continent
This article is about the continent. For other uses, see Asia ( disambiguation )
Map of the most populous part of Asia showing physical, political and population characteristics, as per 2018

Asia ( ) is Earth ‘s largest and most populous continent, located chiefly in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the celibate of Europe, and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with Africa and Europe. Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres ( 17,212,000 sq michigan ), about 30 % of Earth ‘s sum land area and 8.7 % of the Earth ‘s total surface area. The celibate, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, [ 8 ] was the site of many of the first civilizations. Its 4.7 billion people [ 9 ] constitutes approximately 60 % of the global ‘s population. [ 10 ] In general terms, Asia is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the confederacy by the indian Ocean, and on the north by the Arctic Ocean. The boundary line of Asia with Europe is a diachronic and cultural construct, as there is no net physical and geographic interval between them. It is slightly arbitrary and has moved since its beginning creation in classical antiquity. The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East–West cultural, linguistic, and heathen differences, some of which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp divide line. A normally accepted division places Asia to the east of the Suez Canal separating it from Africa ; and to the east of the turkish Straits, the Ural Mountains and Ural River, and to the south of the Caucasus Mountains and the caspian and Black Seas, separating it from Europe. [ 11 ] China and India alternated in being the largest economies in the world from 1 to 1800 CE. China was a major economic power and attracted many to the east, [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ] and for many the fabled wealth and prosperity of the ancient culture of India personified Asia, [ 15 ] attracting European commerce, exploration and colonialism. The accidental discovery of a trans-Atlantic route from Europe to America by Columbus while in search for a path to India demonstrates this deep fascination. The Silk Road became the main east–west trade road in the asian hinterlands while the Straits of Malacca stood as a major sea route. Asia has exhibited economic vigor ( particularly East Asia ) adenine well as robust population growth during the twentieth hundred, but overall population growth has since fallen. [ 16 ] Asia was the birthplace of most of the universe ‘s mainstream religions including Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Jainism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Christianity, Islam, Sikhism, a well as many early religions. Given its size and diverseness, the concept of Asia—a mention dating back to classical antiquity —may actually have more to do with homo geography than physical geography. [ citation needed ] Asia varies greatly across and within its regions with respect to cultural groups, cultures, environments, economics, historical ties and politics systems. It besides has a mix of many unlike climates ranging from the equatorial south via the hot defect in the Middle East, temperate areas in the east and the continental concentrate to vast subarctic and diametric areas in Siberia .

definition and boundaries

Asia–Africa limit

The boundary between Asia and Africa is the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez, and the Suez Canal. [ 17 ] This makes Egypt a transcontinental nation, with the Sinai peninsula in Asia and the remainder of the nation in Africa .

Asia–Europe boundary

B” and “F” in this image. Definitions used for the boundary between Europe and Asia in unlike periods of History. The normally bear modern definition largely fits with the lines “ ” and “ ” in this image. The treble part of the Old World into Europe, Asia and Africa has been in use since the sixth hundred BC, due to greek geographers such as Anaximander and Hecataeus. [ citation needed ] Anaximander placed the limit between Asia and Europe along the Phasis River ( the modern Rioni river ) in Georgia of Caucasus ( from its sass by Poti on the Black Sea coast, through the Surami Pass and along the Kura River to the Caspian Sea ), a convention still followed by Herodotus in the fifth century BC. [ 18 ] During the Hellenistic time period, [ 19 ] this convention was revised, and the limit between Europe and Asia was now considered to be the Tanais ( the modern Don River ). This is the conventionality used by Roman earned run average authors such as Posidonius, [ 20 ] Strabo [ 21 ] and Ptolemy. [ 22 ] The frame between Asia and Europe was historically defined by european academics. [ 23 ] The Don River became unsatisfactory to northern Europeans when Peter the Great, king of the Tsardom of Russia, defeating rival claims of Sweden and the Ottoman Empire to the eastern lands, and armed resistor by the tribes of Siberia, synthesized a newfangled russian conglomerate extending to the Ural Mountains and beyond, founded in 1721. The major geographic theorist of the empire was a former swedish prisoner-of-war, taken at the Battle of Poltava in 1709 and assigned to Tobolsk, where he associated with Peter ‘s siberian official, Vasily Tatishchev, and was allowed exemption to conduct geographic and anthropological studies in planning for a future ledger. [ citation needed ] In Sweden, five years after Peter ‘s death, in 1730 Philip Johan von Strahlenberg published a new atlas proposing the Ural Mountains as the border of Asia. Tatishchev announced that he had proposed the mind to von Strahlenberg. The latter had suggested the Emba River as the lower boundary. Over the adjacent century diverse proposals were made until the Ural River prevailed in the mid-19th hundred. The edge had been moved perforce from the Black Sea to the caspian Sea into which the Ural River projects. [ 24 ] The margin between the Black Sea and the Caspian is normally placed along the cap of the Caucasus Mountains, although it is sometimes placed far north. [ 23 ]

Asia–Oceania boundary

The surround between Asia and the area of Oceania is normally placed somewhere in the Malay Archipelago. The Maluku Islands in Indonesia are much considered to lie on the molding of southeasterly Asia, with New Guinea, to the east of the islands, being wholly separate of Oceania. The terms Southeast Asia and Oceania, devised in the nineteenth hundred, have had several vastly different geographic meanings since their origin. The headman factor in determining which islands of the Malay Archipelago are Asian has been the location of the colonial possessions of the versatile empires there ( not all European ). Lewis and Wigen assert, “ The narrowing of ‘Southeast Asia ‘ to its present boundaries was frankincense a gradual process. ” [ 25 ]

Ongoing definition

geographic Asia is a cultural artifact of european conceptions of the world, beginning with the Ancient Greeks, being imposed onto other cultures, an imprecise concept causing endemic competition about what it means. Asia does not precisely correspond to the cultural borders of its assorted types of constituents. [ 26 ] From the clock of Herodotus a minority of geographers have rejected the three-continent system ( Europe, Africa, Asia ) on the grounds that there is no substantial physical separation between them. [ 27 ] For case, Sir Barry Cunliffe, the emeritus professor of european archeology at Oxford, argues that Europe has been geographically and culturally merely “ the western bulge of the continent of Asia ”. [ 28 ] geographically, Asia is the major easterly part of the continent of Eurasia with Europe being a northwestern peninsula of the landmass. Asia, Europe and Africa make up a single continuous landmass— Afro-Eurasia ( except for the Suez Canal ) —and share a coarse continental ledge. Almost all of Europe and a major part of Asia model atop the eurasian Plate, adjoined on the confederacy by the Arabian and amerind Plate and with the easternmost part of Siberia ( east of the Chersky Range ) on the north american Plate .

etymology

Ptolemy ‘s Asia The idea of a station called “ Asia ” was in the first place a concept of greek civilization, [ 29 ] though this might not correspond to the entire continent presently known by that name. The english bible comes from latin literature, where it has the like class, “ Asia ”. Whether “ Asia ” in early languages comes from Latin of the Roman Empire is much less certain, and the ultimate source of the Latin discussion is uncertain, though several theories have been published. One of the first classical music writers to use Asia as a list of the hale continent was Pliny. [ 30 ] This metonymic switch in think of is common and can be observed in some other geographic names, such as Scandinavia ( from Scania ) .

Bronze Age

Before greek poetry, the Aegean Sea area was in a greek Dark Age, at the begin of which syllabic writing was lost and alphabetic publish had not begun. Prior to then in the Bronze Age the records of the Assyrian Empire, the Hittite Empire and the assorted Mycenaean states of Greece mention a region undoubtedly Asia, surely in Anatolia, including if not identical to Lydia. These records are administrative and do not include poetry. The Mycenaean states were destroyed about 1200 BCE by strange agents, though one school of think assigns the dorian invasion to this meter. The burn of the palaces caused the clay tablets holding the Mycenaean administrative records to be preserved by baking. These tablets were written in a greek syllabic handwriting called Linear B. This script was deciphered by a number of concerned parties, most notably by a youthful World War II cryptanalyst, Michael Ventris, subsequently assisted by the scholar, John Chadwick. A major cache discovered by Carl Blegen at the site of ancient Pylos included hundreds of male and female names formed by different methods. Some of these are of women held in servitude ( as learn of the company implied by the message reveals ). They were used in trades, such as cloth-making, and normally came with children. The name lawiaiai, “ captives ”, associated with some of them identifies their origin. Some are cultural names. One in particular, aswiai, identifies “ women of Asia ”. [ 31 ] possibly they were captured in Asia, but some others, Milatiai, appear to have been of Miletus, a greek colony, which would not have been raided for slaves by Greeks. Chadwick suggests that the names record the locations where these foreign women were purchased. [ 32 ] The diagnose is besides in the singular, Aswia, which refers both to the list of a state and to a female from there. There is a masculine form, aswios. This Aswia appears to have been a leftover of a region known to the Hittites as Assuwa, centered on Lydia, or “ roman Asia ”. This diagnose, Assuwa, has been suggested as the origin for the diagnose of the celibate “ Asia ”. [ 33 ] The Assuwa league was a confederation of states in western Anatolia, defeated by the Hittites under Tudhaliya I around 1400 BCE .

classical antiquity

The state of Asia highlighted ( in crimson ) within the Roman Empire. latin Asia and Greek Ἀσία appear to be the lapp word. Roman authors translated Ἀσία as Asia. The Romans named a province Asia, located in westerly Anatolia ( in contemporary Turkey ). There was an Asia Minor and an Asia Major located in contemporary Iraq. As the earliest testify of the name is greek, it is likely circumstantially that Asia came from Ἀσία, but ancient transitions, due to the miss of literary context, are difficult to catch in the act. The most probable vehicles were the ancient geographers and historians, such as Herodotus, who were all Greek. Ancient Greek surely evidences early and rich uses of the name. [ 34 ] The first continental use of Asia is attributed to Herodotus ( about 440 BCE ), not because he innovated it, but because his Histories are the earliest surviving prose to describe it in any contingent. He defines it cautiously, [ 35 ] mentioning the previous geographers whom he had read, but whose works are nowadays missing. By it he means Anatolia and the Persian Empire, in contrast to Greece and Egypt. Herodotus comments that he is puzzled as to why three women ‘s names were “ given to a tract which is in reality one ” ( Europa, Asia, and Libya, referring to Africa ), stating that most Greeks assumed that Asia was named after the wife of Prometheus ( i.e. Hesione ), but that the Lydians say it was named after Asies, son of Cotys, who passed the appoint on to a kin at Sardis. [ 36 ] In Greek mythology, “ asia ” ( Ἀσία ) or “ Asie ” ( Ἀσίη ) was the diagnose of a “ Nymph or Titan goddess of Lydia ”. [ 37 ] In ancient Greek religion, places were under the care of female divinities, latitude to defender angels. The poets detailed their doings and generations in allegorical speech salted with entertaining stories, which subsequently playwrights transformed into authoritative greek play and became “ greek mythology ”. For exemplar, Hesiod mentions the daughters of Tethys and Ocean, among whom are a “ holy place company ”, “ who with the Lord Apollo and the Rivers have youths in their keeping ”. [ 38 ] Many of these are geographic : Doris, Rhodea, Europa, Asia. Hesiod explains : [ 39 ]

For there are three-thousand neat-ankled daughters of Ocean who are dispersed far and wide, and in every place alike serve the earth and the deep waters .

The Iliad ( attributed by the ancient Greeks to Homer ) mentions two Phrygians ( the tribe that replaced the Luvians in Lydia ) in the Trojan War named Asios ( an adjective mean “ asian ” ) ; [ 40 ] and besides a marsh or lowland containing a marsh in Lydia as ασιος. [ 41 ] According to many Muslims, the term came from Ancient Egypt ‘s Queen Asiya, the adoptive mother of Moses. [ 42 ]

history

The history of Asia can be seen as the distinct histories of respective peripheral coastal regions : East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Middle East, linked by the inner mass of the Central Asian steppes. The coastal periphery was home to some of the world ‘s earliest known civilizations, each of them developing round fat river valleys. The civilizations in Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley and the Yellow River shared many similarities. These civilizations may well have exchanged technologies and ideas such as mathematics and the wheel. other innovations, such as writing, seem to have been developed individually in each area. Cities, states and empires developed in these lowlands. The central steppe region had long been inhabited by horse-mounted nomads who could reach all areas of Asia from the steppes. The earliest necessitate expansion out of the steppe is that of the Indo-Europeans, who spread their languages into the Middle East, South Asia, and the borders of China, where the Tocharians resided. The northernmost region of Asia, including much of Siberia, was largely inaccessible to the steppe nomads, owing to the dense forests, climate and tundra. These areas remained identical sparsely populated. The kernel and the peripheries were largely kept separated by mountains and deserts. The Caucasus and Himalaya mountains and the Karakum and Gobi deserts formed barriers that the steppe horsemen could cross only with difficulty. While the urban city dwellers were more advance technologically and socially, in many cases they could do little in a military aspect to defend against the mount hordes of the steppe. however, the lowlands did not have enough assailable grasslands to support a large horsebound military unit ; for this and other reasons, the nomads who conquered states in China, India, and the Middle East much found themselves adapting to the local, more feeder societies. The Islamic Caliphate ‘s defeats of the Byzantine and Persian empires led to West Asia and southern parts of Central Asia and western parts of South Asia under its operate during its conquests of the seventh hundred. The Mongol Empire conquered a boastfully part of Asia in the thirteenth hundred, an sphere extending from China to Europe. Before the Mongol invasion, Song dynasty reportedly had approximately 120 million citizens ; the 1300 census which followed the invasion reported roughly 60 million people. [ 44 ] The Black Death, one of the most crushing pandemics in human history, is thought to have originated in the arid plains of cardinal Asia, where it then travelled along the Silk Road. [ 45 ] The Russian Empire began to expand into Asia from the seventeenth hundred, and would finally take restraint of all of Siberia and most of Central Asia by the end of the nineteenth hundred. The Ottoman Empire controlled Anatolia, most of the Middle East, North Africa and the Balkans from the mid sixteenth hundred onwards. In the seventeenth century, the Manchu conquered China and established the Qing dynasty. The Islamic Mughal Empire and the Hindu Maratha Empire controlled a lot of India in the 16th and 18th centuries respectively. [ 46 ] The Empire of Japan controlled most of East Asia and much of Southeast Asia, New Guinea and the Pacific islands until the end of World War II .

Geography and climate

The Himalayan roll is home to some of the satellite ‘s highest peaks. Asia is the largest celibate on Earth. It covers 9 % of the Earth ‘s total surface area ( or 30 % of its kingdom area ), and has the longest coastline, at 62,800 kilometres ( 39,022 security service ). Asia is by and large defined as comprising the eastern four-fifths of Eurasia. It is located to the east of the Suez Canal and the Ural Mountains, and south of the Caucasus Mountains ( or the Kuma–Manych Depression ) and the caspian and Black Seas. [ 11 ] [ 48 ] It is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the indian Ocean and on the north by the Arctic Ocean. Asia is subdivided into 49 countries, five of them ( Georgia, Azerbaijan, Russia, Kazakhstan and Turkey ) are transcontinental countries lying partially in Europe. Geographically, Russia is partially in Asia, but is considered a european nation, both culturally and politically. The Gobi Desert is in Mongolia and the Arabian Desert stretches across much of the Middle East. The Yangtze River in China is the longest river in the celibate. The Himalayas between Nepal and China is the tallest batch rate in the world. tropical rainforests stretch across much of southerly Asia and coniferous and deciduous forests lie farther north .

main regions

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    North Asia

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    Central Asia

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    western Asia ( Near East )

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    South Asia

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    East Asia ( Far East )

  •  

    Southeast Asia

part of Asia into regions by the UNSD There are versatile approaches to the regional division of Asia. The come subdivision into regions is used, among others, by the UN statistics representation UNSD. This part of Asia into regions by the United Nations is done entirely for statistical reasons and does not imply any assumption about political or other affiliations of countries and territories. [ 49 ]

climate

Asia has highly diverse climate features. Climates range from arctic and subarctic in Siberia to tropical in southerly India and Southeast Asia. It is damp across southeast sections, and dry across much of the inner. Some of the largest casual temperature ranges on Earth occur in western sections of Asia. The monsoon circulation dominates across southern and easterly sections, due to the presence of the Himalayas forcing the geological formation of a thermal depleted which draws in moisture during the summer. southwest sections of the continent are hot. Siberia is one of the coldest places in the Northern Hemisphere, and can act as a source of arctic air masses for North America. The most active voice plaza on land for tropical cyclone natural process lies northeasterly of the Philippines and south of Japan .
Graph showing temperature change in Asia from 1901 to 2021. Climate change is having major impacts on many countries in the continent. A survey carried out in 2010 by ball-shaped hazard analysis farm Maplecroft identified 16 countries that are extremely vulnerable to climate change. Each nation ‘s vulnerability was calculated using 42 socio, economic and environmental indicators, which identified the probable climate deepen impacts during the future 30 years. The asian countries of Bangladesh, India, the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Pakistan, China and Sri Lanka were among the 16 countries facing extreme hazard from climate change. [ 50 ] [ 51 ] [ 52 ] Some shifts are already occurring. For example, in tropical parts of India with a semi-arid climate, the temperature increased by 0.4 °C between 1901 and 2003. A 2013 study by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics ( ICRISAT ) aimed to find science-based, pro-poor approaches and techniques that would enable Asia ‘s agricultural systems to cope with climate change, while benefitting inadequate and vulnerable farmers. The study ‘s recommendations ranged from improving the practice of climate data in local planning and strengthening weather-based agro-advisory services, to stimulating diversification of rural family incomes and providing incentives to farmers to adopt natural resource conservation measures to enhance forest cover, replenish groundwater and practice renewable energy. [ 53 ] The ten-spot countries of the Association of Southeast asian Nations ( ASEAN ) – Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam – are among the most vulnerable to the effects of climate change in the populace, however, ASEAN ‘s climate extenuation efforts are not commensurate with the climate threats and risks it faces. [ 54 ]

economy

Asia has the largest continental economy by both GDP Nominal and PPP in the universe, and is the fastest growing economic region. [ 55 ] As of 2018, the largest economies in Asia are China, Japan, India, South Korea, Indonesia and Turkey based on GDP in both noun phrase and PPP. [ 56 ] Based on Global Office Locations 2011, Asia dominated the position locations with 4 of the crown 5 being in Asia : Hong Kong, Singapore, Tokyo and Seoul. Around 68 percentage of international firms have an position in Hong Kong. [ 57 ] In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the economies of China [ 58 ] and India have been growing quickly, both with an average annual increase rate of more than 8 %. other holocene very-high-growth nations in Asia include Israel, Malaysia, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Thailand, Vietnam, and the Philippines, and mineral-rich nations such as Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Brunei, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and Oman. According to economic historian Angus Maddison in his book The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective, India had the worldly concern ‘s largest economy during 0 BCE and 1000 BCE. Historically, India was the largest economy in the world for most of the two millennium from the 1st until 19th century, contributing 25 % of the earth ‘s industrial end product. [ 59 ] [ 60 ] [ 61 ] [ 62 ] China was the largest and most boost economy on earth for much of recorded history and shared the blanket with India. [ 63 ] [ 64 ] [ 65 ] For respective decades in the late twentieth century Japan was the largest economy in Asia and second-largest of any single nation in the worldly concern, after surpassing the Soviet Union ( measured in net fabric merchandise ) in 1990 and Germany in 1968. ( NB : A count of supernational economies are larger, such as the European Union ( EU ), the north american Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ) or APEC ). This ended in 2010 when China pass Japan to become the world ‘s second largest economy.

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Japan ‘s GDP was about as large ( current exchange pace method acting ) as that of the stay of Asia combined. [ 66 ] In 1995, Japan ‘s economy closely equaled that of the US as the largest economy in the world for a day, after the japanese currentness reached a record eminent of 79 yen /US $. Economic growth in Asia since World War II to the 1990s had been concentrated in Japan vitamin a well as the four regions of South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore located in the Pacific Rim, known as the asian tigers, which have now all received developed nation condition, having the highest GDP per head in Asia. [ 67 ] Mumbai is one of the most populous cities on the continent. The city is an infrastructure and tourism hub, and plays a all-important function in the economy of India It is forecasted that India will overtake Japan in terms of nominal GDP by 2025. [ 68 ] By 2027, according to Goldman Sachs, China will have the largest economy in the worldly concern. respective trade blocs exist, with the most develop being the Association of Southeast asian Nations. Asia is the largest celibate in the world by a considerable allowance, and it is rich in natural resources, such as petroleum, forests, pisces, water, rice, copper and silver. manufacture in Asia has traditionally been strongest in East and Southeast Asia, particularly in China, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, India, the Philippines, and Singapore. Japan and South Korea continue to dominate in the area of multinational corporations, but increasingly the PRC and India are making significant inroads. many companies from Europe, North America, South Korea and Japan have operations in Asia ‘s developing countries to take advantage of its abundant supply of bum labor and relatively developed infrastructure. According to Citigroup 9 of 11 Global Growth Generators countries came from Asia driven by population and income growth. They are Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Mongolia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam. [ 69 ] Asia has three main fiscal centers : Hong Kong, Tokyo and Singapore. call centers and business process outsource ( BPOs ) are becoming major employers in India and the Philippines due to the handiness of a large pool of highly skilled, english-speaking workers. The increased consumption of outsource has assisted the arise of India and the China as fiscal centers. Due to its large and highly competitive information technology industry, India has become a major hub for outsourcing. Trade between asian countries and countries on other continents is largely carried out on the sea routes that are significant for Asia. Individual main routes have emerged from this. The main route leads from the taiwanese coast confederacy via Hanoi to Jakarta, Singapore and Kuala Lumpur through the Strait of Malacca via the Sri Lankan Colombo to the southern tip of India via Malé to East Africa Mombasa, from there to Djibouti, then through the Red Sea over the Suez Canal into Mediterranean, there via Haifa, Istanbul and Athens to the upper Adriatic to the northern italian hub of Trieste with its rail connections to Central and Eastern Europe or far to Barcelona and around Spain and France to the European northern ports. A far smaller partially of the goods traffic runs via South Africa to Europe. A particularly significant part of the asian goods traffic is carried out across the Pacific towards Los Angeles and Long Beach. In contrast to the sea routes, the Silk Road via the land road to Europe is on the one hand still under construction and on the other pass is much smaller in terms of scope. Intra-Asian trade, including sea trade, is growing quickly. [ 70 ] [ 71 ] [ 72 ] [ 73 ] [ 74 ] [ 75 ] [ 76 ] [ 77 ] In 2010, Asia had 3.3 million millionaires ( people with internet worth over US $ 1 million excluding their homes ), slenderly below North America with 3.4 million millionaires. final year Asia had toppled Europe. [ 78 ] Citigroup in The Wealth Report 2012 stated that asian centa-millionaire overtake North America ‘s wealth for the first time as the universe ‘s “ economic center of graveness ” continued moving east. At the conclusion of 2011, there were 18,000 asian people chiefly in Southeast Asia, China and Japan who have at least $ 100 million in disposable assets, while North America with 17,000 people and Western Europe with 14,000 people. [ 79 ]

Rank Country GDP (nominal, Peak Year)
millions of USD
Peak Year
1  China 19,911,593 2022
2  Japan 6,272,364 2012
3  India 3,534,743 2022
4  Russia 2,288,428 2013
5  South Korea 1,804,680 2022
6  Iran 1,739,012 2022
7  Indonesia 1,289,295 2022
8  Saudi Arabia 1,040,166 2022
9  Turkey 957,504 2013
10  Taiwan 841,209 2022
Rank Country GDP (PPP, Peak Year)
millions of USD
Peak Year
1  China 30,177,926 2022
2  India 11,745,260 2022
3  Japan 6,110,075 2022
4  Russia 4,490,456 2021
5  Indonesia 3,995,064 2022
6  Turkey 3,212,072 2022
7  South Korea 2,735,870 2022
8  Saudi Arabia 2,002,542 2022
9  Taiwan 1,603,723 2022
10  Iran 1,573,467 2022

tourism

With growing regional tourism with domination of taiwanese visitors, MasterCard has released Global Destination Cities Index 2013 with 10 of 20 are dominated by Asia and Pacific Region Cities and besides for the first base time a city of a area from Asia ( Bangkok ) set in the top-ranked with 15.98 international visitors. [ 80 ]

Demographics

Historical populations
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1500 243,000,000 —    
1700 436,000,000 +0.29%
1900 947,000,000 +0.39%
1950 1,402,000,000 +0.79%
1999 3,634,000,000 +1.96%
2016 4,462,676,731 +1.22%
Source: “UN report 2004 data” (PDF).
The figure for 2018 is provided by the 2019 revision of the World Population Prospects[2][3].

Graph showing population by continent as a share of populace population ( 1750–2005 ) East Asia had by far the strongest overall Human Development Index ( HDI ) improvement of any area in the world, closely doubling average HDI attainment over the past 40 years, according to the report ‘s psychoanalysis of health, education and income data. China, the second highest achiever in the world in terms of HDI improvement since 1970, is the only state on the “ top 10 Movers ” list due to income quite than health or education achievements. Its per head income increased a sandbag 21-fold over the final four decades, besides lifting hundreds of millions out of income poverty. Yet it was not among the region ‘s crown performers in improving school registration and life anticipation. [ 81 ]
Nepal, a South asian nation, emerges as one of the world ‘s fastest movers since 1970 chiefly due to health and education achievements. Its present life anticipation is 25 years longer than in the 1970s. More than four of every five children of school age in Nepal now attend elementary school, compared to just one in five 40 years ago. [ 81 ]
Hong Kong ranked highest among the countries grouped on the HDI ( number 7 in the global, which is in the “ identical high human development ” category ), followed by Singapore ( 9 ), Japan ( 19 ) and South Korea ( 22 ). Afghanistan ( 155 ) ranked lowest amongst asian countries out of the 169 countries assessed. [ 81 ]

Languages

Asia is home to several linguistic process families and many speech isolates. Most asian countries have more than one linguistic process that is natively speak. For example, according to Ethnologue, more than 600 languages are spoken in Indonesia, more than 800 languages spoken in India, and more than 100 are spoken in the Philippines. China has many languages and dialects in different provinces .

Religions

many of the worldly concern ‘s major religions have their origins in Asia, including the five most practiced in the global ( excluding irreligiousness ), which are Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Chinese folk religion ( classified as Confucianism and Taoism ), and Buddhism respectively. asian mythology is complex and diverse. The history of the Great Flood for exercise, as presented to Jews in the Hebrew Bible in the narrative of Noah —and former to Christians in the Old Testament, and to Muslims in the Quran —is earliest found in Mesopotamian mythology, in the Enûma Eliš and Epic of Gilgamesh. Hindu mythology similarly tells about an embodiment of Vishnu in the kind of a pisces who warned Manu of a frightful deluge. Ancient Chinese mythology besides tells of a Great Flood spanning generations, one that required the combined efforts of emperors and divinities to control .

Abrahamic

Pilgrims in the annual Hajj at the Kaabah in Mecca The Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Druze faith, [ 82 ] and Baháʼí Faith originated in West Asia. [ 83 ] [ 84 ] judaism, the oldest of the Abrahamic faiths, is practiced chiefly in Israel, the autochthonal fatherland and historic birthplace of the Hebrew nation : which today consists both of those Jews who remained in the Middle East and those who returned from diaspora in Europe, North America, and other regions ; [ 85 ] though diverse diaspora communities persist global. Jews are the overriding ethnic group in Israel ( 75.6 % ) count at about 6.1 million, [ 86 ] although the levels of attachment to Jewish religion change. Outside of Israel there are belittled ancient jewish communities in Turkey ( 17,400 ), [ 87 ] Azerbaijan ( 9,100 ), [ 88 ] Iran ( 8,756 ), [ 89 ] India ( 5,000 ) and Uzbekistan ( 4,000 ), [ 90 ] among many other places. In entire, there are 14.4–17.5 million ( 2016, est. ) [ 91 ] Jews animated in the worldly concern today, making them one of the smallest asian minorities, at approximately 0.3 to 0.4 percentage of the full population of the continent. Christianity is a far-flung religion in Asia with more than 286 million adherents according to Pew Research Center in 2010, [ 92 ] and closely 364 million according to Britannica Book of the year 2014. [ 93 ] Constituting about 12.6 % of the full population of Asia. In the Philippines and East Timor, Roman Catholicism is the overriding religion ; [ 94 ] it was introduced by the Spaniards and the Portuguese, respectively. In Armenia and Georgia, Eastern Orthodoxy is the prevailing religion. [ 94 ] In the Middle East, such as in the Levant, Anatolia and Fars, Syriac Christianity ( Church of the East ) and oriental Orthodoxy are prevailing minority denominations, [ 95 ] which are both Eastern Christian sects chiefly adhered to assyrian people or Syriac Christians. Vibrant autochthonal minorities in western Asia are adhering to the Eastern Catholic Churches and Eastern Orthodoxy. [ 94 ] Saint Thomas Christians in India trace their origins to the evangelistic activeness of Thomas the Apostle in the first hundred. [ 96 ] Significant Christian communities besides found in Central Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia. [ 94 ] Islam, which originated in the Hejaz located in contemporary Saudi Arabia, is the second largest and most widely-spread religion in Asia with at least 1 billion Muslims constituting about 23.8 % of the total population of Asia. [ 97 ] With 12.7 % of the world Muslim population, the country presently with the largest muslim population in the world is Indonesia, followed by Pakistan ( 11.5 % ), India ( 10 % ), Bangladesh, Iran and Turkey. Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem are the three holiest cities for Islam in all the global. The Hajj and Umrah attract bombastic numbers of Muslim devotees from all over the universe to Mecca and Medina. Iran is the largest Shi’a nation. The Druze Faith or Druzism originated in western Asia, is a monotheistic religion based on the teachings of figures like Hamza ibn-‘Ali ibn-Ahmad and al-hakim bi-Amr Allah, and greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle. The number of Druze people worldwide is around one million, with about 45 % to 50 % know in Syria, 35 % to 40 % live in Lebanon, and less than 10 % live in Israel, with recently there has been a growing Druze diaspora. [ 98 ] The Baháʼí Faith originated in Asia, in Iran ( Persia ), and dispersed from there to the Ottoman Empire, Central Asia, India, and Burma during the life of Bahá’u’lláh. Since the middle of the twentieth hundred, increase has peculiarly occurred in other asian countries, because Baháʼí activities in many Muslim countries has been sternly suppressed by authorities. Lotus Temple is a big Baháʼí Temple in India .

indian and east asian religions

about all asian religions have philosophic fictional character and asian philosophic traditions cover a large spectrum of philosophic thoughts and writings. indian philosophy includes Hindu philosophy and Buddhist philosophy. They include elements of immaterial pursuits, whereas another school of opinion from India, Cārvāka, preached the enjoyment of the material worldly concern. The religions of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism originated in India, South Asia. In East Asia, peculiarly in China and Japan, Confucianism, Taoism and Zen Buddhism took condition. As of 2012, Hinduism has about 1.1 billion adherents. The religion represents around 25 % of Asia ‘s population and is the largest religion in Asia. however, it is by and large concentrated in South Asia. Over 80 % of the populations of both India and Nepal adhere to Hinduism, aboard significant communities in Bangladesh, Pakistan, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Bali, Indonesia. many oversea Indians in countries such as Burma, Singapore and Malaysia besides adhere to Hinduism .
The Hindu-Buddhist temple of Angkor Wat in Cambodia, the largest religious monument in the world Buddhism has a great follow in mainland Southeast Asia and East Asia. Buddhism is the religion of the majority of the populations of Cambodia ( 96 % ), [ 100 ] Thailand ( 95 % ), [ 101 ] Burma ( 80–89 % ), [ 102 ] Japan ( 36–96 % ), [ 103 ] Bhutan ( 75–84 % ), [ 104 ] Sri Lanka ( 70 % ), [ 105 ] Laos ( 60–67 % ) [ 106 ] and Mongolia ( 53–93 % ). [ 107 ] Large Buddhist populations besides exist in Singapore ( 33–51 % ), [ 108 ] Taiwan ( 35–93 % ), [ 109 ] [ 110 ] [ 111 ] [ 112 ] South Korea ( 23–50 % ), [ 113 ] Malaysia ( 19–21 % ), [ 114 ] Nepal ( 9–11 % ), [ 115 ] Vietnam ( 10–75 % ), [ 116 ] China ( 20–50 % ), [ 117 ] North Korea ( 2–14 % ), [ 118 ] [ 119 ] [ 120 ] and little communities in India and Bangladesh. The Communist-governed countries of China, Vietnam and North Korea are officially atheist, frankincense the act of Buddhists and other religious adherents may be under-reported. jainism is found chiefly in India and in oversea indian communities such as the United States and Malaysia. sikhism is found in Northern India and amongst abroad indian communities in early parts of Asia, specially Southeast Asia. Confucianism is found predominantly in Mainland China, South Korea, Taiwan and in overseas chinese populations. taoism is found chiefly in Mainland China, Taiwan, Malaysia and Singapore. In many chinese communities, Taoism is easily syncretized with Mahayana Buddhism, therefore exact religious statistics are unmanageable to obtain and may be understated or overstated .

modern conflicts

A refugee special train in Ambala, Punjab during the partition of India in 1947 Demonstrations in Hong Kong against the Extradition bill began in March 2019 and turned into continuing mass movements, drawing around 2 million protesters by June Some of the events pivotal in the Asia territory related to the kinship with the external world in the post- Second World War were :

culture

Nobel prizes

The polymath Rabindranath Tagore, a Bengali poet, dramatist, and writer from Santiniketan, nowadays in West Bengal, India, became in 1913 the first asian Nobel laureate. He won his Nobel Prize in Literature for celebrated shock his prose works and poetic think had on English, French, and other national literatures of Europe and the Americas. He is besides the writer of the national anthems of Bangladesh and India. early asian writers who won Nobel Prize for literature include Yasunari Kawabata ( Japan, 1968 ), Kenzaburō Ōe ( Japan, 1994 ), Gao Xingjian ( China, 2000 ), Orhan Pamuk ( Turkey, 2006 ), and Mo Yan ( China, 2012 ). Some may consider the american writer, Pearl S. Buck, an honorary asian Nobel laureate, having spent considerable time in China as the daughter of missionaries, and based many of her novels, namely The Good Earth ( 1931 ) and The Mother ( 1933 ), american samoa good as the biographies of her parents for their time in China, The Exile and Fighting Angel, all of which earned her the Literature respect in 1938. besides, Mother Teresa of India and Shirin Ebadi of Iran were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their significant and initiate efforts for democracy and human rights, particularly for the rights of women and children. Ebadi is the first iranian and the inaugural Muslim charwoman to receive the prize. Another Nobel Peace Prize winner is Aung San Suu Kyi from Burma for her peaceful and non-violent struggle under a military dictatorship in Burma. She is a nonviolent pro-democracy activist and leader of the National League for Democracy in Burma ( Myanmar ) and a note prisoner of conscience. She is a Buddhist and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991. taiwanese dissentient Liu Xiaobo was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for “ his retentive and non-violent conflict for cardinal human rights in China ” on 8 October 2010. He is the beginning taiwanese citizen to be awarded a Nobel Prize of any kind while residing in China. In 2014, Kailash Satyarthi from India and Malala Yousafzai from Pakistan were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize “ for their clamber against the inhibition of children and young people and for the right of all children to education ”. Sir C.V. Raman is the first Asian to get a Nobel respect in Sciences. He won the Nobel Prize in Physics “ for his work on the disperse of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him “. Japan has won the most Nobel Prizes of any asian nation with 24 followed by India which has won 13. Amartya Sen, ( natural 3 November 1933 ) is an indian economist who was awarded the 1998 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his contributions to welfare economics and social choice theory, and for his interest in the problems of company ‘s poorest members. other asian Nobel Prize winners include Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Abdus Salam, Malala Yousafzai, Robert Aumann, Menachem Begin, Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko, Daniel Kahneman, Shimon Peres, Yitzhak Rabin, Ada Yonath, Yasser Arafat, José Ramos-Horta and Bishop Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo of Timor Leste, Kim Dae-jung, and 13 japanese scientists. Most of the said awardees are from Japan and Israel except for Chandrasekhar and Raman ( India ), Abdus Salam and Malala Yousafzai, ( Pakistan ), Arafat ( palestinian Territories ), Kim ( South Korea ), and Horta and Belo ( Timor Leste ). In 2006, Dr. Muhammad Yunus of Bangladesh was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for the institution of Grameen Bank, a community development bank that lends money to inadequate people, particularly women in Bangladesh. Dr. Yunus received his PhD in economics from Vanderbilt University, United States. He is internationally known for the concept of micro credit which allows poor and destitute people with little or no collateral to borrow money. The borrowers typically pay back money within the intend menstruation and the incidence of default is very broken. The Dalai Lama has received approximately eighty-four awards over his spiritual and political career. [ 121 ] On 22 June 2006, he became one of entirely four people always to be recognized with Honorary Citizenship by the Governor General of Canada. On 28 May 2005, he received the Christmas Humphreys Award from the Buddhist Society in the United Kingdom. Most noteworthy was the Nobel Peace Prize, presented in Oslo, Norway on 10 December 1989 .

political geography

Within the above-mentioned states are several partially recognized countries with limited to no external recognition. none of them are members of the united nations :

See besides

References to articles:
Special topics:
Lists:
Projects

Notes

  1. ^ Siberia lies in Asia geographically, but is considered a part of Europe culturally and politically .

References

bibliography

  • Lewis, Martin W.; Wigen, Kären (1997). The myth of continents: a critique of metageography. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20743-1.
  • Ventris, Michael; Chadwick, John (1973). Documents in Mycenaean Greek (2nd ed.). Cambridge: University Press.

further read

Asia at Wikipedia’s at Wikipedia ‘s

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