Species of fish
not to be confused with Goliath grouper
The giant grouper ( Epinephelus lanceolatus ), besides known as the Queensland grouper, brindle grouper or mottled-brown sea bass, is a species of marine ray-finned fish, a grouper from the subfamily Epinephelinae which is character of the family Serranidae, which besides includes the anthias and sea basses. It has a wide Indo-Pacific distribution and is one of the largest extant species of bony fish.

description [edit ]

Juvenile coloration The giant grouper has a robust body which has a standard length equivalent to 2.4 to 3.4 times its astuteness. The dorsal profile of the lead and the intraorbital area are convex, The propercle has a round corner and a finely serrate margin. The gill cover has a convex upper margin. [ 3 ] There are 11 spines and 14-16 soft rays in the abaxial fin while the anal tail fin has 3 spines and 8 soft rays. [ 2 ] The caudal fin is slightly rounded. There are 54 to 62 scales in its lateral note. [ 3 ] The adults are grey-brown in color overlie with a dappled practice and with dark fins. The small juveniles are yellow with wide, blue guerrilla bars and irregular night spots on their fins. [ 4 ] The giant grouper can grow to huge size with the maximum recorded standard duration being 270 centimetres ( 110 in ), although they are more coarse around 180 centimetres ( 71 in ), and a utmost published weight of 400 kilograms ( 880 pound ). [ 2 ]

distribution [edit ]

The giant grouper has a wide-eyed Indo-Pacific distribution, it is the most widely distribute species of grouper in the world. [ 5 ] It occurs from the Red Sea and the easterly coasts of Africa as far south as Algoa Bay in South Africa and across the amerind Ocean into the Western Pacific Ocean as far east as the Pitcairn Islands and Hawaii. They occur as far north as southern Japan and equally far south as Australia. [ 1 ] In Australia it is found from Rottnest Island in Western Australia north and east along the tropical coasts of Australia, including offshore reef, and then south along the eastern coast to Woy Woy, New South Wales. It besides occurs around Christmas Island and Cocos ( Keeling ) Islands and the Elizabeth and Middleton Reefs Marine National Park Reserve in the Tasman Sea. There have besides been reports from the Younghusband Peninsula in South Australia [ 4 ] and north easterly New Zealand. [ 1 ] It is absent from the Persian Gulf [ 2 ] but its is present off the coast of Pakistan and southern Oman. [ 1 ] It has been listed as a electric potential encroaching species in the Bahamas but its presence in that region requires verification. [ 5 ]

Habitat and biota [edit ]

The giant grouper is a species of shallow water and can be found at depths of 1 to 100 metres ( 3.3 to 328.1 foot ). It is associated with reefs and is the largest know bony fish found on reefs. [ 1 ] Large specimens have been caught from shore and in harbours. [ 3 ] They are found in caves and in wrecks while the close juveniles occur in reefs and are infrequently observed. [ 2 ] The adults are chiefly lonely and hold territories on the forbidden reef and in lagoons. They have besides been caught in cloudy water over silt or mud sea beds by prawn fishermen. [ 1 ] The giant grouper is an opportunist still-hunt marauder which feeds on a variety show of fishes, a well as small sharks, juvenile sea turtles, crustaceans and mollusk which are all accept solid. [ 6 ] Fish which inhabit coral reefs and rocky areas favour barbed lobsters as prey and a 177 centimetres ( 70 in ) specimen taken off Maui in Hawaii had a stomach contents of two spinous lobsters and a number of crab. fish living in estuarine environments in South Africa were found to be feeding about entirely on the gripe Scylla serrata. [ 3 ] This species is normally solitary confinement and durable. They are, however, curious and frequently approach path divers closely. They are not generally considered dangerous to humans but divers are advised to treat large specimens with caution and not to hand feed them. [ 6 ]

reproduction [edit ]

Like most groupers, giant star groupers are protogynous hermaphrodites. They spawn on a lunar bicycle, with spawns lasting about 7 days. They are aggregate broadcast spawners, normally with several females per male. Studies in prisoner populations suggest that the prevailing male and female begin the spawn event as closely the only spawners for the beginning day or two, but other members of the collection fertilize more eggs as the consequence progresses, with even the most recently turned males fathering offspring. [ 7 ] Giant groupers are diandric protogynous hermaphrodites, meaning that although some males develop from reproductively functional females other males start to produce sperm without always having gone through a phase as a generative female. [ 8 ]

taxonomy [edit ]

The giant grouper was first base formally described as Holocentras lanceolatus in 1790 by the german medical doctor and naturalist Marcus Elieser Bloch ( 1723–1799 ) with the type vicinity given as the East Indies. [ 9 ] Felipe Poey assigned the giant and giant groupers ( Epinephelus itajara and E. quinquefasciatus, which was then regarded as a synonym of E itajara ) to the genus Promicrops but in 1972 this was designated as a subgenus of Epinephelus. however, these species are still each others closest relatives. [ 3 ]

use [edit ]

The giant grouper is a highly valued food pisces and is taken by both commercial and amateur fisheries. vitamin a well as the consumption of its human body its skin, chafe bladder and stomach are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. It is valued in Hong Kong as a live fish for the live reef food fish trade wind, specially smaller specimens. [ 1 ] This species is cultured in mariculture and this practice is widespread but there is a restricted provide of juveniles, although hatcheries in Taiwan have produced prisoner engender juveniles, exporting some for to be grown on in other parts of South-East Asia. [ 5 ] Many of the pisces produced in aquaculture are hybrids between this species and E. fuscoguttatus. [ 1 ]

cultural references [edit ]

The beginning pisces to undergo chemotherapy was Bubba, a giant grouper at the Shedd Aquarium in Chicago. [ 10 ]

References [edit ]