Species of unfolding plant
“ Cardoni ” redirects here. For the surname, see Cardoni ( surname )
The cardoon, Cynara cardunculus, besides called the artichoke thistle, is a thistle in the sunflower family. It is a naturally occurring species that besides has many cultivated forms, including the ball artichoke. It is native to the westerly and cardinal Mediterranean region, where it was domesticated in ancient times and placid occurs as a crazy plant.

description [edit ]

The wild cardoon is a stout herbaceous perennial plant growing 0.8 to 1.5 m ( 31 to 59 in ) tall, with deeply lobed and heavily spined green to grey-green tomentose ( hairy or downy ) leaves up to 50 curium ( 20 in ) long, with yellow spines up to 3.5 centimeter hanker. The flowers are violet-purple, produced in a large, ball-shaped, massively spined capitulum up to 6 centimeter ( 2 in ) in diameter. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] It is adapted to dry climates, native across a circum- Mediterranea area from Morocco and Portugal east to Libya and Greece and north to Croatia and Southern France ; [ 6 ] it may besides be native on Cyprus, the Canary Islands and Madeira. [ 7 ] In France, the frost-tender cardoon merely occurs baseless in the Mediterranean south ( Gard, Hérault, Aude, Pyrénées-Orientales, Corsica ). [ 4 ] It has become an invasive weed in the pampas of Argentina, [ 5 ] and is besides considered a weed in Australia and California. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] [ 10 ] [ 11 ]

cultivation [edit ]

Cultivated cardoon leaf, Madrid Royal Botanical Garden, without leaf spines. The two chief cultivar groups are the cardoon ( Cynara cardunculus Cardoon Group, syn. C. cardunculus volt-ampere. altilis DC ), selected for comestible leaf stems, and the artichoke ( Cynara cardunculus Scolymus Group, sometimes distinguished as Cynara scolymus or C. cardunculus volt-ampere. scolymus ( L. ) Fiori ), selected for larger comestible flower buds. They differ from the wild plant in being larger ( up to 2 m grandiloquent ), a lot less barbed, and with thick leaf stems and larger flowers, all characteristics selected by humans for greater crop give and easier harvest and processing. [ 2 ] [ 12 ] Wild and cultivated cardoons and artichokes are very alike genetically, and are fully interfertile, but only have identical limit ability to form hybrids with other species in the genus Cynara. [ 2 ] The earliest description of the cardoon may come from the fourth-century BC Greek writer Theophrastus, under the diagnose κάκτος ( Latin : cactus ), although the claim identity of this plant is unsealed. [ 2 ] The cardoon was popular in Greek, Roman, and Persian cuisine, and remained popular in medieval and early mod Europe. It besides became common in the vegetable gardens of colonial America, but fell from fashion in the deep nineteenth century and is now identical uncommon. [ citation needed ] In Europe, cardoon is silent cultivated in France ( Provence, Savoie, Lyonnais ), Spain, and Italy. In the Geneva area, where Huguenot refugees introduced it about 1685, the local anesthetic cultivar Argenté de Genève ( “ Cardy ” ) [ 13 ] is considered a culinary forte. “ Before cardoons are sent to table, the stalks or ribs are blanched tying them together and wrapping them round with straw, which is besides tied up with cord, and left so for about three weeks ”. [ 14 ] Cardoons besides are coarse vegetables in northern Africa, often used in algerian or tunisian couscous .
Cardoon stalks can be covered with little, closely inconspicuous spines that can cause hearty trouble if they become lodged in the bark. respective thornless cultivars have been developed to overcome this. Cardoon requires a long, cool growing season ( about five months ), and while it is not particularly frost-sensitive, in heavier freezes it may lose its leaves and resprout, or in gallop intemperate freezes, die. It besides typically requires significant growing space per plant, sol is not much grow except where it is regionally popular. In cultivation in the United Kingdom, this plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society ‘s Award of Garden Merit. [ 15 ] [ 16 ]

As food [edit ]

nutrition [edit ]

Raw cardoon is 94 % water, 4 % carbohydrates, 1 % protein, and has negligible fat ( table ). A 100 gram reference sum provides 17 calories and chasten amounts ( 10-19 % of the Daily Value ) of vitamin bc, magnesium, manganese, and sodium ( mesa ) .

culinary [edit ]

While the flower bud can be consume much as belittled ( and barbed ) artichokes, more much the stems are corrode after being braised in cooking fluent. Cardoon stems are region of Lyonnaise cuisine ( e.g. gratin de cardons ). lone the inmost, ashen stalks are considered edible, and cardoons are consequently normally prepared for sale by protecting the leaf stalks from the sunlight for respective weeks. This was traditionally done by burying the plant belowground, therefore, cardoon plantations in Spain are often formed by characteristic land mounds surrounding each plant, the worldly concern covering the stalks. In modern cultivation, the establish is normally rather wrapped in black formative film or other opaque material. The bloom bud of angry cardoons are still widely collected and used in southern Italy and Sicily. [ 17 ] In Spain and Portugal, the bloom bud are besides employed in cheesemaking : the pistils of the cardoon flower are used as a vegetable rennet in the make of some cheeses such as the Torta del Casar and the Torta de la Serena cheeses in Spain, or the Queijo de Nisa and Serra da Estrela cheeses in Portugal. Cardoon leaf stalks, which look like giant celery stalks, can be served annoyed or braised, and have an artichoke-like spirit with a hint of bitter. They are harvested in winter and leap, being best just before the implant flowers. [ 12 ] In the Abruzzo region of Italy, Christmas lunch is traditionally started with a soup of cardoon cooked in chicken broth with small meatballs ( lamb or, more rarely, gripe ), sometimes with the promote addition of egg ( which scrambles in the hot soup – called stracciatella ) or fried chopped liver and heart. [ 18 ] The cardoon stalks are considered a delicacy in Spain, particularly in the northern regions of Navarre and Aragon, where they are grown in large quantities. [ 19 ] In Spain, cardoons are typically cooked by first boiling the stalks to soften them, and then adding elementary sauces such as almond sauce or small amounts of jamón ; they are sometimes combined with clams, artichokes, or beans as well. Because of their seasonality ( from November to February ), cardoons are a staple of the Christmas dinner in Navarre and the besiege regions ; for the same reason, cardoons are frequently sold as vegetable preserves, normally in water or brine, so that they can be eaten all class round. [ 19 ] Cardoons are an component in one of the national dishes of Spain, the cocido madrileño, a slow-cooking, one-pot, kernel and vegetable dish simmered in broth. In the US, it is rarely found in conventional grocery stores but is available in some farmers ‘ markets in the months of May, June, and July. The main root can besides be boiled and served cold. [ 20 ] The stems are besides traditionally served battered and fried at St. Joseph ‘s altars in New Orleans.

cardoon is one of the herb used to flavour Amaro liqueur, which may be called Cardamaro .

early uses [edit ]

Cardoons are used as a vegetarian source of enzymes for cheese production. In Portugal, traditional curdling of the curd relies entirely on this vegetable rennet. This results in cheeses such as the Serra district attorney Estrela and Nisa. The cardoon is besides grown as an cosmetic plant for its distinguished architectural appearance, with very bright silver-grey foliation and boastfully flowers in choose cultivars. [ 5 ] cardoon has attracted recent attention as a possible source of biodiesel fuel. The anoint, extracted from the seeds of the cardoon, and called artichoke anoint, is like to safflower and sunflower anoint in composition and habit. [ 21 ] Cardoon is the feedstock for the first gear biorefinery in the global converting the installations of a petrochemical plant in Porto Torres, Sardinia, providing biomass and oils for the build blocks of bioplastics .

drift [edit ]

References [edit ]