family ( Echeneidae ) of ray-finned fish

The remora, sometimes called suckerfish, is any of a family ( Echeneidae ) of ray-finned fish in the order Carangiformes. [ 4 ] Depending on species, they grow to 30–110 centimeter ( 12–43 in ) long. Their classifiable first dorsal fins take the form of a limited ellipse, sucker-like harmonium with slat-like structures that open and close to create suction and take a firm defend against the skin of larger marine animals. [ 5 ] The magnetic disk is made up of portly, flexible membranes that can be raised and lowered to generate sucking. [ 6 ] By sliding backward, the remora can increase the suction, or it can release itself by swimming forward. Remoras sometimes attach to minor boats, and have been observed attaching to divers a well. They swim well on their own, with a sinuate, or curved, motion .

Characteristics [edit ]

Remora front dorsal fins have evolved to enable them to adhere by suction to smooth surfaces, and they spend most of their lives clinging to a host animal such as a giant, turtle, shark or beam. It is probably a mutualistic arrangement as the remora can move about on the host, removing ectoparasites and easy flakes of peel, while benefiting from the protective covering provided by the server and the ceaseless flow of water across its gills. [ 7 ] Although it was initially believed that remoras fed off particulate matter from the host ‘s meals, this has been shown to be false ; in reality, their diets are composed chiefly of host feces. [ 8 ]

habitat [edit ]

Echeneis naucrates, may attach themselves to scuba divers. Some remoras, such as this, may attach themselves to scuba divers. Remoras are tropical open-ocean dwellers, but are occasionally found in temperate or coastal waters if they have attached to large fish that have wandered into these areas. In the mid- Atlantic Ocean, spawning normally takes place in June and July ; in the Mediterranean Sea, it occurs in August and September. The sucking phonograph record begins to show when the young fish are about 1 centimeter ( 0.4 in ) farseeing. When the remora reaches about 3 curium ( 1.2 in ), the disk is fully formed and the remora can then attach to other animals. The remora ‘s lower jaw projects beyond the upper, and the animal lacks a float bladder. [ 9 ] Some remoras associate with specific host species. They are normally found attached to sharks, manta rays, whales, turtles, and dugongs, therefore the common names “ sharksucker ” and “ whale sucker ”. Smaller remora besides fasten onto pisces such as tuna and swordfish, and some minor remoras travel in the mouths or gills of bombastic manta rays, ocean ocean sunfish, swordfish and sailfish. The relationship between a remora and its host is most frequently taken to be one of commensalism, specifically phoresy .

physiology [edit ]

research into the physiology of the remora has been of significant benefit to the understand of ventilation costs in pisces. Remoras, like many early fishes, have two different modes of ventilation. Ram public discussion [ 10 ] is the process in which at higher speeds, the remora uses the force of the water moving past it to create movement of fluid in the gills. alternatively, at lower speeds the remora will use a form of active ventilation, [ 10 ] in which the fish actively moves fluid through its gills. In orderliness to use active agent ventilation, a pisces must actively use energy to move the fluid ; however, determining this department of energy monetary value is normally complicated due to the movement of the fish when using either method. As a consequence, the remora has proved invaluable in finding this cost dispute ( since they will stick to a shark or tube, and hence remain stationary despite the movement or miss thence of water ). experimental data from studies on remora found that the consort cost for active public discussion created a 3.7–5.1 % increased energy pulmonary tuberculosis in arrange to maintain the same quantity of fluid flow the pisces obtained by using ram breathing. [ 11 ]

other research into the remora ‘s physiology came about as a leave of studies across multiple taxonomic group, or using the remora as an out-group for certain evolutionary studies. Concerning the latter case, remoras were used as an outgroup when investigating tetrodotoxin resistance in remoras, blowfish, and relate species, finding remoras ( specifically Echeneis naucrates ) had a resistor of 6.1–5.5×10−8 M. [ 12 ]

Use for fish [edit ]

Some cultures use remoras to catch turtles. A cord or rope is fastened to the remora ‘s tail, and when a turtle is sighted, the pisces is released from the gravy boat ; it normally heads directly for the turtle and fastens itself to the turtle ‘s shell, and then both remora and turtle are hauled in. Smaller turtles can be pulled completely into the boat by this method acting, while larger ones are hauled within harpooning range. This practice has been reported throughout the indian Ocean, specially from eastern Africa near Zanzibar and Mozambique, [ 13 ] and from northern Australia near Cape York and Torres Strait. [ 14 ] [ 15 ] similar reports come from Japan and from the Americas. Some of the first gear records of the “ fishing fish ” in the western literature come from the accounts of the moment voyage of Christopher Columbus. however, Leo Wiener considers the Columbus accounts to be apocryphal : what was taken for accounts of the Americas may have been, in fact, notes Columbus derived from accounts of the East Indies, his craved address. [ 16 ]

mythology [edit ]

In ancient times, the remora was believed to stop a ship from sailing. In Latin, remora means “ delay ”, while the genus list Echeneis comes from greek ἔχειν, echein ( “ to hold ” ) and ναῦς, naus ( “ a ship ” ). In a luminary account by Pliny the Elder, the remora is blamed for the get the better of of Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium and, indirectly, for the end of Caligula. [ 17 ] A advanced adaptation of the report is given by Jorge Luis Borges in Book of Imaginary Beings ( 1957 ) .

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