Genus of fishes

Caranx is a genus of tropical to subtropical marine fishes in the jack kin Carangidae, normally known as jacks, trevallies and kingfishes. They are moderate- to large-sized, deep-bodied fishes which are distinguished from early carangid fish genus by specific gill raker, flipper irradiate and dentition characteristics. The genus is represented in the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans, inhabiting both inshore and offshore regions, ranging from estuaries and bays to deep reefs and offshore islands. All species are potent predators, taking a assortment of fish, crustaceans and cephalopods, while they in plow are prey to larger oceanic fishes and sharks. A number of pisces in the genus have a reputation as powerful gamefish and are highly sought by anglers. They often make up high amounts of the catch in diverse fisheries, but are generally considered poor to fair table fishes .

Taxonomy and naming [edit ]

The genus Caranx is one of 30 presently recognised genus of fish in the jack and cavalry mackerel family Carangidae, this family are separate of the order Carangiformes. [ 2 ] The species has retentive been placed in the subfamily Caranginae ( or tribe Carangini ), with modern molecular and genic studies indicating this subsection is acceptable, and Caranx is well defined as a genus. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] Phylogenetically, the monotypic genus of Gnathanodon is most closely related to Caranx ; and indeed its sole member was once classified under Caranx. [ 5 ]

Caranx was created by the french naturalist Bernard Germain de Lacépède in 1801 to accommodate a new species he had described, Caranx carangua ( the crevalle jack ), which was later found to be a junior synonym of Scomber hippos, which in act was transferred to Caranx. [ 6 ] The early days of carangid taxonomy had over 100 ‘species ‘ designated as members of the genus, most of which were synonyms, and a numeral of genus were created which were later synonymised with Caranx. Caranx took assurance over these other genus names due to its anterior description, rendering the rest as invalid junior synonym. today, after extensive reviews of the syndicate, 18 species are considered valid by major taxonomic authorities Fishbase and ITIS, although many other species are unable to be by rights validated due to poor people descriptions. The pisces in the genus are normally referred to as jacks, trevallies or kingfishes. Like the genus Carangoides, the son Caranx is derived from the french carangue, used for some fishes of the Caribbean. [ 7 ]

Species [edit ]

The 18 presently recognized extant species in this genus are : [ 8 ]

evolution [edit ]

The first spokesperson of Caranx found in the fossil phonograph record dates back to the mid- Eocene, a period when many modern Perciform lineages appeared. [ 1 ] Fossils by and large consist of otoliths, with the bony bony corporeal rarely preserved. They are generally found in shallow marine or brackish water sedimentary deposits. A count of extinct species have been definitively identified and scientifically named, including :

  • Caranx annectens Stinton, 1980 Eocene, England[9] Caranx gracilis of the Oligocene from the Romanian Eastern of the Oligocene from the romanian Eastern Carpathians
  • Caranx carangopsis Steindachner, 1859 Cenozoic, Austria[10]
  • Caranx daniltshenkoi Bannikov, 1990 Cenozoic, Russia[11]
  • Caranx exilis Rueckert-Uelkuemen, 1995 Cenozoic, Turkey[12]
  • Caranx extenuatus Stinton, 1980 Eocene, England[9]
  • Caranx gigas Rueckert-Uelkuemen, 1995 Cenozoic, Turkey[12]
  • Caranx gracilis Kramberger, 1882 Oligocene-Lower Miocene, Romania[13]
  • Caranx hagni Rueckert-Uelkuemen, 1995 Cenozoic, Turkey[12]
  • Caranx macoveii Pauca, 1929 Oligocene-Lower Miocene, Romania [13]
  • Caranx petrodavae Simionescu, 1905 Oligocene-Lower Miocene, Romania [13]
  • Caranx praelatus Stinton, 1980 Eocene, England[9]
  • Caranx primaevus Eastman, 1904 Eocene, Italy (may be attributable to own genus Eastmanalepes)[14]
  • Caranx quietus Bannikov, 1990 Cenozoic, Russia [11]

description [edit ]

The species in the genus Caranx are all moderately large to very big fishes, growing from around 50 curium in length to a known utmost distance of 1.7 m and 80 kilogram in slant ; a size which is only achieved by the giant trevally, Caranx ignobilis, the largest species of Caranx. [ 15 ] In their general torso profile, they are similar to a number of other jack genus, having a deep, compressed body with a dorsal profile more convex than the ventral. [ 16 ] The dorsal five is in two parts, the first consist of 8 spines and the second base of one spinal column and between 16 and 25 soft rays. The anal fin has one or two detached front tooth spines, with 1 spine and between 14 and 19 cushy rays. The caudal fin is strongly forked. All species have centrist to very potent scutes on the back tooth section of their lateral lines. All members of Caranx are all by and large silver to grey in color, with shades of gloomy or green dorsally, while some species have coloured spots on their flanks. Fin colours range from hyaline to yellow, blue and black. [ 16 ]

The particular characteristics that distinguish the genus relate to particular anatomic details, with these being a gill raker consider between 20 and 31 on the first gill arch, 2 to 4 canines anteriorly positioned in each chew, and dorsal and anal rays which are never produced into filaments as seen in genus such as Alectis and Carangoides. [ 7 ]

distribution and habitat [edit ]

Species from the genus Caranx are distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical waters of the global, inhabiting the Atlantic, Pacific and indian Oceans. [ 15 ] They are known from the coasts of all continents and islands ( including remote offshore islands ) within this range, and have a fairly even species distribution, with no particular region having unusually gamey amounts of Caranx species. [ 16 ] Most species are coastal pisces, and very few venture into waters further offshore than the continental shelf, and these species are broadly moved by ocean currents. They inhabit a range of environments including sand flats, bays, lagoons, reefs, sea mounts and estuaries. Most species are demersal, or bottom dwell, in nature, while others are oceanic, moving long distances in the amphetamine water column. [ 7 ]

Biology and fisheries [edit ]

The tied of biological information known about each species in Caranx is generally related to how crucial they are commercially. All species are predaceous fish, taking smaller fish, crustaceans and cephalopods as prey. Most species form schools as juveniles, but broadly become more lone with age. reproduction and emergence has been studied in a total of species, with these characteristics varying greatly between species. [ 7 ] [ 16 ]

All species in Caranx are of at least child importance to fisheries, but a total are much more so ascribable to their abundance in certain regions. Most are considered to be gamefish, with some such as the giant trevally and bluefin trevally highly sought after by anglers. [ 16 ] They are by and large considered hapless to fair quality board fishes, and have had a count of ciguatera poison cases attributed to them. [ 17 ]

References [edit ]