human body of passenger urban rail theodolite
Reading: Light rail – Wikipedia
Light rail transit ( LRT ) is a phase of passenger urban track transit characterized by a combination of tramcar and metro features. While its rolling store is more similar to a traditional streetcar, it operates at a higher capacity and speed, and often on an single right-of-way. In many cities, light rail transportation system systems more closely resemble, and are consequently identical from, traditional underground or at-grade subways and heavy-rail metros .
There is no standard definition, but in the United States ( where the terminology was devised in the 1970s from the engineer term light railway ), luminosity rail operates primarily along exclusive rights-of-way and uses either individual tramcars or multiple units coupled to form a discipline that is lower capacity and lower accelerate than a long heavy-rail passenger train or metro system. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] A few light rail networks tend to have characteristics closer to rapid theodolite or even commuter fulminate ; some of these heavier rapid transit-like systems are referred to as light metros. other light railing networks are tram-like and partially operate on streets .
history [edit ]
The world ‘s first electric tram argumentation operated in Sestroretsk near Saint Petersburg, Russia, invented and tested by Fyodor Pirotsky in 1880. [ 7 ] [ 8 ] The second line was the Gross-Lichterfelde tramway in Lichterfelde near Berlin in Germany, which opened in 1881. It was built by Werner von Siemens who contacted Pirotsky. This was the world ‘s beginning commercially successful electric streetcar. It initially drew current from the rails, with overhead wire being installed in 1883. The first interurban to emerge in the United States was the Newark and Granville Street Railway in Ohio, which opened in 1889 .
Postwar [edit ]
many master tramway and streetcar systems in the United Kingdom, United States, and elsewhere were decommissioned starting in the 1950s as subsidies for the car increased. Britain abandoned its tramway systems, except for Blackpool, with the closure of Glasgow Corporation Tramways ( one of the largest in Europe ) in 1962. [ 9 ]
revival [edit ]
Although some traditional streetcar or tram systems exist to this day in San Francisco cable car system and streetcars in New Orleans, the condition “ light railing ” has come to mean a different type of rail system. advanced faint fulminate technology has chiefly west german origins since an attempt by Boeing Vertol to introduce a new american light rail vehicle was a technical failure. After World War II, the Germans retained many of their streetcar networks and evolved them into model light rail systems ( Stadtbahnen ). Except for Hamburg, all large and most medium-sized german cities maintain inner light rail networks. [ 10 ] The basic concepts of unaccented rail were put forward by H. Dean Quinby in 1962 in an article in Traffic Quarterly called “ major Urban Corridor Facilities : A New Concept ”. Quinby distinguished this new concept in rail transportation system from historic streetcar or tramway systems as :
- having the capacity to carry more passengers
- appearing like a train, with more than one car connected
- having more doors to facilitate full utilization of the space
- faster and quieter in operation
The term light rail transit ( LRT ) was introduced in North America in 1972 to describe this new concept of rail fare. [ 11 ] The first gear of the new light rail systems in North America began operation in 1978 when the Canadian city of Edmonton, Alberta, adopted the german Siemens-Duewag U2 organization, followed three years subsequently by CTrain Calgary, Alberta, and San Diego, California. The concept proved popular, and there are now at least 30 idle rail systems in the United States and all over 40 in North America. Britain began replacing its creaky local railways with luminosity rail in the 1980s, starting with the Tyne and Wear Metro and followed by the Docklands Light Railway ( DLR ) in London. The historic term light railroad track was used because it dated from the british Light Railways Act 1896, although the technology used in the DLR system was at the high end of what Americans considered to be light rail. The swerve to light rail in the United Kingdom was securely established with the success of the Manchester Metrolink system, which opened in 1992 .
definition [edit ]
The MetroLink light rail in St. Louis, Missouri, United States The terminus light rail was coined in 1972 by the U.S. Urban Mass Transportation Administration ( UMTA ; the precursor to the Federal Transit Administration ) to describe new streetcar transformations that were taking place in Europe and the United States. In Germany, the term Stadtbahn ( to be distinguished from S-Bahn, which stands for Stadtschnellbahn ) was used to describe the concept, and many in UMTA wanted to adopt the lineal translation, which is city rail ( the norwegian term, by bane, means the same ). however, UMTA ultimately adopted the term light rail alternatively. [ 12 ] Light in this context is used in the sense of “ intended for light loads and fast motion ”, rather than referring to physical burden. The infrastructure investment is besides normally lighter than would be found for a heavy rail system. The Transportation Research Board ( Transportation Systems Center ) defined “ ignite rail ” in 1977 as “ a mode of urban exile utilizing predominantly reserved but not necessarily grade-separated rights-of-way. electrically motivate rail vehicles operate singly or in trains. LRT provides a wide range of passenger capabilities and operation characteristics at moderate costs. ” The american Public Transportation Association ( APTA ), in its Glossary of Transit Terminology, defines light rail as :
… a mode of transit service ( besides called streetcar, tramline, or streetcar ) function passenger railing cars individually ( or in short, normally two-car or three-car, trains ) on fixed rails in the right-of-way that is frequently separated from other dealings for part or much of the means. Light rail vehicles are typically driven electrically with world power being drawn from an overhead electric course via a streetcar [ pole ] or a pantograph ; driven by an operator onboard the vehicle ; and may have either eminent platform load or low-level board using steps. ” [ 1 ]
however, some diesel-powered transit is designated easy rail, such as the O-Train Trillium Line in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, the River Line in New Jersey, United States, and the Sprinter in California, United States, which use diesel multiple whole ( DMU ) cars. Light rail is similar to the british english term light railway, long-used to distinguish railway operations carried out under a less rigorous fix of regulations using faint equipment at lower speeds from mainline railways. Light rail is a generic external english phrase for these types of rail systems, which means more or less the same thing throughout the english-speaking world. The use of the generic term light rail avoids some dangerous incompatibilities between british and american English. The son tram, for exemplify, is generally used in the UK and many former british colonies to refer to what is known in North America as a streetcar, but in North America tram can alternatively refer to an aerial tramway, [ 13 ] or, in the shell of the Disney entertainment parks, even a land train. [ 14 ] ( The common british term for an aerial tramway is cable car, which in the US normally refers to a ground-level car pulled along by subterranean cables. ) The discussion streetcar is much used as a synonym for streetcar in the United States but is normally taken to mean a cart, peculiarly a patronize haul, in the UK and elsewhere. [ 15 ] Many North american transportation system planners reserve streetcar for traditional vehicles that operate entirely in mix traffic on city streets, while they use light rail to refer to more modern vehicles operating largely in exclusive rights of way, since they may operate both side-by-side targeted at different passenger groups. [ 16 ] The remainder between british English and American English terminology arise in the late nineteenth century when Americans adopted the term “ street railroad track ”, rather than “ tramway ”, with the vehicles being called “ streetcars ” rather than “ tramcar ”. Some have suggested that the Americans ‘ preference for the term “ street railway ” at that time was influenced by german emigrants to the United States [ 17 ] ( who were more numerous than british immigrants in the industrialize Northeast ), as it is the same as the german term for the mode, Straßenbahn ( meaning “ street railroad track ” ). A farther deviation rebel because, while Britain abandoned all of its trams except Blackpool after World War II, eight major north american cities ( Toronto, Boston, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Pittsburgh, Newark, Cleveland, and New Orleans ) continued to operate large streetcar systems. [ 18 ] When these cities upgraded to new technology, they called it light rail to differentiate it from their existing streetcars since some continued to operate both the old and newly systems. Since the 1980s, Portland, Oregon, has built all three types of system : a high-capacity light rail system in dedicate lanes and rights-of-way, a low-capacity streetcar system integrated with street traffic, and an antenna tram system .
The reverse phrase heavy rail, used for higher-capacity, higher-speed systems, besides avoids some incompatibilities in terminology between british and american English, for exemplify in comparing the London Underground and the New York City Subway. Conventional rail technologies including high-speed, freight, commuter, and rapid transit urban passage systems are considered “ heavy railing ”. The independent difference between light railing and heavy track rapid transit is the ability for a abstemious rail fomite to operate in shuffle traffic if the rout requires it. [ 19 ] People movers and personal rapid transit are even “ lighter, ” at least in terms of capability. Monorail is a separate engineering that has been more successful in specialize services than in a commuter transit role .
Types [edit ]
Metrolink in Manchester city center, England, is an example of street-level light rail Gold Coast ‘s G : Link Light Rail runs on a mix of a dedicate correctly of way, tunnels, and at grade intersections Some light train networks feature extensive belowground sections, like the Edmonton LRT in Canada . The Tenerife Tram in Tenerife, Spain, includes some operation at street level, but separated from other traffic due to varying definitions, it is hard to distinguish between what is called light rail, and early forms of urban and commuter rail. A system described as a light rail in one city may be considered to be a streetcar or tramway system in another. Conversely, some lines that are called “ light rail ” are very exchangeable to rapid passage ; in holocene years, new terms such as sparkle metro have been used to describe these medium-capacity systems. Some “ light rail ” systems, such as Sprinter, hold short similarity to urban rail, and could alternatively be classified as commuter fulminate or even inter-city rail. In the United States, “ light rail ” has become a catch-all term to describe a wide variety of passenger rail systems. There is a significant difference in monetary value between these different classes of light rail passage. Tram-like systems are frequently less expensive than metro-like systems by a factor of two or more .
Lower capacity [edit ]
The most unmanageable distinction to draw is that between light train and streetcar or streetcar systems. There is a significant sum of overlap between the technologies, many of the same vehicles can be used for either, and it is common to classify streetcars or trams as a subcategory of unhorse rail preferably than as a discrete type of transportation system. The two general versions are :
- The traditional type, where tracks and trains run along the streets and share space with road traffic. Stops tend to be very frequent, but little effort is made to set up special stations. Because space is shared, the tracks are usually visually unobtrusive.
- A more modern variation, where the trains tend to run along with their own right-of-way, separated from road traffic. Stops are generally less frequent, and the vehicles are often boarded from a platform. Tracks are highly visible, and in some cases, significant effort is expended to keep traffic away through the use of special signaling, level crossings with gate arms, or even a complete separation with non-level crossings.
Higher capability [edit ]
At the highest degree of separation, it can be difficult to draw the production line between light rail and metro. The London Docklands Light Railway would probable not be considered as “ light rail ” were it not for the line between it and the rapid transit London Underground. In Europe and Asia, the term light rail is increasingly used to describe any rapid transit system with a fairly low frequency or short-circuit trains compared to heavier mass rapid systems such as the London Underground or Singapore ‘s Mass Rapid Transit. however, upon closer inspection, these systems are well classified as easy metro or people movers. For case, Line 1 and Line 3 in Manila are much referred to as “ light rail ”, despite being in full segregated, by and large elevated railways. This phenomenon is quite common in East asian cities, where elevated metro lines in Shanghai, Wuhan, and Dalian in China ; and Jakarta, Greater Jakarta and Palembang in Indonesia are called light train lines. In North America, such systems are not normally considered faint rail .
interracial systems [edit ]
many systems have mix characteristics. indeed, with proper engineering, a track line could run along a street, then go underground, and then run along an lift viaduct. For example, the Los Angeles Metro Rail ‘s L Line “ light fulminate ” has sections that could alternatively be described as a tramway, a light metro, and, in a narrow sense, rapid transit. This is specially common in the United States, where there is not a popularly perceived differentiation between these different types of urban rail systems. The development of engineering for low-floor and catenary-free trams facilitates the construction of such assorted systems with merely short and shallow underground sections below critical intersections as the necessitate clearance altitude can be reduced importantly compared to conventional light rail vehicles. [ 20 ] It is even possible to have high-floor rapid transit cars run along a street, like a streetcar ; this is known as street running .
speed and stop frequency [edit ]
Belgium ‘s Coast Tram operates over about 70 km and connects multiple township centres. In some areas, “ lighter rail ” may besides refer to any rail note with frequent first gear speeds or many stops in a short distance. This inherits the old definition of light railroad track in the UK. Hong Kong ‘s Light Rail is an exemplar of this, [ citation needed ] although it is besides called “ light rail ” because it is a lower-scale system than the lie of the MTR. Sprinter in the San Diego area uses DMUs and is targeted towards a commuter fulminate hearing ; however, because of the bombastic phone number of stops along the line, it is called the alight railing. Reference focal ratio from major easy rail systems, including station intercept time, is shown below. [ 21 ]
|System||Average speed (mph)|
|Dallas (Red Line)||21|
|Dallas (Blue Line)||19|
|Los Angeles (Blue Line)||24|
|Los Angeles (Green Line)||38|
|Salt Lake City||24|
however, humble top speed is not always a differentiating characteristic between unaccented rail and other systems. For exemplar, the Siemens S70 LRVs used in the Houston METRORail and other north american LRT systems have a exceed accelerate of 55–71.5 miles per hour ( 88.51–115.1 kilometers per hour ) depending on the system, while the trains on the all-underground Montreal Metro can merely reach a top rush of 72 kilometres per hour ( 44.74 miles per hour ). Los Angeles Metro light train vehicles have higher top and modal speeds than Montreal Metro or New York City Subway trains. [ 22 ] The independent dispute is that Montreal Metro and New York City Subway trains carry far more passengers than any north american LRT organization, and the trains have faster acceleration, making station-to-station times relatively short in their dumbly populated urban areas. Most light train systems serve less dumbly populate cities and suburbs where passenger traffic is not high, but low cost combined with high top focal ratio may be important to compete with automobiles .
System-wide considerations [edit ]
many clean rail systems—even reasonably honest-to-god ones—have a combination of both on- and off-road sections. In some countries ( particularly in Europe ), only the latter is described as light rail. In those places, trams running on mix rights-of-way are not regarded as a light rail but considered distinctly as streetcars or trams. however, the necessity for saying that a track line is “ detached ” can be quite low—sometimes fair with concrete “ buttons ” to discourage car drivers from getting onto the tracks. Some systems such as Seattle ‘s Link are in truth mix but closed to traffic, with light rail vehicles and traditional buses both manoeuver along a common right-of-way. Some systems, such as the AirTrain JFK in New York City, the DLR in London, and Kelana Jaya Line in Kuala Lumpur, have dispensed with the indigence for an hustler. The Vancouver SkyTrain was an early on adoptive parent of driverless vehicles, while the Toronto Scarborough rapid transit operates the same trains as Vancouver, but uses drivers. In most discussions and comparisons, these specialized systems are by and large not considered light rail but as inner light metro systems .
Track gauge [edit ]
historically, the track gauge has had considerable variations, with minute gauge common in many early on systems. however, most light vilify systems are immediately standard gauge. [ 10 ] Older standard-gauge vehicles could not negotiate sharp turns deoxyadenosine monophosphate easily as narrow-gauge ones, but modern alight rail systems achieve tighter turning radius by using articulate cars. An important advantage of the standard gauge is that standard railway care equipment can be used on it, rather than custom-built machinery. Using standard gauges besides allows light vilify vehicles to be handily moved around using the lapp tracks as freight railways. additionally, wider gauges provide more floor clearance on low-floor trams that have constricted pedestrian areas at the wheels, which is specially crucial for wheelchair access, as narrower gauges can make it challenging or impossible to pass the tramcar ‘s wheels. furthermore, standard-gauge rolling stock can be switched between networks either temporarily or permanently, and both newly built and used standard-gauge rolling stock tends to be cheaper to buy, as more companies offer such vehicles .
capacity [edit ]
efficiency [edit ]
Energy efficiency for unaccented rail may be 120 passenger miles per gallon of fuel ( or equivalent ), but pas seul is capital, depending on circumstances. [ 23 ]
Comparison with gamey capacity roads [edit ]
One line of light vilify ( requires 7.6 megabyte, 25 ‘ right of way ) has a theoretical capacity of up to 8 times more than one 3.7 m ( 12 foot ) lane on a expressway, excluding busses, during peak times. Roads have ultimate capacity limits that can be determined by traffic engineer, and normally experience a chaotic dislocation inflow and a dramatic drop in amphetamine ( a traffic jam ) if they exceed about 2,000 vehicles per hour per lane ( each car roughly two seconds behind another ). [ 24 ] Since most people who drive to work or on business trips do then alone, studies show that the average car occupancy on many roads carrying commuters is merely about 1.5 people per car during the high-demand rush hour periods of the day. [ 25 ] This combination of factors limits roads carrying only car commuters to a utmost observe capacity of about 3,000 passengers per hour per lane. The problem can be mitigated by introducing high-occupancy vehicle ( HOV ) lanes and ride-sharing programs, but in most cases, policymakers have chosen to add more lanes to the roads, despite the cognition that this will only increase congestion. [ 26 ] [ 27 ] By line, light track vehicles can travel in multi-car trains carrying a theoretical ridership astir to 20,000 passengers per hour in much narrower rights-of-way, not much more than two car lanes wide for a double track arrangement. [ 28 ] They can frequently be run through existing city streets and parks, or placed in the medians of roads. If run in streets, trains are normally limited by city parry lengths to about four 180-passenger vehicles ( 720 passengers ). Operating on two-minute headways using traffic signal progress, a well-designed two-track system can handle up to 30 trains per hour per track, achieving acme rates of over 20,000 passengers per hour in each direction. More advance systems with classify rights-of-way using moving blocking signaling can exceed 25,000 passengers per hour per traverse. [ 29 ]
hardheaded considerations [edit ]
Most alight fulminate systems in the United States are limited by demand preferably than capacity ( by and big, most american english LRT systems carry fewer than 4,000 persons per hour per focus ), but Boston ‘s and San Francisco ‘s light up train lines carry 9,600 and 13,100 passengers per hour per traverse during race hour. [ 30 ] Elsewhere in North America, the Calgary C-Train and Monterrey Metro have higher light rail ridership than Boston or San Francisco. Systems outside North America frequently have much higher passenger volumes. The Manila Light Rail Transit System is one of the highest capacity ones, having been upgraded in a series of expansions to handle 40,000 passengers per hour per direction, and having carried arsenic many as 582,989 passengers in a single day on its Line 1. [ 31 ] It achieves this book by running four-car trains with a capacity of up to 1,350 passengers each at a frequency of up to 30 trains per hour. however, the Manila light rail system has full moon grade separation and as a solution, has many of the operate characteristics of a metro arrangement quite than a light rail system. A capacity of 1,350 passengers per discipline is more alike to the heavy rail than light rail. Bus rapid transit ( BRT ) is an alternate to LRT and many planning studies undertake a comparison of each mode when considering allow investments in transit corridor development. BRT systems can exhibit a more diverse compass of design characteristics than LRT, depending on the demand and constraints that exist, and BRT using dedicated lanes can have a theoretical capacitance of over 30,000 passengers per hour per commission ( for example, the Guangzhou Bus Rapid Transit system operates up to 350 buses per hour per direction ). For the effective operation of a bus or BRT system, buses must have priority at traffic lights and have their dedicated lanes, particularly as bus frequencies exceed 30 buses per hour per direction. The higher theoretical of BRT relates to the ability of buses to travel closer to each other than rail vehicles and their ability to overtake each early at designate locations allowing express services to bypass those that have stopped at stations. however, to achieve capacities this high, BRT station footprints need to be significantly larger than a typical LRT place. In terms of cost of operation, each bus vehicle requires a single driver, whereas a light track prepare may have three to four cars of much larger capacity in one gearing under the see of one driver, or no driver at all in fully automated systems, increasing the undertaking costs of BRT systems compared to LRT systems. BRT systems are besides normally less fuel-efficient as they use non-electrified vehicles. The extremum passenger capacity per lane per hour depends on which types of vehicles are allowed on the roads. Typically roadways have 1,900 passenger cars per lane per hour ( pcplph ). [ 32 ] If merely cars are allowed, the capacity will be less and will not increase when the traffic volume increases. When there is a bus topology driving on this route, the capacity of the lane will be higher and will increase when the dealings level increases. And because the capacity of a luminosity rail system is higher than that of a bus topology, there will be evening more capacity when there is a combination of cars and light rail. mesa 3 shows an case of vertex passenger capacity .
|Car||Car + bus||Car + light rail|
|Source: Edson & Tennyson, 2003[ full citation needed]|
safety [edit ]
An analysis of data from the 505-page National Transportation Statistics report [ 33 ] published by the US Department of Transportation shows that light track fatalities are higher than all other forms of transportation except motorcycle travel ( 31.5 fatalities per 100 million miles ). [ 34 ] however, the National Transportation Statistics report [ 33 ] published by the US Department of Transportation states that “ Caution must be exercised in comparing fatalities across modes because significantly unlike definitions are used. In particular, Rail and Transit fatalities include incident-related ( as distinct from accident-related ) fatalities, such as fatalities from falls in transit stations or railroad employee fatalities from a fire in a workshed. equivalent fatalities for the Air and Highway modes ( fatalities at airports not caused by moving aircraft or fatalities from accidents in automobile repair shops ) are not counted toward the totals for these modes. therefore, fatalities not inevitably directly related to in-service transportation are counted for the transit and track modes, potentially overstating the risk for these modes. ”
construction and operation costs [edit ]
The newly Ion system in Ontario ‘s Waterloo Region spurred massive development along its path before opening The cost of idle rail construction varies widely, largely depending on the amount of tunnel and elevated structures required. A view of north american idle rail projects [ 35 ] shows that costs of most LRT systems range from $ 15 million to over $ 100 million per mile. Seattle ‘s newly light vilify system is by far the most expensive in the US, at $ 179 million per sea mile, since it includes across-the-board tunnel in poor soil conditions, elevated sections, and stations deoxyadenosine monophosphate deeply as 180 feet ( 55 thousand ) below anchor level. [ 36 ] This results in costs more typical of subways or rapid transit systems than light rail. At the other end of the scale, four systems ( Baltimore, Maryland ; Camden, New Jersey ; Sacramento, California ; and Salt Lake City, Utah ) incurred construction costs of less than $ 20 million per mile. Over the US as a unharmed, excluding Seattle, newly light rail structure costs average about $ 35 million per nautical mile. [ 35 ] By comparison, a expressway lane expansion typically costs $ 1.0 million to $ 8.5 million per lane nautical mile for two directions, with an average of $ 2.3 million. [ 37 ] however, freeways are frequently built in suburb or rural areas, whereas light rail tends to be concentrated in urban areas, where correct of way and place learning is expensive. similarly, the most expensive US highway expansion project was the “ Big Dig “ in Boston, Massachusetts, which cost $ 200 million per lane mile for a entire cost of $ 14.6 billion. A faint vilify track can carry up to 20,000 people per hour as compared with 2,000–2,200 vehicles per hour for one expressway lane. [ 38 ] For exemplar, in Boston and San Francisco, lighter rail lines carry 9,600 and 13,100 passengers per hour, respectively, in the vertex guidance during rush hour. [ 30 ] Combining highway expansion with LRT construction can save costs by doing both highway improvements and rail construction at the lapp meter. As an model, Denver ‘s Transportation Expansion Project rebuild interstate highways 25 and 225 and added a light track expansion for a entire monetary value of $ 1.67 billion over five years. [ 39 ] The price of 17 miles ( 27 kilometer ) of highway improvements and 19 miles ( 31 kilometer ) of double-track light rail worked out to $ 19.3 million per highway lane-mile and $ 27.6 million per LRT track-mile. The project came in under budget and 22 months ahead of schedule. [ 40 ] LRT monetary value efficiency improves dramatically as ridership increases, as can be seen from the numbers above : the lapp rail channel, with like capital and operate on costs, is far more effective if it is carrying 20,000 people per hour than if it is carrying 2,400. The Calgary, Alberta, C-Train used many common light rail techniques to keep costs broken, including minimizing underground and elevated railway trackage, sharing transit malls with buses, leasing rights-of-way from freight railroads, and combining LRT structure with expressway expansion. As a result, Calgary ranks toward the less expensive end of the scale with capital costs of around $ 24 million per mile. [ 41 ]
however, Calgary ‘s LRT ridership is much higher than any comparable US light vilify system, at 300,000 passengers per weekday, and as a result, its capital efficiency is besides much higher. Its capital costs were one-third those of the San Diego Trolley, a comparably sized US arrangement built at the lapp fourth dimension, while by 2009 its ridership was approximately three times adenine senior high school. frankincense, Calgary ‘s capital price per passenger was much lower than that of San Diego. Its operate price per passenger was besides much lower because of its higher ridership. A typical C-Train fomite costs only CA $ 163 ( equivalent to $ 205 in 2020 ) per hour to operate, and since it averages 600 passengers per operate hour, [ 42 ] Calgary Transit estimates that its LRT operate costs are only 27 cents per ride, versus $ 1.50 per drive on its buses. [ 41 ] Compared to buses, costs can be lower due to lower labor costs per passenger sea mile, higher ridership ( observations show that light rail attracts more ridership than a comparable bus service ) [ 43 ] and fast average amphetamine ( reducing the phone number of vehicles needed for the same service frequency ). While light rail vehicles are more expensive to buy, they have a longer utilitarian life than buses, sometimes making for lower life-cycle costs .
Health affect [edit ]
consolidation with bicycles [edit ]
Light rail lines have respective policies on bicycles. [ 44 ] Some fleets restrict bicycles on trains during peak hours. Some light rail systems, such as the St. Louis MetroLink, leave bicycles on the trains, but only in the rear sections of cars. Some clean rail lines, like San Francisco ‘s, allow merely folding bicycles onboard. [ 45 ] In some systems dedicated bike parking is available at choose stations and others are integrated with local bicycle partake systems .
Variations [edit ]
Trams operating on mainline railways [edit ]
On the Karlsruhe Stadtbahn, tram sometimes partake mainline tracks with heavy rail trains The Trillium Line in Ottawa was built along a cargo railroad track and is hush occasionally used by cargo traffic overnight. Around Karlsruhe, Kassel, and Saarbrücken in Germany, dual-voltage unaccented train trains partially use mainline railroad tracks, sharing these tracks with big rail trains. In the Netherlands, this concept was foremost applied on the RijnGouweLijn. This allows commuters to ride immediately into the city center, rather than taking a mainline prepare only arsenic far as a cardinal place and then having to change to a tramway. In France, similar tram-trains are planned for Paris, Mulhouse, and Strasbourg ; far projects exist. In some cases, tramcar trains use previously abandoned or lightly used heavy rail lines in summation to or alternatively of even in consumption mainline tracks. Some of the issues involved in such schemes are :
- compatibility of the safety systems
- power supply of the track to the power used by the vehicles (frequently different voltages, rarely third rail vs overhead wires)
- width of the vehicles to the position of the platforms
- height of the platforms
There is a history of what would immediately be considered light rail vehicles operating on heavy rail rapid transit tracks in the US, particularly in the case of interurban streetcars. noteworthy examples are Lehigh Valley Transit trains running on the Philadelphia and Western Railroad high-speed third rail line ( now the Norristown High-Speed Line ). such arrangements are about impossible nowadays, due to the Federal Railroad Administration deny ( for doss safety reasons ) to allow non-FRA compliant railcars ( i.e., underpass and light rail vehicles ) to run on the lapp tracks at the same times as compliant railcars, which includes locomotives and standard railway passenger and freight equipment. noteworthy exceptions in the US are the NJ Transit River Line from Camden to Trenton and Austin ‘s Capital MetroRail, which have received exemptions to the provision that light train operations occur alone during day hours and Conrail cargo overhaul alone at night, with several hours separating one operation from the other. The O-Train Trillium Line in Ottawa besides has freight overhaul at certain hours .
Ground-level exponent provision for trams [edit ]
When electric streetcars were introduced in the late nineteenth century, conduit current collection was one of the first ways of supplying exponent, but it proved to be much more expensive, complicated, and trouble-prone than operating expense wires. When electric street railways became omnipresent, conduit power was used in those cities that did not permit overhead wires. In Europe, it was used in London, Paris, Berlin, Marseille, Budapest, and Prague. In the United States, it was used in parts of New York City and Washington, D.C. [ 46 ] Third rail technology was investigated for habit on the Gold Coast of Australia for the G : liaison abstemious rail, [ 47 ] though power from overhead lines was ultimately use for that arrangement. In the french city of Bordeaux, the tramway network is powered by a third rail in the city plaza, where the tracks are not constantly segregated from pedestrians and cars. [ 48 ] The third gear rail ( actually two closely space rails ) is placed in the center of the track and divided into eight-metre sections, each of which is powered alone while it is wholly covered by a tramcar. This minimizes the gamble of a person or animal coming into contact with a exist rail. In out areas, the trams switch to conventional overhead wires. The Bordeaux world power arrangement costs about three times angstrom much as a conventional operating expense telegram system and took 24 months to achieve acceptable levels of dependability, requiring the substitution of all the main cables and power supplies. [ 49 ] Operating and care costs of the innovative exponent system still remain high. however, despite numerous service outages, the system was a success with the public, gaining up to 190,000 passengers per day. Since the late 2010s, ground-level power supply has become more cost-efficient than overhead lines. [ 50 ]
Comparison to early rail transportation system modes [edit ]
With its blend of right-of-way types and gearing see technologies, LRT offers the widest range of latitude of any rail system in the design, engineer, and engage practices. The challenge in designing lightly fulminate systems is to realize the potential of LRT to provide fast, comfortable service while avoiding the leaning to overdesign that results in excessive das kapital costs beyond what is necessary to meet the populace ‘s needs. [ 51 ]
|Rapid transit||Light rail vehicles (LRVs) are distinguished from rapid rail transit (RRT) vehicles by their capability for operation in mixed traffic, generally resulting in a narrower car body and articulation to operate in a street traffic environment. With their large size, large turning radius, and often an electrified third rail, RRT vehicles cannot operate in the street. Since LRT systems can operate in existing streets, they can often avoid the cost of expensive grade-separated subway and elevated segments that would be required with RRT.|
|Streetcars or trams||Conversely, LRVs generally outperform traditional streetcars in terms of capacity and top-end speed, and almost all modern LRVs are capable of multiple-unit operation. The latest generation of LRVs is considerably larger and faster, typically 29 metres (95 ft 1
in) long with a maximum speed of around 105 kilometres per hour (65.2 mph).
|Heritage streetcars||A variation considered by many cities is to use historic or replica cars on their streetcar systems instead of modern LRVs. A heritage streetcar may not have the capacity and speed of an LRV, but it will add to the ambiance and historic character of its location.|
|Light metro||A derivative of LRT is light rail rapid transit (LRRT), also referred to as light metro. Such railways are characterized by exclusive rights of way, advanced train control systems, short headway capability, and floor-level boarding. These systems approach the passenger capacity of full metro systems but can be cheaper to construct due to LRVs generally being smaller in size, turning tighter curves and climbing steeper grades than standard RRT vehicles, and having a smaller station size.|
|Interurbans||The term interurban mainly refers to rail cars that run through streets like ordinary streetcars (trams), but also between cities or towns, often through rural environments. In the period 1900–1930, interurbans were very common in the US, especially in the Midwest. Some of them, like the Red Devils, the J. G. Brill Bullets, and the Electroliners, were the high-speed railcars of their time, with an in-service speed of up to about 145 km/h (90 mph). In Europe, interurbans are making a comeback as “tram-trains” (locally known under different names) that operate on both the railway and light rail tracks, often with different voltages. The Karlsruhe Stadtbahn is one well-known example.|
distinctive rolling store [edit ]
The BART car in the trace chart is not generally considered to be a “ light rail ” vehicle ( it is a heavy railing vehicle ), and is only included for comparison purposes .
|Type||Rapid transit (heavy rail)||Light rail||Tram, or streetcar||Heritage streetcar|
|Manufacturer||Rohr||Siemens||Skoda||Gomaco Trolley Co.|
|Model||BART A-Car||S70||10T||Replica Birney|
|Width||3.2 metres (10 ft 6 in)||2.7 metres (8 ft 10
|2.6 metres (8 ft 6
|2.62 metres (8 ft 7
|Length||22.9 metres (75 ft 1
|27.7 metres (90 ft 10
|20.13 metres (66 ft
|15.16 metres (49 ft 8
|Capacity||150 max.||72 seats, 220 max.||30 seats, 157 max.||40 seats, 50 max.|
|Top speed||125 km/h (77.7 mph)||106 km/h (65.9 mph)||70 km/h (43.5 mph)||48 km/h (29.8 mph)|
|Typical consist||4–10 vehicles||2–5 vehicles||1 vehicle||1 vehicle|
train process [edit ]
An authoritative gene crucial to LRT is the trail operator. Unlike fulminate rapid transit, which can travel neglected under automatic prepare operation ( ATO ), safe, high-quality LRT operation relies on a human hustler as a cardinal component. The rationality that the operator is so significant is that the prepare tracks often share the streets with automobiles, other vehicles, and pedestrians. If trains were amply automated on roads, cipher would be there to stop the train if a cable car pulled in front of it. Light rail trains are identical sturdily built for passenger safety, and to reduce damage from impacts with cars. [ citation needed ]
Floor height [edit ]
The latest generation of LRVs has the advantage of partially or fully low-floor design, with the floor of the vehicles entirely 300 to 360 millimeter ( 11.8 to 14.2 in ) above the top of the rail, a feature of speech not found in either rapid rail theodolite vehicles or streetcars. This allows them to load passengers, including those in wheelchairs or strollers, directly from low-rise platforms that are little more than raised sidewalks. This satisfies requirements to provide access to disable passengers without using expensive and delay-inducing wheelchair lifts, while besides making boarding faster and easier for other passengers. [ citation needed ]
exponent sources [edit ]
overhead lines supply electricity to the huge majority of lighter rail systems. This avoids the danger of passengers stepping on an electrify third rail. The Docklands Light Railway uses an turn back third gear rail for its electric power, which allows the electrify rail to be covered and the ability guide from the bottom. Trams in Bordeaux, France, use a particular third-rail configuration where the power is only switched on beneath the streetcar, making it safe on city streets. several systems in Europe and a few recently opened systems in North America consumption diesel -powered trains. [ citation needed ]
Tram and early idle rail passage systems worldwide [edit ]
Around the populace, there are many extant tramcar and streetcar systems. Some go steady from the beginning of the twentieth hundred or earlier such as Toronto streetcar arrangement, but many of the original tram and streetcar systems were closed toss off in the mid-20th century, except for many easterly european countries. even though many systems closed down over the years, there are distillery several streetcar systems that have been operating much as they did when they were inaugural built over a hundred ago. Some cities ( such as Los Angeles and Jersey City ) that once closed down their streetcar networks are nowadays restoring, or have already rebuilt, at least some of their former streetcar/tram systems. Most light rail services are presently committed to articulated vehicles like modern LRVs, i.e. trams, except for large clandestine metro or rapid passage systems.
respective UK cities have substantial light rail networks including the Nottingham Express Transit, Sheffield Supertram, Manchester Metrolink and a humble net between Birmingham and The Black Country ( West Midlands Metro ), with plans to add 6 new lines and extend out to Stourbridge, Birmingham Airport & Walsall .