Bao ying – Wikipedia

For the county, see Baoying County Bàoyìng ( chinese : 報應 ) is a concept of cosmic and moral reciprocity in the taiwanese folk religion. It implies that people dwell in a moral population, a universe that is kept ordained by mores, adept actions, therefore moral retribution is in fact a cosmic retribution. [ 1 ] It determines fortune, as written in the Book of Documents : “ on the actor of good, eden sends down all blessings, and on the actor of evil, he sends down all calamities. ” ( 書經•湯誥 ) [ 2 ]

In Buddhism and Daoism, bàoyìng is equated to the concept of dharmic retribution.

The cosmic meaning of bào yìng is better understand exploring other two traditional concepts of destiny and mean : [ 3 ]

  • Mìngyùn (命運), the personal destiny, in which mìng (命) is “life” or “right”, the given status of life, and yùn (運) defines “circumstance” and “individual choice”; mìng is given and influenced by the transcendent force Tiān (天), that is the same as the “divine right” (tiānmìng 天命) of ancient rulers as identified by Mencius.[4] Personal destiny (mìng yùn) is thus perceived as both fixed (the status of life) and flexible, open-ended (the individual choice in matters of bào yìng).[5]
  • Yuánfèn (緣分), “fateful coincidence”,[6] describing good and bad chances and potential relationships.[7] Scholars K. S. Yang and D. Ho have analysed the psychological advantages of this belief: assigning causality of negative events to yuánfèn beyond personal control, people tend to maintain good relationships, avoid conflict, and promote social harmony;[8] meanwhile, when positive events are seen as result of yuánfèn, personal credit is not directly assigned, and this reduces pride on one side of the relationship and envy and resentment on the other.[9]

Mìngyun and yuánfèn are linked, because what appears on the surface to be opportunity events ( for better or worse ), are part of the deeper rhythm method of birth control that shapes personal life based on how fortune is directed. [ 10 ] They are ultimately shaped by bào yìng, good action. Recognising this connection has the consequence of making a person creditworthy for his or her actions : [ 11 ] doing good for others produces further good for oneself and keeps the worldly concern in harmony. [ 12 ]

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