“ Frutti di Mare ” redirects here. For the pizza diverseness, see seafood pizza
Seafood includes any form of food taken from the sea. includes any form oftaken from the
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Seafood is any form of sea life sentence regarded as food by humans, prominently including fish and shellfish. shellfish include diverse species of mollusk ( e.g. bivalve mollusk such as clams, oysters and mussels, and cephalopods such as octopus and squid ), crustaceans ( e.g. runt, crab, and lobster ), and echinoderms ( e.g. ocean cucumbers and sea urchins ). Historically, marine mammals such as cetaceans ( whales and dolphins ) ampere well as seals have been eaten as food, though that happens to a lesser extent in modern times. comestible ocean plants such as some seaweeds and microalgae are widely eaten as ocean vegetables around the world, particularly in Asia. Seafood is an significant source of ( animal ) protein in many diets around the world, specially in coastal areas. Semi-vegetarians who consume seafood as the alone source of kernel are said to adhere to pescetarianism. The reap of rampantly seafood is normally known as fishing or hound, while the polish and farming of seafood is known as aquaculture and pisces farming ( in the case of fish ). Most of the seafood harvest is consumed by humans, but a significant proportion is used as fish food to farm other pisces or buttocks farm animals. Some seafoods ( i.e. kelp ) are used as food for early plants ( a fertilizer ). In these ways, seafoods are used to produce far food for human consumption. besides, products such as fish vegetable oil and spirulina tablets are extracted from seafoods. Some seafood is fed to aquarium fish, or used to feed domestic pets such as cats. A modest proportion is used in medicine, or is used industrially for nonfood purposes ( e.g. leather ) .
history [edit ]
respective foods depicted in an egyptian burying chamber, including fish, c. 1400 BCE. The reap, process, and consume of seafoods are ancient practices with archaeological tell dating back well into the Paleolithic. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Findings in a sea cave at Pinnacle Point in South Africa indicate Homo sapiens ( advanced humans ) harvested marine life arsenic early as 165,000 years ago, [ 1 ] while the Neanderthals, an extinct human species contemporary with early Homo sapiens, appear to have been eating seafood at sites along the Mediterranean coast beginning around the same time. [ 3 ] Isotopic analysis of the bony remains of Tianyuan valet, a 40,000-year-old anatomically modern homo from eastern Asia, has shown that he regularly consumed fresh water pisces. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] Archaeology features such as plate middens, [ 6 ] discarded pisces bones and cave paintings show that sea foods were significant for survival and consumed in meaning quantities. During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer life style and were, of necessity, constantly on the motion. however, early examples of permanent settlements ( though not necessarily permanently occupied ), such as those at Lepenski Vir, were about always associated with fishing as a major source of food. The ancient river Nile was wax of fish ; fresh and dry pisces were a staple food for much of the population. [ 7 ] The Egyptians had implements and methods for fishing and these are illustrated in grave scenes, drawings, and papyrus documents. Some representations hint at fishing being pursued as a pastime .
 World fisheries harvest, both fantastic and farmed, in million tonnes, 1950–2010 World fisheries harvest, raving mad capture versus aquaculture production, in million tonnes 1950–2010 Fishing scenes are rarely represented in ancient greek culture, a contemplation of the abject social condition of fishing. however, Oppian of Corycus, a greek author wrote a major treatise on sea fish, the Halieulica or Halieutika, composed between 177 and 180. This is the earliest such work to have survived to the modern day. The pulmonary tuberculosis of fish varied in accordance with the wealth and location of the family. In the greek islands and on the coast, clean pisces and seafood ( squid, octopus, and shellfish ) were common. They were eaten locally but more much transport inland. Sardines and anchovies were regular fare for the citizens of Athens. They were sometimes sold fresh, but more frequently salted. A stele of the late third hundred BCE from the humble Boeotian city of Akraiphia, on Lake Copais, provides us with a list of pisces prices. The cheap was skaren ( credibly parrotfish ) whereas Atlantic bluefin tuna was three times as expensive. [ 9 ] Common salt body of water fish were yellowfin tuna, crimson mullet, ray, swordfish or sturgeon, a delicacy which was consume salted. Lake Copais itself was celebrated in all Greece for its eels, celebrated by the hero of The Acharnians. other fresh water fish were pike-fish, carp and the less appreciated catfish. pictorial testify of Roman fishing comes from mosaics. [ 10 ] At a certain time the goatfish was considered the epitome of lavishness, above all because its scales exhibit a brilliantly loss color when it dies out of water. For this reason these fish were occasionally allowed to die lento at the table. There even was a recipe where this would take place in garo, in the sauce. At the beginning of the Imperial era, however, this custom on the spur of the moment came to an end, which is why mullus in the feast of Trimalchio ( see the Satyricon ) could be shown as a feature of the parvenu, who bores his guests with an unfashionable display of dying fish. [ citation needed ] In chivalric times, seafood was less prestigious than other animal meats, and much seen as merely an option to meat on fast days. still, seafood was the mainstay of many coastal populations. Kippers made from herring caught in the North Sea could be found in markets as army for the liberation of rwanda away as Constantinople. [ 11 ] While large quantities of fish were eaten fresh, a big proportion was salted, dried, and, to a lesser extent, smoked. stockfish, cod that was split down the middle, fixed to a pole and dried, was very common, though homework could be time-consuming, and meant beating the dried fish with a mallet before soaking it in body of water. A broad range of mollusks including oysters, mussels and scallops were eaten by coastal and river-dwelling populations, and fresh water crayfish were seen as a desirable alternate to kernel during pisces days. Compared to meat, fish was much more expensive for inland populations, specially in Central Europe, and therefore not an option for most. [ 12 ] Modern cognition of the generative cycles of aquatic species has led to the growth of hatcheries and improved techniques of fish farm and aquaculture. Better understanding of the hazards of eating raw and undercooked fish and shellfish has led to improved conservation methods and processing .
Types of seafood [edit ]
The follow table is based on the ISSCAAP classification ( International Standard Statistical Classification of Aquatic Animals and Plants ) used by the FAO for the purposes of collecting and compiling fishery statistics. [ 13 ] The product figures have been extracted from the FAO FishStat database, [ 14 ] and include both capture from fantastic fisheries and aquaculture production .
Processing [edit ]
fish is a highly perishable product : the “ fishy ” smell of abruptly pisces is due to the breakdown of amino acids into biogenic amines and ammonia. [ 47 ] be food fish are much transported in tanks at high expense for an external market that prefers its seafood killed immediately before it is cooked. Delivery of live pisces without water system is besides being explored. [ 48 ] While some seafood restaurants keep live pisces in aquarium for display purposes or for cultural beliefs, the majority of live fish are kept for dining customers. The live food pisces trade in Hong Kong, for exemplar, is estimated to have driven imports of live food pisces to more than 15,000 tonnes in 2000. Worldwide sales that class were estimated at US $ 400 million, according to the World Resources Institute. [ 49 ] If the cool chain has not been adhered to correctly, food products broadly decay and become harmful before the cogency date printed on the package. As the likely injury for a consumer when eating decayed fish is a lot larger than for example with dairy products, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ) has introduced regulation in the USA requiring the habit of a time temperature indicator on certain clean chilled seafood products. [ 50 ] Because fresh pisces is highly perishable, it must be eaten promptly or discarded ; it can be kept for merely a short time. In many countries, fresh fish are filleted and displayed for sale on a bed of broken methamphetamine or refrigerated. fresh fish is most normally found near bodies of water system, but the advent of refrigerated discipline and truck exile has made newly pisces more widely available inland. [ citation needed ] long term preservation of fish is accomplished in a variety of ways. The oldest and silent most wide used techniques are drying and salting. Desiccation ( complete dry ) is normally used to preserve pisces such as gull. partial dry and salt is democratic for the preservation of fish like herring and mackerel. Fish such as pink-orange, tuna, and herring are cooked and canned. Most fish are filleted anterior to canning, but some little fish ( e.g. sardines ) are merely decapitate and gutted anterior to canning. [ citation needed ]
consumption [edit ]
seafood is consumed all over the world ; it provides the world ‘s prime reservoir of high-quality protein : 14–16 % of the animal protein consumed cosmopolitan ; over one billion people trust on seafood as their elementary reference of animal protein. [ 51 ] [ 52 ] Fish is among the most common food allergens. Since 1960, annual ball-shaped seafood consumption has more than doubled to over 20 kg per head. Among lead consumers are Korea ( 78.5 kilogram per head ), Norway ( 66.6 kilogram ) and Portugal ( 61.5 kilogram ). [ 53 ] The UK Food Standards Agency recommends that at least two portions of seafood should be consumed each week, one of which should be oil-rich. There are over 100 different types of seafood available around the coast of the UK. Oil-rich fish such as mackerel or herring are deep in retentive chain Omega-3 oils. These oils are found in every cell of the human soundbox, and are required for human biological functions such as brain functionality. whitefish such as haddock and gull are identical abject in fat and calories which, combined with greasy pisces rich in Omega-3 such as mackerel, sardines, clean tuna, salmon and trout, can help to protect against coronary heart disease, arsenic well as helping to develop strong bones and teeth. shellfish are particularly rich in zinc, which is necessity for goodly peel and muscles deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as fertility. Casanova reputedly ate 50 oysters a day. [ 54 ] [ 55 ]
texture and taste [edit ]
Over 33,000 species of pisces and many more marine invertebrate species have been described. [ 56 ] Bromophenols, which are produced by marine alga, gives marine animals an smell and taste that is absent from fresh water pisces and invertebrates. besides, a chemical substance called dimethylsulfoniopropionate ( DMSP ) that is found in red and green alga is transferred into animals in the marine food chain. When break down, dimethyl sulfide ( DMS ) is produced, and is much released during food formulation when fresh pisces and shellfish are heated. In small quantities it creates a specific smack one associates with the ocean, but which in larger quantities gives the mental picture of rotten seaweed and old fish. [ 57 ] Another atom known as TMAO occurs in fishes and give them a clear-cut spirit. It besides exists in fresh water species, but becomes more numerous in the cells of an animal the deeper it lives, so that fish from the deeper parts of the ocean has a stronger smack than species who lives in shallow water. [ 58 ] Eggs from seaweed contains sex pheromones called dictyopterenes, which are meant to attract the sperm. These pheromones are besides found in edible seaweeds, which contributes to their olfactory property. [ 59 ] however, only a little total of species are normally eaten by humans. [ citation needed ]
Health benefits [edit ]
The US FDA recommends moderate consumption of fish as separate of a healthy and poise diet.
There is broad scientific consensus that docosahexaenoic acid ( DHA ) and eicosapentaenoic acid ( EPA ) found in seafood are beneficial to neurodevelopment and cognition, specially at unseasoned ages. [ 61 ] [ 62 ] The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization has described fish as “ nature ‘s super food. ” [ 63 ] Seafood consumption is associated with better neurological development during pregnancy [ 64 ] [ 65 ] and early childhood [ 66 ] and more tenuously linked to reduced mortality from coronary heart disease. [ 67 ] fish pulmonary tuberculosis has been associated with a decreased risk of dementia, lung cancer and throw. [ 68 ] [ 69 ] [ 70 ] A 2020 umbrella review concluded that fish consumption reduces all-cause mortality, cancer, cardiovascular disease, throw and other outcomes. The revue suggested that two to four servings per week is by and large safe. [ 71 ] however, two other recent umbrella reviews have found no statistically significant associations between pisces consumption and cancer risks and have cautioned researchers when it comes to interpreting reported associations between fish consumption and cancer risks because the quality of evidence is very low. [ 72 ] [ 73 ] The parts of pisces containing essential fats and micronutrients, frequently cited as primary health benefits for eating seafood, are frequently discarded in the develop populace. [ 74 ] Micronutrients including calcium, potassium, selenium, zinc, and iodine are found in their highest concentrations in the head, intestines, bones, and scales. [ 75 ] Government recommendations promote mince consumption of pisces. The US Food and Drug Administration recommends moderate ( 4 oz for children and 8 – 12 oz for adults, weekly ) consumption of fish as contribution of a healthy and balance diet. [ 76 ] The UK National Health Service gives similar advice, recommending at least 2 portions ( about 10 oz ) of fish weekly. [ 77 ] The Chinese National Health Commission recommends slenderly more, advising 10 – 20 oz of fish weekly. [ 78 ]
Health hazards [edit ]
Barracuda found in Florida are avoided due to a high risk of ciguatera. The same fish found in Belize presents a lesser risk due to the lower prevalence of ciguatera-causing dinoflagellates in the Caribbean. Thus, knowing a fish’s origin and life history is essential to determining its health hazards. There are numerous factors to consider when evaluating health hazards in seafood. These concerns include marine toxins, microbes, foodborne illness, radionuclide contamination, and man-made pollutants. [ 74 ] Shellfish are among the more coarse food allergens. [ 79 ] Most of these dangers can be mitigated or avoided with accurate cognition of when and where seafood is caught. however, consumers have limited access to relevant and actionable data in this respect and the seafood industry ‘s systemic problems with mislabelling make decisions about what is safe even more fraught. [ citation needed ] Ciguatera pisces poisoning ( CFP ) is an illness resulting from consuming toxins produced by dinoflagellates which bioaccumulate in the liver, roe, head, and intestines of witwatersrand pisces. [ 80 ] It is the most coarse disease associated with seafood consumption and poses the greatest risk to consumers. [ 74 ] The population of plankton which produces these toxins varies significantly over time and location, as seen in crimson tides. Evaluating the gamble of ciguatera in any given fish requires specific cognition of its origin and life history, data which is frequently inaccurate or unavailable. [ 81 ] While ciguatera is relatively widespread compared to other seafood-related health hazards ( up to 50,000 people suffer from ciguatera every year ), deathrate is very gloomy. [ 82 ] Scombroid food poison, is besides a seafood illness. It is typically caused by from eating fish high in histamine from being stored or processing improperly. fish and shellfish have a natural tendency to concentrate inorganic and organic toxins and pollutants in their bodies, including methylmercury, a highly toxic organic compound of mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCBs ), and microplastics. Species of fish that are high on the food chain, such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel, albacore tuna, and tilefish contain higher concentrations of these bioaccumulants. This is because bioaccumulants are stored in the muscle tissues of pisces, and when a marauding fish eats another pisces, it assumes the entire soundbox burden of bioaccumulants in the consume fish. Thus species that are high on the food chain roll up consistency burdens of bioaccumulants that can be ten times higher than the species they consume. This process is called biomagnification. [ citation needed ] man-made disasters can cause localized hazards in seafood which may spread widely via piscine food chains. The first occurrence of far-flung mercury poison in humans occurred this way in the 1950s in Minamata, Japan. Wastewater from a nearby chemical factory released methylmercury that accumulated in fish which were consumed by humans. austere mercury poisoning is nowadays known as Minamata disease. [ 83 ] [ 74 ] The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant calamity and 1947 – 1991 Marshall Islands nuclear bombard testing led to dangerous radionuclide contaminant of local ocean life which, in the latter event, remained as of 2008. [ 84 ] [ 74 ] A widely cited sketch in JAMA which synthesized government and MEDLINE reports, and meta-analyses to evaluate risks from methylmercury, dioxins, and polychlorinated biphenyls to cardiovascular health and links between fish pulmonary tuberculosis and neurological outcomes concluded that :
“ The benefits of meek pisces pulmonary tuberculosis ( 1-2 servings/wk ) outweigh the risks among adults and, excepting a few selected fish species, among women of childbearing historic period. avoidance of modest fish consumption due to confusion regarding risks and benefits could result in thousands of surfeit CHD [ congenital heart disease ] deaths annually and suboptimal neurodevelopment in children. ” [ 67 ]
Mislabelling [edit ]
 In many restaurants, most fish labeled as tuna, white tuna, or albacore is mislabeled escolar.Escolar is sometimes difficult to distinguish from tuna when cooked. Unlike tuna, escolar is associated with keriorrhea and severe cramping following consumption.In many restaurants, most fish labeled as tuna, white tuna, or albacore is mislabeled escolar. due to the wide array of options in the seafood marketplace, seafood is far more susceptible to mislabeling than mundane food. [ 74 ] There are more than 1,700 species of seafood in the United States ‘ consumer market, 80 – 90 % of which are imported and less than 1 % of which is tested for fraud. [ 86 ] however, more late inquiry into seafood imports and pulmonary tuberculosis patterns among consumers in the United States suggests 35 % -38 % of seafood products are of domestic origin. [ 88 ] pulmonary tuberculosis suggests Estimates of mislabelled seafood in the United States range from 33 % in general up to 86 % for particular species. [ 86 ] Byzantine provision chains, patronize by-catch, brand appointment, species substitution, and inaccurate ecolabels all contribute to confusion for the consumer. [ 89 ] A 2013 discipline by Oceana found that one third gear of seafood sampled from the United States was falsely labelled. [ 86 ] Snapper and tuna were particularly susceptible to mislabelling, and seafood substitution was the most common type of fraud. Another type of mislabelling is short-weighting, where practices such as overglazing or soaking can misleadingly increase the apparent slant of the fish. [ 90 ] For supermarket shoppers, many seafood products are unrecognizable fillets. Without sophisticate DNA test, there is no foolproof method to identify a fish species without their head, bark, and fins. This creates easy opportunities to substitute cheap products for expensive ones, a form of economic fraud. [ 91 ] Beyond fiscal concerns, significant health risks arise from obscure pollutants and nautical toxins in an already fraught market. Seafood fraud has led to far-flung keriorrhea ascribable to mislabeled escolar, mercury poisoning from products marketed as dependable for pregnant women, and hospitalization and neurological damage due to mislabeled blowfish. [ 87 ] For case, a 2014 sketch published in PLOS One found that 15 % of MSC certified Patagonian toothfish originated from uncertified and mercury contaminated fisheries. These fishery-stock substitutions had 100 % more mercury than their genuine counterparts, “ vastly exceeding ” limits in Canada, New Zealand, and Australia. [ 92 ]
sustainability [edit ]
research into population trends of assorted species of seafood is pointing to a global flop of seafood species by 2048. Such a break down would occur due to befoulment and overfishing, threatening oceanic ecosystems, according to some researchers. [ 93 ] A major external scientific study released in November 2006 in the journal Science found that about one-third of all fishing stocks worldwide have collapsed ( with a collapse being defined as a refuse to less than 10 % of their maximum ascertained abundance ), and that if current trends continue all pisces stocks worldwide will collapse within fifty years. [ 94 ] In July 2009, Boris Worm of Dalhousie University, the writer of the November 2006 study in Science, co-authored an update on the state of the populace ‘s fisheries with one of the original analyze ‘s critics, Ray Hilborn of the University of Washington at Seattle. The raw study found that through good fisheries management techniques even depleted fish stocks can be revived and made commercially viable again. [ 95 ] An analysis published in August 2020 indicates that seafood could theoretically increase sustainably by 36–74 % by 2050 compared to current yields and that whether or not these production potentials are realized sustainably depends on a number of factors “ such as policy reforms, technological invention and the extent of future shifts in demand ”. [ 96 ] [ 97 ] The FAO State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2004 composition estimates that in 2003, of the chief fish stocks or groups of resources for which appraisal information is available, “ approximately one-fourth were overexploited, depleted or recovering from depletion ( 16 %, 7 % and 1 % respectively ) and needed rebuild. ” [ 98 ] The National Fisheries Institute, a trade wind advocacy group representing the United States seafood industry, disagree. They claim that presently observed declines in fish population are due to natural fluctuations and that enhanced technologies will finally alleviate whatever impact humanity is having on oceanic life. [ 99 ]
In religion [edit ]
For the most part Islamic dietary laws allow the corrode of seafood, though the Hanbali forbid eels, the Shafi forbid frogs and crocodiles, and the Hanafi prevent penetrate feeders such as shellfish and carp. [ 100 ] The jewish laws of Kashrut forbid the consume of shellfish and eels. [ 101 ] In the Old Testament, the Mosaic Covenant allowed the Israelites to eat finfish, but mollusk and eels were an abhorrence and not allowed. [ 102 ] In the New Testament Luke 24 Jesus ‘s eating of a fish and Jesus telling his disciples where to catch fish, before cooking it for them to eat. Pescatarianism was widespread in the early church service, among both the clergy and laity. [ 103 ] In ancient and medieval times, the Catholic Church forbade the practice of eating meat, eggs and dairy products during Lent. Thomas Aquinas argued that these “ afford greater pleasure as food [ than fish ], and greater nourishment to the human body, so that from their pulmonary tuberculosis there results a greater excess available for germinal matter, which when abundant becomes a great bonus to lust. ” [ 104 ] In the United States, the Catholic rehearse of abstaining from meat on Fridays during Lent has popularized the Friday fish fry, [ 105 ] and parishes much sponsor a fish fry during Lent. [ 106 ] In predominantly Roman Catholic areas, restaurants may adjust their menu during Lent by adding seafood items to the menu. [ 107 ]