family of fishes

Sciaenidae are a family of fish in the order Perciformes. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] They are normally called drums or croakers [ 2 ] [ 3 ] in reference book to the insistent throb or drumming sounds they make. [ 4 ] The class consists of about 286 [ 3 ] to 298 species [ 5 ] in about 66 [ 3 ] to 70 genus. [ 2 ]

Characteristics [edit ]

A sciaenid fish has a long dorsal flipper reaching closely to the tail, and a pass between the rays and spines of the abaxial, although the two parts are actually separate. [ 6 ] Drums are somberly coloured, normally in shades of brown university, with a lateral cable on each side that extends to the tap of the caudal fin. The anal fin normally has two spines, while the abaxial fins are deeply notch or separate. Most species have a rounded or pointed caudally fin. The talk is set low and is normally deficient. Their croak mechanism involves the beating of abdominal muscles against the swim bladder. [ 6 ]

Sciaenids are found worldwide, in both fresh and strategic arms limitation talks water, and are typically benthic carnivores, feeding on invertebrates and smaller fish. They are small to medium-sized, bottom-dwelling fishes living chiefly in estuaries, bays, and muddy river banks. Most of these fish types avoid well-defined waters, such as coral reefs and oceanic islands, with a few celebrated exceptions ( e.g. reef croaker, high-hat, and spotted drum ). They live in warm-temperate and tropical waters and are best represented in major rivers in Southeast Asia, northeasterly South America, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Gulf of California. [ 6 ] In the United States most fisherman consider fresh water drum to be rough in fish not desirable for eat, alike to carp, needlefish, and old world buffalo fish, although there are a number of people that enjoy fishing for these species and eating them, despite their limitations. [ 7 ]

Fisheries [edit ]

They are excellent food and sport fish, and are normally caught by surfboard and pier fishers. Some are authoritative commercial fishery species, notably minor chicken croaker with report landings of 218,000–407,000 tonnes in 2000–2009 ; according to FAO fishery statistics, it was the twenty-fifth most crucial fishery species worldwide. [ 8 ] however, a large proportion of the catch is not reported at species level ; in the FAO fishery statistics, the category “ Croakers, drums, not elsewhere included ”, is the largest one within sciaenids, with annual landings of 431,000–780,000 tonnes in 2000–2009, most of which were reported from the westerly amerind Ocean ( FAO fishing area 51 ) and northwest Pacific ( FAO fishing area 61 ). [ 8 ]

Croaking mechanism [edit ]

A luminary trait of sciaenids is the ability to produce a “ murmur ” healthy. however the pitch and habit of croaking varies species to species. The croaking ability is a distinguishing characteristic of sciaenids. [ 4 ] The croak mechanism is used by males as a entangle call in some species.

To produce the croak sound, particular muscles hover against the swim bladder. [ 9 ] These muscles are called sonic muscle fibres, and run horizontally along the fish ‘s body on both sides around the swim bladder, connected to a cardinal tendon that surrounds the swim bladder ventrally. These sonic brawn fibres are repeatedly contracted against the swim bladder to produce the croaking fathom that gives barrel and croaker their common name, efficaciously using the swimming bladder as a resonate chamber. The sciaenids ‘ large swim bladder is more expansive and branched than other species, which aids in the croak. [ 10 ] In some species the sonic brawn fibres are alone present in males. These muscles strengthen during the felt season and are allowed to atrophy the rest of the time, deactivating the croak mechanism. [ 9 ] In other species, most notably the Atlantic croaker, the die mechanism is present in both sexes and remains active year-round. These species are thought to use croaking for communication, such as announcing hazards and location when in cloudy water. [ 9 ]

Croaking in communication [edit ]

In some species, murmur is used for communication aside from attracting mates. For those species that have year-round murmur ability, the croaks may serve as a low-aggression warning during group feed, arsenic well as to communicate location in cloudy water system. In those species that lack the ability to croak year-round, croaking is normally restricted to males for attracting mates. A disadvantage to the die ability is that it allows bottle-nosed whale dolphin to well locate large groups of croaker and drum as they broadcast their placement, indicating big amounts of food for the dolphins. [ 9 ]

genus [edit ]

timeline of genus [edit ]

References [edit ]

further read [edit ]

  • Sepkoski, Jack (2002). “A compendium of fossil marine animal genera”. Bulletins of American Paleontology. 363: 1–560 .