Species of flowering plant in the laurel family Lauraceae
This article is about the tree and fruit. For early uses, see Avocado ( disambiguation )
The avocado ( Persea americana ) is a tree originate in the Americas which is likely native to the upland regions of south-central Mexico to Guatemala. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] It is classified as a member of the blossoming establish family Lauraceae. [ 3 ] The fruit of the plant, besides called an avocado ( or avocado pear or alligator pear ), is botanically a large berry containing a individual large sow. [ 6 ] Avocado trees are partially self-pollinating, and are often propagated through grafting to maintain predictable yield quality and quantity. [ 7 ]

Avocados are cultivated in tropical and Mediterranean climates of many countries, [ 3 ] with Mexico as the leading producer of avocado in 2019, supplying 32 % of the world total. [ 8 ] Avocado product is one of the most environmentally intensifier fruits, using 70 litres ( 18 US gallons ; 15 imperial gallons ) of water system per avocado, [ 9 ] and over 400 grams of CO2 emissions. [ 10 ] In major output regions like Chile, Mexico and California, the water demands for avocado puts pressure on overall water resources. Avocado production is besides connected to other concerns, including environmental justice and human rights concerns, deforestation and connections of Mexican avocado with organized crime. [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ] Climate deepen is expected to cause significant changes in the desirable growing zones for avocado, and put extra atmospheric pressure due to heat waves and drought. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] The yield of domestic varieties has a pantry flesh when ripe. Depending on the variety, avocado have k, brown university, purple, or black skin when advanced, and may be orotund, egg-shaped, or ball-shaped. commercially, the fruits are picked while immature, and ripened after harvesting. The high adipose tissue and smooth texture of avocados make it a useful and diverse food in different cuisines, and is traditionally important in mexican foods. The eminent nutritional rate and concentration of fatness, make avocados a normally used food in vegetarian foods and by and large is thought alimentary and goodly. [ 18 ]


Persea americana is a corner that grows to 20 meter ( 66 foot ), with alternately arranged leaves 12–25 centimeter ( 5–10 in ) long. Panicles of flowers with deciduous bracts arise from modern growth or the axils of leaves. [ 19 ] The flowers are inconspicuous, greenish-yellow, 5–10 millimeter ( 3⁄16–3⁄8 in ) wide. The species is variable because of choice atmospheric pressure by humans to produce larger, fleshier fruits with a slender epicarp. [ 20 ] The avocado yield is a climacteric, [ 21 ] single-seeded berry, due to the imperceptible stone covering the seed, [ 6 ] [ 22 ] rather than a drupe. [ 23 ] The pear -shaped fruit is normally 7–20 centimeter ( 3–8 in ) hanker, weighs between 100 and 1,000 deoxyguanosine monophosphate ( 3+1⁄2 and 35+1⁄2 oz ), and has a large central seed, 5–6.4 curium ( 2–2+1⁄2 in ) long. [ 3 ]


Persea americana, or the avocado, possibly originated in the Tehuacan Valley [ 24 ] in the express of Puebla, Mexico, [ 25 ] although dodo evidence suggests exchangeable species were much more far-flung millions of years ago. however, there is testify for three possible separate domestications of the avocado, resulting in the presently recognized Mexican ( aoacatl ), Guatemalan ( quilaoacatl ), and West Indian ( tlacacolaocatl ) landraces. [ 26 ] [ 27 ] The Mexican and Guatemalan landraces originated in the highlands of those countries, while the West indian landrace is a lowland variety that ranges from Guatemala, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador to Peru, [ 26 ] achieving a wide stove through human means before the arrival of the Europeans. [ 27 ] The three classify landraces were most probable to have already intermingled [ a ] in pre-columbian America and were described in the Florentine Codex. [ 27 ] The earliest residents of northern coastal Peru were living in irregular camps in an ancient wetland and eating avocado, along with chilies, mollusks, sharks, birds, and sea lions. [ 28 ] The oldest discovery of an avocado scar comes from Coxcatlan Cave, dating from around 9,000 to 10,000 years ago. [ 24 ] [ 27 ] early caves in the Tehuacan Valley from around the same time period besides show early attest for the presence and consumption of avocado. [ 24 ] There is tell for avocado use at Norte Chico civilization sites in Peru by at least 3,200 years ago and at Caballo Muerto in Peru from around 3,800 to 4,500 years ago. [ 24 ] criollo avocados, the ancestral form of today’s domesticated varieties native Oaxaca avocado, the ancestral shape of today ‘s domesticate varieties The native, undomesticated variety is known as a criollo, and is little, with benighted total darkness hide, and contains a big seed. [ 29 ] It credibly coevolved with extinct megafauna. [ 30 ] In 1982, evolutionary biologist Daniel H. Janzen concluded that the avocado is an model of an “ evolutionary anachronism “, a fruit adapted for ecological relationship with now-extinct large mammals ( such as giant background sloths or gomphotheres ). [ 31 ] [ 32 ] Most large fleshy fruits serve the routine of seed dispersion, accomplished by their consumption by large animals. There are some reasons to think that the fruit, with its mildly toxic pit, may have coevolved with Pleistocene megafauna to be swallowed wholly and excreted in their droppings, ready to sprout. No extant native animal is big enough to effectively disperse avocado seeds in this fashion. [ 33 ] [ 34 ] The avocado tree besides has a long history of cultivation in Central and South America, likely beginning vitamin a early as 5,000 BC. [ 25 ] A water jar shaped like an avocado, dating to AD 900, was discovered in the pre- Incan city of Chan Chan. [ 35 ] The earliest sleep together written report of the avocado in Europe is that of Martín Fernández de Enciso ( circa 1470–1528 ) in 1519 in his bible, Suma De Geographia Que Trata De Todas Las Partidas Y Provincias Del Mundo. [ 36 ] [ 37 ] The foremost detail report that unambiguously describes the avocado was given by Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés in his work Sumario de la natural historia de las Indias [ east ] in 1526. [ 26 ] The first written phonograph record in English of the function of the discussion ‘avocado ‘ was by Hans Sloane, who coined the term, [ 26 ] in a 1696 index of jamaican plants. The plant was introduced to Spain in 1601, Indonesia around 1750, Mauritius in 1780, Brazil in 1809, the United States mainland in 1825, South Africa and Australia in the late nineteenth hundred, and the Ottoman Empire in 1908. [ 27 ] In the United States, the avocado was introduced to Florida and Hawaii in 1833 and in California in 1856. [ 27 ] Before 1915, the avocado was normally referred to in California as ahuacate and in Florida as alligator pear. In 1915, the California Avocado Association introduced the then-innovative term avocado to refer to the establish. [ 27 ]


The word avocado comes from the spanish aguacate, which in turn comes from the Nahuatl bible āhuacatl [ aːˈwakat͡ɬ ], [ 38 ] derived from the proto-Aztecan * pa:wa word avocado, [ 39 ] meaning testis. [ 40 ] The modern English name comes from a translation of the spanish aguacate as avogato. The earliest known written manipulation in English is attested from 1697 as avogato pear, a term which late undergo folk etymology to become alligator pear. [ 40 ] [ 41 ]

regional names

In other central american and caribbean spanish-speaking countries, it is known by the Mexican name, while south american Spanish-speaking countries use a Quechua -derived word, palta. In portuguese, it is abacate. The fruit is sometimes called an avocado pear or alligator pear ( ascribable to its determine and the grating k skin of some cultivars ). [ 3 ] The Nahuatl āhuacatl can be compounded with early words, as in ahuacamolli, meaning avocado soup or sauce, from which the spanish news guacamole derives. [ 42 ] In the United Kingdom, the term avocado pear is still sometimes misused as it was applied when avocado first became normally available in the 1960s. [ 43 ] Originating as a diminutive in australian English, a clip shape, avo, has since become a common colloquialism in South Africa and the United Kingdom. It is known as “ butter yield ” in parts of India. [ 44 ]


Persea americana, young avocado plant (seedling), complete with parted pit and roots, young avocado plant ( seedling ), arrant with depart pit and roots As a subtropical species, avocados need a climate without freeze and with little wreathe. gamey winds reduce the humidity, dehydrate the flowers, and affect pollination. When tied a balmy frost occurs, previous fruit drop may occur, although the ‘ Hass ‘ cultivar can tolerate temperatures down to −1 °C. several cold-hardy varieties are planted in the region of Gainesville, Florida, which survive temperatures a low as −6.5 °C ( 20 °F ) with only minor leaf wrong. The trees besides need well-aerated soils, ideally more than 1 megabyte thick. According to information published by the Water Footprint Network, it takes an average of approximately 70 litres ( 18 US gallons ; 15 imperial gallons ) of applied fresh footing or coat body of water, not including rain or natural moisture in the territory, to grow one avocado ( 283 L/kg [ 33.9 US gal/lb ; 28.2 elf gal/lb ] ). however, the sum of body of water needed depends on where it is grown ; for example, in the independent avocado-growing region of Chile, about 320 L ( 85 US gal ; 70 imp gal ) of apply water are needed to grow one avocado ( 1,280 L/kg [ 153 US gal/lb ; 128 imp gal/lb ] ). [ 9 ] Increasing demand and production of avocado may cause water shortages in some avocado production areas, such as the Mexican state of matter of Michoacán. [ 45 ] Avocados may besides cause environmental and socioeconomic impacts in major output areas, illegal deforestation, and water disputes. [ 45 ] Water requirements for growing avocados are three times higher than for apples, and 18 times higher than for tomatoes. [ 45 ]

Harvest and postharvest

commercial orchards produce an average of seven tonnes per hectare each year, with some orchards achieving 20 tonnes per hectare. [ 46 ] Biennial bearing can be a trouble, with arduous crops in one class being followed by hapless yields the following. Like the banana, the avocado is a climacteric yield, which matures on the tree, but ripens off the tree. Avocados used in commerce are picked arduous and green and kept in coolers at 3.3 to 5.6 °C ( 37.9 to 42.1 °F ) until they reach their final destination. Avocados must be ripe to ripen properly. Avocados that twilight off the tree ripen on the grind. broadly, the yield is picked once it reaches adulthood ; Mexican growers pick ‘Hass ‘ avocado when they have more than 23 % dry matter, and other producing countries have similar standards. once picked, avocado ripen in one to two weeks ( depending on the cultivar ) at room temperature ( faster if stored with other fruits such as apples or bananas, because of the influence of ethylene gas ). Some supermarkets sell ripened avocado which have been treated with synthetic ethylene to hasten ripening. [ 47 ] The use of an ethylene boast “ ripen room ”, which is nowadays an industry standard, was pioneered in the 1980s by farmer Gil Henry of Escondido, California, in reply to footage from a hide supermarket camera which showed shoppers repeatedly squeezing hard, unripe avocado, putting them “ back in the bin, ” and moving on without making a purchase. [ 48 ] In some cases, avocado can be left on the corner for several months, which is an advantage to commercial growers who seek the greatest render for their crop, but if the fruit remains unravel for excessively long, it falls to the land .


A seedless avocado, or cucumber, growing next to two regular Ettinger avocado The species is only partially able to self-pollinate because of dichogamy in its blossoming. This restriction, added to the long juvenile period, makes the species unmanageable to breed. Most cultivars are propagated by grafting, having originated from random seedling plants or minor mutations derived from cultivars. Modern breeding programs tend to use isolation plots where the chances of cross- pollination are reduced. That is the case for programs at the University of California, Riverside, ampere well as the Volcani Centre and the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias in Chile ]. The avocado is unusual in that the timing of the male and female flower phases differs among cultivars. The two unfolding types are A and B. A-cultivar flowers open as female on the morning of the beginning day and close in deep dawn or early on afternoon. then they open as male in the good afternoon of the second day. B varieties open as female on the afternoon of the first day, close in late afternoon and reopen as male the follow morning .
Certain cultivars, such as the ‘Hass ‘, have a inclination to bear well only in alternate years. After a season with a depleted yield, due to factors such as cold ( which the avocado does not tolerate well ), the trees tend to produce abundantly the following season. In summation, due to environmental circumstances during some years, seedless avocado may appear on the trees. [ 51 ] Known in the avocado industry as “ cukes ”, they are normally discarded commercially due to their small size. [ 52 ]

propagation and rootstocks

A common proficiency to germinate avocados at home is to use toothpicks poked into the avocado pit to suspend the pit partially in water . Young avocado sprout Avocados can be propagated by seeded player, taking roughly four to six years to bear fruit, although in some cases seedlings can take 10 years to come into bear. [ 53 ] The offspring is improbable to be identical to the parent cultivar in fruit timbre. Prime choice varieties are consequently propagated by grafting to rootstocks that are propagated by seed ( seedling rootstocks ) or by layering ( clonal rootstocks ). After about a class of growing in a greenhouse, the young rootstocks are ready to be grafted. Terminal and lateral pass transplant is normally used. The scion cultivar grows for another 6–12 months before the tree is ready to be sold. clonal rootstocks are selected for tolerance of particular land and disease conditions, such as hapless soil aeration or resistance to the soil-borne disease ( rout bunk ) caused by Phytophthora. Advances in cloning techniques that can produce up to 500 fresh plants from a single millimeter of tree cutting have the potential to increase the handiness of rootstocks. [ 54 ] commercial avocado production is limited to a minor divide of the huge genic diverseness in the species. conservation of this familial diverseness has relied largely on field collection, as avocado seeds frequently do not survive storage in seed banks. This is baffling, as field preservation of survive cultivars is expensive, and habitat loss threatens violent cultivars. More recently, an alternate method of conservation has been developed based on cryopreservation of avocado bodily embryo with authentic methods for bodily embryogenesis and reconstitution into living trees. [ 55 ] [ 56 ]

As a houseplant

Avocado houseplant leaf with rule to indicate size The avocado tree can be grown domestically and used as a cosmetic houseplant. The pit germinates in normal dirt conditions or partially submerged in a small glass ( or container ) of water. In the latter method, the pit sprouts in four to six weeks, at which time it is planted in criterion houseplant pot dirty. The establish normally grows large enough to be prunable ; it does not bear fruit unless it has ample sunlight. Home gardeners can graft a branch from a fruit-bearing plant to speed maturity, which typically takes four to six years to bear fruit. [ citation needed ] [ 57 ]

Pests and diseases

P. americana, avocado plant flowers, avocado establish flowers Avocado trees are vulnerable to bacterial, viral, fungal, and nutritional diseases ( excesses and deficiencies of key minerals ). Disease can affect all parts of the plant, causing spot, rotting, cankers, pit, and stain. [ 58 ] The pyriform scale worm ( Protopulvinaria pyriformis ) is known from Australia, South Africa, Israel, Italy, France, Spain, Cuba, Florida, [ 59 ] and Peru. It is normally found on avocado, and in Peru it is said to be the worst worm plague of the fruit. Certain cultivars of avocado seem more susceptible to attack by the scale than others. [ 60 ]

polish by localization

cultivation in Mexico

Mexico is by far the earth ‘s largest avocado growing area, producing several times more than the second largest producer. [ 61 ] In 2013, the total area dedicated to avocado production was 188,723 hectares ( 415,520 acres ), and the harvest was 2.03 million tonnes in 2017. [ 8 ] The states that produce the most are México, Morelos, Nayarit, Puebla, and Michoacan, accounting for 86 % of the sum. In Michoacán, the cultivation is complicated by the being of drug cartels that extort protection fees from cultivators. They are reported to exact 2,000 Mexican philippine peso per hectare from avocado farmers and 1 to 3 pesos/kg of harvest fruit. [ 62 ] It is such a problem that the phrase blood guacamole, has been adopted to describe the social effects there. [ 63 ]

cultivation in California

not to be confused with Avocado Heights, California The avocado was introduced from Mexico to California in the nineteenth century, and has become a successful cash crop. About 24,000 hectares ( 59,000 acres ) – as of 2015, some 80 % of United States avocado product – is located in Southern California, [ 63 ] with 60 % in San Diego County. [ citation needed ] Avocado is the official fruit of the state of matter of California. [ 64 ] Fallbrook, California, claims, without official recognition, the title of “ Avocado Capital of the World ” ( besides claimed by the town of Uruapan in Mexico [ 65 ] ), and both it and Carpinteria, California, host annual avocado festivals. The California Avocado Commission and the California Avocado Society are the two major agriculturist organizations and Calavo Growers is a major distributor .

cultivation in Peru

‘Hass ‘ avocado production in Peru encompasses thousands of hectares in cardinal and western Peru. [ 66 ] Peru has now become the largest supplier of avocado imported to the European Union and the second base largest supplier to Asia and the United States. [ 67 ] The state ‘s placement near the equator and along the Pacific Ocean creates systematically mild temperatures all year. ‘Hass ‘ avocado from Peru are seasonally available to consumers from May through September and are promoted under the auspices of the peruvian Avocado Commission, headquartered in Washington, D.C .

polish in Chile

Chile has produced avocados for over 100 years with production increasing dramatically in the early 1980 ‘s due to ball-shaped need. New York magazine reported in 2015 that “ Large avocado growers are draining the country ‘s groundwater and rivers faster than they can replenish themselves. ” [ 63 ] 88 % of total production and 99 % of export avocado from Chile are Hass avocado. Avocados are a staple yield in Chile with 30 % of production destined for the domestic market. The country pays zero important tariffs with the China, United States, and the European Union, due to unblock deal agreements. [ 68 ] [ 69 ]


A cultivars

Avocado ‘Choquette ‘ grafted[70]
A seedling bred from ‘Hass’ x ‘Thille’ in 1982, ‘Gwen’ is higher yielding and more dwarfing than ‘Hass’ in California. The fruit has an oval shape, slightly smaller than ‘Hass’ (100–200 g or 3




–7 oz), with a rich, nutty flavor. The skin texture is more finely pebbled than ‘Hass’, and is dull green when ripe. It is frost-hardy down to −1 °C (30 °F).[71]

Two ‘Hass ‘ avocados[37][72] All ‘Hass’ trees are descended from a single “mother tree” raised by a mail carrier named Rudolph Hass, of La Habra Heights, California.[36][72] Hass patented the productive tree in 1935. The “mother tree”, of uncertain subspecies, died of root rot and was cut down in September 2002.[37][72][73]
A seedling reportedly grown from a ‘Taft’ avocado planted in Miami on the property of George Cellon, it is named after Cellon’s wife, Lula. It was likely a cross between Mexican and Guatemalan types. ‘Lula’ was recognized for its flavor and high oil content and propagated commercially in Florida.
A relatively new cultivar, it was discovered in South Africa in the early 1990s by Mr. A.G. (Dries) Joubert. It is a chance seedling of unknown parentage.
First grown on the Pinkerton Ranch in Saticoy, California, in the early 1970s, ‘Pinkerton’ is a seedling of ‘Hass’ x ‘Rincon’. The large fruit has a small seed, and its green skin deepens in color as it ripens. The thick flesh has a smooth, creamy texture, pale green color, good flavor, and high oil content. It shows some cold tolerance, to −1 °C (30 °F) and bears consistently heavy crops. A hybrid Guatemalan type, it has excellent peeling characteristics.[ citation needed]
Developed from a chance seedling found in 1948 by James S. Reed in California, this cultivar has large, round, green fruit with a smooth texture and dark, thick, glossy skin. Smooth and delicate, the flesh has a slightly nutty flavor. The skin ripens green. A Guatemalan type, it is hardy to −1 °C (30 °F). Tree size is about 5 by 4 m ( 16




by 13 ft).[ citation needed]

B cultivars

Developed by James Cockburn Wilson (died 1990) with Frank Victor Sharpe in Tamborine Mountain, Queensland, Australia in the 1950s, a portmanteau of Sharpe and Wilson.[74] Wilson also developed the Willard variety (Wilson and Hazzard), imported the Reed variety into Australia, and developed the Shepard variety. Sharpe was later awarded a CMG in 1972 for services to the avocado industry. The variety originated in Guatemala.[75]

other cultivars

early avocado cultivars include ‘Spinks ‘. Historically attest varieties ( which may or may not survive among horticulturists ) include the ‘Challenge ‘, ‘Dickinson ‘, ‘Kist ‘, ‘Queen ‘, ‘Rey ‘, ‘Royal ‘, ‘Sharpless ‘, and ‘Taft ‘. [ 76 ]

Stoneless avocado

A stoneless avocado, marketed as a “ cocktail avocado, ” which does not contain a pit, is available on a circumscribed basis. They are five to eight centimetres long ; the solid fruit may be eaten, including the skin. It is produced from an unpollinated blossom in which the source does not develop. [ 77 ] Seedless avocados regularly appear on trees. [ 78 ] Known in the avocado industry as “ cukes ”, they are normally discarded commercially due to their small size. [ 79 ]


In 2020, universe production of avocado was 8.1 million tonnes, led by Mexico with 30 % ( 2.4 million tonnes ) of the total ( table ). other major producers were Colombia, Dominican Republic, Peru, and Indonesia, together producing 35 % of the world total. [ 8 ] Despite market effects of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, volume production of avocado in Mexico increased by 40 % over 2019 levels. [ 80 ] In 2018, the US Department of Agriculture estimated that 231,028 hectares ( 570,880 acres ) in entire were under cultivation for avocado product in Mexico, a 6 % increase over the previous year, and that 2 million tonnes would be exported. [ 81 ] The Mexican state of Michoacán is the earth leader in avocado production, accounting for 80 % of all Mexican output. [ 81 ] [ 82 ] Most mexican growers produce the Hass kind due to its longer ledge animation for transportation and high demand among consumers. [ 81 ] First international tune cargo of avocado from Los Angeles to Toronto for the Canadian National Exhibition, 1927


seventy-six percentage of Mexico ‘s avocado exports go to the United States, [ 83 ] with the complimentary trade agreement between the US, Canada and Mexico in July 2020 facilitating avocado shipments within the north american free trade zone. [ 82 ] The Mexican domestic market was expanding during 2020. [ 82 ] Mexican avocado exports are challenged by increase of production by Peru and the Dominican Republic to supply the US and european markets. [ 82 ] [ 80 ] During the COVID-19 pandemic, Mexican avocado farmers restricted harvesting as the overall demand and add chain slowed due to labor and ship restrictions. [ 82 ] [ 80 ] late in 2020, need in the United States and within Mexico increased at a time when american retail prices continued to rise. [ 80 ] [ 83 ] During 2020 in the United States, month-to-month bulk sales of avocados were similar to those of tomatoes at about 250 million pounds ( 110 million kilogram ) per calendar month. [ 83 ] A report issued in mid-2020 calculate that the worldwide market, which was US $ 13.7 billion in 2018, would recover after the end of the pandemic and get up to US $ 21.6 billion by 2026. [ 82 ]

culinary uses

The fruit of horticultural cultivars has a markedly higher fat content than most early fruit, by and large monounsaturated fatty, and as such serves as an authoritative staple in the diet of consumers who have limited access to other fatty foods ( high-fat meats and fish, dairy products ). Having a high pot point, avocado anoint is expensive compared to common salad and cook oils, and is by and large used for salads or dips. A good avocado yields to gentle imperativeness when hold in the decoration of the hand and squeezed. The pulp is prone to enzymatic brown, cursorily turning brown after exposure to air. [ 84 ] To prevent this, calcium hydroxide or lemon juice can be added to avocados after peeling. The fruit is not sweet, but distinctly and subtly flavored, with smooth texture. [ 3 ] It is used in both savory and fresh dishes, though in many countries not for both. The avocado is common in vegetarian cuisine as a stand-in for meats in sandwiches and salads because of its gamey fat content. by and large, avocado is served raw, though some cultivars, including the common ‘Hass ‘, can be cooked for a short clock time without becoming bitter. The pulp of some avocado may be rendered inedible by heat. Prolonged cooking induces this chemical reaction in all cultivars. [ 85 ] It is used as the floor for the Mexican dip known as guacamole, [ 3 ] angstrom well as a spread on corn tortillas or toast, served with spices. Avocado is a elementary ingredient in avocado soup. Avocado slices are frequently added to hamburgers and tortas and is a identify ingredient in California rolls and other makizushi ( “ maki ”, or rolled sushi ) .

In versatile countries

In the Philippines, Brazil, Indonesia, Vietnam, and southern India ( particularly the coastal Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka area ), avocados are frequently used for milkshakes and occasionally added to ice cream and other desserts. [ 86 ] In Brazil, Vietnam, the Philippines [ 87 ] and Indonesia, a dessert drink is made with carbohydrate, milk or body of water, and pureed avocado. Chocolate syrup is sometimes add. In Morocco, a like chilled avocado and milk drink is sweetened with confectioner ‘s sugar and flavored with a touch of orange flower water. In Ethiopia, avocado are made into juice by mixing them with carbohydrate and milk or water, normally served with Vimto and a slice of lemon. It is besides common to serve layer multiple fruit juices in a field glass ( locally called Spris ) made of avocado, mangoes, bananas, guava, and papaya. Avocados are besides used to make salads. Avocados in savory dishes, much seen as exotic, are a relative novelty in Portuguese-speaking countries, such as Brazil, where the traditional preparation is mashed with carbohydrate and calcium hydroxide, and consume as a dessert or bite. This contrasts with spanish-speaking countries such as Chile, Mexico, or Argentina, where the reverse is true and sweet preparations are rare. In Australia and New Zealand, avocado are normally served on sandwiches, sushi, crispen, or with wimp. In Ghana, they are much eat alone on chopped boodle as a sandwich. In Sri Lanka, their well-ripened flesh, thoroughly mashed or pureed with milk and kitul treacle ( a liquid jaggery made from the sap of the inflorescence of jaggery palm ), is a coarse dessert. [ 88 ] In Haiti, they are often consumed with cassava or even bread for breakfast. In Mexico and Central America, avocado are served mix with white rice, in soups, salads, or on the side of chicken and kernel. They are besides normally added to pozole. In Peru, they are consumed with tequeños as mayonnaise, served as a side smasher with parrillas, used in salads and sandwiches, or as a wholly dish when filled with tuna, shrimp, or chicken. In Chile, it is used as a puree-like sauce with wimp, hamburgers, and hot dogs ; and in slices for celery or lettuce salads. The chilean version of Caesar salad contains boastfully slices of ripen avocado. In Kenya and Nigeria, the avocado is often eaten as a fruit alone or mix with early fruits in a fruit salad, or as depart of a vegetable salad. In the United Kingdom, the avocado became available during the 1960s when introduced by Sainsbury ‘s under the mention ‘avocado pear ‘. [ 43 ] much of the success of avocado in the UK is attributed to a long-running promotional campaign initiated by south african growers in 1995. [ 89 ]


In addition to the fruit, the leaves of Mexican avocado ( Persea americana volt-ampere. drymifolia ) are used in some cuisines as a spice, with a season reasonably evocative of anise. [ 90 ] They are sold both dried and fresh, toasted before use, and either crumbled or used whole, normally in bean dishes. [ 91 ] Leaves of P. americana, Guatemalan assortment, are toxic to goats, sheep, and horses. [ 92 ]

Nutrition and health


Raw avocado human body is 73 % water, 15 % fat, 9 % carbohydrates, and 2 % protein ( table ). In a 100 gram reference point come, avocado supplies 160 calories, and is a rich informant ( 20 % or more of the Daily Value, DV ) of several B vitamins ( such as 28 % DV in pantothenic acid ) and vitamin K ( 20 % DV ), with tone down contents ( 10–19 % DV ) of vitamin C, vitamin E, and potassium. Avocados besides contain phytosterols and carotenoids, such as xanthophyll and zeaxanthin. [ 93 ]

Fat typography

Avocados have divers fats. [ 94 ] For a typical one :
Although costly to produce, nutrient-rich avocado oil has a multitude of uses for salads or cooking and in cosmetics and soap products. [ 3 ] In 2022, a prospective age group study following 110,487 people for 30 years found that eating two servings of avocado per week reduced the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases by 16-22 %. [ 95 ] The study involved replacing half a daily helping of saturated fatness sources, including margarine, butter, egg, yogurt, cheese, or processed meats, with an equivalent measure of avocado. [ 95 ]


Some people have allergic reactions to avocado. There are two chief forms of allergy : those with a tree-pollen allergy develop local symptoms in the mouthpiece and throat concisely after eating avocado ; the moment, known as latex-fruit syndrome, [ 96 ] is related to latex allergy [ 97 ] and symptoms include generalize urticaria, abdominal trouble, and vomiting and can sometimes be dangerous. [ 98 ]

toxicity to animals

Avocado leaves, bark, clamber, or orchestra pit are documented to be harmful to animals ; cats, dogs, cattle, goats, rabbits, [ 99 ] rats, guinea pigs, birds, fish, and horses [ 100 ] can be badly harmed or even killed when they consume them. The avocado fruit is poisonous to some birds, and the american Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals ( ASPCA ) lists it as toxic to horses. [ 101 ] Avocado leaves contain a toxic fatso acid derivative instrument, persin, which in sufficient quantity can cause colic in horses and without veterinary treatment, death. [ 102 ] The symptoms include gastrointestinal annoyance, vomiting, diarrhea, respiratory distress, congestion, fluid collection around the tissues of the heart, and even death. Birds besides seem to be particularly sensitive to this toxic compound. A occupation of premium dog and guy food, AvoDerm, uses oils and meal made from avocado kernel as main ingredients. [ 103 ]

See besides

explanatory notes

  1. ^ Intermingled in a trade or cultural sense, but not necessarily a genic one .


further read

  • Bruce Shaffer; B. Nigel Wolstenhome; Anthony W. Whiley, eds. (2012). The Avocado: Botany, Production and Uses. CABI. ISBN 9781845937010.