First book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old testament
The Book of Genesis ( from Greek Γένεσις, Génesis ; Biblical Hebrew : בְּרֵאשִׁית, romanized : Bərēʾšīṯ, “ In [ the ] beginning ” ) is the first record of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament. Its Hebrew name is the lapp as its first news, Bereshit ( “ In the begin ” ). Genesis is an account of the universe of the world, the early history of humanness, and of Israel ‘s ancestors and the origins of the jewish people. tradition credits Moses as the writer of Genesis, arsenic well as the books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and most of Deuteronomy ; however, mod scholars, particularly from the nineteenth hundred forth, place the books ‘ writing in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, hundreds of years after Moses is supposed to have lived. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] Based on scientific interpretation of archaeological, genetic, and linguistic attest, most scholars consider Genesis to be chiefly fabulous rather than historical. It is divisible into two parts, the aboriginal history ( chapters 1–11 ) and the ancestral history ( chapters 12–50 ). The aboriginal history sets out the writer ‘s concepts of the nature of the deity and of world ‘s relationship with its manufacturer : God creates a earth which is good and fit for world, but when man corrupts it with sin God decides to destroy his creation, sparing alone the righteous Noah and his family to re-establish the relationship between man and God. The ancestral history ( chapters 12–50 ) tells of the prehistory of Israel, God ‘s chosen people. At God ‘s command, Noah ‘s descendant Abraham journey from his birthplace ( described as Ur of the Chaldeans and whose identification with sumerian Ur is probationary in modern scholarship ) into the God-given nation of Canaan, where he dwells as a sojourner, as does his son Isaac and his grandson Jacob. Jacob ‘s diagnose is changed to “ Israel ”, and through the representation of his son Joseph, the children of Israel descend into Egypt, 70 people in all with their households, and God promises them a future of greatness. Genesis ends with Israel in Egypt, ready for the coming of Moses and the Exodus. The narrative is punctuated by a series of covenants with God, successively narrowing in scope from all world ( the covenant with Noah ) to a special relationship with one people alone ( Abraham and his descendants through Isaac and Jacob ). [ 8 ]

In Judaism, the theological importance of Genesis centres on the covenants linking God to his choose people and the people to the Promised Land .

title [edit ]

The name Genesis is from the Latin Vulgate, in turning borrowed or transliterated from Greek Γένεσις, meaning “ origin ” ; Biblical Hebrew : בְּרֵאשִׁית, romanized : Bərēšīṯ, “ In [ the ] begin ” .

writing [edit ]

For much of the twentieth century, most scholars agreed that the five books of the Pentateuch —Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy —came from four sources : the Yahwist, the Elohist, the Deuteronomist and the Priestly source. Known as the objective hypothesis, each informant was held to tell the same basic narrative, with the sources late joined in concert by assorted editors. [ 10 ] Since the 1970s, however, there has been a revolution in this production line of opinion, leading scholars to view the Elohist generator as no more than a variation on the Yahwist, and the Priestly source as a body of revisions and expansions to the Yahwist ( or “ non-Priestly ” ) fabric. ( The Deuteronomistic source does not appear in Genesis. ) [ 11 ] Scholars use examples of repeated and duplicate stories to identify discriminate sources. In Genesis, these include three unlike accounts of a patriarch claiming that his wife was his sister, the two universe stories, and the two versions of Abraham sending Hagar and Ishmael into the defect. [ 12 ] This leaves the motion of when these works were created. Scholars in the foremost half of the twentieth century concluded that the Yahwist source was a product of the monarchal period, specifically at the court of Solomon, tenth hundred BCE, and the Priestly work a product of the middle of the fifth century BC ( with claims that the writer was Ezra ). however, more holocene think is that the Yahwist informant dates to from either just ahead or during the babylonian captivity in the sixth hundred BCE, and that the Priestly concluding edition was made late in the Exilic menstruation or soon after. [ 4 ] The about arrant absence of all the characters and incidents mentioned in chapters 1–11 from the rest of the Hebrew Bible has led a ample minority of scholars to conclude that these chapters were composed much later than those that follow, possibly in the third century BCE. As for why the ledger was created, a hypothesis which has gained considerable interest, although hush controversial, is that of Persian imperial mandate. This proposes that the Persians of the Achaemenid Empire, after their conquest of Babylon in 539 BCE, agreed to grant Jerusalem a big measure of local anesthetic autonomy within the empire, but required the local authorities to produce a single police code accepted by the stallion community. The two herculean groups making up the community—the priestly families who controlled the second gear Temple and who traced their origin to Moses and the wilderness wanderings, and the major landowning families who made up the “ elders ” and who traced their own origins to Abraham, who had “ given ” them the land—were in conflict over many issues, and each had its own “ history of origins ”. however, the iranian promise of greatly increase local autonomy for all provided a potent incentive to cooperate in producing a single textbook. [ 14 ]

genre [edit ]

Genesis is an model of a knead in the “ antiquities ” music genre, as the Romans knew it, a popular genre tattle of the appearance of humans and the ancestors and heroes, with elaborate genealogies and chronologies fleshed out with stories and anecdotes. The most noteworthy examples are found in the shape of greek historians of the sixth century BC : their intention was to connect noteworthy families of their own day to a distant and heroic past, and in doing so they did not distinguish between myth, legend, and facts. [ 16 ] Professor Jean-Louis Ska of the Pontifical Biblical Institute calls the basic rule of the antiquarian historian the “ jurisprudence of conservation ” : everything old is valuable, nothing is eliminated. [ 17 ] This antiquity was needed to prove the deserving of Israel ‘s traditions to the nations ( the neighbor of the Jews in the early irani state of Judea ), and to reconcile and unite the assorted factions within Israel itself. [ 17 ] Describing the employment of the biblical authors, John Van Seters wrote that lacking many historic traditions and none from the distant past, “ They had to use myths and legends for earlier periods. In ordain to make common sense out of the variety show of unlike and frequently conflict versions of stories, and to relate the stories to each other, they fitted them into a genealogic chronology. ” [ 18 ] David Adams Leeming describes it as the creation myth [ a ] of both Judaism and Christianity. [ 19 ]

textual witnesses [edit ]

There are four major textual witnesses to the script : the Masoretic Text, the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Septuagint, and fragments of Genesis found at Qumran. The Qumran group provides the oldest manuscripts but covers merely a small proportion of the book ; in general, the Masoretic Text is well preserved and reliable, but there are many individual instances where the other versions preserve a victor interpretation. [ 20 ]

social organization [edit ]

genesis appears to be structured around the recurring phrase elleh toledot, meaning “ these are the generations, ” with the beginning practice of the phrase referring to the “ generations of eden and earth ” and the remainder marking individuals—Noah, the “ sons of Noah ”, Shem, and so forth, down to Jacob. [ 21 ] The toledot formula, occurring football team times in the bible of Genesis, delineating its sections and shaping its structure, serves as a drift which marks a transition to a newfangled subject :

  • Genesis 1:1 (narrative) In the beginning
  • Genesis 2:4 (narrative) Toledot of Heaven and Earth
  • Genesis 5:1 (genealogy) Toledot of Adam
  • Genesis 6:9 (narrative) Toledot of Noah
  • Genesis 10:1 (genealogy) Toledot of Shem, Ham, and Japheth
  • Genesis 11:10 (genealogy) Toledot of Shem
  • Genesis 11:27 (narrative) Toledot of Terach
  • Genesis 25:12 (genealogy) Toledot of Ishmael
  • Genesis 25:19 (narrative) Toledot of Isaac
  • Genesis 36:1 and 36:9 (genealogy) Toledot of Esau
  • Genesis 37:2 (narrative) Toledot of Jacob[22][23]

It is not clean, however, what this mean to the master authors, and most modern commentators divide it into two parts based on the subject topic, a “ aboriginal history ” ( chapters 1–11 ) and a “ patriarchal history ” ( chapters 12–50 ). [ 24 ] [ boron ] While the beginning is far shorter than the moment, it sets out the basic themes and provides an interpretative key for understanding the integral book. [ 25 ] The “ aboriginal history ” has a harmonious structure hinging on chapters 6–9, the flood report, with the events before the deluge mirrored by the events after ; [ 26 ] the “ ancestral history ” is structured around the three patriarch Abraham, Jacob and Joseph. ( The stories of Isaac do not make up a coherent cycle of stories and function as a bridge between the cycles of Abraham and Jacob. )

drumhead [edit ]

aboriginal history ( chapters 1–11 ) [edit ]

The Genesis universe narrative comprises two different stories ; the first two chapters roughly correspond to these. [ 29 ] In the first, Elohim, the generic Hebrew word for God, creates the heavens and the earth including world, in six days, and rests on the one-seventh. In the irregular, God, now referred to as “ Yahweh Elohim ” ( the Lord God ), creates two individuals, Adam and Eve, as the first man and woman, and places them in the Garden of Eden. In the third chapter, God instructs them not to eat the fruit of the tree of the cognition of thoroughly and evil. They promise not to, but a talking snake, portrayed as a deceptive creature or deceiver, convinces Eve to eat the fruit against God ‘s wishes, and she convinces Adam, whereupon God throws them out and curses both of them—Adam was cursed with getting what he needs entirely by perspiration and work, and Eve to giving give birth in pain. This is interpreted by Christians as the “ fall of man “ into sin. Eve bears two sons, Cain and Abel. Cain works in the garden, and Abel works with kernel ; they both offer offerings to God one day, and Cain kills Abel after God liked Abel ‘s propose more than Cain ‘s. God then curses Cain. Eve bears another son, Seth, to take Abel ‘s place. [ citation needed ] After many generations of Adam have passed from the lines of Cain and Seth, the populace becomes corrupted by human sin and Nephilim, and God wants to wipe out world for their evil. however, Noah is the alone good homo ; so inaugural, he instructs the righteous Noah and his syndicate to build an ark and put examples of all the animals on it, seven pairs of every clean animal and one pair of every unclean. then God sends a capital flood to wipe out the rest of the world. When the waters recede, God promises he will never destroy the world with water again, making a rainbow as a symbol of his promise. God sees world cooperating to build a bang-up tower city, the Tower of Babel, and divides humanity with many languages and sets them aside with confusion .

ancestral history ( chapters 12–50 ) [edit ]

Abram, a man descended from Noah, is instructed by God to travel from his home in Mesopotamia to the land of Canaan. There, God makes a promise to Abram, promising that his descendants shall be arsenic numerous as the stars, but that people will suffer oppression in a foreign land for four hundred years, after which they will inherit the domain “ from the river of Egypt to the big river, the river Euphrates “. Abram ‘s name is changed to ‘Abraham ‘ and that of his wife Sarai to Sarah ( meaning “ princess ” ), and God says that all males should be circumcised as a polarity of his promise to Abraham. Due to her old old age, Sarah tells Abraham to take her egyptian handmaid, Hagar, as a moment wife ( to bear a child ). Through Hagar, Abraham fathers Ishmael.

God then plans to destroy the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah for the sins of their people. abraham protests but fails to get God to agree not to destroy the cities ( his reasoning being that everybody there is evil, except for Abraham ‘s nephew Lot ). Angels save Abraham ‘s nephew Lot ( who was living there at the same time ) and his syndicate, but his wife looks back on the end, ( even though God commanded not to ) and turns into a pillar of salt for going against his parole. Lot ‘s daughters, concerned that they are fugitives who will never find husbands, get Lot drunk so they can become fraught by him, and give give birth to the ancestors of the Moabites and Ammonites. Abraham and Sarah go to the Philistine town of Gerar, pretending to be brother and baby ( they are half-siblings ). The King of Gerar takes Sarah for his wife, but God warns him to return her ( as she is actually Abraham ‘s wife ) and he obeys. God sends Sarah a son and tells her she should name him Isaac ; through him will be the institution of the covenant ( predict ). Sarah then drives Ishmael and his mother Hagar out into the wilderness ( because Ishmael is not her veridical son and Hagar is a slave ), but God saves them and promises to make Ishmael a great nation .
The Angel Hinders the Offering of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1635) then, God tests Abraham by demanding that he sacrifice Isaac. As Abraham is about to lay the knife upon his son, God restrains him, promising him again countless descendants. On the death of Sarah, Abraham purchases Machpelah ( believed to be modern Hebron ) for a family grave and sends his servant to Mesopotamia to find among his relations a wife for Isaac ; after proving herself worthy, Rebekah becomes Isaac ‘s betrothed. Keturah, Abraham ‘s other wife, births more children, among whose descendants are the Midianites. Abraham dies at a golden erstwhile historic period and his family lays him to rest in Hebron ( Machpelah ) .
Jacob flees Laban by Charles Foster, 1897. by Charles Foster, 1897. Isaac ‘s wife Rebecca gives parentage to the twins Esau ( meaning “ velvet ” ), beget of the Edomites, and Jacob ( meaning “ usurper ” or “ follower ” ). Esau was a couple of seconds older as he had come out of the uterus first, and was going to become the heir ; however, through negligence, he sold his birthright to Jacob for a bowl of stew. His mother, Rebecca, ensures Jacob rightly gains his father ‘s blessing as the firstborn son and heir. At 77 years of age, Jacob leaves his parents and late seeks a wife and meets Rachel at a well. He goes to her father, his uncle, where he works for a sum of 14 years to earn his wives, Rachel and Leah. Jacob ‘s name is changed to ‘Israel ‘, and by his wives and their handmaidens he has twelve sons, the ancestors of the twelve tribe of the children of Israel, and a daughter, Dinah. Joseph, Jacob ‘s front-runner son of the twelve, makes his brothers jealous ( specially because of special gifts Jacob gave him ) and because of that jealousy they sell Joseph into slavery in Egypt. Joseph endures many trials including being innocently sentenced to imprison but he stays faithful to God. After several years, he prospers there after the pharaoh of Egypt asks him to interpret a dream he had about an approaching famine, which Joseph does through God. He is then made second in command of Egypt by the grateful pharaoh, and by and by on, he is reunited with his father and brothers, who fail to recognize him and plead for food. After much manipulation to see if they silent hate him, Joseph reveals himself, forgives them for their actions, and lets them and their households into Egypt, where Pharaoh assigns to them the land of Goshen. Jacob calls his sons to his bedside and reveals their future before he dies. Joseph lives to old age and tells his brothers that if God leads them out of the state, then they should take his bones with them .

Themes [edit ]

Joseph Recognized by His Brothers (Léon Pierre Urban Bourgeois, 1863) ( Léon Pierre Urban Bourgeois, 1863 )

Promises to the ancestors [edit ]

In 1978, David Clines published The Theme of the Pentateuch. Considered influential as one of the first authors to take up the question of the overarching theme of the Pentateuch, Clines ‘ ending was that the overall theme is “ the fond fulfillment – which implies besides the fond nonfulfillment – of the promise to or benediction of the Patriarchs ”. ( By calling the fulfillment “ partial ”, Clines was drawing attention to the fact that at the end of Deuteronomy the people of IsrEl are placid external Canaan. ) [ 30 ] The patriarch, or ancestors, are Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, with their wives ( Joseph is normally excluded ). [ 31 ] Since the name YHWH had not been revealed to them, they worshipped El in his assorted manifestations. [ 32 ] ( It is, however, worth noting that in the Jahwist informant, the patriarch denote to deity by the name YHWH, for case in Genesis 15. ) Through the patriarch, God announces the election of Israel, that is, he chooses Israel to be his extra people and commits himself to their future. [ 33 ] God tells the patriarch that he will be faithful to their descendants ( i.e. to Israel ), and Israel is expected to have faith in God and his promise. ( “ Faith ” in the context of Genesis and the Hebrew Bible means an agreement to the promissory kinship, not a body of a belief. ) [ 34 ] The promise itself has three parts : offspring, blessings, and land. [ 35 ] The fulfillment of the promise to each patriarch depends on having a male heir, and the fib is constantly complicated by the fact that each prospective mother – Sarah, Rebekah and Rachel – is barren. The ancestors, however, retain their faith in God and God in each sheath gives a son – in Jacob ‘s case, twelve sons, the foundation of the choose Israelites. Each succeeding generation of the three promises attains a more full-bodied fulfillment, until through Joseph “ all the world ” attains salvation from famine, [ 36 ] and by bringing the children of Israel down to Egypt he becomes the means through which the promise can be fulfilled. [ 31 ]

God ‘s chosen people [edit ]

Scholars by and large agree that the theme of cleric predict unites the patriarchal cycles, but many would dispute the efficacy of trying to examine Genesis ‘ theology by pursuing a one overarch theme, alternatively citing as more productive the analysis of the Abraham cycle, the Jacob cycle, and the Joseph bicycle, and the Yahwist and Priestly sources. [ 37 ] The problem lies in finding a means to unite the patriarchal theme of the divine promise to the stories of Genesis 1–11 ( the aboriginal history ) with their root of God ‘s forgiveness in the face of man ‘s evil nature. [ 38 ] [ 39 ] One solution is to see the patriarchal stories as resulting from God ‘s decision not to remain alienated from world : [ 39 ] God creates the world and world, world rebels, and God “ elects ” ( chooses ) Abraham. [ 8 ] To this basic plot ( which comes from the Yahwist ), the Priestly generator has added a serial of covenants dividing history into stages, each with its own distinctive “ sign ”. The first covenant is between God and all support creatures, and is marked by the sign of the zodiac of the rainbow ; the second is with the descendants of Abraham ( Ishmaelites and others vitamin a well as Israelites ), and its bless is circumcision ; and the last, which does not appear until the Book of Exodus, is with Israel alone, and its sign is Sabbath. A great drawing card mediates each covenant ( Noah, Abraham, Moses ), and at each stage God increasingly reveals himself by his mention ( Elohim with Noah, El Shaddai with Abraham, Yahweh with Moses ). [ 8 ]

judaism ‘s weekly Torah portions in the Book of Genesis [edit ]

It is a custom among religious jewish communities for a weekly Torah fortune, popularly referred to as a parashah, to be read during Jewish prayer services on Saturdays, Mondays and Thursdays. The full name, פָּרָשַׁת הַשָּׁבוּעַ, Parashat ha-Shavua, is popularly abbreviated to parashah ( besides parshah or parsha ), and is besides known as a Sidra ( or Sedra ). The parashah is a section of the Torah ( Five Books of Moses ) used in Jewish holy eucharist during a detail week. There are 54 weekly parshas, or parashiyot in Hebrew, and the wide cycle is read over the course of one jewish class. The first 12 of the 54 hail from the Book of Genesis, and they are :

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

  1. ^myth is used here in its academic sense, meaning “a traditional story consisting of events that are ostensibly historical, though often supernatural, explaining the origins of a cultural practice or natural phenomenon.” It is not being used to mean “something that is false”. The termis used here in its academic smell, meaning “ a traditional history consist of events that are apparently diachronic, though much supernatural, explaining the origins of a cultural exercise or natural phenomenon. ” It isbeing used to mean “ something that is false ” .
  2. ^ The Weekly Torah portions Parashot, divide the koran into 12 readings .

References [edit ]

bibliography [edit ]

General [edit ]

  • Bible: Genesis public domain audiobook at LibriVox Various versions

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