imperial unit of batch equal to 14 pounds
This article is about the european unit of mass. For asian uses of ‘stone ‘, see Picul. For the material made of rock, see Rock ( geology ). For other uses of the word “ Stone ”, see Stone ( disambiguation )
The stone or stone weight ( abbreviation : st. ) [ 1 ] is an english and imperial unit of bulk equal to 14 pounds ( approximately 6.35 kilogram ). [ nota bene 1 ] The stone continues in accustomed consumption in the United Kingdom for body system of weights. England and other Germanic -speaking countries of northern Europe once used assorted exchangeable “ stones ” for barter, with their values ranging from about 5 to 40 local pounds ( approximately 3 to 15 kg ) depending on the localization and objects weighed. With the advent of metrification, Europe ‘s assorted “ stones ” were superseded by or adapted to the kilogram from the mid-19th century on.

antiquity [edit ]

The list “ stone ” derives from the use of stones for weights, a practice that dates binding into antiquity. The biblical jurisprudence against the have a bun in the oven of “ divers weights, a large and a small ” [ 7 ] is more literally translated as “ you shall not carry a stone and a rock ( אבן ואבן ), a large and a little ”. There was no standardized “ stone ” in the ancient jewish universe, [ 8 ] but in Roman times stone weights were crafted to multiples of the Roman pound. [ 9 ] such weights varied in quality : the Yale Medical Library holds 10 and 50-pound examples of polished serpentine, [ 10 ] while a 40-pound exemplar at the Eschborn Museum is made of sandstone. [ 11 ]

Great Britain and Ireland [edit ]

The 1772 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica defined the stone : [ 12 ]

STONE besides denotes a certain measure or weight unit of some commodities. A stone of beef, in London, is the quantity of eight pounds ; in Hertfordshire, twelve pounds ; in Scotland sixteen pounds .

The Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which applied to all of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, consolidated the weights and measures legislation of respective centuries into a single document. It revoked the planning that bales of wool should be made up of 20 stones, each of 14 pounds, but made no provision for the continued manipulation of the stone. Ten years by and by, a stone distillery varied from 5 pounds ( field glass ) to 8 pounds ( kernel and pisces ) to 14 pounds ( wool and “ horseman ‘s weight ” ). [ 13 ] The Act of 1835 permitted using a stone of 14 pounds for trade [ 14 ] but early values remained in use. James Britten, in 1880 for example, catalogued a act of different values of the rock in respective british towns and cities, ranging from 4 pound to 26 pound. [ 15 ] The measure of the stone and associated units of meter that were legalised for purposes of trade were clarified by the Weights and Measures Act 1835 as follows : [ 14 ]

Pounds Unit Stone kg
1 1 pound

1

14

0.4536
14 1 stone 1 6.350
28 1 quarter 2 12.70
112 1 hundredweight 8 50.80
2,240 1 (long) ton 160 1,016

England [edit ]

The English stone under law varied by commodity and in practice varied according to local standards. The Assize of Weights and Measures, a codified of uncertain date from c. 1300, describes stones of 5 merchants ‘ pounds used for glaze ; stones of 8 pound. used for beeswax, sugar, pepper, alum, cumin, almonds, [ 16 ] cinnamon, and nutmeg ; [ 17 ] stones of 12 pound. used for lead ; and the London stone of 12+1⁄2 pound. used for wool. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] In 1350 Edward III issued a new legislative act defining the stone weight unit, to be used for wool and “ other Merchandizes ”, at 14 pounds, [ niobium 2 ] reaffirmed by Henry VII in 1495. [ 19 ] 17

+

1

2

, 8 and 14 pounds[20] A nineteenth-century swoop rule for estimating cattle carcase weights, calibrated in stones of 20, , 8 and 14 pounds In England, merchants traditionally sold potatoes in half-stone increments of 7 pounds. live animals were weighed in stones of 14 pound ; but, once slaughtered, their carcasses were weighed in stones of 8 pound. therefore, if the animal ‘s carcase accounted for 8⁄14 of the animal ‘s weight, the butcher could return the snip carcasses to the animal ‘s owner stone for stone, keeping the offal, blood and hide as his due for slaughtering and dressing the animal. [ 21 ] Smithfield market continued to use the 8 pound stone for kernel until soon before the second World War. [ 22 ] The Oxford English Dictionary besides lists : [ 23 ]

Commodity Number of pounds
Wool 14, 15, 24
Wax 12
Sugar and spice 8
Beef and mutton 8

scotland [edit ]

The Scottish stone was equal to 16 scottish pounds ( 17 pound 8 oz fatness or 7.936 kilogram ). In 1661, the Royal Commission of Scotland recommended that the Troy stone be used as a standard of weight and that it be kept in the detention of the burgh of Lanark. The tron ( or local ) stone of Edinburgh, besides standardised in 1661, was 16 tron pounds ( 22 pound 1 oz avoirdupois or 9.996 kilogram ). [ 24 ] [ 25 ] In 1789 an encyclopedic enumeration of measurements was printed for the consumption of “ his Majesty ‘s Sheriffs and Stewards Depute, and Justices of Peace, … and to the Magistrates of the Royal Boroughs of Scotland ” and provided a county-by-county and commodity-by-commodity breakdown of values and conversions for the stone and other measures. [ 26 ] The Scots pit ceased to be used for deal when the Act of 1824 established a consistent organization of measure across the whole of the United Kingdom, which at that meter included all of Ireland. [ 27 ]

ireland [edit ]

Before the early nineteenth century, as in England, the rock varied both with vicinity and with commodity. For case, the Belfast stone for measuring flax equaled 16.75 fatness pounds. [ 28 ] The most common rate was 14 pounds. [ 29 ] Among the oddities related to the manipulation of the stone was the rehearse in County Clare of a stone of potatoes being 16 pound in the summer and 18 pound in the winter. [ 29 ]

Modern use [edit ]

In 1965 the Federation of british Industry informed the british government that its members favoured adopting the measured system. The Board of Trade, on behalf of the government, agreed to support a ten-year metrification plan. There would be minimal legislation, as the program was to be voluntary and costs were to be borne where they fell. [ 30 ] Under the steering of the Metrication Board, the agrarian merchandise markets achieved a voluntary switchover by 1976. [ 31 ] The rock was not included in the Directive 80/181/EEC as a unit of standard that could be used within the EEC for “ economic, public health, populace safety or administrative purposes ”, [ 32 ] though its use as a “ auxiliary whole ” was permitted. The setting of the directing was extended to include all aspects of the EU internal market from 1 January 2010. [ 33 ] With the borrowing of measured units by the agrarian sector, the stone was, in drill, no longer used for trade ; and, in the Weights and Measures Act 1985, passed in complaisance with EU directive 80/181/EEC, [ 32 ] the stone was removed from the list of units permitted for deal in the United Kingdom. [ 34 ] [ 35 ] [ 36 ] In 1983, in response to the same directive, like legislation was passed in Ireland. [ 37 ] The Act repealed earlier acts that defined the stone as a whole of quantify for trade. [ 36 ] ( british law had previously been dumb regarding other uses of the stone. ) The stone remains widely used in the UK and Ireland for human consistency weight : in those countries people may normally be said to weigh, e.g., “ 11 gem 4 ” ( 11 stones and 4 pounds ), rather than “ 72 kilograms ” as in most of the other countries, or “ 158 pounds ”, the conventional manner of expressing the lapp weight unit in the US. [ 38 ] The adjust plural form of stone in this context is stone ( as in, “ 11 stone ” or “ 12 stone 6 pounds ” ) ; in early context, the correct plural is stones ( as in, “ Please enter your burden in stones and pounds ” ). In Australia and New Zealand, metrification has about entirely preempt stones and pounds since the 1970s. In many sports in both Britain and Ireland, such as master box, wrestle, and knight race, [ 39 ] the stone is used to express torso weights .

elsewhere [edit ]

The manipulation of the stone in the british Empire was varied. In Canada for case, it never had a legal condition. [ 40 ] curtly after the United States declared independence, Thomas Jefferson, then Secretary of State, presented a report on weights and measures to the U.S. House of Representatives. evening though all the weights and measures in habit in the United States at the time were derived from English weights and measures, his report made no mention of the stone being used. He did, however, propose a decimal fraction system of weights in which his “ [ decimal fraction ] thump ” would have been 9.375 ounces ( 265.8 guanine ) and the “ [ decimal ] stone ” would have been 5.8595 pounds ( 2.6578 kilogram ). [ 41 ] A depiction of a chivalric german scale weighing bales of wool according to the local stone. Before the advent of metrification, units called “ stone ” ( german : Stein ; Dutch : steen ; polish : kamień ) were used in many northwestern european countries. [ 42 ] [ 43 ] Its value, normally between 3 and 10 kilogram, varied from city to city and sometimes from commodity to commodity. The act of local “ pounds ” in a stone besides varied from city to city. During the early nineteenth hundred, states such as the Netherlands ( including Belgium ) and the South western German states, which had redefined their system of measures using the kilogramme des Archives as a reference book for weight unit ( mass ), besides redefined their rock to align it with the kilogram. This mesa shows a excerpt of stones from diverse northern european cities :

City Modern country Term used Weight of
stone in
kilograms
Weight of
stone in
local pounds
Comments
Dresden[44] Germany Stein

10.15 22 Before 1841
10.0 20 From 1841 onwards
  • Mecklenburg-Strelitz[44]
  • Berlin[44]
Germany schwerer Stein 10.296 22 heavy stone
leichter Stein 5.148 11 light stone
  • Danzig (Gdańsk)[44]
  • Königsberg (Kaliningrad)[44]
  • Poland
  • Russia
großer Stein 15.444 33 large stone
kleiner Stein 10.296 22 small stone
Bremen[44] Germany Stein Flachs 9.97 20 stone of flax
Stein Wolle und Federn 4.985 10 stone of wool and feathers
Oldenburg[44] Germany Stein Flachs 9.692 20 stone of flax
Stein Wolle und Federn 4.846 10 stone of wool and feathers
Kraków[44] Poland Stein 10.137 25
Osnabrück[44] Germany Stein 4.941 10
Amsterdam[44] Netherlands steen 3.953 8 Before 1817
3 6 “Metric stone” (after 1817)
Karlsruhe[44] Germany Stein 5.00 10
  • Leipzig[44]
  • Weimar[45]
Germany Stein 10.287 22
Breslau (Wrocław)[44] Poland Stein 9.732 24
Antwerp[44] Belgium steen 3.761 8
Prague[45] Czech Republic kámen/ Stein 10.29 20
Solothurn[44] Switzerland Stein 5.184 10
Stockholm[45] Sweden sten 13.60 32 (32 Skålpund)
Warsaw[45] Poland kamień 10.14 25
Vilnius[45] Lithuania kamieni 14.992 40
Vienna[45] Austria Stein 11.20 20

Metric gem [edit ]

In the Netherlands, where the system of measurement system was adopted in 1817, the pond ( pound ) was set equal to a kilogram, and the steen ( stone ), which had previously been 8 Amsterdam pond ( 3.953 kilogram ), was redefined as being 3 kilogram. [ 43 ] In modern colloquial Dutch, a pond is used as an option for 500 grams or half a kilogram, while the ons is used for a weight unit of 100 grams, being 1⁄5 pond .

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

  1. ^[2][3][4][5] adopted by the [6] Prior to that agreement, various minor differences existed between national standards and their conversions to the Per the 1959 International Yard and Pound Agreement adopted by the United Kingdom in 1963.Prior to that agreement, assorted minor differences existed between national standards and their conversions to the metric unit system

  2. ^[18] “ that every Person do sell and buy by the Balance, so that the Balance be even, and the Woolls and other Merchandizes evenly weighed by the right Weight, so that the Sack of Wooll weigh no more but 26 Stones, and every pit to weigh 14 l. and that the Beam of the Balance do not bow more to the one part than to the other ; ( 3 ) and that the Weight be according to the Standard of the Exchequer. ( 4 ) And if any Buyer do the contrary, he shall be grievously punished, american samoa well at the lawsuit of the Party, as at the suit of our Lord the King. ”

References [edit ]

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