martial art from Korea

Taekwondo, Tae Kwon Do or Taekwon-Do ( ; [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] korean : 태권도/跆拳道 [ tʰɛ.k͈wʌn.do ] ( ) ) is a korean form of warlike arts characterized by punching and kicking techniques, with emphasis on head-height kicks, spinning leap kicks, and debauched kicking techniques. The literal translation for tae kwon do is “ kicking, ” “ punch, ” and “ the art or way of. ” [ 6 ] They are a kind of warlike arts in which one attacks or defends with hands and feet anytime or anywhere, with occasional use of weapons. The physical education undertake in Taekwondo is purposeful and fosters potency of mind through genial arming. [ 7 ] tae kwon do practitioners wear a undifferentiated, known as a dobok. It is a fight sport and was developed during the 1940s and 1950s by korean martial artists with experience in warlike arts such as karate, chinese warlike arts, and autochthonal korean martial arts traditions such as Taekkyon, Subak, and Gwonbeop. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] The oldest governing body for Taekwondo is the Korea Taekwondo Association ( KTA ), formed in 1959 through a collaborative effort by representatives from the nine master kwans, or martial arts schools, in Korea. The chief international organizational bodies for Taekwondo nowadays are the International Taekwon-Do Federation ( ITF ), founded by Choi Hong-hi in 1966, and the partnership of the Kukkiwon and World Taekwondo ( WT, once World Taekwondo Federation or WTF ), founded in 1972 and 1973 respectively by the Korea Taekwondo Association. [ 10 ] Gyeorugi ( [ kjʌɾuɡi ] ), a type of full-contact spar, has been an Olympic event since 2000. The governing body for Taekwondo in the Olympics and Paralympics is World Taekwondo.

history [edit ]

Beginning in 1945, shortly after the end of World War II and japanese Occupation, fresh martial arts schools called kwans opened in Seoul. These schools were established by Korean martial artists with backgrounds in japanese [ 11 ] and taiwanese martial arts. At the time, autochthonal disciplines ( such as Taekkyeon ) were all but forgotten, due to years of decline and repression by the japanese colonial government. The umbrella term traditional Taekwondo typically refers to the martial arts practiced by the kwans during the 1940s and 1950s, though in reality the term “ Taekwondo ” had not yet been coined at that clock, and indeed each kwan ( school ) was practicing its own unique fighting style. In 1952, south korean president Syngman Rhee witnessed a martial arts demonstration by ROK Army officers Choi Hong-hi and Nam Tae-hi from the 29th Infantry Division. He misrecognized the technique on display as Taekkyeon, [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ] and urged martial arts to be introduced to the army under a individual system. Beginning in 1955 the leaders of the kwans began discussing in earnest the possibility of creating a unify korean martial art. Until then, Tang Soo Do was used to list korean Karate, using the korean hanja pronunciation of the japanese kanji ( 唐手道 ). The name Tae Soo Do ( 跆手道 ) was besides used to describe a coordinated style Korean soldierly arts. [ citation needed ] This diagnose consists of the hanja 跆 tae “ to stomp, tread ”, 手 su “ hired hand ” and 道 do “ way, discipline “. Choi Hong-hi advocated the use of the mention Tae Kwon Do, i.e. replacing su “ hand ” by 拳 kwon ( Revised Romanization : gwon ; McCune–Reischauer : kkwŏn ) “ fist ”, the term besides used for “ warlike arts ” in Chinese ( pinyin quán ). [ 15 ] The name was besides the closest to the pronunciation of Taekkyeon, [ 16 ] in accordance with the views of the president. [ 12 ] [ 17 ] The new name was initially decelerate to catch on among the leaders of the kwans. During this time Taekwondo was besides adopted for manipulation by the south korean military, which increased its popularity among civilian warlike arts schools. [ 10 ] [ 12 ] In 1959 the Korea Taekwondo Association or KTA ( then-Korea Tang Soo Do Association ) was established to facilitate the union of korean martial arts. General Choi, of the Oh Do Kwan, wanted all the other member kwans of the KTA to adopt his own Chan Hon-style of Taekwondo, as a unite dash. This was, however, met with resistance as the early kwans alternatively wanted a mix dash to be created based on inputs from all the kwans, to serve as a manner to bring on the inheritance and characteristics of all of the styles, not just the style of a single kwan. [ 10 ] As a response to this, along with disagreements about teaching Taekwondo in North Korea and unifying the whole korean Peninsula, Choi broke with the KTA in 1966, in holy order to establish the International Taekwon-Do Federation ( ITF ) — a separate govern body devoted to institutionalizing his own manner of Taekwondo in Canada. [ 10 ] [ 12 ] initially, the south korean president, having close ties to General Choi, gave General Choi ‘s ITF limited accompaniment. [ 10 ] however, the confederacy korean government wished to avoid north korean influence on the martial artwork. conversely, ITF president Choi Hong-hi sought corroborate for his style of Taekwondo from all quarters, including North Korea. In reception, in 1972 South Korea withdrew its hold for the ITF. The ITF continued to function as an independent confederation, then headquartered in Toronto, Ontario, Canada ; Choi continued to develop the ITF-style, notably with the 1983 issue of his Encyclopedia of Taekwondo. After Choi ‘s retirement, the ITF split in 2001 and then again in 2002 to create three disjoined federations each of which continues to operate today under the lapp name. [ 10 ] In 1972 the KTA and the south korean government ‘s Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism established the Kukkiwon as the new national academy for Taekwondo. Kukkiwon immediately serves many of the functions previously served by the KTA, in terms of defining a government-sponsored unite stylus of Taekwondo. In 1973 the KTA and Kukkiwon supported the establishment of the World Taekwondo Federation ( WTF, renamed to World Taekwondo in 2017 due to confusion with the initialism [ 18 ] ) to promote the coltish side of Kukki-Taekwondo. WT competitions employ Kukkiwon-style Taekwondo. [ 10 ] [ 19 ] For this reason, Kukkiwon-style Taekwondo is frequently referred to as WT-style Taekwondo, sport-style Taekwondo, or Olympic-style Taekwondo, though in reality the style is defined by the Kukkiwon, not the WT. Since 2021, Taekwondo has been one of three asian soldierly arts ( the others being judo and karate ), and one of six total ( the others being the previously mentioned, Greco-Roman wrestling, freestyle wrestle, and boxing ) included in the Olympic Games. It started as a demonstration event at the 1988 games in Seoul, a year after becoming a decoration event at the Pan Am Games, and became an official decoration event at the 2000 games in Sydney. In 2010, Taekwondo was accepted as a Commonwealth Games frolic. [ 20 ]

Features [edit ]

Flying twin foot side kick A jump change by reversal hook shot kick Taekwondo is characterized by its emphasis on head-height kicks, chute and spinning kicks, and debauched kicking techniques. In fact, World Taekwondo sparring competitions award extra points for strikes that incorporate spinning kicks, kicks to the fountainhead, or both. [ 21 ] To facilitate fast, turning kicks, Taekwondo generally adopts stances that are narrower and taller than the broader, wide stances used by martial arts such as karate. The tradeoff of decrease stability is believed to be worth the commensurate increase in agility, particularly in Kukkiwon-style Taekwondo .

theory of power [edit ]

The emphasis on focal ratio and agility is a defining characteristic of Taekwondo and has its origins in analyses undertaken by Choi Hong-hi. The results of that psychoanalysis are known by ITF practitioners as Choi ‘s Theory of Power. Choi based his understand of power on biomechanics and newtonian physics angstrom well as taiwanese soldierly arts. For example, Choi observed that the energizing energy of a hit increases quadratically with the focal ratio of the hit, but increases only linearly with the multitude of the strike aim. In other words, speed is more important than size in terms of generating might. This principle was incorporated into the early design of Taekwondo and is placid used. [ 12 ] [ 22 ] Choi besides advocated a relax/strike rationale for Taekwondo ; in other words, between blocks, kicks, and strikes the practitioner should relax the torso, then tense the muscles only while performing the proficiency. It is believed that the relax/strike principle increases the might of the technique, by conserving the body ‘s energy. He expanded on this principle with his advocacy of the sine wave technique. This involves raising one ‘s center of gravity between techniques, then lowering it as the technique is performed, producing the up-and-down movement from which the term “ sine wave ” is derived. [ 22 ] The sine wave is broadly practiced, however, only in schools that follow ITF-style Taekwondo. Kukkiwon-style Taekwondo, for case, does not employ the sine brandish and advocates a more uniform altitude during movements, drawing baron chiefly from the rotation of the hep. The components of the Theory of Power include : [ 23 ]

  • Reaction Force: the principle that as the striking limb is brought forward, other parts of the body should be brought backwards in order to provide more power to the striking limb. As an example, if the right leg is brought forward in a roundhouse kick, the right arm is brought backwards to provide the reaction force.
  • Concentration: the principle of bringing as many muscles as possible to bear on a strike, concentrating the area of impact into as small an area as possible.
  • Equilibrium: maintaining a correct centre-of-balance throughout a technique.
  • Breath Control: the idea that during a strike one should exhale, with the exhalation concluding at the moment of impact.
  • Mass: the principle of bringing as much of the body to bear on a strike as possible; again using the turning kick as an example, the idea would be to rotate the hip as well as the leg during the kick in order to take advantage of the hip’s additional mass in terms of providing power to the kick.
  • Speed: as previously noted, the speed of execution of a technique in Taekwondo is deemed to be even more important than mass in terms of providing power.

distinctive course of study [edit ]

A young red/black-belt performs Koryo While organizations such as ITF or Kukkiwon define the general expressive style of Taekwondo, person clubs and schools tend to tailor their Taekwondo practices. Although each Taekwondo club or school is unlike, a student typically takes separate in most or all of the follow : [ 24 ]

  • Forms (pumsae / poomsae 품새, hyeong / hyung 형/型 or teul / tul 틀): these serve the same function as kata in the study of karate
  • Sparring (gyeorugi 겨루기 or matseogi 맞서기): sparring includes variations such as freestyle sparring (in which competitors spar without interruption for several minutes); seven-, three-, two-, and one-step sparring (in which students practice pre-arranged sparring combinations); and point sparring (in which sparring is interrupted and then resumed after each point is scored)
  • Breaking ( gyeokpa 격파/擊破 or weerok): the breaking of boards is used for testing, training, and martial arts demonstrations. Demonstrations often also incorporate bricks, tiles, and blocks of ice or other materials. These techniques can be separated into three types:
    • Power breaking – using straightforward techniques to break as many boards as possible
    • Speed breaking – boards are held loosely by one edge, putting special focus on the speed required to perform the break
    • Special techniques – breaking fewer boards but by using jumping or flying techniques to attain greater height, distance, or to clear obstacles
  • Self-defense techniques ( hosinsul 호신술/護身術)
  • Learning the fundamental techniques of Taekwondo; these generally include kicks, blocks, punches, and strikes, with somewhat less emphasis on grappling and holds
  • Throwing and/or falling techniques ( deonjigi 던지기 or tteoreojigi 떨어지기)
  • Both anaerobic and aerobic workout, including stretching
  • Relaxation and meditation exercises, as well as breathing control
  • A focus on mental and ethical discipline, etiquette, justice, respect, and self-confidence
  • Examinations to progress to the next rank
  • Development of personal success and leadership skills

Though weapons training is not a formal contribution of most Taekwondo confederation course of study, individual schools will much incorporate extra train with weapons such as staffs, knives, and sticks .

equipment and facilities [edit ]

A Taekwondo practitioner typically wears a uniform ( dobok 도복/道服 ), much white but sometimes bootleg ( or early colors ), with a swath tied around the waist. White uniforms are considered the traditional color and are normally encouraged for use at courtly ceremonies such as belt out tests and promotions. Colored uniforms are frequently reserved for special teams ( such as presentation teams or leadership teams ) or higher-level instructors. There are at least three major styles of dobok, with the most obvious differences being in the dash of jacket :

  1. The cross-over front jacket (usually seen in ITF style), in which the opening of the jacket is vertical.
  2. The cross-over Y-neck jacket (usually seen in the Kukkiwon/WT style, especially for poomsae competitions), in which the opening of the jacket crosses the torso diagonally.
  3. The pull-over V-neck jacket (usually seen in Kukkiwon/WT style, especially for sparring competitions).

White uniforms in the Kukkiwon/WT tradition will typically be white throughout the jacket ( black snip along the collars alone for dan grades ), while ITF-style uniforms are normally trimmed with a black frame along the apprehension and bottom of the jacket ( for dan grades ). The belt color and any insignia thereon indicate the scholar ‘s rank. different clubs and schools use different color schemes for belts. In general, the dark the color, the higher the absolute. Taekwondo is traditionally performed in bare feet, although martial arts training shoes may sometimes be worn. When spar, embroider equipment is normally wear. In the ITF custom, typically alone the hands and feet are padded. For this argue, ITF sparring much employs only light-contact spar. In the Kukkiwon/WT tradition, full-contact spar is facilitated by the employment of more across-the-board equipment : padded helmets called homyun are always wear, as are padded torso protectors called hogu ; feet, shins, groins, hands, and forearms protectors are besides worn. The school or place where teaching is given is called a dojang ( 도장, 道場 ). specifically, dojang refers to the area within the school in which soldierly arts instruction takes place ; the word dojang is sometimes translated as gymnasium. In park custom, the term dojang is frequently used to refer to the school as a unharmed. mod dojangs frequently incorporate embroider deck, often incorporating red-and-blue patterns in the deck to reflect the colors of the taegeuk symbol. Some dojangs have wooden deck rather. The dojang is normally decorated with items such as flags, banners, belts, instructional materials, and traditional korean calligraphy .

Styles and organizations [edit ]

A “ family tree ” illustrating how the five master kwans gave wax to multiple styles of Taekwondo. There are a number of major Taekwondo styles arsenic well as a few recess styles. Most styles are associated with a governing body or confederation that defines the style. [ 25 ] The major technical differences among Taekwondo styles and organizations broadly revolve around :

  • the patterns practiced by each style (called hyeong 형, pumsae 품새, or tul 틀, depending on the style); these are sets of prescribed formal sequences of movements that demonstrate mastery of posture, positioning, and technique
  • differences in the sparring rules for competition.
  • martial arts philosophy.

1946 : traditional tae kwon do [edit ]

The term traditional Taekwondo typically refers to martial arts practised in Korea during the 1940s and 1950s by the nine original kwans, or soldierly arts schools, after the stopping point of the japanese occupation of Korea at the end of World War II. The term Taekwondo had not however been coined, and in reality, each of the nine original kwans practised its own style of warlike art. The term traditional Taekwondo serves by and large as an umbrella terminus for these assorted styles, as they themselves used versatile other names such as Tang Soo Do ( Chinese Hand Way ), [ b ] Kong Soo Do ( Empty Hand Way ) [ vitamin c ] and Tae Soo Do ( Foot Hand Way ). [ d ] Traditional Taekwondo is still practised today but generally under other names, such as Tang Soo Do and Soo Bahk Do. [ 10 ] [ 12 ] In 1959, the name Taekwondo was agreed upon by the nine original kwans as a coarse term for their martial arts. As part of the fusion process, The Korea Taekwondo Association ( KTA ) was formed through a collaborative effort by representatives from all the kwans, and the work began on a coarse course of study, which finally resulted in the Kukkiwon and the Kukki Style of Taekwondo. The master kwans that formed KTA continues to exist today, but as mugwump brotherly membership organizations that support the World Taekwondo and Kukkiwon. The kwans besides function as a channel for the issue of Kukkiwon dan and poom documentation ( black knock ranks ) for their members. The official course of study of those kwans that joined the union is that of the Kukkiwon, with the noteworthy exception of half the Oh Do Kwan which joined the ITF alternatively and therefore uses the Chan Hon course of study .

1966 : ITF/Chang Hon-style Taekwondo [edit ]

International Taekwon-Do Federation ( ITF ) -style Taekwondo, more accurately known as Chang Hon-style Taekwondo, is defined by Choi Hong-hi ‘s Encyclopedia of Taekwon-Do published in 1983. [ 22 ] In 1990, the Global Taekwondo Federation ( GTF ) split from the ITF ascribable to the political controversies surrounding the ITF ; the GTF continues to drill ITF-style Taekwondo, however, with extra elements incorporated into the style. Likewise, the ITF itself separate in 2001 and again in 2002 into three separate federations, headquartered in Austria, the United Kingdom, and Spain respectively. [ 26 ] [ 27 ] [ 28 ] The GTF and all three ITFs practice Choi ‘s ITF-style Taekwondo. In ITF-style Taekwondo, the discussion used for “ forms ” is tul ; the specific hardening of tul used by the ITF is called Chang Hon. Choi defined 24 Chang Hon tul. The names and symbolism of the Chang Hon tul mention to elements of korean history, culture and religious philosophy. The GTF-variant of ITF practices an extra six tul. Within the ITF Taekwondo tradition there are two sub-styles :

  • The style of Taekwondo practised by the ITF before its 1973 split with the KTA is sometimes called by ITF practitioners “traditional Taekwondo”, though a more accurate term would be traditional ITF Taekwondo.
  • After the 1973 split, Choi Hong-hi continued to develop and refine the style, ultimately publishing his work in his 1983 Encyclopedia of Taekwondo. Among the refinements incorporated into this new sub-style is the “sine wave”; one of Choi Hong-hi’s later principles of Taekwondo is that the body’s centre of gravity should be raised-and-lowered throughout a movement.

Some ITF schools adopt the sine wave style, while others do not. basically all ITF schools do, however, use the patterns ( tul ) defined in the Encyclopedia, with some exceptions related to the forms Juche and Ko-Dang .

1969 : ATA/Songahm-style tae kwon do [edit ]

In 1969, Haeng Ung Lee, a erstwhile Taekwondo teacher in the south korean military, relocated to Omaha, Nebraska and established a chain of soldierly arts schools in the United States under the streamer of the American Taekwondo Association ( ATA ). Like Jhoon Rhee Taekwondo, ATA Taekwondo has its roots in traditional Taekwondo. The style of Taekwondo practised by the ATA is called Songahm Taekwondo. The ATA went on to become one of the largest chains of Taekwondo schools in the United States. [ 29 ] The ATA established international spin-offs called the Songahm Taekwondo Federation ( STF ) and the World Traditional Taekwondo Union ( WTTU ) to promote the rehearse of Songahm Taekwondo internationally. In 2015, all the spin-offs were reunited under the umbrella of ATA International .

1970s : Jhoon Rhee-style Taekwondo [edit ]

not to be confused with Rhee Taekwon-Do In 1962 Jhoon Rhee, upon graduating from college in Texas, relocated to and established a range of soldierly arts schools in the Washington, D.C. area that practiced traditional Taekwondo. [ e ] In the 1970s, at the goad of Choi Hong-hi, Rhee adopted ITF-style Taekwondo within his chain of schools, but like the GTF late departed from the ITF due to the political controversies surrounding Choi and the ITF. Rhee went on to develop his own style of Taekwondo called Jhoon Rhee-style Taekwondo, incorporating elements of both traditional and ITF-style Taekwondo american samoa well as original elements. [ 30 ] Jhoon Rhee-style Taekwondo is still practised chiefly in the United States and easterly Europe .
relative popularity of Kukkiwon-style Taekwondo around the world In 1972 the Korea Taekwondo Association ( KTA ) Central Dojang opened in Seoul ; in 1973 the name was changed to Kukkiwon. Under the sponsorship of the south korean politics ‘s Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism the Kukkiwon became the raw national academy for Taekwondo, thereby establishing a modern “ unite ” style of Taekwondo. [ 19 ] In 1973 the KTA established the World Taekwondo Federation ( WTF, now called World Taekwondo, WT ) to promote the coltish side of Kukki-Taekwondo. The International Olympic Committee recognized the WT and Taekwondo spar in 1980. For this reason, the Kukkiwon-defined style of Taekwondo is sometimes referred to as Sport-style Taekwondo, Olympic-style Taekwondo, or WT-style Taekwondo, but the style itself is defined by the Kukkiwon, not by the WT, and the WT competition ruleset itself only allows the use of a very belittled number of the total number of techniques included in the style. [ 31 ] Therefore, the compensate term for the south korean government sponsored style of Taekwondo associated with the Kukkiwon, is Kukki Taekwondo, meaning “ national Taekwondo ” in Korean. The color belts range from white to junior black belt ( half black, half crimson ) or plain loss. [ 32 ] The orderliness and colours used may vary between schools, but a common [ according to whom? ] order is blank, jaundiced, park, blue, red, black [ citation needed ]. however, other variations with a higher number of color is besides normally seen. A usual practice [ according to whom? ], when employing lone four coloured belts, is to stay at each belt color for the duration of two gup ranks, making a total of eight gup ranks between whiten belt out and 1st. dan black belt. In order to make a ocular difference between the first and second gup rank of given belt color, a stripe in the same discolor as the future knock color is added to the second cup rank in some schools. In Kukki-style Taekwondo, the news used for “ forms ” is poomsae. In 1967 the KTA established a newly fix of forms called the Palgwae poomsae, named after the eight trigrams of the I Ching. In 1971 however ( after extra kwans had joined the KTA ), the KTA and Kukkiwon adopted a newly set of color-belt forms alternatively, called the Taegeuk poomsae. Black belt forms are called yudanja poomsae. While ITF-style forms refer to key elements of korean history, Kukki-style forms refer rather to elements of sino-Korean philosophy such as the I Ching and the taegeuk. WT-sanctioned tournaments allow any person, careless of school affiliation or martial arts style, to compete in WT events adenine long as he or she is a extremity of the WT Member National Association in his or her state ; this allows basically anyone to compete in WT-sanctioned competitions .

other styles and hybrids [edit ]

As previously mentioned, in 1990 the Global Taekwondo Federation ( GTF ) divide from the International Taekwon-Do Federation ( ITF ) to form its own vogue of Taekwondo based on ITF-style. basically this can be considered a pas seul of ITF-style. besides in 1990, warlike artist and actor Chuck Norris, an alumnus of Hwang Kee ‘s Moo Duk Kwan constitution, established a hybrid martial art system called Chun Kuk Do. Chun Kuk Do shares many techniques, forms and names with Tang Soo Do and Taekwondo, and so can be considered a pas seul of traditional Taekwondo. similarly, Lim Ching Sing ‘s Hup Kwon Do and Kwang-jo Choi ‘s Choi Kwang Do besides derive from Taekwondo. additionally, there are hybrid soldierly arts that combine Taekwondo with other styles. These include :

  • Extreme Taekwondo: a complex version of World Taekwondo Federation, which combines elements from all Taekwondo styles, Tricking (martial arts), similarities from other martial arts
  • Kun Gek Do[33] (also Gwon Gyokdo): combines Taekwondo and muay thai.
  • Han Moo Do: Scandinavian martial art that combines Taekwondo, hapkido, and hoi jeon moo sool.
  • Han Mu Do: Korean martial art that combines Taekwondo and hapkido.
  • Teukgong Moosool: Korean martial art that combines elements of Taekwondo, hapkido, judo, kyuk too ki, and Chinese martial arts.
  • Yongmudo: developed at Korea’s Yong-In University, combines Taekwondo, hapkido, judo, and ssireum.

Forms ( patterns ) [edit ]

Finland A demonstration at Kuopio-halli in Kuopio Three korean terms may be used with reference to Taekwondo forms or patterns. These forms are equivalent to kata in karate .

  • Hyeong (sometimes romanized as hyung; hanja: 形, hangeul: 형) is the term usually used in traditional Taekwondo (i.e., 1950s–1960s styles of Korean martial arts).
  • Poomsae (sometimes romanized as pumsae or poomse; hanja: 品勢, hangeul: 품새) is the term officially used by Kukkiwon/WT-style and ATA-style Taekwondo.
  • Teul (officially romanized as tul; hangeul: 틀) is the term usually used in ITF/Chang Hon-style Taekwondo.

A hyeong is a taxonomic, prearranged sequence of soldierly techniques that is performed either with or without the use of a weapon. In dojangs ( Taekwondo training gymnasiums ) hyeong are used chiefly as a form of interval trail that is utilitarian in developing mushin, proper kinetics and mental and forcible fortitude. Hyeong may resemble battle, but are artistically non-combative and weave together so as to be an effective condition tool. One ‘s aptitude for a detail hyeong may be evaluated in rival. In such competitions, hyeong are evaluated by a gore of judges who base the score on many factors including energy, preciseness, speed, and control. In western competitions, there are two general classes of hyeong : creative and standard. creative hyeong are created by the performer and are broadly acrobatic in nature and do not inevitably reflect the kinetic principles intrinsic in any martial system. Different Taekwondo styles and associations ( ATA, ITF, GTF, WT, etc. ) use different Taekwondo forms. evening within a single association, different schools in the association may use slenderly different variations on the forms or use unlike names for the lapp form ( specially in older styles of Taekwondo ). This is specially true for founder forms, which tend to be less standardized than mainstream forms .

ATA Songahm-style[34] ITF Chang Hon-style[35] GTF style[36] WT Kukkiwon-style[37] Jhoon Rhee style[38]
Beginner Exercises (3) Beginner Exercises (3) Unofficial Beginner Forms (usually 3–) Beginner Forms (2)
Four Direction Punch Four Direction Punch Kicho Hyeong Il Bu, Kibon Hana or Kibon Il Jang Kam Sah
Four Direction Block Four Direction Block Kicho Hyeong Ee Bu, Kibon Dool or Kibon Ee Jang Kyu-Yool
Four Direction Thrust Four Direction Thrust Kicho Hyeong Sam Bu, Kibon Set or Kibon Sam Jang
Kibon Net or Kibon Sa Jang
Color Belt Forms (9) Color Belt Forms (9) Color Belt Forms (11) Color Belt Forms (Taegeuk, 8) Color Belt Forms (8)
Songahm 1 Chon-Ji Chon-Ji Taegeuk Il Jang Jayoo
Songahm 2 Dan-Gun Dan-Gun Taegeuk Ee Jang Chosang
Songahm 3 Do-San Do-San Taegeuk Sam Jang Hangook
Songahm 4 Jee-Sang Taegeuk Sa Jang Jung-Yi
Songahm 5 Won-Hyo Won-Hyo Taegeuk Oh Jang Pyung-Wa
In Wha 1 Yul-Gok Yul-Gok Taegeuk Yook Jang Meegook
In Wha 2 Dhan-Goon Taegeuk Chil Jang Chasin
Choong Jung 1 Joong-Gun Joong-Gun Taegeuk Pal Jang Might for Right
Choong Jung 2 Toi-Gye Toi-Gye
Hwa-Rang Hwa-Rang
Choong-Moo Choong-Moo
Black Belt Forms (8) Black Belt Forms (15) Black Belt Forms (19) Black Belt Forms (9) Black Belt Forms
Shim Jun Kwang-Gae Kwang-Gae Koryo Same as ITF
Jung Yul Po-Eun Po-Eun Keumgang
Chung San Gae-Baek Gae-Baek Taebaek
Sok Bong Jee-Goo Pyongwon
Chung Hae Eui-Am Eui-Am Sipjin
Jhang Soo Choong-Jang Choong-Jang Jitae
Chul Joon Juche, or Go-Dang* Go-Dang Cheonkwon
Jeong Seung Jook-Am Hansoo
Sam-Il Sam-Il Ilyeo
Yoo-Sin Yoo-Sin
Choi-Yong Choi-Yong Older Color Belt Forms (Palgwae, 8)
Pyong-Hwa Palgwae Il Jang
Yon-Gae Yon-Gae Palgwae Ee Jang
Ul-Ji Ul-Ji Palgwae Sam Jang
Moon-Moo Moon-Moo Palgwae Sa Jang
Sun-Duk Palgwae Oh Jang
So-San So-San Palgwae Yook Jang
Se-Jong Se-Jong Palgwae Chil Jang
Tong-Il Tong-Il Palgwae Pal Jang
Older Black Belt Forms Older Black Belt Forms
* Go-Dang is considered deprecated in most ITF styles Original Koryo
U-Nam is an ITF Chang-Hon form that appears only in
the 1959 version of Choi Hong-hi ‘s Tae Kwon Do Teaching Manual [ 39 ]
Candidate Demo Forms (2007, never officially finalized)
Hanryu
Bikkak
Kukkiwon Competition Poomsae (2016)
Himchari
Yamang
Saebyeol
Nareusya (called Bigak Sam Jang by WT)
Bigak (called Bigak Ee Jang by WT)
Eoullim
Saeara
Hansol
Narae
Onnuri
WT Competition Poomsae (2017)
Bigak Il Jang (developed by WT)
Bigak Ee Jang (based on Kukkiwon’s Bigak)
Bigak Sam Jang (based on Kukkiwon’s Nareusya)

Ranks, belts, and forwarding [edit ]

Taekwondo ranks vary from dash to vogue and are not standardized. typically, these ranks are separated into “ junior ” and “ senior ” sections, colloquially referred to as “ coloring material belts ” and “ black belt out ” :

  • The junior section of ranks—the “color belt” ranks—are indicated by the Korean word geup

    급 (級)

    (also Romanized as gup or kup). Practitioners in these ranks generally wear belts ranging in color from white (the lowest rank) to red or brown (higher ranks, depending on the style of Taekwondo). Belt colors may be solid or may include a colored stripe on a solid background. The number of geup ranks varies depending on the style, typically ranging between 8 and 12 geup ranks. The numbering sequence for geup ranks usually begins at the larger number of white belts, and then counts down to “1st geup” as the highest color-belt rank.

  • The senior section of ranks—the “black belt” ranks—is typically made up of nine ranks. Each rank is called a dan

    단 (段)

    or “degree” (as in “third dan” or “third-degree black belt”). The numbering sequence for dan ranks is opposite that of geup ranks: numbering begins at 1st dan (the lowest black-belt rank) and counts upward for higher ranks. A practitioner’s degree is sometimes indicated on the belt itself with stripes, Roman numerals, or other methods.

Some styles incorporate an extra rank between the geup and dan levels, called the “ bo-dan ” rank—essentially, a campaigner rank for black belt promotion. additionally, the Kukkiwon/WT-style of Taekwondo recognizes a “ poom ” membership for practitioners under the age of 15 : these practitioners have passed dan-level tests but will not receive dan-level membership until age 15. At age 15, their poom absolute is considered to transition to equivalent dan rank automatically. In some schools, holders of the poom rank wear a half-red/half-black belt out rather than a solid black belt out. To advance from one rate to the future, students typically dispatch promotion tests in which they demonstrate their proficiency in the assorted aspects of the art before their teacher or a jury of judges. forwarding tests vary from school to school, but may include such elements as the execution of patterns, which combine versatile techniques in specific sequences ; the dampen of boards to demonstrate the ability to use techniques with both power and master ; sparring and self-defense to demonstrate the practical application and control of techniques ; physical fitness normally with push-ups and sit-ups ; and answering questions on terminology, concepts, and history to demonstrate cognition and understanding of the art. For higher dan tests, students are sometimes required to take a written test or submit a inquiry composition in addition to taking the practical test. promotion from one geup to the next can proceed quickly in some schools since schools often allow geup promotions every two, three, or four months. Students of geup social station learn the most basic techniques first, and then move on to more boost techniques as they approach inaugural dan. Many of the older and more traditional schools often take longer to allow students to test for higher ranks than newer, more contemporary schools, as they may not have the command test intervals. In contrast, forwarding from one dan to the adjacent can take years. In fact, some styles impose senesce or time-in-rank limits on dan promotions. For example, the number of years between one dan forwarding to the future may be limited to a minimum of the practitioner ‘s current dan-rank, so that ( for exercise ) a fifth dan practitioner must wait 5 years to test for 6th dan. Black belt ranks may have titles associated with them, such as “ master ” and “ teacher ”, but Taekwondo organizations vary widely in rules and standards when it comes to ranks and titles. What holds true in one constitution may not hold truthful in another, as is the case in many martial art systems. For case, achieving first dan ( black belt) rate with three years ‘ train might be distinctive in one organization but considered besides quick in another organization, and similarly for other ranks. similarly, the title for a given dan rank and file in one organization might not be the same as the claim for that dan rank in another organization. In the International Taekwon-Do Federation, instructors holding 1st to 3rd dan are called Boosabum ( adjunct teacher ), those holding 4th to 6th dan are called Sabum ( teacher ), those holding 7th to 8th dan are called Sahyun ( dominate ), and those holding 9th dan are called Saseong ( grandmaster ). [ 40 ] This system does not, however, necessarily apply to other Taekwondo organizations.

In the American Taekwondo Association, teacher designations are separate from absolute. Black belt may be designated as an teacher trainee ( bolshevik, white and gloomy collar ), forte trainer ( red and black collar ), certified flight simulator ( black-red-black collar ) and certified teacher ( black collar ). After a annual expect period, instructors who hold the one-sixth dan are eligible for the title of Master. Seventh dan black belts are eligible for the entitle Senior Master and one-eighth dan black belts are eligible for the title Chief Master. In WT/Kukki-Taekwondo, instructors holding 1st. to 3rd. dan are considered adjunct instructors ( kyosa-nim ), are not so far allowed to issue ranks, and are broadly thought of as still having a lot to learn. Instructors who hold a fourth. to 6th. dan are considered overcome instructors ( sabum-nim ), and are allowed to grade students to color knock ranks from 4th. dan, and to black belt/dan-ranks from 6th. dan. Those who hold a 7th–9th dan are considered Grandmasters. These ranks besides hold an old age necessity of 40+. [ 41 ] In this style, a tenth dan rate is sometimes awarded posthumously for practitioners with a life of demonstrable contributions to the practice of Taekwondo .

historic influences [edit ]

The oldest korean martial arts were an amalgamation of unarmed fight styles developed by the three equal korean Kingdoms of Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje, [ 42 ] where young men were trained in disarm combat techniques to develop lastingness, travel rapidly, and survival skills. The most popular of these techniques were ssireum, subak, and Taekkyon. The Northern Goguryeo kingdom was a dominant military unit in Northern Korea and North Eastern China anterior to the first hundred CE, and again from the third hundred to the sixth hundred. Before the descent of the Goguryeo Dynasty in the sixth century, the Silla Kingdom asked for serve in training its people for defense against commandeer invasions. During this time a few blue-ribbon Silla warriors were given training in Taekkyon by the early masters from Goguryeo. These Silla warriors then became known as Hwarang or “ blossoming knights. ” The Hwarang set up a military academy for the sons of royalty in Silla called Hwarang-do { 花郎徒 }, which means “ flower-youth corps. ” The Hwarang studied Taekkyon, history, confucian philosophy, ethics, Buddhist morality, social skills, and military tactics. The guiding principles of the Hwarang warriors were based on Won Gwang ‘s five codes of human demeanor and included commitment, filial duty, trustworthiness, heroism, and justice. [ 43 ] In malice of Korea ‘s rich history of ancient and martial arts, korean martial arts faded during the late Joseon Dynasty. korean club became highly centralized under korean Confucianism, and martial arts were ill regarded in a club whose ideals were epitomized by its scholar-kings. [ 44 ] Formal practices of traditional warlike arts such as subak and Taekkyon were reserved for approve military uses. however, Taekkyon persisted into the nineteenth hundred as a folk music game during the May-Dano festival, and was still taught as the formal military warlike art throughout the Joseon Dynasty. [ 42 ] early progenitors of Taekwondo—the founders of the nine master kwans —who were able to study in Japan were exposed to japanese martial arts, including karate, judo, and kendo, [ 45 ] while others were exposed to the warlike arts of China and Manchuria, adenine well as to the autochthonal korean martial art of Taekkyon. [ 9 ] [ 46 ] [ 47 ] [ 48 ] Hwang Kee fall through of Moo Duk Kwan, far incorporate elements of korean Gwonbeop from the Muye Dobo Tongji into the style that finally became Tang Soo Do. The historic influences of Taekwondo is controversial with a split between two schools of intend : traditionalism and revisionism. traditionalism holds that the origins of Taekwondo can be traced through korean martial arts while revisionism, which has become the prevailing theory, argues that Taekwondo is rooted in Karate. [ 49 ] Traditionalism has chiefly been supported by the korean politics as a concerted campaign to divorce korean martial arts from their japanese past to give Korean a “ legitimate cultural past ”. [ 50 ]

philosophy [edit ]

different styles of Taekwondo adopt unlike philosophic underpinnings. many of these underpinnings however refer back to the Five Commandments of the Hwarang as a historical referent. For example, Choi Hong-hi expressed his philosophic footing for Taekwondo as the Five Tenets of Taekwondo : [ 51 ]

  • Courtesy ( yeui / 예의, 禮儀)
  • Integrity ( yeomchi / 염치, 廉恥)
  • Perseverance ( innae / 인내, 忍耐)
  • Self-control ( geukgi / 극기, 克己)
  • Indomitable spirit ( baekjeolbulgul / 백절불굴, 百折不屈)

These tenets are far articulated in a Taekwondo oath, besides authored by Choi :

  • I shall observe the tenets of Taekwondo
  • I shall respect the instructor and seniors
  • I shall never misuse Taekwondo
  • I shall be a champion of freedom and justice
  • I shall build a more peaceful world

Modern ITF organizations have continued to update and expand upon this doctrine. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] The World Taekwondo Federation ( WTF ) besides refers to the commandments of the Hwarang in the joint of its Taekwondo philosophy. [ 54 ] Like the ITF doctrine, it centers on the development of a passive club as one of the overarch goals for the practice of Taekwondo. The WT ‘s submit doctrine is that this finish can be furthered by adoption of the Hwarang spirit, by behaving rationally ( “ department of education in accordance with the reason of eden ” ), and by recognition of the philosophies embodied in the taegeuk ( the yin and the yang, i.e., “ the integrity of opposites ” ) and the surface-to-air missile taegeuk ( reason change in the populace as the interactions of the heavens, the Earth, and Man ). The philosophical put articulated by the Kukkiwon is alike based on the Hwarang custom. [ 55 ]

contest [edit ]

Sparring in a Taekwondo classify Taekwondo competition typically involves sparring, breaking, and patterns ; some tournaments besides include especial events such as demonstration teams and self-defense ( hosinsul ). In Olympic Taekwondo competition, however, lone sparring ( using WT competition rules ) is performed. [ 56 ] There are two kinds of competition spar : point spar, in which all strikes are luminosity contact and the clock is stopped when a point is scored ; and Olympic spar, where all strikes are full touch and the clock continues when points are scored. Sparring involves a Hogu, or a breast defender, which muffles any kick ‘s damage to avoid serious injuries. Helmets and early gear are provided angstrom good. Though other systems may vary, a common indicate system works like this : one point for a unconstipated kick to the Hogu, two for a turn behind the complain, three for a back kick, and four for a spinning bang to the head .

World Taekwondo ( WT ) contest [edit ]

hogu), forearm guards and shin guards official WT proboscis defender ( ), forearm guards and shin guards Under World Taekwondo ( WT, once WTF ) and Olympic rules, sparring is a full-contact event, employing a continuous score system where the fighters are allowed to continue after scoring each proficiency, taking rate between two competitors in either an area measuring 8 meters square or an octagon of like size. [ 57 ] Competitors are matched within gender and weight division—eight divisions for World Championships that are condensed to four for the Olympics. A gain can occur by points, or if one rival is ineffective to continue ( hard ). however, there are several decisions that can lead to a win, american samoa well, including superiority, withdrawal, disqualification, or even a referee ‘s punitive contract. [ 58 ] Each match consists of three two-minute rounds, with one minute remainder between rounds, though these are often abbreviated or shortened for some junior and regional tournaments. [ 57 ] Competitors must wear a hogu, lead defender, clamber pads, foot socks, forearm guards, hand gloves, a mouthpiece, and a groin cup. Tournaments sanctioned by national governing bodies or the WT, including the Olympics and World Championship, practice electronic hogus, electronic foot socks, and electronic read/write head protectors to register and determine scoring techniques, with homo judges used to assess and score technical ( spinning ) techniques and score punches. [ 57 ] Points are awarded for permit techniques delivered to the legal seduce areas as determined by an electronic marking system, which assesses the strength and location of the contact. The only techniques allowed are kicks ( delivering a strike using an sphere of the foot below the ankle ), punches ( delivering a strike using the close fist ), and pushes. In some smaller tournaments, and in the past, points were awarded by three corner judges using electronic score tallies. All major national and international tournaments have moved fully ( as of 2017 ) to electronic score, including the habit of electronic headgear. This limits corner judges to scoring lone technical points and punches. Some believe that the new electronic score arrangement reduces controversy concerning estimate decisions, [ 59 ] but this technology is still not universally accepted., [ 60 ] In especial, the move to electronic headgear has replaced controversy over judging with controversy over how the technology has changed the sport. Because the headdress is not able to determine if a kick was a discipline Taekwondo technique, and the pressure doorsill for detector energizing for headgear is kept low for condom reasons, athletes who improvised ways of placing their metrical foot on their opponents head were able to score points, regardless of how true to Taekwondo those techniques were. [ 61 ] Techniques are divided into three categories : scoring techniques ( such as a kick back to the hogu ), permitted but non-scoring techniques ( such as a complain that strikes an arm ), and not-permitted techniques ( such as a kick below the shank ) .

  • A punch that makes strong contact with the opponent’s hogu scores 1 point. The punch must be a straight punch with arm extended; jabs, hooks, uppercuts, etc. are permitted but do not score. Punches to the head are not allowed.
  • A regular kick (no turning or spinning) to the hogu scores 2 points.
  • A regular kick (no turning or spinning) to the head scores 3 points
  • A technical kick (a kick that involves turning or spinning) to the hogu scores 4 points.
  • A technical kick to the head scores 5 points.
    • As of October 2010, 4 points were awarded if a turning kick was used to execute this attack. As of June 2018, this was changed to 5 points.[62]

The reviewer can give penalties at any time for rule-breaking, such as hitting an area not recognized as a target, normally the leg or neck. Penalties, called “ Gam-jeom ” are counted as an summation of one degree for the react contestant. Following 10 “ Gam-jeom ” a player is declared the failure by referee ‘s punitive declaration [ 57 ] At the end of three rounds, the rival with most points wins the pit. In the consequence of a tie, a fourth “ sudden death ” overtime round, sometimes called a “ fortunate point ”, is held to determine the achiever after a one-minute rest period. In this round, the first rival to score a bespeak wins the match. If there is no grade in the extra round, the winner is decided by transcendence, as determined by the umpirage officials [ 62 ] or number of foul committed during that attack. If a rival has a 20-point run at the end of the second round or achieves a 20-point lead at any point in the third base round, then the catch is over and that rival is declared the achiever. [ 57 ] In addition to sparring contest, World Taekwondo sanctions rival in poomsae or forms, although this is not an Olympic event. Single competitors perform a delegate radiation pattern of movements, and are assessed by judges for accuracy ( accuracy of movements, counterweight, preciseness of details ) and presentation ( speed and exponent, cycle, energy ), both of which receive numerical scores, with deductions made for errors. [ 63 ] Pair and team competition is besides recognized, where two or more competitors perform the same form at the lapp time. In addition to contest with the traditional forms, there is experiment with freestyle forms that allow more creativity. [ 63 ] The World Taekwondo Federation directly sanctions the following competitions : [ 64 ]

International Taekwon-Do Federation ( ITF ) rival [edit ]

common styles of ITF decimal point sparring equipment The International Taekwon-Do Federation ‘s spar rules are similar to the WT ‘s rules but differ in respective aspects .

  • Hand attacks to the head are allowed.[67]
  • The competition is not full contact, and excessive contact is not allowed.
  • Competitors are penalized with disqualification if they injure their opponent and he can no longer continue (knockout).
  • The scoring system is:
    • 1 point for Punch to the body or head.
    • 2 points for Jumping kick to the body or kick to the head, or a jumping punch to the head
    • 3 points for Jumping kick to the head
  • The competition area is 9×9 meters for international events.

Competitors do not wear the hogu ( although they are required to wear approve metrical foot and pass protection equipment, adenine well as optional point guards ). This scoring system varies between individual organisations within the ITF ; for example, in the TAGB, punches to the promontory or body score 1 point, kicks to the body score 2 points, and kicks to the steer score 3 points. A continuous point system is utilized in ITF competition, where the fighters are allowed to continue after scoring a technique. excessive contact is generally not allowed according to the official ruleset, and judges penalize any rival with disqualification if they injure their opponent and he can nobelium farseeing continue ( although these rules vary between ITF organizations ). At the end of two minutes ( or some other specify time ), the rival with more scoring techniques wins. Fouls in ITF sparring include : attacking a fallen adversary, leg sweeping, holding/grabbing, or designed fire to a target early than the opponent. [ 68 ] ITF competitions besides feature performances of patterns, breaking, and ‘special techniques ‘ ( where competitors perform prescribed board breaks at big heights ) .

Multi-discipline rival [edit ]

Some organizations deliver multi-discipline competitions, for exercise the british Student Taekwondo Federation ‘s inter-university competitions, which have included separate WT rules sparring, ITF rules sparring, Kukkiwon patterns and Chang-Hon patterns events run in latitude since 1992. [ 69 ]

early organizations [edit ]

American Amateur Athletic Union ( AAU ) competitions are very exchangeable, except that different styles of pads and gear are allowed. [ 70 ] apart from WT and ITF tournaments, major Taekwondo competitions ( all featuring WT Taekwondo only ) include :
Taekwondo is besides an optional frolic at the Commonwealth Games .

Weight divisions [edit ]

The follow weight divisions are in effect ascribable to the WT [ 71 ] and ITF [ 72 ] tournament rules and regulations :

Olympics
male female
−58 kg −49 kg
−68 kg −57 kg
−80 kg −67 kg
+80 kg +67 kg
WT Male
Championships
Juniors Adults
−45 kg −54 kg
−48 kg
−51 kg
−55 kg
−59 kg −58 kg
−63 kg −63 kg
−68 kg −68 kg
−73 kg −74 kg
−78 kg
+78 kg −80 kg
−87 kg
+87 kg
WT Female
Championships
Juniors Adults
−42 kg −46 kg
−44 kg
−46 kg −49 kg
−49 kg
−52 kg −53 kg
−55 kg
−59 kg −57 kg
−63 kg −62 kg
−68 kg −67 kg
+68 kg −73 kg
+73 kg
ITF Male Championships
Juniors Adults ( 18—39 year ) Veterans over 40 Veterans over 50
−45 kg −50 kg −64 kg −66 kg
−51 kg −57 kg
−57 kg −64 kg −73 kg
−63 kg −71 kg
−69 kg −78 kg −80 kg −80 kg
−75 kg −85 kg −90 kg
+75 kg +85 kg +90 kg +80 kg
ITF Female Championships
Juniors Adults ( 18—39 year ) Veterans over 40 Veterans over 50
−40 kg −45 kg −54 kg −60 kg
−46 kg −51 kg
−52 kg −57 kg −61 kg
−58 kg −63 kg
−64 kg −69 kg −68 kg −75 kg
−70 kg −75 kg −75 kg
+70 kg +75 kg +75 kg +75 kg

korean Taekwondo vocabulary [edit ]

Some common Taekwondo terminology and parts of the body In Taekwondo schools—even outside Korea— Korean speech commands and vocabulary are often used. korean numerals may be used as prompts for commands or for counting repetition exercises. Different schools and associations will use unlike vocabulary, however, and may even refer to entirely different techniques by the lapp name. As one exemplar, in Kukkiwon/WT-style Taekwondo, the term ap seogi refers to an upright walk position, while in ITF/Chang Hon-style Taekwondo ap seogi refers to a long, low, presence position. korean vocabulary normally used in Taekwondo schools includes :

Basic Commands
English Hangul (한글) Hanja (한자/漢字) Revised Romanization
Attention 차렷 Charyeot
Ready 준비 準備 Junbi
Begin 시작 始作 Sijak
Finish / Stop 그만 Geuman
Bow 경례 敬禮 Gyeonglye
Resume / Continue 계속 繼續 Gyesok
Return to ready 바로 Baro
Relax / At ease 쉬어 Swieo
Rest / Take a break 휴식 休息 Hyusik
Turn around / About face 뒤로돌아 Dwirodora
Yell 기합 氣合 Gihap
Look / Focus 시선 視線 Siseon
By the count 구령에 맞춰서 口令에 맞춰서 Guryeong-e majchwoseo
Without count 구령 없이 口令 없이 Guryeong eobs-i
Switch feet 발 바꿔 Bal bakkwo
Dismissed 해산 解散 Haesan
Hand Techniques
English Hangul (한글) Hanja (한자/漢字) Revised Romanization
Hand Techniques 수 기 手技 Su gi
Attack / Strike / Hit 공격 攻擊 Gong-gyeog
Strike 치기 Chigi
Block 막기 Magki
Punch/hit Gwon
Punch 지르기 Jireugi
Middle punch 중 권 中拳 Jung gwon
Middle Punch 몸통 지르기 Momtong jireugi
Back fist 갑 권 甲拳 / 角拳 Gab gwon
Back fist 등주먹 Deungjumeog
Knife hand (edge) 수도 手刀 Su Do
Knife hand (edge) 손날 Son Kal
Thrust / spear Gwan
Thrust / spear 찌르기 Jjileugi
Spear hand 관 수 貫手 Gwan su
Spear hand (lit. fingertip) 손끝 Sonkkeut
Ridge hand 역 수도 逆手刀 Yeog su do
Ridge hand (lit. reverse hand blade) 손날등 Sonnaldeung
Hammer fist 권도 拳刀 / 拳槌 Gweon do
Pliers hand 집게 손 Jibge son
Palm heel 장관 掌貫 Jang gwan
Palm heel 바탕손 Batangson
Elbow 팔꿈 Palkkum
Gooseneck 손목 등 Sonmog deung
Side punch 횡진 공격 橫進攻擊 Hoengjin gong gyeog
Side punch 옆 지르기 Yeop jileugi
Mountain block 산 막기 山막기 San maggi
One finger fist 일 지 권 一指拳 il ji gwon
1 finger spear hand 일 지관 수 一指貫手 il ji gwan su
2 finger spear hand 이지관수 二指貫手 i ji gwan su
Double back fist 장갑권 長甲拳 Jang gab gwon
Double hammer fist 장 권도 長拳刀 Jang gwon do
Foot Techniques
English Hangul (한글) Hanja (한자/漢字) Revised Romanization
Foot Techniques 족기 足技 Jog gi
Kick 차기 Chagi
Front snap kick 앞 차기 Ap chagi
…also Front snap kick 앞 차넣기 Ap chaneohgi
…also Front snap kick 앞 뻗어 차기 Ap ppeod-eo chagi
Inside-out heel kick 안에서 밖으로 차기 An-eseo bakk-eulo chagi
Outside-in heel kick 밖에서 안으로 차기 Baggeso aneuro chagi
Stretching front kick 앞 뻗어 올리 기 Ap ppeod-eo olli gi
Roundhouse kick 돌려 차기 Dollyeo chagi
…also Roundhouse kick Ap dollyeo chagi
Side kick 옆 차기 Yeop chagi
…also Snap Side kick 옆 뻗어 차기 Yeop ppeod-eo chagi
Hook kick 후려기 차기 Hulyeogi chagi
…also hook kick 후려 차기 Huryeo chagi
Back kick 뒤 차기 Dwi chagi
…also Spin Back kick 뒤 돌려 차기 Dwi dollyeo chagi
Spin hook kick 뒤 돌려 후려기 차기 Dwi dollyeo hulyeogi chagi
Knee strike 무릎 차기 Mu reup chagi
Reverse round kick 빗 차기 Bit chagi
Stances
English Hangul (한글) Hanja (한자/漢字) Revised Romanization
Stances 자세 姿勢 Seogi (stance) or Jase (posture)
Ready stance 준비 자세 準備 姿勢 Junbi seogi (or jase)
Front Stance 전굴 자세 前屈 姿勢 Jeongul seogi (or jase)
Back Stance 후굴 자세 後屈 姿勢 Hugul seogi (or jase)
Horse-riding Stance 기마 자세 騎馬 姿勢 Gima seogi (or jase)
…also Horse-riding Stance 기마립 자세 騎馬立 姿勢 Gimalip seogi (or jase)
…also Horse-riding Stance 주춤 서기 Juchum seogi
Side Stance 사고립 자세 四股立 姿勢 Sagolib seogi (or jase)
Cross legged stance 교차 립 자세 交(叉/差)立 姿勢 Gyocha lib seogi (or jase)
Technique Direction
English Hangul (한글) Hanja (한자/漢字) Revised Romanization
Moving forward 전진 推進 Jeonjin
Backing up / retreat 후진 後進 Hujin
Sideways/laterally 횡진 橫進 Hoengjin
Reverse (hand/foot) 역진 逆進 Yeogjin
Lower 하단 下段 Hadan
Middle 중단 中段 Jungdan
Upper 상단 上段 Sangdan
Two handed 쌍수 雙手 Ssangsu
Both hands 양수 兩手 Yangsu
Lowest 최 하단 最下段 Choe hadan
Right side 오른 쪽 Oleun jjog
Left side 왼 쪽 Oen jjog
Other side/Twist 틀어 Teul-eo
Inside-outside 안에서 밖으로 An-eseo bakk-eulo
Outside inside 밖에서 안으로 Bakk-eseo an-eulo
Jumping / 2nd level 이단 二段 Idan
Hopping / Skipping 뜀을 Ttwim-eul
Double kick 두 발 Du bal
Combo kick 연속 連續 Yeonsog
Same foot 같은 발 Gat-eun bal
Titles
English Hangul (한글) Hanja (한자/漢字) Revised Romanization
Founder/President 관장 님 館長님 Gwanjang nim
Master instructor 사범 님 師範님 Sabeom nim
Teacher 교사 님 敎師님 Gyosa nim
Black Belt Dan
Student or Color Belt Geup
Master level 고단자 高段者 Godanja
Other/Miscellaneous
English Hangul (한글) Hanja (한자/漢字) Revised Romanization
School Gwan (kwan)
Country Flag 국기 國旗 Guggi
Salute the flag 국기 배례 國旗 拜禮 Guggi baerye
Pay respect / bow 경례 敬禮 Gyeongnye
Moment of silence 묵념 默念 Mugnyeom
Sit down! 앉아! Anj-a!
Thank you 감사합니다 感謝합니다 Gamsa habnida
Informal thank you 고맙습니다 Gomabseubnida
You’re welcome 천만에요 Cheonman-eyo
Uniform 도복 道服 Dobok
Belt Tti
Studio / School / Gym 도장 道場 Dojang
Test 심사 審査 Simsa
Self Defense 호신술 護身術 Hosinsul
Sparring (Kukkiwon/WT-style) 겨루기 Gyeorugi
…also Sparring (Chang Hon/ITF-style) 맞서기 Matseogi
…also Sparring 대련 對練 Daelyeon
Free sparring 자유 대련 自由 對練 Jayu daelyeon
Ground Sparring 좌 대련 座 對練 Jwa daelyeon
One step sparring 일 수식 대련 一數式 對練 il su sig daelyeon
Three step sparring 삼 수식 대련 三數式 對練 Sam su sig daelyeon
Board Breaking 격파 擊破 Gyeog pa

noteworthy practitioners [edit ]

For practitioners of Taekwondo, see class : tae kwon do practitioners

Olympic medalists [edit ]

Grandmasters [edit ]

Kickboxers and Mixed Martial Artists [edit ]

fame practitioners [edit ]

honorary Black belt out [edit ]

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

References [edit ]

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