A small hot air balloon made to be released into the air

A mod Kǒngmíng lantern Sky Lantern in Bandarban, Bangladesh

Yi Peng ( Loi Krathong ) festival in Tudongkasatan Lanna ( Lanna Meditation Retreat Centre ), Mae Jo Chiang Mai, Thailand A sky lantern ( traditional Chinese : 天燈 ; simplified taiwanese : 天灯 ; pinyin : tiāndēng ), besides known as Kǒngmíng lantern ( traditional Chinese : 孔明燈 ; simplified chinese : 孔明灯 ), or Chinese lantern, is a minor hot air balloon made of newspaper, with an open at the bottom where a small fire is suspended. In Asia and elsewhere around the earth, flip lanterns have been traditionally made for centuries, to be launched for looseness or as part of long-established festivities. The name sky lantern is a translation of the chinese appoint but they have besides been referred to as sky candles or fire balloons. In Thai, they are known as khom loi. respective fires have been attributed to sky lanterns, with at least one 21st-century death caused. Sky lanterns have been made illegal in respective countries. many areas of Asia do not permit sky lanterns because of widespread fire hazards arsenic well as risk to livestock .

construction [edit ]

Making sky lanterns in Mexico The general plan is a dilute paper carapace, which may be from about 30 cm to a match of metres across, with an open at the buttocks. The open is normally about 10 to 30 cm wide ( tied for the largest shells ), and is surrounded by a besotted collar that serves to suspend the fire beginning and to keep it away from the walls. When literature, the flame heats the air inside the lantern, therefore lowering its density and causing the lantern to rise into the tune. The flip lantern is lone airborne for arsenic long as the flare stays ablaze, after which the lantern sinks back to the ground. In China, Taiwan and Thailand, sky lanterns are traditionally made from oil rice paper on a bamboo ensnare. The source of hot breeze may be a small candle or fuel cell composed of a waxen flammable material. In Brazil and Mexico flip lanterns were traditionally made of respective patches of thin translucent paper ( locally called “ silk wallpaper ” ), in respective undimmed colors, glued together to make a motley polyhedral shell. A design that was fairly coarse was two pyramids joined by the base ( a bipyramid, such as the octahedron ) sometimes with a cube or prism inserted in the center. only the smaller models had a broad frame made of bamboo or thin wire ; the slight overpressure of the hot air was sufficient to keep the larger ones inflated, and the human body was reduced to a wire iteration around the bottom opening. The “ candle ” was normally a packet of paraffin or resin tightly wrapped in fabric and jump with cable .

history [edit ]

According to the sinologist and historian of skill Joseph Needham, the chinese experimented with small hot publicize balloons for signaling from deoxyadenosine monophosphate early as the third century BC. Their invention is, however, traditionally attributed to the sage and military strategist Zhuge Liang ( 181–234 AD ), [ 1 ] whose godly term of address was Kongming. He is said to have used a message written on a sky lantern to summon help on an juncture when he was surrounded by foe troops. For this reason, they are placid known in China as Kongming lanterns ( 孔明燈, 孔 明 灯, kǒngmíng dēng ). Another propose origin is that the name actually comes from the lantern ‘s resemblance to the hat Kongming is traditionally shown to be wearing. [ citation needed ] Sky lanterns could be a potential explanation for some UFO sightings through the years. [ 2 ] [ 3 ]

usage in festivals [edit ]

China [edit ]

In ancient China, sky lanterns were strategically used in wars, in a alike way as kites were used in ancient Chinese war, such as military communication ( transmitting confidential messages ), signaling, surveillance or spy, lighting the sky when laying siege on the city at night etc. however, by and by on, non-military applications were employed as they became popular with children at festivals. These lanterns were subsequently incorporated into festivals like the chinese Mid-Autumn and Lantern Festivals. [ citation needed ] Although, nowadays they are used as objects within traditional festivals to emphasize the one of family coming back together during the beginning full moon. This is represented by the lanterns all coming together in the sky upon being released and the plumpness of the lanterns express the integrity of family. [ 4 ] Before Sky Lanterns were used in a culture manner in their society, it was used as a mean of communication in the military. however with the passing of clock, it shifted to symbolizing a family reunion. Hence, the importance of Sky Lanterns during the Mid-Autumn Festival and the Lantern Festival where they promote reconciliation, peace and forgiveness alongside the integrity of kin. [ 5 ]

India [edit ]

To represent the return of Rama, after 14 years of exile and victory over Ravana, barely before the start of the winter season, as function of celebrations sky lanterns are released into the night sky with hopes towards a new class. This festival is called Diwali or Dipawali, which is one of the most important festivals of Hindus. One of the most celebrated sky lantern festivals is celebrated at Udaipur, Rajasthan. [ 6 ] In Bengal and Northeast India, Buddhist people celebrate their Probarona Purnima which signifies the end of their three-month lend by releasing lighted flip lanterns ( fanush ), it is the second-largest festival of the Buddhist community. During Diwali festival ( The festival of Light ) eco-friendly sky lanterns are used for celebrations along with fireworks. It is a ritual of warding away bad energy and beginning a newly ( enlightened ) path to righteousness. [ 7 ]

Japan [edit ]

Hot-air kamifūsen in Kamihinokinai in 2015 different colors of flip lantern and their meanings in Taiwan An annual sky lantern festival known as the Kamihinokinai Paper Balloon Festival ( 上桧木内の紙風船上げ ) is held in Semboku, Akita, on February 10 each year. Hundreds of very big lanterns, known as kamifūsen ( 紙風船 ), are flown for good luck in the do year. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] Lanterns are made of washi, traditional japanese glassine composition. The festival has fabulous origins, and was suspended during World War II. It was revived in 1974. [ 10 ]

Portugal and Brazil [edit ]

In Brazil, sky lanterns ( balão in Portuguese ) were a traditional feature of the winter holidays ( Festas Juninas ) at the end of June. It is claimed [ by whom? ] that custom-made was brought to Brazil from Portugal by colonists in the sixteenth century, and is still potent in Portugal, particularly in Porto. The June holidays custom besides includes firecrackers and fireworks, another chinese invention ; so it is conjectured that these elements may have been brought from China by portuguese explorers around 1500. The invention and customs of brazilian flip lanterns are modified to suit their festivals. [ citation needed ]

Bartolomeu de Gusmão, using a large-scale version of these lanterns, [ citation needed ] was the beginning serviceman to fly a hot breeze balloon on 8 August 1709, in the hall of the Casa district attorney Índia in Lisbon, Portugal, long before the Montgolfier brothers. brazilian sky lanterns are normally made by small groups of children and adolescents ; but adults sometimes joined the attempt, specially for the larger and more elaborate balloons. The launch of a large lantern, which could be one or two metres across, would normally require the cooperation of several people, to hold the balloon in full stretched until it was amply inflated. Lanterns with 20 metres or more and loaded with firecrackers and large flags are not rare. Since 1998 launching lanterns has been an environmental crime in Brazil, punishable by up to 3 years in jail. [ 11 ]

Taiwan [edit ]

Pingxi District in New Taipei City of Taiwan holds an annual Lantern Festival in which sky lanterns are released into the night sky with people ‘s wishes written, to send the wishes and messages to God. The Lantern Festival is besides known as the 15th day of Chinese New Year, the last day of celebration for Chinese New Year. [ citation needed ]

thailand [edit ]

Thailand release of a flip lantern during Yi Peng near Chiang Mai The Lanna people of northerly Thailand use “ float lanterns ” ( โคมลอย, khom loi, [ kʰōːm lɔ̄ːj ] ) class round, for celebrations and early limited occasions. One identical important festival in which flip lanterns are used is the Yi Peng festival, which is held on a full moon of the 2nd month ( ยี่เป็ง, Yi Peng, [ jîː pēŋ ] ) of the Lanna calendar ( which coincides with Loi Krathong, the traditional festival on the 12th month of the Thai lunar calendar ). During the Yi Peng festival, a multitude of lanterns are launched into the air travel where they resemble bombastic flocks of giant fluorescent portuguese man-of-war gracefully float by through the sky. The most elaborate Yi Peng celebrations can be seen in Chiang Mai, [ 12 ] the ancient capital of the erstwhile Lanna kingdom. The festival is meant as a time to obtain Buddhist merit ( ทำบุญ, tham bun ). In late times, floating lanterns have become sol popular with all Thai people that they have become integrated into the festival in the pillow of the area. [ citation needed ] In addition, people will besides decorate their houses, gardens and temples with elaborately shape paper lanterns ( โคม ไฟ, khom fai ) of respective forms. It is considered good fortune to release a flip lantern, and many Thai people believe they are symbolic of problems and worries floating away. [ citation needed ]

Dangers [edit ]

A sky lantern may land when the fire is still alight, making it a displace venture. [ 13 ] In distinctive designs, deoxyadenosine monophosphate long as the lantern stays upright the newspaper will not get hot enough to ignite, but if the balloon is tilted ( say, by the wind or by hitting some object ), it may catch fire while calm in the air. All the paper will normally burn in a few seconds, but the flame source may remain lighted until it hits the ground. After the balloon lands, the leftover slender wire frame will rust off identical slowly, remaining a guess to animals that may swallow it. [ 14 ] Sky lanterns have besides been alleged to pose a danger to aircraft. [ 15 ] In 2009 british company Sky Orbs Chinese Lanterns developed lanterns using bio-degradable fireproof wool. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] early in 2009, a lantern rig burn to a house in Siegen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, resulting in the death of a ten-year-old boy. [ 18 ] In July the same class, a lantern set fire to two houses in the german township of Dieburg, near Darmstadt. [ 18 ] On 1 July 2013 the ‘ largest fire ever ‘ in the West Midlands of England, involving 100,000 tonnes of recycling material and causing an estimated £6 million deserving of damage, was started by a flip lantern which landed at a plastics recycling plant in Smethwick. Images of the lantern starting the displace were captured on closed-circuit television. [ 19 ] [ 20 ] In reception to the fire, Poundland, a national retail chain whose headquarters are in nearby Willenhall, decided to stop selling sky lanterns and recalled their entire stock on 6 July 2013. [ 21 ] In 2018 a pavilion at Riocentro Convention Center, near business district Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, amply burned after a flip balloon landed on its roof. [ 22 ] In the early hours of 1 January 2020, more than 30 animals, primarily apes and monkeys, were killed at Krefeld Zoo in Germany in a fire believed to have been caused by flip lanterns used in New Year ‘s celebrations. [ 23 ] [ 24 ] Many of the species involved are endangered in the fantastic .

legal status [edit ]

There has been growing business by some about the likely danger to cause crop or building fires and even injury animals that may eat their remains. Some places have banned them for these reasons. [ 25 ] The city of Sanya in China banned sky lanterns as hazardous towards aircraft and airspace navigation. [ 26 ] In 1936 sky lanterns were made illegal in the Gau Thuringia, German Reich based on the Landespolizeiverordnung über Papierballons mit Brennstoffantrieb vom 30. November 1936 ( State police regulation on fuel powered paper balloons of 30 November 1936 ). The regulation prohibited the fabricate, distribution and launch of wallpaper balloons powered by fuel or candles. Violations were penal by a fine of up to 150 Reichsmark or captivity of up to two weeks. [ 27 ] Since 2009 it is illegal to launch a sky lantern in most parts of Germany, with fines of up to 5000 euros being possible ; in some german states, local authorities may give special license on application. [ 28 ] In Austria, it is illegal to produce, sell, consequence, or distribute them. [ 29 ] In Argentina, Chile, and Colombia it is illegal to launch lanterns, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as in Spain and Vietnam. In Brazil launching lanterns is an environmental crime, punishable by up to three years in jail since 1998. [ 15 ] retail sale ( but not possession and use ) of flip lanterns that “ trust on an open flare to heat the air inside the lantern ” was banned in Australia on 1 February 2011. [ 30 ]

Sky lanterns have besides been banned since 20 June 2013 in Kittitas County, Washington, in the United States, because of arouse concerns. [ 31 ] In 2015, Washington department of state subsequently banned their use statewide, with the borrowing of the 2015 International Fire Code. [ 32 ] [ 33 ] In Louisiana, the state fire marshal issued a ban on the distribution, sale, and use of flip lanterns in the express in 2013. [ 34 ] Ruth George, then Labour MP for High Peak, introduced a Ten Minute Rule circular calling for the ban of flip lanterns in the UK ‘s House of Commons on 27 March 2019. The bill passed its first learn. [ 35 ] however the Bill failed to complete its enactment through Parliament before the end of the seance. ( This means the Bill will make no far progress. ) [ 36 ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]