Species of fish

Epinephelus bruneus, the longtooth grouper, is a species of marine ray-finned fish, a grouper from the subfamily Epinephelinae which is part of the kin Serranidae, which besides includes the anthias and ocean basses. It is found in northwest Pacific in easterly Asia .

description [edit ]

Epinephelus bruneus has an linear soundbox which has a standard distance which is 3.0 to 3.6 times its depth. The abaxial visibility of the headway between the eyes is convex. The preopercle has an slant where the serrations are notably enlarged. There is a small spur on the upper edge of the gill embrace and this upper edge is convex. [ 3 ] The abaxial fin contains 11 spines and 13-15 easy rays while the anal tail fin has 3 spines and 8 voiced rays. [ 2 ] It has 64-72 scales in its lateral cable. The larger adults are dark grey brown in color, and may be marked with faint blotches on their nbacks, although these may be absent. They besides have a cover of small grey spots on their bodies which form brusque longitudinal lines and creating a dappled pattern. The lower margin of the anal tail fin and the lower corner of caudal flipper have white edges. The juveniles are pale yellow brown in tinge, with 6 irregular, aslant blue bars within which there are atypical picket spots. The first gear of these bars extends from nape to eye and the last is on the caudally peduncle. There are 3 darkness brown bands which radiate from lower separate of eye and some juveniles have green yellow membranes between the backmost spines of the dorsal fin. [ 3 ] The maximum published sum distance for this species is 136 centimetres ( 54 in ), although the most common length is round 60 centimetres ( 24 in ), and the utmost recorded weight is 33 kilograms ( 73 pound ). [ 2 ]

distribution [edit ]

Epinephelus bruneus is found in the Western Pacific Ocean where it occurs from southern Japan and Taiwan and along the coast of Asia from southerly Korea to Hainan and Hong Kong in southern China. [ 3 ] however, see taxonomy below .

Habitat and biology [edit ]

Epinephelus bruneus is found over rocky reefs and over areas of mucky substrates. Adults are found at depths of 20 to 200 metres ( 66 to 656 foot ). [ 3 ] They are besides found over coral and artificial reefs, Juveniles are found in shallower water, less than 5 metres ( 16 foot ). The biology of this species is little know. [ 1 ]

taxonomy [edit ]

Epinephelus bruneus was first formally described in 1793 by the german doctor and naturalist Marcus Elieser Bloch ( 1723–1799 ) with the type vicinity given as “ Norway ”, obviously an mistake for China. [ 4 ] Some authorities have split E. bruneus into two species, E. bruneus and E. moara and the demand distribution of these two species still require to be determined. E. moara appears to be found in Japan, Korea, Taiwan and China as afar confederacy as Fujian. [ 5 ]

use [edit ]

Epinephelus bruneus is considered an excellent fish for feed and is caught using hand lines, longlines and trawl. [ 3 ]

References [edit ]