Species of fish

The African pompano ( Alectis ciliaris ), besides known as the pennant-fish or threadfin trevally, is a widely distributed species of tropical marine fish in the jack family, Carangidae. The species is found in tropical waters worldwide, with adults frequently inhabiting coastlines, while juveniles are normally oceanic, floating with ocean currents. The adult Africanus pompanus is similar in appearance to the other members of the genus Alectis, with the concave form of the principal near the eyes ; the clearest signalize have. The juveniles are exchangeable to other members of Alectis, having long, filamentous dorsal and anal fin tips which are thought to discourage predators. The species lives in depths less than 100 thousand, consuming a range of crustaceans and small fishes. The species is of minor economic importance, frequently taken amongst early tropical midwater fishes by crochet and line, while juveniles are occasionally caught in beach seines. african pompano are besides highly rated game fish, frequently considered one of the strongest of the jacks in larger sizes .

Taxonomy and naming [edit ]

The Africanus pompanus is one of three members of the rhombus trevally genus Alectis, which itself is one of 33 genus in the jack and horse mackerel family Carangidae. The Carangidae are separate of the arrange Carangiformes. [ 3 ] This species is the character species for the genus Alectis.

Juvenile Africanus pompanus swim The species may have been first scientifically described by Carolus Linnaeus in 1758 as Zeus gallus, known at the time from the Atlantic Ocean. Linnaeus classified the pisces as a type of dinghy, placid known today under the genus name Zeus. The appoint is equivocal, because with lone a very compendious description and without a type specimen, it is ill-defined if he is actually referring to this species. [ 2 ] In 1787 the german naturalist Marcus Elieser Bloch described a newfangled species under the name of Zeus ciliaris, described from a type specimen collected from Surat, India, which is a junior synonym of Linnaeus ‘ name. [ 4 ] Following this description, a number of naturalists reclassified the species as the taxonomic literature of fishes grew in book. [ 5 ] Bernard Germain de Lacépède was the foremost to do sol, synonymising the two former names under the new list Gallus virescens. Although he had intended Gallus to be a raw genus, this name had been assigned to a group of birds previously. [ 6 ] Rafinesque renamed Gallus virescens in 1815, creating a new genus, Alectis, for the taxonomic group, and designating this species as the type species for his new genus. Throughout much of history the dark and reasonably harebrained works of Rafinesque were broadly ignored by the scientific residential district. For exemplar, another junior synonym, Zeus crinitus, was named for US populations of this species by the american english Samuel L. Mitchill in 1826. The observe scientist Georges Cuvier followed Eduard Rüppell ( 1830 ) in classifying this pisces in the genus Blepharis ( which is besides a implant ) in 1833, and this fish was known as belong to this genus for most of history. Nonetheless, Rafinesque had been first to reclassifying the fish ( correctly ), and as such his generic identify has precedence, which is why this species is known as Alectis today. [ 2 ] A number of other biologists besides reclassified the taxonomic group, or named wholly new species, such as Scyris analis and Carangoides ajax. [ 2 ] All names except Alectis ciliaris are now considered defunct according to the ICZN rules. [ 6 ] The original genus name of Zeus has now besides been applied to an ascomycete fungi [ 7 ] ( this is permitted under the rules, because a fungus is not an animal ). The Africanus pompanus is not a true pompano of the genus Trachinotus, but is more closely allied with the fish normally called jacks and trevallies. The assorted common names used for the species by and large reflect the juvenile filamentous fins, with a number of variations on ‘threadfin trevally ‘ often used. [ 6 ]

description [edit ]

A adolescent exhibiting filamentous anal and dorsal fin rays Like many of the Carangidae, the african pompano is a deep and laterally compress fish, with the deepest compass point of the body located between the beginning of the dorsal and anal fins and having the forefront and stern tapering either slope. The dorsal and adaxial profiles are evenly convex, with a major distinguishing feature of the pornographic being its more wind forefront compared to Alectis indicus more angular head visibility. [ 5 ] The species has four to seven visible spines in the first abaxial tail fin followed by a one spine and 18 to 20 soft rays in the second dorsal. The anal fin has two spines followed by 15 or 16 delicate rays, while the pectoral fin is long and curved. The skin of the pisces appears scaleless, but has moment, embedded scales scattered on the body. [ 6 ] The lateral pass line has a potent and moderately long arch dorsally, with its back tooth department having 12 to 30 scutes. [ 5 ] The juveniles are classifiable due to their ‘threadfin ‘ appearance of having trailing anal and dorsal fin filaments which recede with age. During growth, the species besides becomes more linear and more like that of other genus of jacks. [ 5 ] The consistency is a silvery-metallic blue to bluish green tinge above, being darkest on the head and amphetamine shoulders while the bottom is more silver. The juveniles have five chevron-shaped dark bars on their bodies, with a black mottle at the base of the third to sixth piano abaxial fin rays. The base of the filaments is a blue blue to black, with all other fins pale to hyaline in appearance. [ 6 ] The african pompano is known to decidedly reach a length of 130 centimeter, [ 5 ] although larger specimens to 150 cm have been reported, [ 8 ] but are not considered dependable. The utmost published slant of the species is 22.9 kilogram. [ 2 ]

distribution and habitat [edit ]

african Pompano ( Alectis ciliaris )

The african pompano is distributed throughout the tropical oceans and seas of the earth in a temperature compass of 65 to 80 °F ( 18 to 27 °C ), although is more frequently found in coastal waters. The species has been recorded from both the east and west coasts of the US, South America and Africa, throughout the indian Ocean and along Asia and Australia, a well as many islands in the Pacific. [ 5 ] The african pompano range into more moderate waters, with juveniles in particular captured off southeast and western Australia, presumably carried by ocean currents. [ 9 ] The adults of the species prefer coastal waters to depths of 100 m, inhabiting reefs and wrecks throughout the water system column. Juveniles are pelagic by nature, inhabiting coastal areas, arsenic well as open ocean. Their reliance on water currents has seen them appear in estuarine waters in lower Australia, although due to cold winter temperatures, they do not survive the winters. [ 6 ] In one unusual case, the abundance in the species off North Carolina was found to dramatically increase after a hurricane had passed through. [ 10 ]

ecology [edit ]

The african pompano is a schooling predaceous fish which takes predominantly a kind of crustaceans, including decapods, carids and copepods, [ 11 ] a well as cephalopods and small fish. They are preyed upon by larger fish, including mackerel and tuna, arsenic well as sharks. [ 2 ] The small oceanic juveniles ‘ filamentous abaxial and anal fins resemble jellyfish medusa, and this mimicry may gain them some protection from predators. [ 5 ] Little is known of their generative habits and maturation lengths, although a sketch in India determined a flower in the abundance of A. ciliaris larva in April. The eggs were besides found to be ball-shaped, oceanic with a egg yolk and petroleum globule show, with the larva besides extensively described in the report. [ 12 ] It is thought that in Mexico engender occurs over flaxen substrates in jump. [ 13 ]

kinship to humans [edit ]

A subadult african pompano taken off Ghana african pompano caught off of Guadalcanal Alectis ciliaris in an aquarium in Abu Dhabi The boastfully size and good table fare offered by the African pompano have made the species popular with both amateur and commercial fishermen, although different sources pace the flesh quality differently. The species has been implicated in a number of ciguatera cases, suggesting larger fish should probably not be consumed. [ 14 ] The attractive appearance of juveniles make them possible aquarium fish, but they do not survive well in enslavement. [ 2 ] adult african pompano are most much taken by hook-and-line methods, such as trolling [ 15 ] although they do not frequently make up a high share of catches. Juveniles are occasionally taken by beach seines. The species is marketed fresh and as dried and salted. The crusade art and good postpone fare attract anglers to the species in many parts of the earth, with regions such as Florida, Thailand and a number of Pacific and indian Ocean islands having a solid recreational fishery for the species, [ 15 ] [ 16 ] Tackle for larger fish is more full-bodied, with 50-lb channel on a large operating expense or threadline type virginia reel used to prevent the pisces from taking cover in submerged structures on their first base run, specially on reefs and wrecks. Smaller pisces are frequently taken on light fishing gear, often requiring a skilled angler to be able to land the fish in these situations. They can be caught on both tease and lures, with minor alive baitfish or boastfully prawns the choice of baits rigged on strong gauge hook. Lures are much jigs or streamers worked on deep reef and wrecks, although they have been known to take a troll lure or rigged bait. [ 17 ] In rare cases, they have even been known to take seawater flies on sinking lines and poppers at the surface. [ 16 ]

The IGFA maintains a fit of line and tippet classify records from the United States for the african pompano. Their all rigging record for the species stands at 22.90 kilogram ( 50 pound 8oz ) taken off of Daytona Beach, Florida in 1990. [ 18 ] An earlier ( 1986 ) recognized record for a recreationally get fish in Australia was 18.8 kilogram. [ 9 ] In Florida, the species has a minimum size limit of 24 inches and only two fish are allowed per vessel per day. [ 19 ]

References [edit ]