Species of mollusk

For the Asian green mussel, see Perna viridis.

Arcuatula senhousia, normally known as the Asian date mussel, Asian mussel or bag mussel, is a little seawater mussel, a marine bivalve mollusk species in the family Mytilidae, the mussels. early common names for this species include : the japanese mussel, Senhouse ‘s mussel, the greens mussel ( a name besides applied to Perna viridis ), and the green bagmussel. It is harvested for human pulmonary tuberculosis in China. This mussel is native to the Pacific Ocean from Siberia to Singapore, but it has besides been by chance introduced and become an invasive species in numerous other areas worldwide. It can live in the intertidal or shallow subtidal zones. In California the species has been recorded in densities of up to 150,000 individuals per square meter. It grows promptly and lives only about 2 years. It prefers soft substrates and surrounds its shell in a dense mass of byssus.

One of several negative impacts of this incursive species is that it has a damaging effect on tape grass .

description [edit ]

This species is differentiated from early mussels by its relatively little size and inflate shape, a well as by the green color of its knocked out periostracal layer. The plate has radiating red lines on its back tooth surfaces, small internal tooth on the dorsal boundary later to the ligament, and small ribs anterior to the umbones. It can grow astir to 30 millimetres ( 1+1⁄8 in ) in length. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] It is besides known for its relatively fast growth and has a maximal life of about two years. [ 4 ]

distribution [edit ]

Interior of left valve of asian date mussel Arcuatula senhousia is native to the Pacific Ocean, inhabiting coastal areas from Siberia and the Kuril Islands south to Singapore. [ 5 ] The mussel has become an incursive species in California, the Mediterranean, Australia, and New Zealand. [ 3 ] It was introduced to the Western slide of the United States erstwhile in the early twentieth hundred with shipments of japanese oysters. In 1983, large specimens of the species were collected in the Swan River estuary in western Australia. The mussel has been show in the Waitematā Harbour of Auckland since the 1970s, becoming established by 1984. [ 5 ] Specimens have besides been reported at Tamar estuary in Tasmania. [ 3 ] Invasion of the aforesaid locales is thought to have been achieved in a variety of manners : the mussels were transported on the hulls of ships, in water-intake chambers and the ducts of ships, as planktonic larva carried in the ballast water of bulk-cargo vessels, in association with intentionally introduced oysters, and by Lessepsian migration through the Suez Canal. [ 3 ] [ 4 ]

ecology [edit ]

habitat [edit ]

The asian date mussel is by and large found in shelter mud or other soft substrates up to twenty metres below the come on of the water. [ 2 ] In China and Japan, where it is native, the mussels are found in intertidal zones with densities up to 2500 individuals per straight meter. In Australia, as an invasive species, they are found from 0.5 to 4 metres ( 1+1⁄2 to 13 feet ) below the surface of the water in slenderly higher densities. [ 3 ] Along the western slide of North America, however, the species by and large reaches densities of 5000 to 10,000 individuals per squarely meter and has been recorded at densities of up to 150,000 individuals per straight meter in Mission Bay in San Diego, California, USA. The mussel is most abundant in the summer and early fall. [ 4 ] In the Swan River estuary in western Australia, the mussel population has a gamey mortality rate in the late fall and early winter. This may be the solution of a decrease in urine salt from increased rain. [ 3 ]

demeanor [edit ]

Arcuatula senhousia uses byssal threads to form a sort of cocoon around itself. The cocoon may be necessary for security due to the relatively thin shells of the species, arsenic well as to assist in the stabilization of the individuals within the sediment. The cocoons of the individuals can intertwine to form a mat that tends to trap other shells, sediment, alga, and debris on its surface. [ 4 ]

Predators [edit ]

Predators of the asian date mussel vary depending on the native animal of the area. In the Swan River estuary of western Australia, for case, predation occurs chiefly by boring carnivorous gastropods such as Nassarius burchardi or Bedeva paivae, which drill through the mussel ‘s reduce blast. [ 3 ] In Mission Bay in San Diego, however, the mussel ‘s chief predators include the yellowfin croaker, spotfin croaker, sargo, willet, and the marbled godwit ( three fish and two shuttlecock species respectively ). other less meaning predators include carnivorous gastropods ( particularly Pteropurpura festiva ), crustaceans, echinoderms, fish, and diving ducks. [ 4 ] Recent research [ citation needed ] has emphasized the importance of the predation of Arcuatula senhousia by native fauna as a entail of reducing the negative effects of the incursive species on ecosystems. asian date mussels besides face predation by humans. The mussel is gathered as food in China, as food for domestic organisms [ clarification needed ] in Japan, Thailand, and India, equally well as bait for fishing throughout Asia. There are presently no commercial or amateur uses for the mussel in the intrude on areas. It has been suggested that harvesting the species might help reduce the effects of their invasion ; however, there are a number of damaging effects associated with benthic harvesting. [ 4 ]

shock on invade ecosystems [edit ]

research has shown that the asian go steady mussel can have a diverseness of effects on diverse ecosystems. In the Swan River estuary in western Australia, for example, the presence of mats of Arcuatula senhousia has caused an increase in the biomass of benthic macro-organisms in general. [ 3 ] In Mission Bay in San Diego, California, USA, the increasing abundance of asian date mussels has caused a decrease in species fullness and abundance of the native Solen rostriformis american samoa well as the complete disappearance of the native Chione fluctifraga. The asian date mussel has besides become one hundred times more abundant than any native bivalves. Two other native species have appeared in the bay, however : Macoma nasuta and Chione undatella. lab experiments using these species show that the growth and survival of the surface-dwelling and suspension-feeding species of the Chione genus decrease dramatically in areas where the asian date mussel is abundant. Populations of the deeper-dwelling and deposit-feeding Macoma nasuta are not importantly affected, however, by the invasion of the mussel. [ 6 ] exchangeable occurrences have been observed at Sacca di Goro, a brackish lagoon in the Po River Delta of the Northern Adriatic Sea in Italy, which the Asian date mussel invaded in the early 1990s. Researchers there have found that growth and survival of suspension feeders has significantly decreased following the arrival of the asian date mussel. There has besides been a attendant addition in the abundance of detritivores and herbivores. [ 7 ] Laboratory research has besides shown that deeper-dwelling species are less affect by the invasion of the asian go steady mussel. Mussel mats have no meaning impression on the deathrate of deeper-dwelling clam species such as Tapes decussatus and Ruditapes philippinarum. [ 8 ] competition with native species is the primary cause of concern in areas of New Zealand where the asian date mussel has invaded. There are importantly fewer macrofaunal invertebrates and there has been an octuple decrease in the abundance of infaunal bivalves. Scientists suggest, however, that the adverse environmental effects of the mussel in New Zealand will be localized and ephemeral. [ 9 ]

Arcuatula senhousia shares its habitat with tape grass ( Zostera marina ) in many of the areas in which it has invaded. The presence of the mussel has been shown to affect rhizome emergence in the eelgrass. This decreases the ability of established patches to spread. The asian date mussel had the most damaging effect on rhizome growth in areas where the tape grass was sparse and patchy. This is a cause of concern for conservationists because beds of tape grass are already degraded and sparse as a leave of anthropogenetic forces. The bearing of Arcuatula senhousia can alone worsen the situation. [ 10 ]

References [edit ]