Frogfishes are any penis of the goosefish family Antennariidae, of the order Lophiiformes. Antennariids are known as goosefish in Australia, where the term “ frogfish ” refers to members of the unrelated family Batrachoididae. Frogfishes are found in about all tropical and subtropical oceans and seas around the populace, the elementary exception being the Mediterranean Sea. Frogfishes are little, short and compact, and sometimes covered in spinules and other appendages to aid in camouflage. The disguise aids in security from predators and enables them to lure prey. many species can change color ; some are covered with other organisms such as alga or hydrozoan. In keeping with this disguise, frogfishes typically move slowly, lying in expect for prey, and then striking highly quickly, in equally small as 6 milliseconds.
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few traces of frogfishes remain in the fossil commemorate, though Antennarius monodi is known from the Miocene of Algeria and Eophryne barbuttii is known from the Eocene of Italy .
range [edit ]
Frogfishes live in the tropical and subtropical regions of the Atlantic and Pacific, adenine well as in the amerind Ocean and the Red Sea. Their habitat lies for the most partially between the 20 °C isotherms, in areas where the open level urine normally has a temperature of 20 °C ( 68 °F ) or more. They extend beyond the 20 °C isotherms in the area of the Azores, Madeira and the Canary Islands, along the Atlantic seashore of the United States, on the south coast of Australia and the northern topple of New Zealand, coastal Japan, around Durban, South Africa, and at Baja California, Mexico. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] The greatest diversity of species is in the Indo-Pacific region, with the highest concentration around Indonesia. In the minor Lembeh Strait, northeast of Sulawesi, divers have found 9 different species. frogfish live by and large on the ocean floor around coral or rock reefs, at most to 100 molarity ( 330 foot ) cryptic. A few exceptions to these general limits are known. The brackishwater frogfish is at home in ocean waters deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as brackish and newly water system around river mouths. [ 4 ] The gulfweed fish lives in clumps of drifting gulfweed, which often floats into the deeper ocean and has been known to take the gulfweed fish as far north as Norway. [ 5 ]
Features [edit ]
striated frogfish, with upturned mouth, very distinct spinules, and esca in the form of a white worm Frogfishes have a compact appearance, atypical of fish. Ranging from 2.5–38 centimeter ( 0.98–14.96 in ) long, their plank, high-backed, unstreamlined body is scaleless and denude, frequently covered with bumpy, bifurcated spinules. [ 6 ] Their short bodies have between 18 and 23 vertebrae and their mouths are upward-pointed with palatal teeth. They are often brilliantly coloured, white, yellow, crimson, green, or bootleg or spotted in several colours to blend in with their coral surroundings. [ 2 ] coloration can besides vary within one species, making it unmanageable to differentiate between them. rather than typical abaxial fins, the front-most of the three fins is called the illicium or “ gat ” and is topped with the esca or “ entice ”. The illicium much has striped markings, while the esca takes a different form in each species. Because of the diverseness of colours even within a single species, the esca and illicium are useful tools to differentiate among different varieties. [ 7 ] Some of them resemble fish, some shrimp, some polychaetes, some tubeworms, and some just a amorphous lout ; one genus, Echinophryne, has no esca at all. Despite very specific apery in the esca, examinations of stomach contents do not reveal any specialize predation patterns, for case, only worm-eating pisces consumed by frogfishes with worm-mimicking esca. If lost, the esca can be regenerated. In many species, the illicium and esca can be withdrawn into a depression between the moment and one-third abaxial fins for protection when they are not needed. [ 8 ] Frogfish have small, round gill openings behind their pectoral fins. With the exception of Butler ‘s frogfish and the roughly goosefish, frogfish manipulation a boast bladder to control their buoyancy [ citation needed ] .
Mimicry and camouflage [edit ]
A frogfish disguised as an algae-covered stone The unusual appearance of the frogfish functions to conceal it from predators and sometimes to mimic a potential meal to its prey. In the survey of animal behavior, this is known as aggressive apery. Their unusual condition, color, and skin textures disguise frogfish. Some resemble stones or coral, while others imitate sponges or ocean squirts with dark splotches alternatively of holes. In 2005, a species was discovered, the striate frogfish, that mimics a ocean urchin, while the sargassumfish is coloured to blend in with the surrounding gulfweed. [ 5 ] Some frogfish are covered with alga or hydrozoa. Their camouflage can be therefore perfect that sea slugs have been known to crawl over the fish without recognizing them [ citation needed ]. For the scaleless and unprotected frogfish, camouflage is an crucial defense against predators. Some species can besides inflate themselves, like blowfish, by sucking in water system in a threat display. [ 9 ] In aquarium and in nature, frogfish have been observed, when flushed from their shroud spots and clearly visible, to be attacked by clownfish, damselfish, and wrasses, and in aquarium, to be killed. many frogfishes can change their color. [ 2 ] The light colours are broadly yellows or yellow-browns, while the dark are green, black, or black crimson. They normally appear with the lighter tinge, but the change can last from a few days to several weeks. What triggers the change is unknown. [ 2 ]
movement [edit ]
Longlure frogfish realigning its chew the fat
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Frogfishes generally do not move identical much, preferring to lie on the sea floor and wait for prey to approach. Once the prey is spotted, they can approach slowly using their pectoral and pelvic fins to walk along the floor. [ 8 ] [ 10 ] They rarely swim, preferring to clamber over the sea bottom with their fins in one of two “ gaits ”. [ 6 ] In the first, they alternately move their pectoral fins advancing, propelling themselves reasonably like a two-legged tetrapod, leaving the pelvic fins out. alternately, they can move in something like a boring gallop, whereby they move their pectoral fins simultaneously forward and back, transferring their weight to the pelvic fins while moving the pectorals forth. With either gait, they can cover entirely short stretches. In open water, frogfishes can swim with strokes of the caudal louver. They besides use jet propulsion, often used by younger frogfish. It is achieved by rhythmically gulp water and forcing it out through their gill openings, besides called opercular openings, which lie behind their pectoral fins. [ 10 ] The gulfweed frogfish has adapted fins which can grab strands of gulfweed, enabling it to “ climb ” through the seaweed. [ 2 ]
Hunting [edit ]
Frogfishes eat crustaceans, other pisces, and even each other. When likely prey is first spotted, the frogfish follows it with its eyes. then, when it approaches within roughly seven body-lengths, the frogfish begins to move its illicium in such a way that the esca mimics the motions of the animal it resembles. As the prey approaches, the frogfish slowly moves to prepare for its assail ; sometimes this involves approaching the prey or “ stalk ”, while sometimes it is merely adjusting its talk fish. The catch itself is made by the sudden open of the jaw, which enlarges the book of the mouth cavity up to 12-fold, pulling the raven into the mouth along with water. [ 8 ] The attack can be vitamin a flying as 6 milliseconds. [ 11 ] The water flows out through the gills, while the raven is swallowed and the esophagus closed with a special muscle to keep the victim from escaping. In addition to expanding their mouths, frogfish can besides expand their stomachs to swallow animals up to twice their size. [ 8 ] Slow-motion film has shown that the frogfish sucks in its prey in good six milliseconds, so fast that other animals can not see it happen. [ 8 ]
reproduction [edit ]
The generative behavior of the normally solitary confinement frogfish is calm not amply researched. few observations in aquarium and even fewer from the wild have been made. Most species are free-spawning, with females laying the eggs in the water and males coming in buttocks to fertilize them. From eight hours to respective days before the egg-laying, the abdomen of the female starts to swell as up to 180,000 eggs steep water. [ 7 ] The male begins to approach the female around two days before the engender. Whether the engender is predetermined by some external agent, such as the phase of the moonlight, or if the male is attracted to a smell or bespeak released by the female, is obscure. In all so far observed breeding pairs, one partner was perceptibly larger than the other, sometimes ampere much as 10 times. When the sex could be determined, the larger partner was constantly the female. During the free-spawning courtship ritual, the male swims beside and slightly behind the female, nudges her with his mouth, then remains near her cloaca. Just before the engender, the female begins to swim above the ocean floor toward the surface. At the highest point of their swimming, they release the eggs and sperm before descending. sometimes, the male pulls the eggs out of the female with his mouth. After mating, the partners depart cursorily as otherwise the smaller male would likely be eaten. A few species are substrate-spawners, notably the genus Lophiocharon, Phyllophryne, and Rhycherus, which lay their eggs on a solid come on, such as a plant or rock. Some species guard their eggs, a duty assigned to the male in about all species, while most others do not. [ 7 ] [ 8 ] several species practice brood hold, for model the three-spot frogfish, whose eggs are attached to the male, and those in the genus Histiophryne, whose brood are carried in the pectoral fins. The eggs are 0.5–1 mm ( 0.020–0.039 in ) in diameter and cling in a gelatinous mass or long ribbon, which in sargassumfish are up to a meter ( 3.3 foot ) long and 16 curium ( 6.5 in ) broad. These egg masses can include up to 180,000 eggs. [ 7 ] [ 13 ] For most species, the eggs drift on the surface. After two to five days, the fish hatch and the newly hatched alevin are between 0.8 and 1.6 millimeter ( 0.031 and 0.063 in ) long. For the first few days, they live on the yolk sauk while their digestive systems continue to develop. The young have long tail fin filaments and can resemble bantam, tentacled jellyfish. For one to two months, they live planktonically. After this stage, at a length between 15 and 28 millimeter ( 0.59 and 1.10 in ), they have the imprint of adult frogfish and begin their lives on the ocean floor. Young frogfish often mimic the coloration of poisonous sea slugs or flatworms .
fossil record [edit ]
identical few dodo remains of frogfishes have been found. In the northern italian formation at Monte Bolca, formed from the deposit of the Tethys Ocean in the middle Eocene ( 45 million years ago ), a 3-cm ( 1.2 in ) fossil named Histionotophorus bassani was initially described as a frogfish, but was late thought to belong to the closely relate extant genus Brachionichthys or handfish. In 2005, a dodo from Miocene Algeria ( 3 to 23 million years ago ), Antennarius monodi, is the first raise fossil frogfish, believed to be most closely related to the extant senegalese frogfish. [ 14 ] In 2009, a new fossil from the upper Ypresian stagecoach of the early Eocene found in Monte Bolca, Italy was described as a newfangled species, Eophryne barbuttii, and is the oldest know member of the kin. [ 15 ]
taxonomy [edit ]
Frogfishes belong to the order Lophiiformes, normally known as goosefish, which is a member of the superorder Paracanthopterygii with four other orders. They belong to the infraclass Teleostei, the bony fishes, in the classify Actinopterygii. There are two subfamilies, Antennariinae and Histiophryninae, which differ in their distribution and generative method acting .
References [edit ]
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