1947–2018 semi-autonomous region of northwestern Pakistan
“ FATA ” redirects here. For other uses of the acronym, see Fata ( disambiguation )
The Federally Administered Tribal Areas ( FATA ; Pashto : فدرالي قبايلي سيمې ; Urdu : وفاق کے زیر انتظام قبائلی علاقہ جات ) was a semi-autonomous tribal region in northwestern Pakistan that existed from 1947 until being merged with neighbouring state Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in 2018. It consisted of seven tribal agencies ( districts ) and six frontier regions, and were immediately governed by Pakistan ‘s union government through a particular set of laws called the Frontier Crimes Regulations. It bordered Pakistan ‘s provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan, and Punjab to the east, south, and southeast respectively, and Afghanistan ‘s provinces of Kunar, Nangarhar, Paktia, Khost and Paktika to the west and north. The district is about entirely inhabited by the Pashtun, who besides live in the neighbor provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Northern Balochistan, and straddle across the border into Afghanistan. They are by and large Muslim.

Since the September 11 attacks in the United States of 2001, the tribal areas are a major dramaturgy of combativeness and terrorism. The Pakistan Army launched 10 operations against the Pakistani Taliban since 2001, most recently Operation Zarb-e-Azb in North Waziristan. The operations have displaced about two million people from the tribal areas, as schools, hospitals, and homes have been destroyed in the war. [ 1 ] On 2 March 2017, the federal politics considered a proposal to merge the tribal areas with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and to repeal the Frontier Crimes Regulations. [ 2 ] however, some political parties have opposed the fusion, and called for the tribal areas to alternatively become a freestanding province of Pakistan. [ 1 ] On 24 May 2018, the National Assembly of Pakistan voted in favor of an amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan for the FATA-KP fusion which was approved by the Senate the take after day. [ 3 ] Since the change was to affect the state of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, it was presented for approval in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly on 27 May 2018, and passed with majority vote. On 28 May 2018, the President of Pakistan signed the FATA Interim Governance Regulation, a laid of interim rules for FATA until it merges with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa within a timeframe of two years. [ 4 ] The 25th Amendment received assent from President Mamnoon Hussain on 31 May 2018, after which FATA was formally merged with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. [ 5 ]

etymology [edit ]

Qabailistan ( Pashto : قبايلستان ; Urdu : قبائیلستان ) is the actual name used in Pakistan which would have contained the areas once part of Federally Administered Tribal Areas ( FATA ). Qabail is Derived from the word tribe or Qabaili tribal / tribes or the Martial race / Warriors (“Land of the Warriors”) or the “Land of Tribal Militias” besides gathering “ Loya Jirgas ” respectively. [ 6 ]

history [edit ]

Although the british never succeeded in completely calming unrest in the region, [ 7 ] it served as a buffer from unrest in Afghanistan. [ 8 ] The british Raj attempted to control the population of the annex tribal regions with the Frontier Crimes Regulations ( FCR ), which granted big amounts of might to local leaders along the North-West Frontier as separate of the process of direct rule. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] [ 10 ] Due to “ the highly harsh, cold and discriminatory provisions ” contained within the FCR, the legislation came to be known as the “ blacken law. ” [ 10 ]

colonial period [edit ]

In 1935–36, a Hindu -Muslim clash occurred over the elope of a Hindu female child by a Muslim in Bannu. The tribesmen rallied around Mirzali Khan, a tribal drawing card in Waziristan, who was late given the title of “ the Faqir of Ipi ” by the british. Jihad was declared against the british. Mirzali Khan, with his huge lashkar ( force out ), started a guerrilla war against the british forces in Waziristan. In 1938, Mirzali Khan shifted from Ipi to Gurwek, a outback greenwich village in Waziristan on the Durand Line near Razmak, where he declared an independent state and continued the raids against the british forces. In June 1947, Mirzali Khan, along with his allies, including the Khudai Khidmatgars and members of the Provincial Assembly, declared the Bannu Resolution. The settlement demanded that the Pashtuns be given a choice to have an autonomous department of state of Pashtunistan, composing all Pashtun majority territories of british India, rather of being made to join Pakistan. however, the british Raj refused to comply with the need of this resolution. [ 11 ] [ 12 ] After the creation of Pakistan in August 1947, Mirzali Khan and his followers refused to recognise Pakistan, and launched a campaign against Pakistan. They continued their guerrilla war against the new nation ‘s government. [ 13 ] In 1950, they announced the initiation of Pashtunistan as an autonomous nation. however, his popularity among the people of Waziristan declined over the years, with respective jirgas in Waziristan deciding to support Pakistan .

After independence [edit ]

The annex areas continued to be governed through the Frontier Crimes Regulations after the initiation of Pakistan in 1947, by the Dominion of Pakistan in 1947, and into the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in 1956. [ 14 ] even in the 1970s travellers through the Khyber Pass, such as those taking the Hippie Trail, were warned to stay close to the road because the Pakistani government had no restraint over the adjacent lands. According to the United States Institute of Peace, the character of the region underwent a chemise beginning in the 1980s. mujahidin entered to fight against the jirga as allies of the CIA Operation Cyclone ; both were opposed to forces of the Soviet Union anterior to the decrease of the Berlin Wall and break down of Soviet Union. [ 15 ] In 2001, the Tehrik-e-Taliban militants began entering into the region. [ 15 ] In 2003, Taliban forces sheltered in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas began crossing the border into Afghanistan, attacking military and police after the United States invasion. [ 16 ] Shkin, Afghanistan is a winder location for these frequent battles. This heavily fortified military establish has housed by and large american particular operations forces since 2002 and is located six kilometers from the Pakistani border. It is considered the most dangerous location in Afghanistan. [ 17 ] [ 18 ] With the encouragement of the United States, 80,000 Pakistani troops entered the Federally Administered Tribal Areas in March 2004 to search for al-qaeda operatives. They were met with boisterous resistance from Pakistani Taliban. [ 16 ] It was not the elders, but the Pakistani Taliban who negotiated a armistice with the army, an indication of the extent to which the Pakistani Taliban had taken control. [ 16 ] Troops entered the region, into South Waziristan and North Waziristan, eight more times between 2004 and 2006, and faced promote Pakistani Taliban electric resistance. peace accords entered into in 2004 and 2006 plant terms whereby the tribesmen in the area would stop attacking Afghanistan, and the Pakistanis would halt major military actions against the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, let go of all prisoners, and permit tribesmen to carry belittled guns. [ 16 ] On 4 June 2007, the National Security Council of Pakistan met to decide the fortune of Waziristan and take up a number of political and administrative decisions to control “ Talibanization “ of the area. The meet was chaired by President Pervez Musharraf and it was attended by the Chief Ministers and Governors of all four provinces. They discussed the deteriorate jurisprudence and order situation and the threat posed to state security. To crush the armed combativeness in the Tribal regions and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, the politics decided to intensify and reinforce law enforcement and military bodily process, take action against certain madrasa, and jam illegal FM radio stations. [ 19 ]

fusion with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [edit ]

On 24 January 2017, the federal politics decided to merge FATA with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, requiring legislation managed in Parliament after approval from the federal cabinet. Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif was to apprise the ministers of the amalgamation issue in upcoming federal cabinet meetings. After blessing for this amalgamation, the Law Ministry would be asked to prepare the draft of the circular that would be presented in parliament for approval. The JUI-F, a major ally and coalition partner of the opinion PML ( N ), opposed this motion on versatile political grounds. The Pakhtunkhwa Mili Awami Party led by Mehmood Achakzai besides opposed the fusion. Under the plan, FATA was to be put under the control of the peasant government through amendments to the Frontier Crimes Regulation ( FCR ). An annual grant of Rs100 billion was proposed for FATA ‘s development under the proposed amalgamation and the come will be given from the Federal Divisible Pool. Most political parties in Pakistan supported the need of the fusion of FATA with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, including Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf ( PTI ), Pakistan People ‘s Party ( PPP ), Qaumi Watan Party ( QWP ) and Jamaat-e-Islami ( JI ). The FATA Reforms Committee proposed in 2016 a sic of “ parallel and coincident ” political, administrative, judicial and security reforms, vitamin a well as a massive reconstruction and rehabilitation program, to prepare FATA for fusion with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The proposed fusion was near finalized at a suffer presided over by President Mamnoon Hussain at the Presidency in January 2017. The Prime Minister gave blessing after discussing the issue with all the stakeholders. [ 20 ] By March 2017, the federal cabinet approved the amalgamation of FATA with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and other reforms. [ 21 ]

National Implementation Committee on FATA Reforms [edit ]

On 18 December 2017, the National Implementation Committee ( NIC ) on FATA Reforms, chaired by Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan Abbasi, endorsed the FATA-Khyber Pakhtunkhwa amalgamation and agreed to let FATA elect 23 members to the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly in the July 2018 general elections. The NIC besides decided to remove controversial sections of the Frontier Crimes Regulations and to allow colonial-era regulation to continue with a sunset article to be replaced entirely once a proper judicial system is in position in the tribal region. [ 22 ]

Constitutional amendment [edit ]

On 24 May 2018, the National Assembly of Pakistan passed a bill to enact the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan which calls for the amalgamation of FATA with the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The vote was 229–1 in prefer of the amendment. Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam-Fazal and Pakhtunkhwa Milli Awami Party lawmakers walked out from the fabrication ahead of the vote. The lone dissenter was Dawar Kundi of the PTI. On 25 May 2018, Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan was passed with a majority in the Senate of Pakistan. A total of 69 votes was needed for the bill to be approved ; the vote was 71–5 in favor of the amendment for FATA, K-P amalgamation. [ 3 ] On 27 May 2018, Thirty-first Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan was passed with a majority in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly. A entire of 83 votes was needed for the bill to be approved ; the vote was an 87–7 in favor of the amendment for FATA, K-P fusion. [ 3 ]

Qabailistan proposal [edit ]

Parliamentarians from tribal areas took strong exception to a resolution adopted by the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa forum asking for fusion of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas with their province. The Awami National Party besides made similar demands that the FATA be merged with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. These proposals were opposed by tribal parliamentarians in Islamabad. [ 23 ] The identify Qabailistan was proposed for FATA as a newfangled province separate from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. [ 24 ] The Qabailistan proposal never got any traction and was dropped in favor of merging FATA into Khyber Pakhtunkhwa state. [ 24 ] [ 23 ] [ 5 ]

geography [edit ]

Mohmand Agency The Federally Administered Tribal Areas were bordered by : Afghanistan to the north and west, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the east, and Balochistan to the south. The seven Tribal Areas lie in a north-to-south clean that is adjacent to the west side of the six Frontier Regions, which besides lie in a north-to-south strip. The areas within each of those two regions are geographically arranged in a succession from north to south. The geographic arrangement of the seven Tribal Areas in order from north to south was : Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Orakzai, Kurram, North Waziristan, South Waziristan. The geographic musical arrangement of the six Frontier Regions in club from north to south was : FR Peshawar, FR Kohat, FR Bannu, FR Lakki Marwat, FR Tank, FR Dera Ismail Khan .

Demographics [edit ]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1901 83,962 —    
1911 1,622,094 +34.46%
1921 2,825,136 +5.71%
1931 2,259,288 −2.21%
1941 2,377,599 +0.51%
1951 1,332,005 −5.63%
1961 1,847,195 +3.32%
1972 2,491,230 +2.76%
1981 2,198,547 −1.38%
1998 2,746,490 +1.32%
2017 5,001,676 +3.21%
Source: [25][26] : 9

The entire population of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas was estimated in 2000 to be about 3,341,080 people, or approximately 2 % of Pakistan ‘s population. only 3.1 % of the population resides in established townships. [ 27 ] It is frankincense the most rural administrative unit in Pakistan. According to 2011 estimates FATA gained 62.1 % population over its 1998 figures, totaling up to 4,452,913. This is the fourth-highest addition in population of any state, after that of Balochistan, Sindh and Gilgit-Baltistan. [ 28 ] 99.1 % of population speaks the Pashto speech. [ 29 ]

Languages [edit ]

Pashtuns in the Baizai sphere The main kin of the Pashtuns support in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas are Wazir, Afridi, Mohmand, Tarkani, Mahsud, Dawar, Bettani, Sherani, Turi, Orakzai, Bangash, Shinwari, and Safi and utmanzi ..

Religions [edit ]

Over 99.6 % of the population is Muslim belonging to the Sunni Hanafi Fiqh. According to a report by the politics of Pakistan there are around 50,000 religious minority members living in erstwhile Fata region.These include 20,000 Sikh, 20,000 Christians and 10,000 Hindus. [ 31 ]

Religions in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas[32]
Religion Percent
Islam 99.6%
Christianity 0.07%
Others† 0.34%
Distribution of religions
†Includes Sikhs, Parsis, Hindus .

Government and politics [edit ]

majority rule and parliamentary representation [edit ]

In 1996, the Government of Pakistan ultimately granted the Federally Administered Tribal Areas the retentive requested “ adult franchise ”, under which every adult would have the right to vote for their own representatives in the Parliament of Pakistan. [ 15 ] [ 33 ] The Federally Administered Tribal Areas were not allowed to organize political parties. [ 33 ] Islamist candidates were able to political campaign through mosques and madrasa, as a leave of which mullah were elected to represent the Federally Administered Tribal Areas in the National Assembly in 1997 and 2002. [ 15 ] This was a departure from prior tribal politics, where world power was focused in the hands of profane authorities, Maliks. [ 15 ]

Women and elections [edit ]

All of the FATA ‘s adults were legally allowed to vote in the Majlis-e-Shoora of Pakistan under the “ pornographic franchise ” granted in 1996. [ 15 ] Stephen Tierney, in Accommodating National Identity, reported that women came out to do indeed in the thousands for the 1997 function, possibly motivated by competition for voter numbers among the tribes. [ 33 ] however, Ian Talbot in Pakistan, a Modern History states that elders and religious leaders attempted to prevent female participation by threatening punishment against tribesmen whose women registered, leading to under-registration in the female population. [ 34 ] In 2008, the Taliban ordered women in the FATA regions of Bajaur, Kurram and Mohmand against voting under terror of “ unplayful punishment, ” while Mangal Bagh, head of the Lashkar-e-Islam, forbade women to vote in the Jamrud and Bara subdivisions of the Khyber Agency. [ 35 ]

administration [edit ]

The area was controlled by the Federal government of Pakistan for more than seventy years until its fusion with Khyber Pakhtunkhua. On behalf of the President, the Governor of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa ( once NWFP ) used to exercise the federal authority in the context of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. The Constitution of Pakistan had special provisions to rule the FATA. The rules which were framed by the british in 1901 as Frontier Crimes Regulations ( FCR ) besides continued to operate. According to now repealed Article 247 of fundamental law of Pakistan, The Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of Pakistan and any of the High Court of Pakistan did not extend to FATA and Provincially Administered Tribal Areas ( PATA ). The Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Provincial Assembly had no power in FATA, and can exercise its powers in PATA entirely for that which was contribution of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa .
The Pashtun tribes who inhabit the areas were semi-autonomous, The tribes have cordial relations with the Pakistan politics. [ 36 ]

representation [edit ]

People of FATA were represented in the Parliament of Pakistan by their elected representatives both in National Assembly of Pakistan and the Senate of Pakistan. FATA had 12 members in the National Assembly and 8 members in the Senate. FATA had no representation in the Provincial Assembly of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. The administrative head of each tribal agency was the political agent who was representative of the President of Pakistan and the Governor of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. Each Tribal Agency, depending on its size, had about two to three Assistant political Agents, approximately three to ten Tehsildars, and a count of Naib Tehsildars with the necessity support staff. The Frontier Regions ( FRs ) differ from the agencies only in the chain of command so that each FR was headed by the DC/DCO of the adjacent settled district ( DC/DCO Peshawar heads FR Peshawar and indeed on ). Under his supervision there was an assistant political agent and a number of Tehsildars and Naib Tehsildars and support staff .

Policing and Security [edit ]

Each Tribal Agency had roughly 2–3,000 Khasadars and levies pull of irregulars and up to three to nine wings of the para-military Frontier Corps for maintenance of law and rate in the Agency and borders security. The Frontier Corps Force is headed by Pakistan ‘s regular united states army officers, and its soldiers are recruited largely from the Pashtun tribe. The combativeness situation has, however, improved after consecutive military operations carried out by Pakistan Army in Bajaur, Swat, Waziristan, Orakzai and Mohmand .

Relations with the Pakistani Military [edit ]

In 2001, the Pakistani military entered the Federally Administered Tribal Areas for the first time which was previously governed by Frontier Corps. In 2010, The New America Foundation and Terror Free Tomorrow conducted the first comprehensive public opinion survey in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. The results showed that, on the consequence of fighting combativeness in the region, the people of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas overwhelmingly support the Pakistani military. closely 70 percentage back the Pakistani military pursuing Al-Qaeda and Taliban fighters in the Tribal Areas. According to a surveil, when asked how the federally Administered Tribal Areas should be governed, 79 percentage said it should be governed by the Pakistani military. [ 37 ] In 2014, about 929,859 people were reported to be internally displaced from north Waziristan as a result of Operation Zarb-e-Azb, a military offense conducted by the Pakistan Armed Forces along the Durand Line. [ 38 ] [ 39 ]

administrative divisions [edit ]

federally Administered Tribal Areas ( FATA ) The Federally Administered Tribal Areas ( FATA ) consisted of two types of areas i.e. tribal Agencies ( Tribal Districts ) and Frontier Regions ( FRs ). There were seven Tribal Agencies and six Frontier Regions .

tribal Agencies [edit ]

These are the Tribal Agencies ( from North to South ) :
Agencies were far divided into Subdivisions, and Tehsils. According to the Election Commission of Pakistan, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas consisted of the comply subdivisions and tehsils : [ 40 ]

Frontier Regions [edit ]

The Frontier Regions were named after their adjacent settled Districts in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. The presidency of the FR was carried out by the DCO / DC of the neighbor named zone. The overall presidency of the frontier regions was carried out by the FATA Secretariat, based in Peshawar and reporting to the Governor of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. The six regions were :

Urban Areas [edit ]

economy [edit ]

District map of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and FATA ( 1970-2018 ). The people of Former FATA area are the most deprive separate of the nation. Despite being home to 2.4 % of Pakistan ‘s population, it makes up entirely 1.5 % of Pakistan ‘s economy with a per head income of merely $ 663 in 2010 [ 42 ] lone 34 % of households managed to rise above the poverty level. [ 43 ] ascribable to the Former FATA region ‘s tribal organization, the economy is chiefly pastoral, with some agribusiness practiced in the region ‘s few prolific valleys. Its entire irrigate kingdom is approximately 1,000 straight kilometres. [ 44 ] The region is a major center for opium traffic, angstrom well the smuggle of other bootleg. [ 44 ] Foreign aid to the region is a unmanageable proposition, according to Craig Cohen, an analyst at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, D.C. Since security is unmanageable, local nongovernmental organizations are required to distribute help, but there is a lack of trust amongst NGOs and other powers that hampers distribution. Pakistani NGOs are often targets of fierce attacks by Islamist militants in the Former FATA region. Due to the across-the-board hostility to any tip of foreign charm, the American ramify of Save the Children was distributing fund anonymously in the region as of July 2007. [ 44 ]

mine [edit ]

The Former FATA area hold proved commercially feasible reserves of marble, copper, limestone and coal. however, in the current socio-political conditions, there is no chance of their exploitation in a profitable manner. [ citation needed ]

Reconstruction Opportunity Zones ( ROZs ) [edit ]

The concept of setting up ROZs in the early FATA area and Afghanistan is an chemical element in the United States Government ‘s counter-terrorism and regional economic integration strategies. [ 45 ]

irrigation projects [edit ]

Water is scarce in the erstwhile FATA region. When the british forces occupied Malakand they started work on the Amandara headworks to divert the Swat River through a tunnel to irrigate the plains of Mardan and Charsadda. The aim was not to get more pale yellow or sugarcane, but to ‘ tame the fantastic tribes ‘. [ citation needed ]

Social issues [edit ]

Health [edit ]

There is one hospital bed for every 2,179 people in the former FATA region, compared to one in 1,341 in Pakistan as a wholly. There is one doctor for every 7,670 [ 46 ] people compared to one doctor of the church per 1,226 people in Pakistan as a whole. 43 % of the former FATA area ‘s citizens have access to clean drink water. [ 40 ] much of the population is fishy about advanced medicine, and some competitive groups are openly hostile to vaccinations. In June 2007, a Pakistani doctor of the church was blown up in his car “ after trying to counter the anti-vaccine propaganda of an imam in Bajaur “, Pakistani officials told The New York Times. [ 44 ]

department of education [edit ]

The Former FATA region has a full of 6,050 politics education institutions out of which 4,868 are functional. Out of these 4,868 functional institutions, 77 percentage ( 3,729 ) are chief schools. total registration in politics institutions is 612,556 out of which 69 percentage are studying at primary stagecoach. total number of working teachers in FATA is 22,610 out of which 7,540 are female. The survival rate from Grade KG to Grade 5 is 36 percentage while the transition rate from primary to middle in public schools in Ex-FATA is 64 percentage ( 73 percentage for boys and 45 percentage for girls ). [ 47 ] The Former FATA region has one university, FATA University in Akhurwal, Darra Adam Khel, FR Kohat, which was approved by Mir Hazar Khan Khoso in May 2013. [ 49 ] Classes commenced on 24 October 2016, under the direction of Dr. Mohammad Tahir Shah, former professor of geology at University of Peshawar. [ 50 ] The university plans to open sub-campuses at Khar, Miran Shah, and Parachinar. [ 51 ] The Former FATA region ‘s literacy rate is 22 %, which is well below the countrywide rate of 56 %. 35.8 % of men, and lone 7.5 % of women meet department of education, compared to a nationally 44 % of women. [ 48 ] [ 52 ]

Sports [edit ]

Former FATA region has produced some first sportspersons like cricketer Shahid Afridi from Khyber Agency and squash player Maria Toorpakay Wazir from South Waziristan who won the National Women ‘s Squash championship in 2010. FATA is home to the domestic cricket team FATA Cheetahs. The federally Administered Tribal Areas cricket team gained first class condition in 2015. [ 54 ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]