Amphilophus citrinellus is a big cichlid fish endemic to the San Juan River and adjacent watersheds in Costa Rica and Nicaragua. In the aquarium trade A. citrinellus is much sold under the deal name of Midas cichlid. A. citrinellus are omnivorous and their diet consists of establish material, mollusk and smaller fish. The species is closely related to but not to be mistaken as Amphilophus labiatus, who both shares the nickname red devil cichlid . Two Midas Cichlids.
Reading: Amphilophus citrinellus – Wikipedia
physical characteristics [edit ]
Midas cichlids are heavily built and are capable of standing up to any other aquarium-sized cichlid in fights over territory. They have knock-down jaws, sharp tooth and a physical size advantage in comparison to early aquarium species. therefore, the aggressivity of Midas cichlids should not be undervalue and cohabitants should be chosen cautiously in an aquarium set .
Taxonomic condition [edit ]
considerable argument over the taxonomic condition of A. citrinellus began soon after the discovery of this species in the nineteenth century and continued throughout the twentieth hundred. A multivariate approach to treatment of anatomical reference characters has facilitated the discrimination among identical similarly shape species, aided by behavioral and ecological attest. multiple species of this group have been identified and verified by genomic and mitochondrial DNA evidence in volcanic crater lakes Apoyo [ 1 ] [ 2 ] and Xiloá. The genetic attest from Apoyo supports a hypothesis that the six know species of the lake evolved via sympatric speciation. [ 3 ] A few to possibly respective twelve species fitting the biological species concept are considered to exist among what has historically been called A. citrinellus, the great majority of which have not been described to date. The nine most recently described members of this species complex are considered autochthonal to their respective minor, volcanic volcanic crater lakes. color in wild stocks is varying, with most specimens grey to olive brown with a feature pattern of black dorsolateral bars, some pinko, white, yellow or orange specimens do happen. These brilliantly colored forms, often called “ golds ”, exist in nature at varying frequencies throughout the range of the species group. Colorations and morphologic characters ( e.g. accentuated nuchal humps ) seen in the hobbyist trade wind are the product of selective reproduction for respective generations and may not be reflected in the raving mad .
conservation condition [edit ]
The conservation condition of only one species of this group has been analyzed. The arrow cichlid ( Amphilophus zaliosus ) was evaluated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN Red List. Among the small body of information regarding populations of the species of this group, four other species may have smaller populations and/or ranges than this fish in Laguna de Apoyo : Amphilophus flaveolus, Amphilophus chancho, Amphilophus supercilius, and Amphilophus globosus. The final extremity of the complex, Amphilophus astorquii, constitutes about eighty percentage of the breeding population of Laguna de Apoyo. [ 4 ]
See besides [edit ]
References [edit ]
- Stauffer JR, Jr., McCrary JK, & Black KE ( 2008 ) : Three new species of cichlid fishes ( Teleostei : Cichlidae ) from Lake Apoyo, Nicaragua ; PROCEEDINGS OF THE BIOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 121 ( 1 ) :117–129 [ 1 ]
- Geiger MF, McCrary JK, & Stauffer JR, Jr. ( 2010 ) : description of two newly species of the Midas cichlid complex ( Teleostei : Cichlidae ) from Lake Apoyo, Nicaragua ; PROCEEDINGS OF THE BIOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 123 ( 2 ) :159–173 [ 2 ]
- “Archived copy” ( PDF ). Archived from the original ( PDF ) on 2011-10-03. Geiger MF, McCrary JK, Schliewen U ( 2010 ) : not a simple case – A first comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis for the Midas cichlid complex in Nicaragua ( Teleostei : cichlidae : Amphilophus ) ; molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56:1011-1024
- Amphilophus spp.) en Nicaragua con aportes sobre su ecologia y estado de conservacion en la Laguna de Apoyo ; Revista Nicaraguense BIODIVERSIDAD 1:43-50 McCrary JK, Lopez Perez LJ ( 2008 ) : El monitoreo de las mojarras ( spp. ) en Nicaragua memorize aportes sobre su ecologia yttrium estado de conservacion en la Laguna de Apoyo ; Revista Nicaraguense BIODIVERSIDAD 1:43-50 [ 3 ]