan in 1905, where he bought hundreds of prints. The come year, he helped organize the world ‘s inaugural retrospective exhibition of works by Hiroshige, held at the Art Institute of Chicago. [ 107 ] For many years, he was a major presence in the japanese art world, selling a capital numeral of works to outstanding collectors such as John Spaulding of Boston, [ 107 ] and to prominent museums such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. [ 109 ] He penned a record on japanese art in 1912. [ 109 ] In 1920, however, equal art dealers began to spread rumors that Wright was selling touch up prints. This circumstance, combined with Wright ‘s tendency to live beyond his means ( and early factors ), led to great fiscal troubles for the architect. Though he provided his clients with genuine prints as replacements for those he was accused of retouching, it marked the end of the high gear point of his career as an artwork dealer. [ 109 ] He was forced to sell off much of his artwork collection in 1927 to pay off outstanding debts. The Bank of Wisconsin claimed his Taliesin base the follow year and sold thousands of his prints for entirely one dollar a assemble to collector Edward Burr Van Vleck. [ 107 ] Wright continued to collect and deal in prints until his death in 1959, using prints as collateral for loans, frequently relying upon his art occupation to remain financially solvent. [ 109 ] The extent of his dealings in japanese art went largely nameless, or lowball, among art historians for decades. In 1980 Julia Meech, then associate curator of japanese art at the Metropolitan Museum, began researching the history of the museum ‘s collection of japanese prints. She discovered “ a three-inch-deep ‘clump of 400 cards ‘ from 1918, each listing a print bought from the same seller—’F. L. Wright ‘ ” and a number of letters exchanged between Wright and the museum ‘s first curator of Far Eastern Art, Sigisbert C. Bosch Reitz. These discoveries and subsequent research led to a renewed understand of Wright ‘s career as an art dealer. [ 109 ]

personal life sentence and death [edit ]

family [edit ]

Frank Lloyd Wright was married three times, fathering four sons and three daughters. He besides adopted Svetlana Milanoff, the daughter of his one-third wife, Olgivanna Lloyd Wright. [ 110 ] His wives were :

  • Catherine “Kitty” (Tobin) Wright (1871–1959); social worker, socialite (married in June 1889; divorced November 1922)
  • Maude “Miriam” (Noel) Wright (1869–1930), artist (married in November 1923; divorced August 1927)
  • Olga Ivanovna “Olgivanna” (Lazovich Milanoff) Lloyd Wright (1897–1985), dancer and writer (married in August 1928)

His children with Catherine were :
His children with Olgivanna were :

  • Svetlana Peters (1917–1946, adopted daughter of Olgivanna) was a musician who died in an automobile accident with her son Daniel. After Svetlana’s death her other son, Brandoch Peters (1942– ), was raised by Frank and Olgivanna. Svetlana’s widower, William Wesley Peters, was later briefly married to Svetlana Alliluyeva, the youngest child and only daughter of Joseph Stalin. Peters served as chairman of the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation from 1985 to 1991.
  • Iovanna Lloyd Wright (1925–2015) was an artist and musician.

death [edit ]

On April 4, 1959, Wright was hospitalized for abdominal pains and was operated on April 6. He seemed to be recovering, but he died restfully on April 9 at the senesce of 91 years. The New York Times then reported he was 89. [ 116 ] [ 117 ] After his death, Wright ‘s bequest was plagued with tumult for years. His third wife Olgivanna ‘s dying wish had been that she and Wright, and her daughter by her first marriage, would all be cremated and interred together in a memorial garden being built at Taliesin West. According to his own wishes, Wright ‘s body had lain in the Lloyd-Jones cemetery, adjacent to the Unity Chapel, within see of Taliesin in Wisconsin. Although Olgivanna had taken no legal steps to move Wright ‘s remains ( and against the wishes of other kin members and the Wisconsin legislature ), his remains were removed from his grave in 1985 by members of the Taliesin Fellowship. They were cremated and sent to Scottsdale where they were former interred as per Olgivanna ’ sulfur instructions. The original grave web site in Wisconsin is nowadays empty but is silent marked with Wright ‘s name. [ 118 ]

bequest [edit ]

Archives [edit ]

After Wright ‘s death, most of his archives were stored at the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation in Taliesin ( in Wisconsin ), and Taliesin West ( in Arizona ). These collections included more than 23,000 architectural drawings, some 44,000 photographs, 600 manuscripts, and more than 300,000 pieces of office and personal symmetry. It besides contained about 40 large-scale architectural models, most of which were constructed for MoMA ‘s retrospective of Wright in 1940. [ 119 ] In 2012, to guarantee a high level of conservation and access, arsenic good as to transfer the considerable fiscal charge of maintaining the archive, [ 120 ] the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation partnered with the Museum of Modern Art and the Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library to move the archive ‘s content to New York. Wright ‘s furniture and art collection remains with the foundation, which will besides have a function in monitoring the archive. These three parties established an advisory group to oversee exhibitions, symposiums, events, and publications. [ 119 ] Photographs and other archival materials are held by the Ryerson and Burnham Libraries at the Art Institute of Chicago. The architect ‘s personal archives are located at Taliesin West in Scottsdale, Arizona. The Frank Lloyd Wright archives include photograph of his drawings, index symmetry begin in the 1880s and continuing through Wright ‘s life, and other ephemera. The Getty Research Center, Los Angeles, besides has copies of Wright ‘s commensurateness and photograph of his drawings in their Frank Lloyd Wright Special Collection. Wright ‘s correspondence is indexed in An Index to the Taliesin Correspondence, erectile dysfunction. by Professor Anthony Alofsin, which is available at larger libraries .

Destroyed Wright buildings [edit ]

Wright designed over 400 built structures [ 121 ] of which about 300 exist as of 2005. At least five have been lost to forces of nature : the waterfront house for W. L. Fuller in Pass Christian, Mississippi, destroyed by Hurricane Camille in August 1969 ; the Louis Sullivan Bungalow of Ocean Springs, Mississippi, destroyed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 ; and the Arinobu Fukuhara House ( 1918 ) in Hakone, Japan, destroyed in the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake. In January 2006, the Wilbur Wynant House in Gary, Indiana was destroyed by fire. [ 122 ] In 2018 the Arch Oboler complex in Malibu, California was gutted in the Woolsey Fire. [ 123 ] many other luminary wright buildings were intentionally demolished : midway Gardens ( built 1913, demolished 1929 ), the Larkin Administration Building ( build 1903, demolished 1950 ), the Francis Apartments and Francisco Terrace Apartments ( Chicago, build up 1895, demolished 1971 and 1974, respectively ), the Geneva Inn ( Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, build 1911, demolished 1970 ), and the Banff National Park Pavilion ( build 1914, demolished 1934 ). The imperial Hotel ( build up 1923 ) survived the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, but was demolished in 1968 due to urban developmental pressures. [ 124 ] The Hoffman Auto Showroom in New York City ( build 1954 ) was demolished in 2013. [ 125 ]

Unbuilt, or built after Wright ‘s death [edit ]

  • Crystal Heights, a large mixed-use development in Washington, D.C., 1940 (unbuilt)
  • The Illinois, mile-high tower in Chicago, 1956 (unbuilt)
  • Monona Terrace, convention center in Madison, Wisconsin, designed 1938–1959, built in 1997
  • Clubhouse at the Nakoma Golf Resort, Plumas County, California, designed in 1923; opened in 2000
  • Passive Solar Hemi-Cycle Home in Hawaii, designed in 1954, built in 1995; only Wright home in Hawaii

recognition [edit ]

1966 U.S. postage stamp honoring Frank Lloyd Wright late in his liveliness ( and after his death in 1959 ), Wright was accorded significant honorary realization for his life achievements. He received a Gold Medal prize from The Royal Institute of British Architects in 1941. The american Institute of Architects awarded him the AIA Gold Medal in 1949. That decoration was a symbolic “ burying the hatchet ” between Wright and the AIA. In a radio consultation, he commented, “ Well, the AIA I never joined, and they know why. When they gave me the gold decoration in Houston, I told them honestly why. feeling that the architecture profession is all that ‘s the count with architecture, why should I join them ? ” [ 99 ] He was awarded the Franklin Institute ‘s Frank P. Brown Medal in 1953. He received honorary degrees from several universities ( including his alma mater, the University of Wisconsin ), and several nations named him as an honorary control panel member to their home academies of art and/or computer architecture. In 2000, Fallingwater was named “ The construct of the twentieth century ” in an unscientific “ Top-Ten ” poll taken by members attending the AIA annual convention in Philadelphia. [ citation needed ] On that tilt, Wright was listed along with many of the USA ‘s other greatest architects including Eero Saarinen, I.M. Pei, Louis Kahn, Philip Johnson, and Ludwig Mies van five hundred Rohe ; he was the only architect who had more than one build up on the list. The early three buildings were the Guggenheim Museum, the Frederick C. Robie House, and the Johnson Wax Building. In 1992, the Madison Opera in Madison, Wisconsin, commissioned and premiered the opera Shining Brow, by composer Daron Hagen and librettist Paul Muldoon based on events early on in Wright ‘s biography. The cultivate has since received numerous revivals, including a June 2013 revival at Fallingwater, in Bull Run, Pennsylvania, by Opera Theater of Pittsburgh. In 2000, Work Song: Three Views of Frank Lloyd Wright, a act based on the relationship between the personal and working aspects of Wright ‘s liveliness, debuted at the Milwaukee Repertory Theater. In 1966, the United States Postal Service honored Wright with a big Americans series 2¢ postage stamp. [ 126 ] “ so long, Frank Lloyd Wright “ is a song written by Paul Simon. Art Garfunkel has stated that the origin of the song came from his request that Simon write a song about the celebrated architect Frank Lloyd Wright. Simon himself stated that he knew nothing about Wright, but proceeded to write the sung anyhow. [ 127 ] In 1957, Arizona made plans to construct a newly capitol build. Believing that the submitted plans for the newly capitol were tombs to the past, Frank Lloyd Wright offered Oasis as an option to the people of Arizona. [ 128 ] In 2004, one of the spires included in his invention was erected in Scottsdale. [ citation needed ] The city of Scottsdale, Arizona renamed a helping of Bell Road, a major east–west thoroughfare in the Phoenix metropolitan sphere, in honor of Frank Lloyd Wright. Eight of Wright ‘s buildings – Fallingwater, the Guggenheim Museum, the Hollyhock House, the Jacobs House, the Robie House, Taliesin, Taliesin West, and the Unity Temple – were inscribed on the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites under the championship The 20th-century Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright in July 2019. UNESCO stated that these buildings were “ innovative solutions to the needs for housing, worship, work or leisure ” and “ had a impregnable affect on the development of modern architecture in Europe ”. [ 129 ] [ 130 ]

Selected works [edit ]

Books [edit ]

  • Ausgeführte Bauten und Entwürfe von Frank Lloyd Wright (Wasmuth Portfolio) (1910)
  • An Organic Architecture: The Architecture of Democracy (1939)
  • In the Cause of Architecture: Essays by Frank Lloyd Wright for Architectural Record 1908–1952 (1987)
  • Visions of Wright: Photographs by Farrell Grehan, Introduction by Terence Riley ISBN 0-8212-2470-0 (1997)

Buildings [edit ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

promote read [edit ]

Wright ‘s philosophy [edit ]

Biographies [edit ]

Surveys of Wright ‘s work [edit ]

  • Clearly, Richard. Frank Lloyd Wright: From Within Outward. Skira Rizzoli, 2009. ISBN 978-0847832637
  • Betsky, Aaron, Gideon Fink Shapiro, Andrew Pielage. 50 Lessons to Learn from Frank Lloyd Wright: Rizzoli, 2021. ISBN 978-0847865369
  • Aguar, Charles and Berdeana Aguar. Wrightscapes: Frank Lloyd Wright’s Landscape Designs. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002. ISBN 0-07-140953-X
  • Blake, Peter. Frank Lloyd Wright: Architecture and Space. Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, 1964.
  • Fell, Derek. The Gardens of Frank Lloyd Wright. London: Frances Lincoln, 2009. ISBN 978-0-7112-2967-9
  • Heinz, Thomas A. Frank Lloyd Wright Field Guide. Chichester, West Sussex: Academy Editions, 1999. ISBN 0-8101-2244-8
  • Hildebrand, Grant. The Wright Space: Pattern and Meaning in Frank Lloyd Wright’s Houses. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1991. ISBN 0-295-97005-7
  • Larkin, David and Bruce Brooks Pfeiffer. Frank Lloyd Wright: The Masterworks. New York: Rizzoli, 1993. ISBN 0-8478-1715-6
  • Levine, Neil. The Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-691-03371-4
  • Lind, Carla. Frank Lloyd Wright’s Glass Designs. San Francisco: Pomegranate Artbooks, 1995. ISBN 0-87654-468-5
  • McCarter, Robert. Frank Lloyd Wright. London: Phaidon Press, 1997. ISBN 0-7148-3148-4
  • Pfeiffer, Bruce Brooks. Frank Lloyd Wright, 1867–1959: Building for Democracy. Los Angeles: Taschen, 2004. ISBN 3-8228-2757-6
  • Pfeiffer, Bruce Brooks and Peter Gössel (eds.). Frank Lloyd Wright: The Complete Works. Los Angeles: Taschen, 2009. ISBN 978-3-8228-5770-0
  • Riley, Terence and Peter Reed (eds.). Frank Lloyd Wright: Architect. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1994. ISBN 0-87070-642-X
  • Smith, Kathryn. Frank Lloyd Wright: America’s Master Architect. New York: Abbeville Press, 1998. ISBN 0-7892-0287-5
  • Storrer, William Allin. The Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright: A Complete Catalog. 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007. ISBN 0-226-77620-4
  • Storrer, William Allin. The Frank Lloyd Wright Companion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. ISBN 0-226-77621-2

Selected books about specific Wright projects [edit ]

  • Lind, Carla. Frank Lloyd Wright’s Usonian Houses. San Francisco: Promegranate Artbooks, 1994. ISBN 1-56640-998-5
  • Toker, Franklin. Fallingwater Rising: Frank Lloyd Wright, E. J. Kaufmann, and America’s Most Extraordinary House. New York: Alford A. Knopf, 2003. ISBN 1-4000-4026-4
  • Whiting, Henry, II. At Nature’s Edge: Frank Lloyd Wright’s Artist Studio. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-87480-877-3

The women in his life [edit ]

ใส่ความเห็น

อีเมลของคุณจะไม่แสดงให้คนอื่นเห็น