Coho salmon – Wikipedia

Species of fish
“ silver salmon ” redirects here. For other uses, see Coho ( disambiguation )
The coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch; Karuk : achvuun [ 1 ] ) is a species of anadromous pisces in the salmon family and one of the five Pacific pink-orange species. Coho pink-orange are besides known as silver salmon or “ silvers ”. The scientific species name is based on the russian common name kizhuch ( кижуч ).

description [edit ]

During their ocean phase, silver salmon salmon have silver sides and dark-blue backs. During their spawn phase, their jaws and teeth become hooklike. After entering fresh water system, they develop bright-red sides, bluish-green heads and backs, dark bellies and black spots on their backs. sexually maturing fish develop a light-pink or rose shading along the belly, and the males may show a slight arced of the back. fledged adults have a pronounced loss peel color with dark backs and average 28 inches ( 71 centimeter ) and 7 to 11 pounds ( 3.2 to 5.0 kilogram ), occasionally reaching up to 36 pounds ( 16 kilogram ). They besides develop a large kype ( aquiline beak ) during spawning. [ 2 ] Mature females may be darker than males, with both showing a marked hook on the nose. [ 3 ]

reproduction [edit ]

The egg think up in the late winter or early form after six to seven weeks in the redd. once hatched, they remain largely immobile in the redd during the alevin life stage, which lasts for 6–7 weeks. Alevin nobelium long have the protective egg husk, or chorion, and trust on their yolk sac for nutriment during growth. The alevin life stage is identical sensitive to aquatic and sedimental contaminants. When the yolk pouch is wholly resorbed, the alevin leaves the redd. Young coho spend one to two years in their fresh water natal stream, frequently spending the first winter in off-channel sloughs, before transforming to the smolt stage. Smolts are broadly 100–150 mm ( 3.9–5.9 in ) and as their parr marks fade and the pornographic ‘s characteristic argent scales start to dominate. Smolts migrate to the ocean from late March through July. Some pisces leave bracing urine in the jump, spend summer in brackish estuarine ponds, and then return to fresh water system in the accrue. Coho salmon live in salt water for one to three years before returning to spawn. Some precocious males, known as “ jacks ”, return as two-year-old spawners. Spawning males develop kypes, which are powerfully hooked snouts and large teeth .

range [edit ]

The traditional rate of the silver salmon salmon runs along both sides of the North Pacific Ocean, from Hokkaidō, Japan and eastern Russia, around the Bering Sea to mainland Alaska, and south to Monterey Bay, California. [ 4 ] Coho salmon have besides been introduced in all the Great Lakes, american samoa well as many landlocked reservoirs throughout the United States. [ 5 ] A number of specimens, ( more than 20 ), were caught in waters surrounding Denmark and Norway in 2017. Their source is presently unknown, but the salmon species is farmed at several locations in Europe, making it probable that the animal has slipped the net income at such a farm. [ 6 ]

human uses [edit ]

newly caught silver salmon

Fisheries [edit ]

The sum North Pacific harvest of coho salmon in 2010 exceeded 6.3 million pisces, of which 4.5 million were taken in the United States and 1.7 million in Russia. This corresponds to some 21,000 tonnes in all. [ 7 ] Coho salmon are the anchor of the Alaskan troll fishery ; however, the majority are caught by the net fishery ( gillnet and seine ). Coho salmon average 3.5 % by fish and 5.9 % by system of weights of the annual Alaska salmon harvest. [ 8 ] The total North Pacific yields of the pinko salmon, chum pink-orange and red salmon pink-orange are some 10–20 fold larger by weight unit. [ 7 ]

Game fish [edit ]

In North America, silver salmon salmon is a game pisces in clean and salt water from July to December, particularly with light fishing rigging. It is one of the most popular frolic fish in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Canada. Its popularity is due in separate to the heedless abandon which it frequently displays chasing bait and entice while in salt water, and the large number of coastal streams it ascends during its spawn runs. Its habit of schooling in relatively shallow water, and frequently near beaches, makes it accessible to anglers on the banks, ampere well as in boats. [ 9 ] It is besides pursued by fly fisherman in salt water. [ 10 ]

Nutritional value [edit ]

Ocean-caught coho is regarded as excellent mesa fare. It has a moderate to high sum of fat, which is considered to be essential when judging taste. only form chinookan and sockeye salmon have higher levels of adipose tissue in their meat. When smoking silver salmon it is dear to use a cold-smoking preferably than hot-smoking summons, due to their lower adipose tissue content compared to sockeye and chinook.

cultural tradition [edit ]

historically silver salmon, along with other species, has been a staple in the diet of several autochthonal peoples, who would besides use it to trade with other tribes farther inland. The coho pink-orange is besides a symbol of respective tribes, representing animation and nutriment .

ecology [edit ]

In their fresh water stages, coho feed on plankton and aquatic invertebrates in the benthos and water column, such as Chironomids, midge larva, and terrestrial insects that fall into the water. [ 11 ] Upon entering the marine environment, they switch to a diet of plankton and fish, with fish making up most of their diets after a sealed size. [ 12 ] Adult coho feed on a huge variety of prey items that depend on the region they reside in during their second year at sea. Spawning habitats are little streams with stable annoy substrates. Salmonid species on the west seashore of the United States have experienced dramatic declines in abundance during the past respective decades as a result of human-induced and natural factors. [ 13 ]

conservation [edit ]

The U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service ( NMFS ) has identified seven populations, called Evolutionary Significant Units ( ESUs ), of silver salmon salmon in Washington, Oregon and California. [ 14 ] [ 15 ] Four of these ESUs are listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act ( ESA ). [ 16 ] These are the Lower Columbia River ( threatened ), Oregon Coast ( threatened ), Southern Oregon and Northern California Coasts ( threatened ), and Central California Coast ( endangered ). The long-run tendency for the number populations is still downward, though there was one recent good year with an increasing tendency in 2001. [ 17 ] The Puget Sound / Strait of Georgia ESU in Washington is an NMFS “ Species of Concern ”. [ 18 ] Species of Concern are those species for which insufficient information prevents resolving the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ‘s concerns regarding status and threats and whether to list the species under the ESA. On May 6, 1997, NMFS, on behalf of the Secretary of Commerce, listed as threatened the Southern Oregon/Northern California Coast silver salmon salmon ESU. [ 19 ] The silver salmon salmon population in the Southern Oregon/Northern California region has declined from an estimated 150,000–400,000 naturally spawning fish in the 1940s to fewer than 10,000 naturally producing adults today. These reductions are due to natural and man-made changes, including short-run atmospheric trends ( such as El Niño, which causes extremes in annual rain on the northern California coast ), predation by the California ocean lion and Pacific harbor cachet, and commercial timber harvesting. [ citation needed ] More than 680,000 coho pink-orange returned to Oregon in 2009, double that of 2007. The Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife required volunteers to herd fish into hatchery pens. Some creek were reported to have so many pisces, “ you could literally walk across on the backs of silver salmon, ” claimed a Portland television post. Lower temperatures in 2008 North Pacific waters brought in fat plankton, which, along with greater outflows of Columbia River water, fed the resurgent populations. The 2009 run was therefore large, food banks were able to freeze 40 tonnes ( 39 hanker tons ; 44 abruptly tons ) for later use. [ 20 ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

technical foul reports [edit ]

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