An essential oil is a concentrate hydrophobic liquid containing fickle ( easily evaporated at normal temperatures ) chemical compounds from plants. all-important oils are besides known as volatile oils, ethereal oils, aetheroleum, or simply as the oil of the plant from which they were extracted, such as vegetable oil of clove. An essential petroleum is substantive in the sense that it contains the effect of the plant ‘s bouquet —the characteristic aroma of the plant from which it is derived. [ 1 ] The condition “ all-important ” used hera does not mean essential or functional by the human consistency, as with the terms essential amino acid or substantive fatty acidic, which are so called because they are nutritionally required by a living organism. [ 2 ]
Reading: Essential oil – Wikipedia
essential oils are generally extracted by distillation, frequently by using steamer. other processes include expression, solution origin, sfumatura, absolute petroleum origin, resin tap, wax implant, and cold crusade. They are used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps, air fresheners and other products, for flavoring food and drink, and for adding scents to incense and household clean products. essential oils are frequently used for aromatherapy, a form of alternative medicate in which bring around effects are ascribed to aromatic compounds. Aromatherapy may be utilitarian to induce relaxation, but there is not sufficient tell that all-important oils can effectively treat any condition. [ 3 ] Improper use of essential oils may cause injury including allergic reactions, inflammation and skin excitation. Children may be peculiarly susceptible to the toxic effects of improper use. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] Essential oils can be poisonous if ingested or absorbed through the skin. [ 5 ]
product [edit ]
distillation [edit ]
Most common essential oils such as lavender, peppermint, tea tree petroleum, patchouli, and eucalyptus are distilled. Raw plant material, consisting of the flowers, leaves, wood, bark, roots, seeds, or skin, is put into an alembic ( distillate apparatus ) over water. As the water is heated, the steam passes through the plant material, vaporizing the volatile compounds. The vapors flow through a coil, where they condense back to liquid, which is then collected in the welcome vessel. Most oils are distilled in a individual process. One exception is ylang-ylang ( Cananga odorata ) which is purified through a fractional distillate. The recondensed water is referred to as a hydrosol, hydrolat, herb tea distillate, or plant water perfume, which may be sold as another fragrant product. Hydrosols include rose urine, lavender water, lemon ointment, clary sage, and orange blossom water. The use of herbal distillates in cosmetics is increasing .
formula [edit ]
Most citrus peel oils are expressed mechanically or cold-pressed ( alike to olive anoint origin ). [ 6 ] Due to the relatively large quantities of oil in citrus undress and depleted price to grow and harvest the raw materials, citrus-fruit oils are cheaper than most other essential oils. Lemon or sugared orange oils are obtained as byproducts of the citrus industry. Before the discovery of distillation, all essential oils were extracted by pressing. [ 7 ]
solvent origin [edit ]
Most flowers contain excessively short explosive oil to undergo expression, but their chemical components are excessively delicate and easily denatured by the high heat used in steam distillate. rather, a solution such as hexane or supercritical carbon dioxide is used to extract the oils. [ 8 ] Extracts from hexane and early hydrophobic solvents are called concretes, which are a mix of substantive anoint, waxes, resins, and other lipophilic ( oil-soluble ) establish material. Although highly fragrant, concretes contain large quantities of non-fragrant waxes and resins. Often, another solvent, such as ethyl alcohol, is used to extract the fragrant petroleum from the concrete. The alcohol solution is chilled to −18 °C ( 0 °F ) for more than 48 hours which causes the waxes and lipids to precipitate out. The precipitates are then filtered out and the ethyl alcohol is removed from the remaining solution by dehydration, vacuum purge, or both, leaving behind the absolute. supercritical carbon paper dioxide is used as a solvent in supercritical fluid extraction. This method acting can avoid petrochemical residues in the intersection and the loss of some “ top notes ” when steam distillation is used. It does not yield an absolute directly. The supercritical carbon paper dioxide will extract both the waxes and the essential oils that make up the concrete. subsequent processing with liquid carbon dioxide, achieved in the lapp centrifuge by merely lowering the extraction temperature, will separate the waxes from the substantive oils. This lower temperature procedure prevents the decay and denature of compounds. When the origin is arrant, the pressure is reduced to ambient and the carbon paper dioxide reverts to a gas, leaving no residue .
production quantities [edit ]
Estimates of full product of essential oils are unmanageable to obtain. One estimate, compiled from data in 1989, 1990, and 1994 from versatile sources, gives the following entire production, in tonnes, of all-important oils for which more than 1,000 tonnes were produced. [ 9 ]
Uses and cautions [edit ]
Taken by talk, many essential oils can be dangerous in high concentrations. typical effects begin with a burning feel, followed by salivation. [ 10 ] Different essential oils may have drastically different pharmacology. Some act as local anesthetic counterirritants and, thereby, exert an antitussive ( cough suppressing ) effect. [ 10 ] [ 11 ] Many necessity oils, particularly tea tree anoint, may cause touch dermatitis. [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ] Menthol and some others produce a feel of cold followed by a sense of burn. In Australia substantive oils have been increasingly causing cases of poison, by and large of children. In the period 2014–2018 there were 4,412 poisoning incidents reported in New South Wales. [ 16 ]
Use in aromatherapy [edit ]
 essential oils are used in aromatherapy as depart of, for example, essential petroleum diffusers. Aromatherapy is a kind of alternative music in which bring around effects are ascribed to the aromatic compounds in essential oils and other plant extracts. Aromatherapy may be useful to induce easiness, but there is not sufficient evidence that essential oils can effectively treat any condition. [ 3 ] Scientific research indicates that essential oils can not treat or cure any chronic disease or other illnesses. [ 3 ] Much of the research on the practice of substantive oils for health purposes has serious methodological errors. In a systemic review of 201 publish studies on necessity oils as alternative medicines, only 10 were found to be of acceptable methodological choice, and tied these 10 were still weak in reference point to scientific standards. [ 3 ] Use of essential oils may cause injury including allergic reactions and bark aggravation ; there has been at least one character of end. [ 4 ]
Use as pesticide [edit ]
research has shown that some all-important oils have electric potential as a natural pesticide. In case studies, certain oils have been shown to have a diverseness of deterring effects on pests, specifically insects and choice arthropods. [ 18 ] These effects may include repelling, inhibiting digestion, stunting growth, [ 19 ] decreasing rate of reproduction, or death of pests that consume the petroleum. however, the molecules within the oils that cause these effects are normally non-toxic for mammals. These specific actions of the molecules allow for far-flung use of these “ green ” pesticides without harmful effects to anything else other than pests. [ 20 ] Essential oils that have been investigated include rose, lemon grass, lavender, thyme, peppermint, basil, and eucalyptus. [ 21 ] Although they may not be the perfect substitution for all synthetic pesticides, all-important oils have prospects for crop or indoor implant protective covering, urban pest see, [ 22 ] and marketed insect repellents, such as bug spray. Certain essential oils have been shown in studies to be comparable, if not exceeding, in potency to DEET, which is presently marketed as the most effective mosquito disgusting. Although essential oils are effective as pesticides when first applied in uses such as mosquito repellent applied to the peel, it is only effective in the vapor degree. Since this degree is relatively ephemeral, creams and polymer mixtures are used in order to elongate the vapor period of effective repellency. [ 18 ] In any kind, using essential oils as green pesticides rather than synthetic pesticides has ecological benefits such as decreased residual actions. [ 21 ] In addition, increased use of essential oils as pest control could have not only ecological, but economic benefits as the essential anoint market diversifies [ 20 ] and popularity increases among organic farmers and environmentally conscious consumers. [ 19 ] As of 2012 some EOs are authorized, and in use, in the European Union : Melaleuca oil as a antifungal, citronella oil as a herbicide, Syzygium aromaticum oil as a antifungal and bactericide, Mentha spicata oil as a implant growth governor ; Citrus sinensis oil ( only in France ) for Bemisia tabaci on Cucurbita pepo and Trialeurodes vaporariorum on Solanum lycopersicum ; and approvals for oils of Thymus, C. sinensis, and Tagetes as insecticides are pending. [ 19 ]
Use in food [edit ]
In sexual intercourse with their food applications, although these oils have been used throughout history as food preservatives, it was in the twentieth hundred when EOs were considered as generally Recognized as Safe ( GRAS ) by the Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ). [ 23 ] GRAS substances according to the FDA
As antimicrobials [edit ]
The most normally used essential oils with disinfectant action are : β-caryophyllene, eugenol, eugenol acetate, carvacrol, linalool, thymol, geraniol, geranyl acetate rayon, bicyclogermacrene, cinnamaldehyde, geranial, neral, 1,8-cineole, methyl chavicol, methyl cinnamate, methyl eugenol, camphor, α-thujone, viridiflorol, limonene, ( Z ) -linalool oxide, α-pinene, p -cymene, ( E ) -caryophyllene, γ-terpinene. [ 25 ] Some essential oils are effective antimicrobials and have been evaluated for food internalization in vitro. however, actual deployment is rare because much higher concentrations are required in veridical foods. Some or all of this lower effectiveness is due to large differences between culture medium and foods in : chemistry ( particularly lipid contented ), viscosity, and duration of inoculation/storage. [ 25 ]
dilution [edit ]
all-important oils are normally lipophilic ( literally : “oil-loving” ) compounds that are immiscible ( not miscible ) with body of water. They can be diluted in solvents like saturated ethyl alcohol and polyethylene ethylene glycol. [ citation needed ]
raw materials [edit ]
all-important oils are derived from sections of plants. Some plants, like the acrimonious orange, are sources of several types of all-important anoint .
Balsam of Peru [edit ]
Balsam of Peru, an essential oil derived from Myroxylon plants, is used in food and beverage for flavorer, in perfumes and toiletries for bouquet, and in animal care products. [ 26 ] however, home and international surveys identified balsam of Peru among the “ top five ” allergens most normally causing mend screen allergic reactions in people referred to dermatology clinics. [ 27 ] [ 28 ] [ 29 ]
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garlic oil [edit ]
garlic oil is an necessity vegetable oil derived from garlic. [ 30 ]
Eucalyptus anoint [edit ]
Most eucalyptus petroleum on the grocery store is produced from the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus. Steam-distilled eucalyptus oil is used throughout Asia, Africa, Latin America and South America as a primary cleaning/disinfecting agent added to soaped swab and countertop clean solutions ; it besides possesses insect and limited vermin control properties. [ 31 ] Note, however, there are hundreds of species of eucalyptus, and possibly some dozens are used to diverse extents as sources of essential oils. not only do the products of different species differ greatly in characteristics and effects, but besides the products of the very same corner can vary grossly. [ 32 ]
Lavender oil [edit ]
Lavender substantive anoint sold at a commercialize in France Lavender petroleum has farseeing been used in the production of perfume. [ 33 ] however, studies have shown it can be estrogenic and antiandrogenic, causing problems for prepubescent boys and pregnant women, in especial. [ 34 ] Lavender essential oil is besides used as an insect repellent. [ 35 ]
surface vegetable oil [edit ]
rise anoint is produced from the petals of Rosa damascena and Rosa centifolia. Steam-distilled rose anoint is known as “ rose otto ”, while the solvent extracted product is known as “ rose absolute ” .
perniciousness [edit ]
The likely toxicity of necessity vegetable oil is related to its horizontal surface or grade of honor, and to the toxicity of particular chemical components of the oil. [ 5 ] Many essential oils are designed entirely for their aroma-therapeutic quality ; these all-important oils generally should not be applied directly to the hide in their undiluted form. [ 5 ] Some can cause severe annoyance, provoke an allergic reaction and, over time, prove toxic to the liver-colored. If ingested or rubbed into the clamber, necessity oils can be highly poisonous, causing confusion, choking, loss of brawn coordination, difficulty in breathe, pneumonia, seizures, and possibly hard allergic reactions or coma. [ 5 ] Some substantive oils, including many of the citrus peel off oils, are photosensitizers, increasing vulnerability of the peel to sunlight. [ 36 ] Industrial users of substantive oils should consult the condom data sheets to determine the hazards and handling requirements of particular oils. [ 5 ] even certain therapeutic-grade oils can pose potential threats to individuals with epilepsy or fraught women. essential anoint use in children can pose a risk when misused because of their reduce clamber and immature livers. This might cause them to be more susceptible to toxic effects than adults. [ 5 ]
flammability [edit ]
The brassy compass point of each essential vegetable oil is unlike. many of the coarse essential oils, such as tea corner, lavender, and citrus oils, are classed as class 3 flammable Liquids, as they have a flash point of 50–60 °C .
gynecomastia [edit ]
Estrogenic and antiandrogenic action have been reported by in vitro report of tea tree anoint and lavender necessity oils. Two publish sets of event reports suggest that lavender oil may be implicated in some cases of gynecomastia, an abnormal front weave growth in prepubescent boys. [ 37 ] [ 38 ] The European Commission ‘s Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety dismissed the claims against tea tree vegetable oil as implausible, but did not comment on lavender anoint. [ 39 ] In 2018, a BBC report on a study stated that tea tree and lavender oils contain eight substances that when tested in tissue culture experiments, increasing the level of estrogen and decreasing the charge of testosterone. Some of the substances are found in “ at least 65 other all-important oils ”. The study did not include animal or homo test. [ 40 ]
Handling [edit ]
exposure to substantive oils may cause contact dermatitis. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ] Essential oils can be aggressive toward rubbers and plastics, so care must be taken in choosing the correct handling equipment. Glass syringes are much used, but have coarse volumetric graduations. chemistry syringes are ideal, as they resist essential oils, are long enough to enter deep vessels, and have very well graduations, facilitating quality see. Unlike traditional pipettes, which have difficulty handling gluey fluids, the chemistry syringe, besides known as a positive displacement pipet, has a sealing wax and piston musical arrangement which slides inside the pipet, wiping the necessity oil off the pipet wall .
consumption [edit ]
Some necessity oils qualify as GRAS flavoring agents for practice in foods, beverages, and confectioneries according to nonindulgent dear manufacture practice and flavorist standards. [ 24 ] Pharmacopoeia standards for medicative oils should be heeded. Some oils can be toxic to some domestic animals, cats in particular. [ 41 ] The internal use of essential oils can pose hazards to fraught women, as some can be abortifacients in drug 0.5–10 milliliter, and thus should not be used during pregnancy. [ citation needed ]
pesticide residues [edit ]
There is some business about pesticide residues in essential oils, particularly those used therapeutically. For this reason, many practitioners of aromatherapy bargain organically produced oils. not entirely are pesticide confront in trace quantities, but besides the oils themselves are used in bantam quantities and normally in high dilutions. Where there is a concern about pesticide residues in food necessity oils, such as mint or orange oils, the proper criterion is not entirely whether the material is organically produced, but whether it meets the government standards based on actual analysis of its pesticide subject. [ 42 ]
pregnancy [edit ]
Some all-important oils may contain impurities and additives that may be harmful to pregnant women. [ 43 ] Certain essential oils are condom to use during pregnancy, but care must be taken when selecting quality and brand. Sensitivity to certain smells may cause meaning women to have adverse side effects with necessity petroleum use, such as headache, dizziness, and nausea. pregnant women often report an abnormal sensitivity to smells and preference, [ 44 ] and necessity oils can cause irritation and nausea when ingested. [ 5 ]
toxicology [edit ]
The follow table lists the LD50 or median deadly acid for coarse oils ; this is the dose required to kill half the members of a tested animal population. LD50 is intended as a guidepost merely, and reported values can vary wide due to differences in test species and testing conditions. [ 45 ]
|Common Name||Oral LD50||Dermal LD50||Notes|
|Neem||14 g/kg||>2 g/kg|
|Lemon myrtle||2.43 g/kg||2.25 g/kg|
|Frankincense||>5 g/kg||>5 g/kg||Boswellia carterii|
|Frankincense||>2 g/kg||>2 g/kg||Boswellia sacra|
|Indian frankincense||>2 g/kg||>2 g/kg||Boswellia serrata|
|Ylang-ylang||>5 g/kg||>5 g/kg|
|Cedarwood||>5 g/kg||>5 g/kg|
|Roman chamomile||>5 g/kg||>5 g/kg|
|White camphor||>5 g/kg||>5 g/kg||Cinnamomum camphora, extracted from leaves|
|Yellow camphor||3.73 g/kg||>5 g/kg||Cinnamomum camphora, extracted from bark|
|Hot oil||3.80 g/kg||>5 g/kg||Cinnamomum camphora, oil extracted from leaves|
|Cassia||2.80 g/kg||0.32 g/kg|
standardization of deduce products [edit ]
In 2002, ISO published ISO 4720 in which the botanical names of the relevant plants are standardized. [ 46 ] The perch of the standards with regards to this topic can be found in the section of ICS 71.100.60 [ 47 ]
history [edit ]
The resins of aromatics and implant extracts were retained to produce traditional medicines and perfumed preparations, such as perfumes and incense, including frankincense, myrrh, cedar, retem berry and cinnamon in ancient Egypt may have contained substantive oils. [ 48 ] [ 49 ] In 1923, when archaeologists opened Pharaoh Tutankhamun ’ randomness grave, they found 50 alabaster jars of essential oils. [ 49 ] [ dubious – discuss ] essential oils have been used in tribe medicine over centuries. The irani doctor Ibn Sina, known as Avicenna in Europe, was first gear to derive the aroma of flowers from distillate, [ 50 ] while the earliest record note of the techniques and methods used to produce essential oils may be Ibn al-Baitar ( 1188–1248 ), an arab Al-Andalusian ( Muslim Spain ) doctor, pharmacist and chemist. [ 51 ] rather than refer to all-important oils themselves, modern works typically discourse specific chemical compounds of which the necessity oils are composed, such as referring to methyl salicylate preferably than “ vegetable oil of wintergreen ”. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] essential oils are used in aromatherapy, a branch of alternate medicine that uses all-important oils and early aromatic compounds. [ 54 ] Oils are volatilized, diluted in a mailman petroleum and used in massage, diffused in the air travel by a atomizer or diffuse, heated over a candle fire, or burned as cense .
See besides [edit ]
References [edit ]
further reading [edit ]
- Baser, K.H.C. & G. Buchbauer (2010). Handbook of Essential Oils: Science, Technology and Applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton, London, New York. ISBN 978-1-4200-6315-8.
- Schnaubelt, Kurt (1999). Advanced Aromatherapy: The Science of Essential Oil Therapy. Healing Arts Press. ISBN 978-0-89281-743-6.
- Sellar, Wanda (2001). The Directory of Essential Oils (Reprint ed.). Essex: The C.W. Daniel Company, Ltd. ISBN 978-0-85207-346-9.
- Tisserand, Robert (1995). Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Health Care Professionals. Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-443-05260-6.
- Rimal, Vishal; Shishodia, Shubham; Srivastava, Prem Kumar; Gupta, Subhadeep; Mallick, Amirul Islam (2021). “Synthesis and characterization of Indian essential oil Carbon Dots for interdisciplinary applications”. Applied Nanoscience. 11 (4): 1225–1239. Bibcode:2021ApNan..11.1225R. doi:10.1007/s13204-021-01737-3. ISSN 2190-5509. S2CID 232145772.