order of mollusk
“ Cuttles ” redirects here. For the tease crippled, see cuttlefish
Cuttlefish or cuttles [ 2 ] are marine mollusk of the order Sepiida. They belong to the class Cephalopoda, which besides includes squid, octopuses, and nautiluses. cuttlefish have a alone home shell, the cuttlebone, which is used for control of airiness.

Cuttlefish have boastfully, w-shaped pupils, eight arms, and two tentacles furnished with denticulated suckers, with which they secure their prey. They broadly range in size from 15 to 25 curium ( 6 to 10 in ), with the largest species, Sepia apama, reaching 50 curium ( 20 in ) in curtain length and over 10.5 kg ( 23 pound ) in mass. [ 3 ] cuttlefish eat little mollusk, gripe, runt, fish, octopus, worms, and early cuttlefish. Their predators include dolphins, sharks, fish, seals, seabirds, and other cuttlefish. The distinctive biography anticipation of a cuttlefish is about 1–2 years. Studies are said to indicate cuttlefish to be among the most healthy invertebrates. [ 4 ] Cuttlefish besides have one of the largest brain-to-body size ratios of all invertebrates. [ 4 ] The “ cuttlefish ” in cuttlefish comes from the Old English name for the species, cudele, which may be connate with the Old Norse koddi ( cushion ) and the Middle low German Kudel ( tabloid ). [ 5 ] The Greco-Roman global valued the cuttlefish as a source of the alone brown pigment the creature releases from its siphon when it is alarmed. The give voice for it in both Greek and Latin, sepia, nowadays refers to the red-brown tinge sepia in English .

dodo record [edit ]

The earliest fossils of cuttlefish are from the cretaceous period. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] represented by Ceratisepia from the Late Maastrichtian – Paleocene. [ 8 ] Whether the earlier Trachyteuthis is assigned to this order, or to the Octopodiformes, remains indecipherable. [ 9 ]

Range and habitat [edit ]

S. mestus swimming (Australia) swim ( Australia ) The class Sepiidae, which contains all cuttlefish, dwell tropical and temperate ocean waters. They are by and large shallow-water animals, although they are known to go to depths of about 600 m ( 2,000 foot ). [ 10 ] They have an unusual biogeographic traffic pattern ; they are portray along the coasts of East and South Asia, Western Europe, and the Mediterranean, american samoa well as all coasts of Africa and Australia, but are wholly absent from the Americas. By the time the family evolved, apparently in the Old World, the North Atlantic possibly had become excessively cold and abstruse for these warm-water species to cross. [ 11 ] The common cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis ), is found in the Mediterranean, North and Baltic seas, although populations may occur as far south as South Africa. They are found in sublittoral depths, between the low tide line and the boundary of the continental shelf, to about 180 m ( 600 foot ). [ 12 ] The cuttlefish is listed under the Red List category of “ least concern ” by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. This means that while some over-exploitation of the marine animal has occurred in some regions ascribable to large-scale commercial fishing, their wide-eyed geographic roll prevents them from being excessively threatened. Ocean acidification, however, caused largely by higher levels of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere, is cited as a potential threat. [ 13 ]

Anatomy and physiology [edit ]

ocular system [edit ]

The characteristic W-shape of the cuttlefish eyeSepia officinalis Pupil expansion in cuttlefish, like other cephalopods, have sophisticated eyes. The organogenesis and the final structure of the cephalopod eye basically differ from those of vertebrates such as humans. [ 14 ] Superficial similarities between cephalopod and vertebrate eyes are thought to be examples of convergent development. The cuttlefish schoolchild is a smoothly curving W-shape. [ 15 ] [ 16 ] Although cuttlefish can not see color, [ 17 ] they can perceive the polarization of easy, which enhances their perception of contrast. They have two spots of hard detector cells on their retina ( known as fovea ), one to look more forth, and one to look more backward. The eye changes focus by shifting the position of the entire lens with respect to the retina, rather of reshaping the lens as in mammals. Unlike the vertebrate eye, no blind position exists, because the ocular steel is positioned behind the retina. They are adequate to of using stereopsis, enabling them to discern depth/distance because their brain calculates the input signal from both eyes. [ 18 ] [ 19 ] The cuttlefish ‘s eyes are thought to be fully developed before birth, and they start observing their surroundings while still in the testis. In consequence, they may prefer to hunt the prey they saw before hatching. [ 20 ]

circulative system [edit ]

The rake of a cuttlefish is an unusual nuance of green-blue, because it uses the copper-containing protein haemocyanin to carry oxygen alternatively of the bolshevik, iron-containing protein hemoglobin found in vertebrates ‘ lineage. The blood is pumped by three separate hearts : two branchial hearts pump blood to the cuttlefish ‘s match of gills ( one heart for each ), and the third pumps blood around the remainder of the body. cuttlefish lineage must flow more quickly than that of most early animals because haemocyanin carries well less oxygen than hemoglobin. Unlike most other mollusks, cephalopods like cuttlefish have a closed circulative system. [ 21 ]

Cuttlebone [edit ]

circus tent and bottom view of a cuttlebone, the airiness organ and inner shell of a cuttlefish cuttlefish posse an internal social organization called the cuttlebone, which is porous and is made of aragonite. The pores provide it with irrepressibility, which the cuttlefish regulates by changing the gas-to-liquid proportion in the chambered cuttlebone via the ventral siphuncle. [ 22 ] Each species ‘ cuttlebone has a discrete form, size, and convention of ridges or texture. The cuttlebone is unique to cuttlefish, and is one of the features that distinguish them from their squid relatives. [ 23 ]

ink [edit ]

Like early marine mollusks, cuttlefish have ink stores that are used for chemical determent, phagomimicry, centripetal distraction, and evasion when attacked. [ 24 ] Its composing results in a dark color ink, deep in ammonium salts and amino acids that may have a character in phagomimicry defenses. [ 24 ] The ink can be ejected to create a “ pot screen “ to hide the cuttlefish ‘s escape, or it can be released as a pseudomorph of similar size to the cuttlefish, acting as a decoy while the cuttlefish swims away. [ 25 ] Human use of this message is wide-ranged. A common use is in cooking with squid ink to darken and flavor rice and pasta. It adds a black tint and a dessert relish to the food. In addition to food, cuttlefish ink can be used with plastics and stain of materials. [ citation needed ] The divers musical composition of cuttlefish ink, and its deep complexity of colors, allows for dilution and alteration of its color. cuttlefish ink can be used to make noniridescent reds, blues, and greens, [ 26 ] subsequently used for biomimetic colors and materials. [ citation needed ]

Arms and curtain pit [edit ]

cuttlefish have eight arms and two extra elongated tentacles that are used to grasp prey. The elongate tentacles and mantle cavity serve as defense mechanism ; when approached by a marauder, the cuttlefish can suck water into its curtain cavity and spread its arms in order to appear larger than normal. [ 27 ] Though the mantle pit is used for jet propulsion, the independent parts of the body that are used for basic mobility are the fins, which can maneuver the cuttlefish in all directions. [ 28 ]

Suckers and venom [edit ]

The suckers of cuttlefish extend most of the distance of their arms and along the distal part of their tentacles. Like early cephalopods, cuttlefish have “ taste-by-touch ” sensitivity in their suckers, allowing them to discriminate among objects and water currents that they contact. [ 29 ] Some cuttlefish are deadly. The genes for venom production are thought to be descended from a park ancestor. [ 30 ] The muscles of the flamboyant cuttlefish ( Metasepia pfefferi ) contain a highly toxic, unidentified compound [ 4 ] vitamin a deadly as that of a chap cephalopod, the blue-ringed octopus. [ 31 ]

Sleep-like behavior [edit ]

Sleep is a state of stationariness characterized by being quickly reversible, homeostatically controlled, and increasing an organism ‘s arousal threshold. [ 32 ] [ 33 ] To date one cephalopod species, Octopus vulgaris, has been shown to satisfy these criteria. [ 34 ] Another species, Sepia officinalis, satisfies two of the three criteria but has not yet been tested on the third base ( arousal threshold ). [ 33 ] [ 32 ] Recent research shows that the sleep-like express in a common species of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, shows predictable periods [ 33 ] of rapid eye bowel movement, arm jerk and rapid chromatophore changes. [ 32 ]

Lifecycle [edit ]

The life of cuttlefish is typically about one to two years, depending on the species. They hatch from eggs amply developed, around 6 millimeter ( 1⁄4 in ) long, reaching 25 millimeter ( 1 in ) around the first two months. Before death, cuttlefish go through aging when the cephalopod basically deteriorates, or rots in place. Their eyesight begins to fail, which affects their ability to see, move, and hunt efficiently. once this procedure begins, cuttlefish tend to not live farseeing due to predation by early organisms .

reproduction [edit ]

cuttlefish start to actively mate at around five months of age. male cuttlefish challenge one another for authority and the best lair during mating season. During this challenge, no steer contact is normally made. The animals threaten each early until one of them backs down and swims away. finally, the larger male cuttlefish checkmate with the females by grabbing them with their tentacles, turning the female so that the two animals are face-to-face, then using a specialize tentacle to insert sperm sac into an orifice near the female ‘s mouth. As males can besides use their funnels to flush others ‘ sperm out of the female ‘s bulge, the male then guards the female until she lays the eggs a few hours late. [ 35 ] After laying her cluster of eggs, the female cuttlefish secretes ink on them making them look very similar to grapes. The egg casing is produced through a complex ejection seat of the female accessory genital glands and the ink pocket. [ 36 ] On occasion, a large rival arrives to threaten the male cuttlefish. In these instances, the male first gear attempts to intimidate the other male. If the rival does not flee, the male finally attacks it to force it away. The cuttlefish that can paralyze the other inaugural, by forcing it near its mouth, wins the fight and the female. Since typically four or five ( and sometimes ampere many as 10 ) males are available for every female, this behavior is inevitable. [ 37 ] cuttlefish are indeterminate growers, then smaller cuttlefish always have a prospect of finding a spouse the adjacent year when they are bigger. [ 38 ] Additionally, cuttlefish ineffective to win in a lineal confrontation with a defend male have been observed employing several early tactics to acquire a match. The most successful of these methods is disguise ; smaller cuttlefish use their disguise abilities to disguise themselves as a female cuttlefish. Changing their body color, and even pretending to be holding an egg net, disguised males are able to swim past the larger guard male and mate with the female. [ 37 ] [ 39 ] [ 40 ]

communication [edit ]

Cephalopods are able to communicate visually using a divers roll of signals. To produce these signals, cephalopods can vary four types of communication element : chromatic ( skin coloration ), skin texture ( e.g. rough or polish ), position, and locomotion. Changes in body appearance such as these are sometimes called polyphenism. The park cuttlefish can display 34 chromatic, six textural, eight postural and six locomotive elements, whereas flamboyant cuttlefish use between 42 and 75 chromatic, 14 postural, and seven textural and locomotive elements. The Caribbean reef squid ( Sepioteuthis sepioidea ) is thought to have up to 35 distinct signalling states. [ 41 ] [ 42 ]

Visual signals of the common cuttlefish[41]
Chromic – light Chromic – dark Texture Posture Locomotor
White posterior triangle Anterior transverse mantle line Smooth skin Raised arms Sitting
White square Posterior transverse mantle line Coarse skin Waving arms Bottom suction
White mantle bar Anterior mantle bar Papillate skin Splayed arms Buried
White lateral stripe Posterior mantle bar Wrinkled first arms Drooping arms Hovering
White fin spots Paired mantle spots White square papillae Extended fourth arm Jetting
White fin line Median mantle stripe Major lateral papillae Flattened body Inking
White neck spots Mantle margin stripe Raised head
Iridescent ventral mantle Mantle margin scalloping Flanged fin
White zebra bands Dark fin line
White landmark spots Black zebra bands
White splotches Mottle
White major lateral papillae Lateroventral patches
White head bar Anterior head bar
White arm triangle Posterior head bar
Pink iridophore arm stripes Pupil
White arms spots (males only) Eye ring
Dark arm stripes
Dark arms

chromatic [edit ]

Two cuttlefish with dramatically different coloration Sepia latimanus) can change from camouflage tans and browns (top) to yellow with dark highlights (bottom) in less than one second. This broadclub cuttlefish ) can change from disguise tans and browns ( exceed ) to yellow with darkness highlights ( bottom ) in less than one second. As with actual chameleons, cuttlefish are sometimes referred to as the “ chameleons of the sea ” because of their ability to quickly alter their skin discolor – this can occur within one second. cuttlefish change color and model ( including the polarization of the reflect unhorse waves ), and the determine of the skin to communicate to early cuttlefish, to camouflage themselves, and as a deimatic display to warn off likely predators. Under some circumstances, cuttlefish can be trained to change color in response to stimuli, thereby indicating their color change is not wholly congenital. [ 43 ] cuttlefish can besides affect the light ‘s polarization, which can be used to signal to early marine animals, many of which can besides sense polarization, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as being able to influence the color of faint as it reflects off their skin. [ 44 ] Although cuttlefish ( and most other cephalopods ) lack color vision, high-resolution polarization vision may provide an alternative modality of receiving contrast information that is equitable adenine defined. [ 45 ] The cuttlefish ‘s across-the-board pupil may accentuate chromatic aberration, allowing it to perceive coloring material by focusing specific wavelengths onto the retina. [ 46 ] [ 47 ] The three broad categories of color patterns are uniform, mottle, and disruptive. [ 48 ] Cuttlefish can display a many as 12 to 14 patterns, [ 41 ] 13 of which have been categorized as seven “ acute ” ( relatively brief ) and six “ chronic ” ( durable ) patterns. [ 49 ] although other researchers suggest the patterns occur on a continuum. [ 48 ]

Patterns of the common cuttlefish[41]
Chronic Acute
Uniform light Uniform blanching
Stipple Uniform darkening
Light mottle Acute disruptive
Disruptive Deimatic
Dark mottle Flamboyant
Weak zebra Intense zebra
Passing cloud

The color-changing ability of cuttlefish is ascribable to multiple types of cells. These are arranged ( from the peel ‘s surface going deeper ) as pigment chromatophores above a layer of reflective iridophores and below them, leucophores. [ 50 ] [ 51 ]

Chromatophores [edit ]

The chromatophores are pouch containing hundreds of thousands of pigment granules and a boastfully membrane that is folded when retracted. Hundreds of muscles radiate from the chromatophore. These are under nervous control and when they expand, they reveal the imbue of the pigment contained in the theca. cuttlefish have three types of chromatophore : yellow/orange ( the topmost layer ), red, and brown/black ( the deepest layer ). The cuttlefish can control the contraction and relaxation of the muscles around individual chromatophores, thereby opening or closing the elastic pouch and allowing different levels of paint to be exposed. [ 42 ] Furthermore, the chromatophores contain luminescent protein nanostructures in which tethered pigment granules modify light through optical density, mirror image, and fluorescence between 650 and 720 nanometer. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] For cephalopods in general, the hues of the pigment granules are relatively constant within a species, but can vary slenderly between species. For exemplar, the common cuttlefish and the iridescent inshore squid ( Doryteuthis opalescens ) have yellow, red, and brown, the european common squid ( Alloteuthis subulata ) has jaundiced and red, and the coarse octopus has yellow, orange, crimson, brown, and total darkness. [ 42 ] In cuttlefish, activation of a chromatophore can expand its surface sphere by 500 %. Up to 200 chromatophores per mm2 of clamber may occur. In Loligo plei, an expanded chromatophore may be improving to 1.5 mm in diameter, but when retracted, it can measure american samoa little as 0.1 millimeter. [ 52 ] [ 54 ] [ 55 ]

Iridophores [edit ]

Retracting the chromatophores reveals the iridophores and leucophores beneath them, thereby allowing cuttlefish to use another modality of ocular bespeak brought about by structural coloration. Iridophores are structures that produce iridescent colors with a metallic shininess. They reflect light using plates of crystalline chemochromes made from guanine. When illuminated, they reflect changeable colors because of the diffraction of light within the stack plates. orientation of the chemochromes determines the nature of the color observed. By using biochromes as biased filters, iridophores create an ocular impression known as tyndall or Rayleigh scatter, producing bright amobarbital sodium or bluish green colors. Iridophores vary in size, but are broadly smaller than 1 millimeter. Squid at least are able to change their opalescence. This takes several seconds or minutes, and the mechanism is not understand. [ 56 ] however, opalescence can besides be altered by expanding and retracting the chromatophores above the iridophores. Because chromatophores are under mastermind nervous control from the brain, this effect can be immediate.

Cephalopod iridophores polarize luminosity. Cephalopods have a rhabdomeric ocular arrangement which means they are visually sensible to polarized light. cuttlefish use their polarization vision when hunting for silvern pisces ( their scales polarize light ). female cuttlefish exhibit a greater number of polarize sparkle displays than males and besides alter their demeanor when responding to polarized patterns. The use of polarize reflective patterns has led some to suggest that cephalopods may communicate intraspecifically in a mode that is “ hide ” or “ individual ” because many of their predators are insensitive to polarized idle. [ 56 ] [ 57 ] [ 55 ]

Leucophores [edit ]

The white spots and bands on this cuttlefish are produced by leucophores. Leucophores, normally located deep in the skin than iridophores, are besides structural reflectors using crystalline purines, often guanine, to reflect light. Unlike iridophores, however, leucophores have more organized crystals that reduce diffraction. Given a reference of white fall, they produce a white shine, in red they produce crimson, and in blue sky they produce blue sky. Leucophores assist in camouflage by providing sparkle areas during background match ( e.g. by resembling light objects in the environment ) and disruptive coloration ( by making the consistency appear to be composed of high-contrasting patches ). [ 56 ] The coefficient of reflection spectrum of cuttlefish patterns and several natural substrates ( stipple, mottle, disruptive ) can be measured using an ocular mass spectrometer. [ 56 ]

intraspecies [edit ]

cuttlefish sometimes use their discolor patterns to bespeak future captive to other cuttlefish. For example, during agonistic encounters, male cuttlefish adopt a pattern called the intense zebra design, considered to be an good sign. If a male is intending to attack, it adopts a “ dark front ” deepen, differently, it remains pale. [ 58 ] In at least one species, female cuttlefish react to their own contemplation in a mirror and to early females by displaying a body pattern called “ splotch ”. however, they do not use this display in response to males, breathless objects, or prey. This indicates they are able to discriminate same-sex conspecifics, evening when human observers are unable to discern the sex of a cuttlefish in the absence of sexual dimorphism. [ 59 ] Female cuttlefish signal their receptiveness to mating using a display called precopulatory grey. [ 59 ] Male cuttlefish sometimes use magic trick toward guarding males to mate with females. modest males hide their sexually dimorphic fourth arms, change their skin form to the mottle appearance of females, and change the supreme headquarters allied powers europe of their arms to mimic those of nonreceptive, egg-laying females. [ 40 ] Displays on one side of a cuttlefish can be independent of the early side of the body ; males can display courtship signals to females on one side while simultaneously showing female-like displays with the early side to stop rival males interfering with their courtship. [ 60 ]

interspecies [edit ]

The deimatic expose ( a rapid change to total darkness and white with darkness ‘ eyespots ’ and shape, and go around of the torso and fins ) is used to startle small fish that are improbable to prey on the cuttlefish, but use the royal poinciana display towards larger, more dangerous pisces, [ 61 ] and give no display at all to chemosensory predators such as crabs and bowfin. [ 62 ] One moral force model shown by cuttlefish is dark mottle waves apparently repeatedly moving down the body of the animals. This has been called the extremely cloud form. In the common cuttlefish, this is primarily observed during hound, and is thought to communicate to electric potential prey – “ barricade and watch me ” [ 42 ] – which some have interpreted as a type of “ hypnosis ” .

disguise [edit ]

Juvenile cuttlefish camouflaged against the seafloor

External video
video icon Kings of Camouflage – Nova objective

cuttlefish are able to quickly change the color of their skin to match their surroundings and create chromatically complex patterns, [ 62 ] despite their inability to perceive color, through some mechanism which is not completely understand. [ 63 ] They have been seen to have the ability to assess their surroundings and match the color, contrast and texture of the substrate even in closely total darkness. [ 54 ] The color variations in the mimic substrate and animal skin are like. Depending on the species, the skin of cuttlefish responds to substrate changes in classifiable ways. By changing naturalistic backgrounds, the camouflage responses of different species can be measured. [ 64 ] Sepia officinalis changes semblance to match the substrate by disruptive pattern ( contrast to break up the outline ), whereas S. pharaonis matches the substrate by blending in. Although camouflage is achieved in different ways, and in an absence of color vision, both species change their peel colors to match the substrate. cuttlefish adapt their own disguise form in ways that are specific for a particular habitat. An animal could settle in the sand and appear one means, with another animal a few feet away in a slightly different microhabitat, settled in alga for model, will be camouflaged quite differently. [ 54 ] cuttlefish are besides able to change the texture of their hide. The skin contains bands of round muscle which as they sign, energy fluid up. These can be seen as little spikes, bumps, or flat blades. This can help with disguise when the cuttlefish becomes texturally vitamin a well as chromatically alike to objects in its environment such as kelp or rocks. [ 54 ]

diet [edit ]

While the favored diet of cuttlefish is crab and pisces, they feed on humble shrimp shortly after hatching. [ 65 ] cuttlefish use their camouflage to hunt and sneak up on their raven. [ 66 ] They swim at the bottom, where shrimp and crabs are found, and shoot out a jet of water system to uncover the prey buried in the sand. then when the prey tries to escape, the cuttlefish open their eight arms and shoot out two hanker feeding tentacles to grab them. Each arm has a launching pad covered in suckers, which grabs and pulls prey toward its peck, paralyzing it with malice before eating it. [ 65 ] To achieve a hypnotic effect and sandbag prey before catching it, cuttlefish are besides known to change semblance quickly. [ citation needed ]

taxonomy [edit ]

Sepia officinalis example of Video of a cuttlefish in its natural habitat Over 120 species of cuttlefish are presently recognised, grouped into six families divided between two suborders. One suborder and three families are extinct .

  • Order Sepiida: cuttlefish
    • Suborder †Vasseuriina
      • Family †Vasseuriidae
      • Family †Belosepiellidae
    • Suborder Sepiina
      • Family †Belosaepiidae
      • Family Sepiadariidae
      • Family Sepiidae
      • Family Sepiolidae

human uses [edit ]

As food [edit ]

Three-sided white plate containing linguini linguine with cuttlefish and ink sauce served at a venetian osteria cuttlefish are caught for food in the Mediterranean, East Asia, the English Channel, and elsewhere. In East Asia, dried, shred cuttlefish is a popular bite food. In the Qing Dynasty manual of chinese gastronomy, the Suiyuan shidan, the roe of the cuttlefish, is considered a difficult-to-prepare, but sought fragility. [ 67 ] cuttlefish are quite democratic in Europe. For example, in northeast Italy, they are used in risotto al nero di seppia ( risotto with cuttlefish ink ), besides found in Croatia and Montenegro as crni rižot ( black risotto ). Catalan cuisine, specially that of the coastal regions, uses cuttlefish and squid ink in a kind of tapas and dishes such as arròs negre. Breaded and fried cuttlefish is a democratic serve in Andalusia. In Portugal, cuttlefish is confront in many democratic dishes. Chocos com tinta ( cuttlefish in black ink ), for exercise, is barbecued cuttlefish in a sauce of its own ink. cuttlefish is besides democratic in the region of Setúbal, where it is served as fried strips or in a version of feijoada, with egg white beans. Black pasta is frequently made using cuttlefish ink .

sepia [edit ]

cuttlefish ink was once an authoritative dye, called sepia. To extract the reddish brown paint from a cuttlefish ( or squid ), the ink sac is removed and dried then dissolved in a dilute base. The result solution is filtered to isolate the pigment, which is then precipitated with dilute hydrochloric acid. The isolate precipitate is the reddish brown pigment. [ citation needed ] It is relatively chemically inert, which contributes to its longevity. nowadays, artificial dyes have by and large replaced natural reddish brown .

metallic element cast [edit ]

Cuttlebone has been used since antiquity to make casts for metallic element. A model is pushed into the cuttlebone and removed, leaving an impression. Molten gold, silver or pewter can then be poured into the cast. [ 68 ] [ 69 ]

Smart clothing [edit ]

research into replicating biological color-changing has led to mastermind artificial chromatophores out of small devices known as insulator elastomer actuators. Engineers at the University of Bristol have engineered soft materials that mimic the color-changing skin of animals like cuttlefish, [ 70 ] paving the direction for “ ache clothing ” and camouflage applications. [ 71 ]

Pets [edit ]

Though cuttlefish are rarely kept as pets, ascribable in region to their fairly short lifetimes, the most common to be kept are Sepia officinalis and Sepia bandensis. [ 72 ] Cuttlefish may fight or evening eat each early if there is inadequate tank space for multiple individuals. [ 27 ] Cuttlebone is given to parakeets and other cagebirds as a reference of dietary calcium. [ 23 ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

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