Medieval architecture is architecture coarse in the Middle Ages, and includes religious, civil, and military buildings. Styles include pre-Romanesque, Romanesque, and Gothic. While most of the surviving medieval computer architecture is to be seen in churches and castles, examples of civil and domestic architecture can be found throughout Europe, in manor houses, town halls, almshouses, bridges, and residential houses .
Types [edit ]
religious computer architecture [edit ]
The Latin crisscross plan, common in medieval ecclesiastical architecture, takes the Roman basilica as its primary model with subsequent developments. It consists of a nave, transepts, and the altar stands at the east end ( see Cathedral diagram ). besides, cathedrals influenced or commissioned by justinian employed the Byzantine style of domes and a greek cross ( resembling a plus sign ), with the altar located in the chancel on the east side of the church .
military architecture [edit ]
Surviving examples of medieval secular architecture chiefly served for defense. Castles and fortified walls provide the most noteworthy remaining non-religious examples of chivalric computer architecture. Windows gained a cross-shape for more than cosmetic purposes, they provided a perfect meet for a crossbowman to safely shoot at invaders from inside. Crenellated walls ( battlements ) provided shelters for archers on the roof to hide behind when not shooting invaders.
Reading: Medieval architecture – Wikipedia
civil architecture [edit ]
While much of the surviving medieval architecture is either religious or military, examples of civic and even domestic architecture can be found throughout Europe. Examples include manor houses, town halls, almshouses and bridges, but besides residential houses.
Styles [edit ]
european architecture in the early Middle Ages may be divided into early Christian, Romanesque architecture, russian church architecture, Norse architecture, Pre-Romanesque, including merovingian, carolingian, Ottonian, and Asturian. While these terms are baffling, [ why? ] they however serve adequately as entries into the era. Considerations that figure into histories of each period include Trachtenberg ‘s “ historicising ” and “ modernize ” elements, italian versus northern, spanish, and Byzantine elements, and specially the religious and political maneuverings between kings, popes, and versatile ecclesiastical officials .
romanesque [edit ]
Romanesque, prevailing in medieval Europe during the 11th and 12th centuries, was the foremost pan-European style since Roman Imperial computer architecture and examples are found in every part of the continent. The term was not contemporary with the art it describes, but preferably, is an invention of modern scholarship based on its similarity to Roman Architecture in forms and materials. Romanesque is characterized by a use of orotund or slightly point arches, barrel vaults, and cruciate piers supporting vaults. Romanesque buildings are widely known throughout Europe.
Read more: เคล็ดลับการปีนเขา-เดินป่าในหน้าร้อน
The spread of Romanesque computer architecture through Europe has been described as “ revolutionary ” [ by whom? ]. This style is sometimes called Anglo-Norman, though it continues under the Angevin and Plantagenet rulers. Motifs of Roman origin were common to Norman and Anglo-Saxon architectural styles. Though normally classed broadly as “ Romanesque ”, the period of architecture can now be divided into two stages. The first stage from 1070 A.D. to 1100 A.D. saw the expressive style emerge during the rebuilding of many bang-up churches, cathedrals, and monasteries ( surviving examples include the Durham Cathedral, Norwich Cathedral and the Peterborough Cathedral ). The moment stage lasted from 1100 A.D. to 1170 A.D. when many smaller churches were built and renovated. During this time, the style became more detail and ornamental. Identifying these latter churches is made unmanageable due to something called the Saxo-Norman overlap, where many anglo-saxon aspects are award in the freemasonry. The church service at Kilpeck is identified as 12th century based on its shallow and two-dimensional buttresses, emphatic corbel table and apse. [ 1 ]
gothic [edit ]
The diverse elements of Gothic architecture emerged in a number of 11th and twelfth hundred building projects, particularly in the Île de France sphere, but were first combined to form what we would now recognise as a distinctively gothic style at the twelfth century abbey church of Saint-Denis in Saint-Denis, near Paris. Verticality is emphasized in Gothic computer architecture, which features about skeletal stone structures with great expanses of glass, pared-down wall surfaces supported by external fly buttresses, pointed arches using the nose cone determine, ribbed stone vaults, clustered column, pinnacles and sharply pointed spires. Windows control stained glass, showing stories from the Bible and from lives of saints. such advances in design allowed cathedrals to rise improbable than ever.The noteworthy feature of this style is the hammer- beam roof .
Regions [edit ]
Central Europe [edit ]
Byzantine Empire [edit ]
bulgarian conglomerate [edit ]
scandinavia [edit ]
Kievan Rus [edit ]
See besides [edit ]
References [edit ]
further read [edit ]
- Braun, Hugh, An Introduction to English Mediaeval Architecture, London: Faber and Faber, 1951.
- “Building the House of God: Architectural Metaphor and The Mystic Ark,” Codex Aquilarensis: Revista de arte medieval (2016)
- Fletcher, Banister; Cruickshank, Dan, Sir Banister Fletcher’s a History of Architecture, Architectural Press, 20th edition, 1996 (first published 1896). ISBN 0-7506-2267-9. Cf. Part Two, Chapter 13.
- Hillson, J., Buchanan, A., Webb, N, Digital Analysis of Vaults in English Medieval Architecture, London: Taylor & Francis (2021).
- Rudolph, Conrad, “Building-Miracles as Artistic Justification in the Early and Mid-Twelfth Century,” Radical Art History: Internationale Anthologie, ed. Wolfgang Kersten (1997) 398-410.
- Rudolph, Conrad, “The Architectural Metaphor in Western Medieval Artistic Culture: From the Cornerstone to The Mystic Ark,” The Cambridge History of Religious Architecture, ed. Stephen Murray (2016).
- Rudolph, Conrad, “Medieval Architectural Theory, the Sacred Economy, and the Public Presentation of Monastic Architecture: The Classic Cistercian Plan,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 78 (2019) 259-275.
Read more: Miss Earth Thailand – Wikipedia