Hirudo medicinalis, the European medicinal leech, is one of several species of leeches used as “ medicinal leeches “. early species of Hirudo sometimes besides used as medicative leeches include H. orientalis, H. troctina, and H. verbana. The asian medicative leech includes Hirudinaria manillensis, and the north american medicative leech is Macrobdella decora.
Reading: Hirudo medicinalis – Wikipedia
morphology [edit ]
The general morphology of medicative leeches follows that of most early leeches. amply mature adults can be up to 20 curium in length, and are green, brown, or greenish-brown with a dark tone on the abaxial side and a unaccented ventral english. The abaxial slope besides has a thinly crimson stripe. These organisms have two suckers, one at each end, called the front tooth and buttocks suckers. The back tooth is used chiefly for leverage, whereas the anterior sucker, consisting of the jaw and tooth, is where the feed takes place. medicative leeches have three jaws ( tripartite ) that resemble saws, on which are approximately 100 abrupt edges used to incise the server. The incision leaves a tag that is an inverted Y inside of a lap. After piercing the skin, they suck out blood whilst injecting anticoagulants ( hirudin ). [ 3 ] Large adults can consume up to ten times their body weight in a single meal, with 5–15 mL being the average volume taken. [ 4 ] These leeches can live for up to a class between feeding. [ citation needed ] medicative leeches are hermaphrodites that reproduce by intimate felt, laying eggs in clutches of up to 50 near ( but not under ) water system, and in shaded, humid places. A study done in Poland, concluded that they have been found inside the nest of big aquatic birds although, their impression on the bird is largely obscure. [ 5 ]
Range and ecology [edit ]
Hirudo medicinalis, in Germany typical habitat with a large population of, in Germany Their range extends over about the wholly of Europe and into Asia equally far as Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. The prefer habitat for this species is muddy fresh water pools and ditches with plentiful weed growth in temperate climates. Over-exploitation by leech collectors in the nineteenth hundred has left lone disperse populations, and reduction in natural habitat through drain has besides contributed to their refuse. Another factor has been the replacement of horses in grow ( horses were medicative leeches ‘ preferred food generator ) and provision of artificial water supplies for cattle. As a result, this species is now considered near threatened by the IUCN, and european medicative leeches are legally protected through closely all of their natural range. They are particularly sparsely distributed in France and Belgium, and in the UK there may be deoxyadenosine monophosphate few as 20 remaining isolate populations ( all wide scattered ). The largest ( at Lydd ) is estimated to contain several thousand individuals ; 12 of these areas have been designated Sites of Special Scientific Interest. There are small, transplant populations in several countries outside their lifelike range, including the USA .
checkup custom [edit ]
beneficial secretions [edit ]
medicative leeches have been found to secrete saliva containing about 60 different proteins. [ 6 ] These achieve a wide diverseness of goals useful to the leech as it feeds, helping to keep the blood in fluent shape and increasing blood flow in the affected area. several of these secrete proteins serve as anticoagulants ( such as hirudin ), platelet collection inhibitors ( most notably apyrase, collagenase, and calin ), vasodilators, and protease inhibitors. [ 7 ] It is besides thought that the saliva contains an anesthetic, [ 8 ] as bleed bites are by and large not irritating .
Treating mastitis of a cattle with leech
historically [edit ]
caricature of a physician prescribing leeches for a weak, bedbound woman The first description [ citation needed ] of bleed therapy, classified as blood let, is found in the Sushruta Samhita, [ citation needed ] an ancient Sanskrit medical textbook. It describes 12 types of leeches ( 6 poisonous and 6 non-venomous ). [ citation needed ] Diseases where leech therapy was indicated include clamber diseases, sciatica, and musculoskeletal pains .
Earthenware jolt for holding medicative leeches In medieval and early mod medicate, the medicative leech ( Hirudo medicinalis and its congeners H. verbana, H. troctina, and H. orientalis ) was used to remove rake from a patient as part of a process to balance the humors that, according to Galen, must be kept in balance for the homo soundbox to function by rights. ( The four humors of ancient medical doctrine were lineage, emotionlessness, black bile, and yellow bile. ) Any illness that caused the national ‘s skin to become red ( e.g. fever and ignition ), so the hypothesis went, must have arisen from besides a lot blood in the body. similarly, any person whose demeanor was blatant and sanguine was thought to be suffering from an excess of blood. Leeches were often gathered by bleed collectors and were finally farmed in big numbers. A unique 19th-century “ Leech House “ survives in Bedale, North Yorkshire on the trust of the Bedale Beck, used to store medicative leeches until the early twentieth hundred. A recorded use of leeches in medicine was besides found during 200 BC by the greek doctor Nicander in Colophon. [ 4 ] Medical use of leeches was discussed by Avicenna in The Canon of Medicine ( 1020s ), and by Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi in the twelfth hundred. [ citation needed ] The consumption of leeches began to become less far-flung towards the end of the nineteenth century. [ 4 ] Manchester Royal Infirmary used 50,000 leeches a year in 1831. The price of leeches varied between one penny and threepence halfpenny each. In 1832 leeches accounted for 4.4 % of the sum hospital consumption. The hospital maintained an aquarium for leeches until the 1930s. [ 9 ]
nowadays [edit ]
Medicinal bleed therapy ( besides referred to as Hirudotherapy or Hirudin therapy ) made an international comeback in the 1970s in microsurgery, [ 10 ] [ 11 ] used to stimulate circulation to salvage skin grafts and other weave threatened by postoperative venous congestion, [ 10 ] [ 12 ] particularly in finger reattachment and reconstructive operating room of the ear, nose, lip, and eyelid. [ 11 ] [ 13 ] other clinical applications of medicative leech therapy include varicose veins, muscle cramps, thrombophlebitis, and osteoarthritis, among many change conditions. [ 14 ] The therapeutic effect is not from the modest amount of blood taken in the meal, but from the continued and firm bleed from the hurt left after the bleed has detached, ampere well as the anesthetize, anti-inflammatory, and vasodilating properties of the secrete leech saliva. [ 4 ] The most coarse complication from leech treatment is drawn-out shed blood, which can easily be treated, but more serious allergic reactions and bacterial infections may besides occur. [ 4 ] Leech therapy was classified by the US Food and Drug Administration as a aesculapian device in 2004. [ 15 ] Because of the little amounts of hirudin present in leeches, it is airy to harvest the substance for far-flung medical consumption. Hirudin ( and related substances ) are synthesized using recombinant techniques. Devices called “ mechanical leeches ” that distribute heparin and perform the lapp function as medicative leeches have been developed, but they are not yet commercially available. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] [ 18 ]
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See besides [edit ]
- Helminthic therapy – other medical use of parasites
- Ichthyotherapy – medical use of fish
References [edit ]
Media related to Hirudo medicinalis at Wikimedia Commons