Casa Milà ( catalan pronunciation : [ ˈkazə miˈla ], spanish pronunciation : [ ˈkasa miˈla ] ), popularly known as La Pedrera ( marked [ ɫə pəˈðɾeɾə ] ) or “ The stone prey ”, a reference to its improper rough-hew appearance, is a Modernista build up in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. It was the last private residence designed by architect Antoni Gaudí and was built between 1906 and 1912. The construction was commissioned in 1906 by Pere Milà [ ca ; es ] and his wife Roser Segimon [ ca ]. At the clock time, it was controversial because of its undulating stone facade, twisting exploit iron balconies and designed by Josep Maria Jujol. several geomorphologic innovations include a self-supporting rock façade, and a free-plan shock, clandestine garage and the dramatic terrace on the roof.
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In 1984, it was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Since 2013 it has been the headquarters of the Fundació Catalunya La Pedrera which manages the visit to the building, [ 1 ] exhibitions and other cultural and educative activities at Casa Milà .
Building history [edit ]
architect [edit ]
Antoni Gaudí iodine Cornet was born on June 25, 1852 in Catalonia Spain. [ 2 ] As a child, Gaudí ‘s health was poor, suffering from rheumatism. Because of this, he was afforded drawn-out periods of clock time resting at his summer house in Riudoms. here he spent a big assign of his clock time outdoors, allowing him to deeply sketch nature. [ 3 ] This would become one of the major influences in his computer architecture to come. Gaudí was a very practical homo and a craftsman at his core. In his knead he followed impulses and turned creative plans into reality. His openness to embrace new styles combined with a bright imagination helped mold new styles of computer architecture and consequently helped push the limits of structure. today he is regarded as a pioneer of the modern computer architecture stylus. [ 4 ] In 1870, Gaudí moved to Barcelona to study computer architecture. He was an inconsistent scholar who showed flashes of magnificence. It took him eight years to graduate ascribable to a mix of health complications, military military service a well as other activities. [ 5 ] After completion of his education he became a prolific architect equally well as designing gardens, sculptures and all early cosmetic arts. Gaudí ‘s most celebrated works consisted of several buildings : Parque Güell ; Palacio Güell ; Casa Mila ; Casa Vicens. He besides is contributed for his solve on the Crypt of La Sagrada Familia and the Nativity facade. [ 6 ] Gaudí ‘s exercise at the clock time was both admired and criticized for his bold, advanced solutions. [ 7 ] Gaudí ‘s liveliness came to a tragic end when he was run over by a tramway. A few weeks late he died in the hospital ascribable to his injuries on June 10, 1926 at the senesce of 74. [ 8 ] A few years after his death, his fame became renowned by critics and the cosmopolitan populace alike .
build owners [edit ]
The owners of Casa Milà in 1910 Casa Milà was built for Roser Segimón and her conserve Pere Milà. Roser Segimón was the affluent widow of Josep Guardiola, an Indiano or Americano, or former settler returned from South America, who had made his fortune with a coffee bean grove in Guatemala. Her second husband, Pere Milà was a developer known for his royal poinciana life style. [ 9 ]
construction process [edit ]
La Casa Milà being built In 1905, Milà and Segimón married and on June 9, Roser Segimón bought a house with garden which occupied an area of 1,835 hearty meters, located on Paseo de Gracia, 92. In September, they commissioned Gaudí for building them a new house with the idea of populate in the main floor and renting out the rest of the apartments. On February 2, 1906, the plan was presented to the Barcelona City Council and the works began, demolishing the preexistent build alternatively of reforming it, as in the event of the Casa Batlló. [ 10 ] The building was completed in December 1910 and the owner asked Gaudí to make a security to inhabit the chief floor, which the City Council authorized in October 1911, and the pair moved in. On October 31, 1912, Gaudí issued the certificate express that, in accordance with his plans and his direction, the study had been completed and the whole house was fix to be rented. [ 10 ]
Critics and controversies [edit ]
The build did not respect any rules of conventional style, for which Gaudí received much criticism. To begin with, the mention “ La Pedrera ” is in fact a nickname assigned by the citizens who disapproved of its unusualness. [ 11 ] The unique structure of the building and the relationship between the building ‘s architect and Pere Milà became the object of ridicule for the people of Barcelona and many humorous publications of the clock. [ 12 ]
catholic symbols [edit ]
A fragment from first drafts of the architectural plans from 1906, showing the sculptures mounted on the amphetamine facade. Gaudí, a Catholic and a fan of the Virgin Mary, planned for the Casa Milà to be a apparitional symbol. [ 13 ] Overt religious elements include an excerpt from the Rosary on the cornice and planned statues of Mary, specifically Our lady of the Rosary, and two archangels, St. Michael and St. Gabriel. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] however, the Casa Milà was not built entirely to Gaudí ‘s specifications. The local politics ordered the destruction of elements that exceeded the stature standard for the city, and fined the Milàs for many infractions of building codes. [ 15 ] After Semana Trágica, an outbreak of anticlericalism in the city, Milà prudently decided to forgo the religious statues. [ 13 ] Gaudí contemplated abandoning the undertaking but a priest persuaded him to continue. [ 14 ]
change of ownership [edit ]
Interior of Casa Milà in 1910 In 1940, Milà died. Segimon sold the property in 1946 for 18 million pesetas to Josep Ballvé one Pellisé, known for his department stores on Ronda de Sant Antoni [ ca ], in partnership with the family of Pío Rubert Laporta. The Compañía Inmobiliaria Provenza, SA ( CIPSA ) was founded to administer the construction. [ 16 ] Roser Segimon continued to live on the main floor until her death in 1964. [ 17 ] Casa Milà in 1914 The new owners divided the first shock facing Carrer de Provença [ ca ] into five apartments alternatively of the original two. In 1953, they commissioned Francisco Juan Barba Corsini [ es ] to convert 13 rubbish-filled attic laundry rooms to street-facing apartments, leaving a communal hallway on the slope facing the courtyards. Some of these two or three room apartments had a loft and were designed and furnished in a distinctive early 1950s style using brick, ceramic and wood. Items of furniture, such as the Pedrera chair [ ca ], were evocative of Eero Saarinen ‘s work. [ 18 ] The indemnity company Northern took over the main floor in 1966. By then, Casa Milà had housed a lotto hall, an academy and the offices of Cementos Molins and Inoxcrom among others. [ 16 ] alimony costs were high and the owners had allowed the build to become decay, causing stones to loosen in 1971. Josep Anton Comas made some emergency repairs, specially to the paintings in the courtyards, while respecting the original design. [ 19 ]
renovation [edit ]
After being re-painted a blue brown, the build ‘s colors were restored in the 1980s Gaudí ‘s oeuvre was designated a historic and artistic repository on July 24, 1969. Casa Milà was in poor condition in the early 1980s. It had been painted a blue brown and many of its interior color schemes had been abandoned or allowed to deteriorate, but it has been restored since and many of the original colors revived. [ 20 ] In 1984, the build became part of a World Heritage Site encompassing some of Gaudí ‘s works. The Barcelonan city council tried to rent the main floor as an office for the 1992 Olympic wish. ultimately, the day before Christmas 1986, Caixa Catalunya bought La Pedrera for 900 million pesetas. [ 21 ] On February 19, 1987, urgently needed work began on the restoration and cleaning of the façade. The work was done by the architects Joseph Emilio Hernández-Cros and Rafael Vila. [ 20 ] The refurbish independent floor opened in 1990 as part of the Cultural Olympiad of Barcelona. The floor became an exhibition room with an exemplar of modernity in the Eixample. [ 16 ]
design [edit ]
The construct is 1,323 m2 per floor on a plot of 1,620 m2. Gaudí made the beginning sketches in his workshop in the Sagrada Família. He designed the house as a changeless curve, both outside and inside, incorporating ruled geometry and naturalistic elements .
The court Casa Milà consists of two buildings, which are structured around two courtyards that provide light to the nine stories : basement, ground floor, mezzanine, main ( or noble ) floor, four upper floors, and an attic. The basement was intended to be the garage, the chief shock the residence of the Milàs ( a flat of all 1,323 m2 ), and the rest distributed over 20 apartments. The resulting layout is shaped like an asymmetrical “ 8 ” because of the different shapes and sizes of the courtyards. The loft housed the laundry and drying areas, forming an insulate space for the build and simultaneously determining the levels of the roof. One of the most celebrated elements of the build is the roof, crowned with skylights, stairway exits, fans, and chimneys. All of these elements, constructed out of brick covered with birdlime, broken marble, or glass have a specific architectural affair but are besides real sculptures integrated into the construct. The apartments sport plastered ceilings with dynamic reliefs, handcrafted wooden doors, windows, and furniture, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as hydraulic tiles and diverse ornamental elements. The stairways were intended as avail entries, with the main access to the apartments by elevator except for the noble floor, where Gaudí added a big department of the interior stairway. Gaudí wanted the people who lived in the flats to all know each other. consequently, there were only elevators on every early floor, so people on different floors would meet one another .
structure [edit ]
CasaMila-Balcony, showing the self-supporting stone facade, besides supported by swerve iron beams Casa Milà is characterized by its self-supporting stone facade, meaning that it is free of load-bearing walls. The facade connects to the internal social organization of each floor by means of curved cast-iron beam surrounding the margin of each floor. This construction system allows, on one hand, bombastic openings in the facade which give light to the homes, and on the other, rid structure of the different levels, so that internal walls can be added and demolished without affecting the constancy of the build. This allows the owners to change their minds at will and to modify, without problems, the home layout of the homes. [ 22 ]
constructive and cosmetic items [edit ]
facade [edit ]
The facade is composed of boastfully blocks of limestone from the Garraf Massif on the beginning floor and from the Villefranche prey for the higher levels. The blocks were cut to follow the plat of the projection of the model, then raised to their location and adjusted to align in a continuous crook to the pieces around them. Viewed from the external the build has three parts : the chief body of the six-storey blocks with winding stone floors, two floors set a obstruct back with a different crook, similar to waves, a legato texture and white color, and with little holes that look like embrasures, and finally the body of the roof. [ 23 ] Gaudí ‘s master facade had some of its lower-level ironwork removed. In 1928, the cut Mosella opened the first storehouse in La Pedrera, and he eliminated the bars. This did not business anyone, because in the middle of twentieth hundred, function ironwork had little importance. The ironwork was lost until a few years subsequently, when Americans donated one of them to the MoMa, where it is on display. With restitution initiatives launched in 1987, the facade was rejoined to some pieces of pit that had fallen. In order to respect the fidelity of the original, material was obtained from the Villefranche prey, even though by then it was no longer operate. [ 16 ]
Hall and courtyards [edit ]
The build uses a completely original solution to solve the return of a lobby being excessively closed and dark. Its open and aeriform courtyards provide a place of transit and are directly visible to those accessing the building. There are two patios on the side of the Passeig de Gracia and of the street Provence .
The patio Patios, structurally, are cardinal as supporting loads of inner facades. The floor of the court is supported by pillars of hurl iron. In the court, there are traditional elliptic beams and girders but Gaudí applied an clever solution of using two concentric cylindrical beams with elongate radial beams, like the spokes of a bicycle. They form a bespeak outside of the beam to two points above and below, making the serve of the central girder a keystone and work in tension and compaction simultaneously. This supported structure is twelve feet in diameter and is considered “ the soul of the build up ” with a clear resemblance to Gothic crypts. The centerpiece was built in a shipyard by Josep Maria Carandell who copied a guide rack, interpreting Gaudí ‘s captive as to represent the helm of the ship of life .
- Interior, gates
Paintings cover the walls, with access protected by a giant iron gate Access is protected by a massive iron gate with a design attributed to Jujol. It was in the first place used by both people and cars, as access to the garage is in the basement, immediately an auditorium. The two halls are fully polychrome with vegetable oil paintings on the plaster surfaces, with eclectic references to mythology and flowers. During construction there was a problem including a basement as a garage for cars, the new invention that was thrilling the businessperson at the fourth dimension. The future neighbor Felix Anthony Meadows, owner of Industrial Linera, requested a switch because his Rolls Royce could not entree it. Gaudí agreed to remove a pillar on the ramp that led into the garage so that Felix, who was establishing sales and factory in Walls of Valles, could go to both places with his car from La Pedrera. [ 16 ] For the floors of Casa Milà, Gaudí used a model of floor forms of square timbers with two colors, and the hydraulic paving hexangular pieces of blue and sea motifs that had originally been designed for the Batllo family. The wax was designed in gray by John Bertrand under the supervision of Gaudí who “ touched up with their own fingers, ” in the words of the manufacturer Josep Bay. [ 24 ]
Loft [edit ]
The attic Like in Casa Batlló, Gaudí shows the lotion of the catenary arch as a hold structure for the roof, a form which he had already used curtly after graduating in the woodwind frameworks of Mataró ‘s cooperative known as “ L’Obrera Mataronense. ” In this case, Gaudí used the Catalan proficiency of timbrel, imported from Italy in the fourteenth hundred. The attic, where the laundry rooms were located, was a clear room under a Catalan vault roof supported by 270 parabolic vaults of different heights and spaced by about 80 centimeter. The roof resembles both the rib of a huge animal and a palm, giving the roof-deck a very unconventional condition similar to a landscape of hills and valleys. The shape and localization of the courtyards makes the arches higher when the space is narrowed and lower when the quad expands. The builder Bayó explained its construction : “ First the face of a wide wall was filled with mortar and plastered. then Canaleta indicated the opening of each arch and Bayó put a breeze through at each starting point of the arch at the top of the wall. From these nails was dangled a range so that the lowest point coincided with the deflection of the arch. then the profile displayed on the wall by the chain was drawn and on this profile the carpenter marked and placed the match focus on, and the timbrel vault was started with three rows of airplane bricks. Gaudí wanted to add a longitudinal axis of bricks connecting all vaults at their keystones ” .
Roof and chimneys [edit ]
Casa Milà roof architecture, chimneys known as espanta bruixes ( roof computer architecture, chimneys known as witch scarers ) The knead of Gaudí on the rooftop of La Pedrera brought his know at Palau Güell together with solutions that were clearly more advanced – this clock time creating shapes and volumes with more body, more prominence, and less polychromasia. [ 26 ] On the rooftop there are six skylights/staircase exits ( four of which were covered with break pottery and some that ended in a doubling thwart typical of Gaudí ), twenty-eight chimneys in several groupings, two half-hidden vents whose function is to renew the publicize in the building, and four domes that discharged to the facade. The staircases besides house the water tanks ; some of which are snail-shaped. The step roof of La Pedrera, called “ the garden of warriors ” by the poet Pere Gimferrer because the chimneys appear to be protecting the skylights, has undergo a revolutionary restoration, removing chimneys added in interventions after Gaudí, television receiver antennas, and other elements that degraded the space. The restoration brought back the magnificence to the chimneys and the skylights that were covered with fragments of marble and broken Valencia tiles. One of the chimney was topped with field glass pieces – it was said that Gaudí did that the day after the inauguration of the construct, taking advantage of the empty bottles from the party. It was restored with the bases of champagne bottles from the early twentieth hundred. The compensate cultivate has enabled the restoration of the original affect of the overhangs made of stone from Ulldecona with fragments of tiles. This whole set is more colored than the facade, although here the creamy tones are dominant. [ 27 ]
furniture [edit ]
The build ‘s inside interior decoration ( pictured in 2005 ) has been changed several times, both key and furniture furniture in 2008 Gaudí, as he had done in Casa Batlló, designed furniture specifically for the main floor. This was part of the concept artwork itself integral to modernism in which the architect assumed duty for global issues such as the structure and the facade, adenine well as every detail of the interior decoration, designing furniture and accessories such as lamps, planters, floors or ceilings. This was another point of clash with Segimon, who complained that there was no neat wall to place her Steinway piano. [ 28 ] Gaudí ‘s reply was blunt : “ then play the violin. ” [ 19 ] The leave of these disagreements has been the loss of the cosmetic bequest of Gaudí, as most of the furniture was removed due to climate change and the changes she made to the chief floor when Gaudí died. Some remain in individual collections, including a curtain made of oak 4 m. long by 1.96 m. high in the Museum of Catalan Modernism ; and a chair and background of Milà. [ citation needed ] Gaudí carved oak doors like to what he had done for the Casa y Bardes, but these were merely included on two floors as when Segimon discovered the price, she decided there would be no more at that quality. [ 24 ]
architecture [edit ]
Casa Milà is separate of the UNESCO World Heritage Site “ Works of Antoni Gaudí “. It was a harbinger of some buildings with a similar biomorphic appearance :
release exhibitions much are held on the first floor, which besides provides some opportunity to see the interior design. There is a commit for entrance to the apartment on the fourthly floor and the roof. The other floors are not open to visitors .
constructive similarities [edit ]
Gaudí ‘s La Pedrera was inspired by a mountain, but there is no agreement as to which batch was the reference book model. Joan Bergós thought it was the rocks of Fray Guerau in Prades mountains. Joan Matamala thought that the model could have been St. Miquel del Fai, while the sculptor Vicente Vilarubias believed it was inspired by the cliffs Torrent Pareis in Menorca. other options include the mountains of Uçhisar in Cappadocia, suggested by Juan Goytisolo, or Mola Gallifa, suggested by Louis Permanyer, based on the fact that Gaudí visited the area in 1885 to escape an outbreak of cholera in Barcelona. [ 23 ] Some people say that the interior layout of La Pedrera comes from studies that Gaudí made of medieval fortresses. This effigy is reinforced by the seeming appearance of the rooftop lamp chimney as “ sentinels ” with great helmets. [ 27 ] The structure of the iron doorway in the lobby does not follow any isotropy, straight or insistent radiation pattern. rather, it evokes bubbles of soap that are formed between the hands or the structures of a plant cell. [ 29 ]
criticism and controversy [edit ]
Casa Milà at night The build ‘s unconventional style made it the subject of much criticism. It was given the nickname “ La Pedrera ”, meaning “ the prey ”. [ 16 ] Casa Milà appeared in many satirical magazines. Joan Junceda presented it as a traditional “ Easter cake ” by means of cartoons in Patufet. Joaquim Garcia made a joke about the trouble of setting the damask wrought iron balconies in his magazine. [ 16 ] Homeowners in Passeig de Gracia became angry with Milà and ceased to greet him, arguing that the weird construct by Gaudí would lower the monetary value of domain in the area .
administrative problems [edit ]
Casa Milà besides caused some administrative problems. In December 1907 the City Hall stopped work on the construction because of a column which occupied part of the sidewalk, not respecting the alliance of facades. Again on August 17, 1908, more problems occurred when the build surpassed the predict stature and borders of its construction site by 4,000 square metres ( 43,000 sq foot ). The Council called for a fine of 100,000 pesetas ( approximately 25 % of the cost of work ) or for the destruction of the attic and roof. The quarrel was resolved a year and a half later, December 28, 1909, when the Commission certified that it was a massive construction and therefore not required to have a ‘strict complaisance ‘ with the bylaw. [ 17 ]
design competitions [edit ]
The owner entered La Pedrera in the annual Barcelona Artistic Buildings Competition [ ca ; es ] sponsored by the Barcelona City Council ( Ayuntament ). early entries in the competition included two works by Sagnier ( Calle Mallorca 264, and one on Corsica and Av. Diagonal ), the Casa Gustà [ ca ] by architect Jaume Gustà [ ca ; es ], and the Casa Pérez Samanillo [ ca ], designed by Joan Josep Hervàs [ ca ; es ]. Although the most dramatic and clear favorite was Casa Milà, [ according to whom? ] the jury opined that even though the facades were dispatch, “ there ‘s still a lot left to do before it ‘s amply completed, finalized and in a perfect state of admiration. “ [ verify translation ] [ 30 ] The winner in 1910 was Samanillo Perez, for his build which now houses the headquarter of the [ 1 ] Circulo Ecuestre .
design disagreements [edit ]
Gaudí ‘s relations with Segimon deteriorated during the construction and decoration of the house. There were many disagreements between them, one example was the monumental bronze pure del Rosario, which Gaudí wanted as the statue on the front of the build in court to the mention of the owner, that the artist Carles Mani one Roig was to sculpt. The statue was not made although the words “ Ave gratia M plena Dominus tecum “ were written at the top of the facade. Continuing disagreements led Gaudí to take Milà to court over his fees. The lawsuit was won by Gaudí in 1916, and he gave the 105,000 pesetas he won in the case to charity, stating that “ the principles mattered more than money. ” Milà was having to pay the mortgage. [ 16 ] After Gaudí ‘s death in 1926, Segimon got rid of most of the furniture that Gaudí had designed and covered over parts of Gaudí ‘s designs with raw decorations in the style of Louis XVI. La Pedrera was acquired in 1986 by Caixa Catalunya [ ca ; es ] and when restoration was done four years late, some of the original decorations reappear. [ 23 ] When the Civil War broke out in July 1936, the Milàs were on vacation. depart of the build was collectivized by the Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia ; the Milàs fled the area with some artwork. [ 16 ]
In media and literature [edit ]
gallery [edit ]
- invention in 1906
- ironwork on the main gate
- catenary arches under the terrace of Casa Milà
- Casa Milà atrium at twilight, after restoration
- Casa Milà rooftop in spring
- arch on the roof
- breathing towers
- Glass towers on the roof
- Paintings on the ceiling
- Detail of an original balcony
- atrium reflections
- Exterior details
See besides [edit ]
References [edit ]
- Rainer Zervst. Gaudí, 1852–1926, Antoni Gaudí i Cornet – A Life Devoted to Architecture. Cologne: Benedikt Taschen Verlag GmbH & Co. KG., 1988. p176.
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