Paul the Octopus – Wikipedia

common octopus used to predict the results of association football matches
Paul the Octopus ( 26 January 2008 [ 1 ] – 26 October 2010 ) was a common octopus used to predict the results of external affiliation football matches. Accurate predictions in the 2010 World Cup brought him worldwide attention as an animal oracle. During divinations, Paul ‘s keepers would present him with two food-containing boxes decorated with the flags of the teams in an approaching meet. Whichever box Paul corrode from inaugural was considered his prediction for which team would win the match. His keepers at the Sea Life Centre in Oberhausen, Germany, chiefly tasked him with predicting the outcomes of international matches in which the german team was playing. Paul correctly chose the winning team in four of Germany ‘s six Euro 2008 matches, and all seven of their matches in the 2010 World Cup—including Germany ‘s third space play-off succeed over Uruguay on 10 July. He besides correctly choose Spain as the winner of the 2010 FIFA World Cup final. [ 2 ] In all, Paul amassed an overall record of 12 adjust predictions out of 14 : a success rate of approximately 85.7 %.

life [edit ]

Paul in his tank car, 2010 Paul was hatched from an egg at the Sea Life Centre in Weymouth, England, and was then moved to a tank at one of the chain ‘s centres at Oberhausen in Germany. [ 3 ] Paul ‘s name derived from the title of a poem by the german children ‘s writer Boy Lornsen : Der Tintenfisch Paul Oktopus. [ 4 ] According to Sea Life ‘s entertainment director, Daniel Fey, Paul demonstrated intelligence early in liveliness : ” There was something about the way he looked at our visitors when they came conclusion to the tank. It was so strange, so we tried to find out what his extra talents were. ” [ 5 ] The animal rights arrangement PETA commented that octopuses are some of the most intelligent of invertebrates, with building complex think processes, long- and short-run memories, and different personalities. They can use tools, learn through observation, and are particularly sensible to pain, according to the group. They said it would be cruel to keep Paul in permanent restriction. Sea Life Centres responded that it would be dangerous to release him, because he was born in captivity, and was not accustomed to finding food for himself. [ 6 ] Following Paul ‘s lift to fame, businessmen in Carballiño, a residential district in Galicia, collected about €30,000 for a “ transplant tip ” to get Paul as main attraction of the local anesthetic Fiesta del Pulpo festival. [ 7 ] Manuel Pazo, a fisherman and head of the local business cabaret assured people that Paul would be presented alert in a tank car and not on the menu. Sealife rejected the offer however. [ 8 ] Paul was final check by staff on 25 October 2010, and was in good health, but the succeed dawn he was found dead. He was aged two-and-a-half, a normal life for the species. His agent, Chris Davies, said “ It ‘s a deplorable day. Paul was preferably especial but we managed to film Paul before he left this deadly worldly concern ”. Sea Life Centre director Stefan Porwoll remembered Paul as an octopus who had “ enthuse people across every celibate ”. [ 9 ] [ 10 ]

divination [edit ]

Paul choosing Spain over Germany for his 2010 semi-final prediction Paul ‘s career as an prophet began during the UEFA Euro 2008 tournament. [ 3 ] [ 11 ] In the lead-up to Germany ‘s external football matches, Paul was presented with two authorize plastic boxes, each containing food : a mussel or an oyster. Each container was marked with the ease up of a team, one the flag of Germany, and the other the ease up of Germany ‘s adversary. The box which Paul opened foremost ( and ate its contents ) was deemed to be the predict winner of the match. [ 12 ] There was no method acting for Paul to pick a draw, despite this being a possible consequence for group degree matches. Professor Chris Budd, of the University of Bath, and Professor David Spiegelhalter, of Cambridge University, both compared Paul ‘s success to a run of fortune when tossing a coin. [ 13 ] Under the hypothesis that Paul was evenly likely to choose the achiever or the loser of a peer, and neglecting the possibility of a draw, he had a 1 in 2 probability of predicting a unmarried leave and a 1 in 64 casual of predicting six in a row. This feat would be improbable to happen by find alone, but not enormously so. Spiegelhalter points out that there are “ other animals that have attempted but failed to predict the result of football matches ” ; it is not remarkable that one animal is more successful than the others, and only the successful animals will gain populace attention after the fact. [ 13 ] There was discussion as to whether differences in flags design could have influenced Paul [ 14 ] [ 15 ] [ 16 ] [ 17 ] ( despite Octopus vulgaris being about surely colour blind [ 18 ] ), or whether he could have been choosing boxes based on differences in their smack. [ 19 ] [ 16 ]

Results [edit ]

Flag of Germany: A horizontal tricolour of black, red and gold Germany ( 11 )Flag of Spain: A horizontal tricolour of red, yellow and red, the yellow stripe being twice the size of each red stripe and containing the coat of arms Spain ( 2 )Flag of Serbia: A horizontal tricolour of red, blue. and white, with the lesser coat of arms Serbia ( 1 ) Flags picked by Paul over both competitions

UEFA Euro 2008 [edit ]

In UEFA Euro 2008, Paul predicted Germany to win all of their games, a correct prediction in 4 out of 6 cases. He failed to predict their defeats by Croatia in the group degree, [ 20 ] and by Spain in the backing ‘s final. [ 3 ] [ nota bene 1 ]

Germany’s opponent Stage Date Prediction Result Outcome
 Poland group stage 8 June 2008 Germany 2–0 Correct
 Croatia group stage 12 June 2008 Germany[3][20] 1–2 Incorrect
 Austria group stage 16 June 2008 Germany 1–0 Correct
 Portugal quarter-finals 19 June 2008

Germany 3–2 Correct
 Turkey semi-finals 25 June 2008 Germany 3–2 Correct
 Spain final 29 June 2008 Germany[3] 0–1 Incorrect

2010 FIFA World Cup [edit ]

Paul choosing Spain over Netherlands for the final match Paul ‘s accurate choices for the 2010 World Cup, circulate be by german newsworthiness channel n-tv, endowed him with celebrity status. [ 3 ] Paul predicted the winners of each of the seven 2010 FIFA World Cup matches that the german team played, against Australia, Serbia, Ghana, England, Argentina, Spain, [ 22 ] and Uruguay. His prediction that Argentina would lose prompt Argentine chef Nicolas Bedorrou to post an octopus recipe on Facebook. [ 3 ]

There are constantly people who want to eat our octopus but he is not shy and we are here to protect him equally well. He will survive .Oliver Walenciak (Paul’s keeper)[23]

Paul correctly predicted the consequence of the semi-final, by choosing the food in the box marked with the spanish flag. german supporters drew hope from his faulty option for the Germany versus Spain catch in the UEFA Euro 2008 but were disappointed. [ 24 ] The prediction led to german fans calling for Paul to be eaten. [ 25 ] [ 26 ] In answer, the spanish Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero offered to send Paul official department of state protection, and the Industry Minister Miguel Sebastian called for Paul to be given safe haven in Spain. [ 27 ] [ 28 ] Paul ‘s notoriety attracted criticism from the President of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who accused him of being a symbol of western degeneracy and decay. [ 29 ] Doubts were expressed as to whether “ Paul ” was actually the lapp octopus in both 2008 and 2010. [ 30 ]

similar predictors [edit ]

memorial to Paul at the Sea Life Centre in Oberhausen Some other german oracles did not fare thus good in the World Cup. The animals at the Chemnitz Zoo were incorrectly on all of Germany ‘s group-stage games, with Leon the porcupine picking Australia, Petty the pygmy hippopotamus spurning Germany ‘s apple-topped stack of hay ( rather of Serbia ), and Anton the tamarin eating a raisin representing Ghana. [ 35 ] [ 36 ] [ failed verification ] Mani the parakeet of Singapore became celebrated for correctly predicting the results of all four quarter-final matches. Mani contradicted Paul by picking the Netherlands to win the concluding, resulting in some media outlets describing the game as an “ octopus-versus-parakeet confrontation ”. [ 37 ] [ 38 ] Rabio the Octopus who correctly predicted the results of all of Japan ’ s group stage games at the 2018 FIFA World Cup, was killed and sent to market, on 2 July 2018 by the japanese fisherman who had caught it. [ 39 ]

bequest [edit ]

In 2010, uTouchLabs developed an iPhone app called “ Ask the Octopus ”. [ 40 ] A 2010 Chinese thriller film Kill Octopus Paul depicts Paul ‘s predictions as being part of an external match-fixing scheme. [ 41 ] On 17 June 2014, during the 2014 FIFA World Cup, Paul was featured in a Google “ scribble ”. He was represented as in eden, perched on a billowy bed of clouds and adorned with a halo ; when animated, he appeared to vacillate in his predictions for the day ‘s matches. [ 42 ] Paul was again featured on 13 July in the doodle for the 2014 final. In that scribble, clicking on the cloud in the upper leave brings up an double of Paul, like to that in the earlier scribble, “ cheering ” on the final from eden. [ 43 ]

References [edit ]

  1. ^[21] Some late sources reported his success rate at 80 % .

far read [edit ]

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