Genus of flowering plants in the family Iridaceae
other plants named “ iris ” are found elsewhere in the Iridaceae
Iris is a genus of 260–300 [ 1 ] [ 2 ] species of flowering plants with flamboyant flowers. It takes its name from the greek son for a rainbow, which is besides the identify for the Greek goddess of the rainbow, Iris. Some authors state that the diagnose refers to the wide diverseness of flower colors found among the many species. [ 3 ] equally well as being the scientific list, iris is besides widely used as a common name for all Iris species, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as some belong to other closely relate genus. A coarse diagnose for some species is ‘flags ‘, while the plants of the subgenus Scorpiris are widely known as ‘ juno ‘, particularly in gardening. It is a popular garden flower.

The often-segregated, monotypic genus Belamcanda ( blackberry lily, I. domestica ), Hermodactylus ( snake ‘s head iris, I. tuberosa ), and Pardanthopsis ( vesper iris, I. dichotoma ) are presently included in Iris. Three Iris varieties are used in the Iris flower data set outlined by Ronald Fisher in his 1936 composition The use of multiple measurements in taxonomic problems as an exemplar of analogue discriminant analysis. [ 4 ]

description [edit ]

exemplification of an iris flower with highlight parts of the flower Irises are perennial plants, growing from creeping rhizomes ( rhizomatous irises ) or, in dry climates, from bulb ( bellied irises ). They have long, raise blossoming stems which may be simple or branched, solid or hollow, and flattened or have a round cross-section. The rhizomatous species normally have 3–10 basal ensiform leaves growing in dense clumps. The bellied species have cylindrical, radical leaves. [ citation needed ]

flower [edit ]

The inflorescences are in the form of a fan and contain one or more symmetrical six-lobed flowers. These grow on a pedicel or peduncle. The three sepals, [ 5 ] which are normally spreading or wilt downwards, are referred to as “ falls ”. They expand from their pin down base ( the “ claw ” or “ haft ” [ 6 ] ), into a broader extend parcel ( “ limb ” or “ blade ” [ 7 ] ) and can be adorned with vein, lines or dots. In the center of the sword, some of the rhizomatous irises have a “ beard ”, a quarrel of fuzzed hairs at the root of each falls petal which gives pollinators a landing target and guides them to the ambrosia. [ 8 ] The three, [ 5 ] sometimes reduced, petals stand upright, partially behind the sepal bases. They are called “ standards ”. Some smaller iris species have all six lobes pointing straight outwards, but broadly limb and standards differ markedly in appearance. They are united at their base into a floral tube that lies above the ovary ( known as an epigynous or inferior ovary ). The three styles [ 5 ] separate towards the vertex into petaloid branches ; this is meaning in pollination. [ citation needed ] The iris flower is of interest as an exercise of the relation back between flowering plants and pollinating insects. The shape of the flower and the position of the pollen-receiving and stigmatic surfaces on the out petals form a landing-stage for a flying worm, which in probing for ambrosia, will first come into contact with the perianth, then with the three [ 5 ] stigmatic stamens in one whorled surface which is borne on an ovary form of three carpels. The shelf-like cross projection on the inner whorled bottom of the stamens is beneath the overarching expressive style arm below the mark, so that the worm comes in contact with its pollen-covered surface entirely after passing the stigma ; in backing out of the flower it will come in contact lone with the non-receptive lower font of the mark. Thus, an insect bearing pollen from one flower will, in entering a second, deposit the pollen on the mark ; in backing out of a flower, the pollen which it bears will not be rubbed off on the stigma of the same flower. [ 9 ] The iris yield is a space capsule which opens up in three parts to reveal the numerous seeds within. In some species, the seeds bear an aril. such as Iris stolonifera which as light up brown seeds that have thick white aril ( or coatings ). [ 10 ]

taxonomy [edit ]

Iris is the largest genus of the family Iridaceae with astir to 300 species – many of them natural hybrids. [ 11 ] Modern classifications, starting with Dykes ( 1913 ), have subdivided them. Dykes referred to the major subgroupings as sections. subsequent authors such as Lawrence ( 1953 ) and Rodionenko ( 1987 ) have by and large called them subgenus, while basically retaining Dykes ‘ groupings, using six subgenus further divided into twelve sections. Of these, segment Limneris ( subgenus Limneris ) was further divided into sixteen serial. Like some older sources, Rodionenko moved some of the bulblike subgenus ( Xiphium, Scorpiris and Hermodactyloides ) into break genus ( Xiphion, Juno and Iridodictyum respectively ), but this has not been accepted by late writers such as Mathew ( 1989 ), although the latter keep Hermodactylus as a clear-cut genus, to include Hermodactylus tuberosus, now returned to Hermodactyloides as Iris tuberosa. [ 11 ] Rodionenko besides reduced the issue of sections in subgenus Iris, from six to two, depending on the presence ( Hexapogon ) or absence ( Iris ) of arils on the seeds, referred to as arilate or nonarilate. Taylor ( 1976 ) provides arguments for not including all arilate species in Hexapogon. [ 11 ] In general, mod classifications normally recognise six subgenus, of which five are restricted to the Old World ; the one-sixth ( subgenus Limniris ) has a Holarctic distribution. The two largest subgenus are far divided into sections. The Iris subgenus has been divided into six sections ; bearded irises ( or pogon irises ), Psammiris, Oncocyclus, Regelia, Hexapogon and Pseudoregelia. [ 12 ] Iris subg. Limniris has been divided into 2 sections ; Lophiris ( or ‘Evansias ‘ or crested iris ) and Limniris which was further divided into 16 series. [ 13 ]

evolution [edit ]

The concept of introgressive hybridization ( or “ introgression ” ) was inaugural invented to describe the model of interspecies hybridization followed by backcrossing to the parentals that is common in this genus. [ 14 ]

Subgeneric division [edit ]

Scorpiris: Iris persica, a bulbous iris A member of subgenus, a bulblike iris Xiphium: Iris latifolia A extremity of subgenus

subgenus [edit ]

  • Iris (Bearded rhizomatous irises)
  • Limniris (Beardless rhizomatous irises)
  • Xiphium (Smooth-bulbed bulbous irises: Formerly genus Xiphion)
  • Nepalensis (Bulbous irises: Formerly genus Junopsis)
  • Scorpiris (Smooth-bulbed bulbous irises: Formerly genus Juno)
  • Hermodactyloides (Reticulate-bulbed bulbous irises: Formerly genus Iridodictyum)

Sections, series and species [edit ]

distribution and habitat [edit ]

Wild Iris in Behbahan fantastic Iris spuria in Behbahan, IranWild Iris Spuria in Behbahan crazy Iris spuria in Behbahan about all species are found in moderate Northern Hemisphere zones, from Europe to Asia and across North America. Although divers in ecology, Iris is predominantly found in dry, semi-desert, or colder rough mountainous areas. [ 11 ] other habitats include grassy slopes, meadowlands, bogs and riverbanks. [ citation needed ]

polish [edit ]

Limniris: Iris tectorum in China A member of subgenusin China Iris is extensively grown as ornamental plant in home and botanical gardens. Presby Memorial Iris Gardens in New Jersey, for exercise, is a living iris museum with over 10,000 plants, while in Europe the most celebrated iris garden is arguably the Giardino dell’Iris in Florence ( Italy ) which every year hosts a well attend iris breeders ‘ rival. Irises, particularly the multitude of bearded types, feature regularly in shows such as the Chelsea Flower Show. For garden cultivation, iris classification differs from taxonomic classification. Garden iris are classed as either bulb iris or rhizome iris ( called rhizomatous ) with a number of far subdivisions. Due to a wide-eyed kind of geographic origins, and therefore great genetic diverseness, cultivation needs of iris vary greatly. Iris grow well in most any garden soil types providing they are well-drained. The earliest to bloom are species like I. junonia and I. reichenbachii, which flower a early as February and March in the Northern Hemisphere, followed by the dwarf forms of I. pumila, and then by most of the tall bearded varieties, such as the german iris and its assortment florentina, angelic iris, hungarian iris, lemon-yellow iris ( I. flavescens ), Iris sambucina, I. amoena, and their natural and horticultural hybrids such as those described under names like I. neglecta or I. squalens and best connect under I. × lurida. The iris is promoted in the United Kingdom by the british Iris Society. [ 15 ] The national collection of Arthur Bliss Irises is held in Gloucestershire. [ 16 ]

Bearded rhizome iris [edit ]

‘Amethyst Flame ‘. Note big “ beard ” . Tall Bearded Iris ‘Barocco ‘ Bearded iris are classified as dwarf, tall, or aril. In Europe, the most normally found garden iris is a hybrid iris ( falsely called german iris, I. germanica which is sterile ) and its numerous cultivars. assorted angry forms ( including Iris aphylla ) [ 17 ] and naturally occurring hybrids of the Sweet iris ( I. pallida ) and the hungarian iris ( I. variegata ) form the basis of about all modern loanblend bearded irises. median forms of bearded iris ( average bearded, or IB ; miniature tall bearded, or MTB ; etc. ) are derived from crosses between improbable and dwarf species like Iris pumila. The “ beard ”, short-circuit hairs arranged to look like a long furred caterpillar, is found toward the back of the lower petals and its purpose is to guide pollinating insects toward the generative parts of the plant. Bearded irises have been cultivated to have much larger blooms than historically ; the flowers are now doubly the size of those a hundred years ago. Ruffles were introduced in the 1960s to help stabilize the larger petals. [ 18 ] Bearded iris are easy to cultivate and propagate and have become very popular in gardens. A small selection is normally held by garden centres at appropriate times during the season, but there are thousands of cultivars available from specialist suppliers ( more than 30,000 cultivars of tall bearded iris ). They are well planted as plain beginning plants in late summer, in a cheery open position with the rhizome visible on the surface of the dirty and facing the sunlight. They should be divided in summer every two or three years, when the clumps become congested. A rightfully crimson bearded iris, like a sincerely blue rose, remains an unattained goal despite patronize crossbreed and choice. [ 19 ] There are species and selections, most notably based on the beardless rhizomatous Copper iris ( I. fulva ), which have a relatively saturated crimson color. however, getting this color into a advanced bearded iris engender has proven very unmanageable, and thus, the huge majority of irises are in the purple and gloomy compass of the color spectrum, with yellow, pink, orange and white breeds besides available. Irises – like many relate genus – miss red-based hues because their anthocyanins are delphinidin -derived. [ 20 ] Pelargonidin -derived anthocyanins would lend the sought blue-based colors but these genera are metabolically disinclined to produce pelargonidin. [ 20 ] Dihydroflavonol 4-reductases in Iris ‘s relatives selectively do not catalyse dihydrokaempferol to leucopelargonidin, the precursor, and this is credibly the encase here equally well. [ 20 ] The early metabolic difficulty is the presence of flavonoid 3’-hydroxylase, which in Chrysanthemum inhibits pelargonidin deduction. [ 20 ] The bias in irises towards delphinidin-anthocyanins is so marked that they have served as the gene donors for transgenic attempts at the aforesaid blue roses. [ 20 ] Although these have been technically successful – over 99 % of their anthocyanins are blue – their growth is crippled and they have never been commercializable. [ 20 ]

AGM cultivars [edit ]

The come is a survival of bearded irises that have gained the Royal Horticultural Society ‘s Award of Garden Merit :

Bearded iris Oncocyclus segment [edit ]

This section contains the cushion irises or royal irises, a group of plants noted for their big, powerfully marked flowers. Between 30 and 60 species are classified in this section, depending on the authority. Species of section Oncocyclus are broadly rigid endemics, typically occurring in a belittled count of break up, disjunct populations, whose geographic isolation is enhanced by their pollination scheme and myrmecochory semen dispersion. morphologic discrepancy between populations normally follows a cline reflecting local adaptation to environment conditions ; furthermore, this largely lap discrepancy between species, making it difficult to identify discrete species boundaries in these irises. [ 32 ] [ 33 ] Compared with other irises the cushion varieties are scantily furnished with narrow falcate leaves and the flowers are normally hold singly on the stalks ; they are often very blue and in some about blackish. [ 34 ] The cushion irises are reasonably fastidious growers, and to be successful with them they must be planted rather shallow in very game well-drained dirty. They should not be disturbed in the fall, and after the leaves have withered the roots should be protected from heavy rains until growth starts again naturally .

Bearded iris Regelia section

[edit ]

This section, closely allied to the cushion irises, includes several garden hybrids with species in section Oncocyclus, known as Regelio-cyclus irises. They are good planted in September or October in warm cheery positions, the rhizomes being lifted the following July after the leaves have withered .

Beardless rhizome iris ( subgenus Limniris ) [edit ]

There are six major subgroupings of the beardless iris, depending on origin. They are divided into Pacific Coast, Siberica, Spuria, Louisiana, Japanese, and early. Beardless rhizomatous iris types normally found in the European garden are the siberian iris ( I. sibirica ) and its hybrids, and the japanese Iris ( I. ensata ) and its hybrids. “ japanese iris “ is besides a catch-all term for the japanese iris proper ( hanashōbu ), the rake iris ( I. sanguinea, ayame ) and the rabbit-ear iris ( I. laevigata, kakitsubata ). I. unguicularis is a late-winter-flowering species from Algeria, with azure flowers with a yellow streak in the center of each petal, produced from Winter to Spring. Yet another beardless rhizomatous iris democratic in garden is I. ruthenica, which has much the same requirements and characteristics as the grandiloquent bearded irises. In North America, Louisiana iris and its hybrids are frequently cultivated .

Crested rhizome iris ( subgenus Limniris ) [edit ]

One specific species, Iris cristata from North America .

Bulbing juno iris ( subgenus Scorpiris ) [edit ]

frequently called ‘ junos ‘, this type of iris is one of the more popular bulb irises in polish. They are generally earliest to bloom .

Bulbing european iris ( subgenus Xiphium ) [edit ]

This group includes irises by and large of european lineage, and are besides classified as Dutch, English, or spanish iris .

  • Iris reticulata and Iris persica, both of which are fragrant, are also popular with florists.
  • Iris xiphium, the Spanish Iris (also known as Dutch Iris) and
  • Iris latifolia, the English Iris. Despite the common names both the Spanish and English iris are of Spanish origin, and have very showy flowers, so they are popular with gardeners and florists. They are among the hardier bulbous irises, and can be grown in northern Europe. They require to be planted in thoroughly drained beds in very light open soil, moderately enriched, and should have a rather sheltered position. Both these present a long series of beautiful varieties of the most diverse colours, flowering in May, June and July, the smaller Spanish iris being the earlier of the two.

Bulbing reticulate iris ( subgenus Hermodactyloides ) [edit ]

Reticulate irises with their feature bulbs, including the jaundiced I. danfordiae, and the respective blue-purple I. histrioides and I. reticulata, flower vitamin a early as February and March. These reticulate-bulbed irises are miniatures and popular spring medulla oblongata, being one of the first to bloom in the garden. many of the smaller species of bulblike iris, being liable to perish from surfeit of moisture, should have a well-drained bed of good but holey territory made up for them, in some cheery spot, and in winter should be protected by a breed of half-decayed leaves or fresh coco-fiber .

gallery [edit ]

Uses [edit ]

aromatic rhizomes [edit ]

Bombay Sapphire Iris germanica and Iris pallida.gin contains flavoring derived from particular bearded iris speciesand Rhizomes of the german iris ( I. germanica ) and dessert iris ( I. pallida ) are traded as florentine iris ancestor and are used in perfume and medicine, though more common in ancient times than today. Today Iris all-important oil ( absolute ) from flowers are sometimes used in aromatherapy as ataractic medicines. The dry rhizomes are besides given whole to babies to help in teething. Gin brands such as Bombay Sapphire and Magellan Gin use florentine iris beginning and sometimes iris flowers for flavor and discolor. [ 35 ] [ 36 ] For orrisroot solution production, iris rhizomes are harvested, dried, and aged for up to 5 years. In this clock time, the fats and oils inside the roots undergo degradation and oxidation, which produces many fragrant compounds that are valuable in perfumery. The odorize is said to be similar to violets. The aged rhizomes are steam-distilled which produces a thickly greasy compound, known in the perfume industry as “ iris butter ” or florentine iris oil. [ 37 ] Iris rhizomes besides contain noteworthy amounts of terpenes, and organic acids such as ascorbic acid, myristic acid, tridecylenic acid and undecylenic acidic. Iris rhizomes can be toxic. Larger blue pin ( I. versicolor ) and other species frequently grown in gardens and widely hybridized check raise amounts of the toxic glycoside iridin. These rhizomes can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and/or hide discomfort, but poisonings are not normally black. Irises should entirely be used medicinally under professional guidance. [ 38 ]

Water purification [edit ]

In water purification, chicken iris ( I. pseudacorus ) is frequently used. The roots are normally planted in a substrate ( e.g. lava-stone ) in a reedbed -setup. The roots then improve water timbre by consuming alimentary pollutants, such as from agrarian runoff. This highly aggressive agriculturist is now considered a noxious weed and prohibited in some states of the US where it is found clogging natural waterways. [ 39 ]

In culture [edit ]

The Iris is one of the flowers listed as birth flower for February. [ 40 ] In Christianity, the iris represents Our lady of Sorrows as its abrupt leaves are like swords. [ 41 ] The Iris croatica is the unofficial National Flower of Croatia. [ 42 ] Iris nigricans, the black iris is the national bloom of Jordan. [ 43 ] Iris bismarckiana, the Nazareth Iris, is the symbol of the city of Upper Nazareth. [ 44 ] [ 45 ] In 1998, Iris lacustris, the Dwarf Lake iris was designated the state wildflower of Michigan, [ 46 ] [ 47 ] where the huge majority of populations exist. [ 48 ] In 1990, the Louisiana iris was voted the state wildflower of Louisiana, [ 49 ] though the submit flower is the magnolia bloom. [ 50 ] In Iran and Kashmir, [ 51 ] Iris kashmiriana and Iris germanica [ 52 ] are most normally grown on Muslim [ 13 ] scratch yards. [ 53 ] [ 17 ] [ 54 ] An iris — species unspecified — is one of the state flowers of Tennessee. It is generally accepted that the species Iris versicolor, the Purple Iris is the department of state flower [ 55 ] alongside the wild-growing purple passionflower ( Passiflora incarnata ), the country ‘s other floral emblem. Greeneville, Tennessee, is home to the annual Iris Festival celebrating the iris, local customs, and culture. [ 56 ] The species Iris versicolor is besides the provincial flower of Quebec, having replaced the Madonna lily which is not native to the state. [ 57 ] and it is the official bloom of Kappa Pi International Honorary Art Fraternity. The artist George Gessert has specialised in breeding irises. [ 58 ] The artist Vincent van Gogh painted several celebrated pictures of irises. [ 59 ] The american artist Joseph Mason – a ally of John James Audubon – painted a accurate visualize of what was then known as the Louisiana flag or bull iris ( Iris fulva ), to which Audubon subsequently added two Northern paraula birds ( Parula americana ) for inclusion as Plate 15 in his Birds of America. The artist Philip Hermogenes Calderon painted an iris in his 1856 work Broken Vows ; he followed the principles of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. An ancient belief is that the iris serves as a warning to be heeded, as it was named for the messenger of Olympus. It besides conveys images of lost love and silent grief, for young girls were led into the afterlife by Iris. Broken Vows was accompanied with poetry by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow when it was first exhibited. [ 60 ] french King Clovis I ( 466–511 ), when he converted to Christianity, changed his symbol on his streamer from three toads to irises ( the Virgin ‘s flower ). [ 61 ] The iris, a conventionalized iris, first occurs in its modern use as the emblem of the House of Capet. The iris has been associated with France since Louis VII adopted it as a symbol in the twelfth century. The chicken iris reflects the yellow iris ( I. pseudacorus ), common in westerly Europe. contemporaneous uses can be seen in the Quebec flag and the logo of the New Orleans Saints professional football team and on the ease up of Saint Louis, Missouri. The loss iris in the coat-of-arms and flag of Florence, Italy, descends from the white iris which is native to Florence and which grew even in its city walls. This white iris displayed against a red background was the symbol of Florence until the Medici kin reversed the colors to signal a deepen in political world power, setting in movement a centuries-long and still ongoing breeding program to hybridize a crimson iris. The iris is the almost-universal symbol of Scouting and one of the symbols adopted by the sorority Kappa Kappa Gamma. A conventionalized chicken iris is the symbol of Brussels, since historically the important Saint Gaugericus Island was carpeted in them. [ 62 ] The iris symbol is now the sole sport on the pin of the Brussels-Capital Region. The provincial flower of Québec ( Canada ) is the harlequin blueflag ( I. versicolor ), called iris versicolore in French. It is thought in China, that Iris anguifuga has the ability to keep snakes from entering the garden. It grows all winter, keeping snakes out, but then goes dormant in the spring, allowing the snakes back into the garden. In the fall, the iris re-appears and can stop the snakes again. [ 63 ] [ 64 ] In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, the goddess Persephone and her companion nymph ( the Oceanids along with Artemis and Athena ) were gathering flowers such as rose, crocus, violet, iris ( besides called ‘agallis ‘ or ἀγαλλίς ( in Greek script ), [ 65 ] lily, larkspur, [ 66 ] and hyacinth [ 67 ] in a spring hayfield before she was abducted by the idol Hades. [ 66 ] It has been suggested that the ‘agallis ‘ mentioned was a gnome iris, as described by leaf and rout form, [ 68 ] ) and identified as Iris attica. [ 69 ] [ 70 ]

Diseases [edit ]

Narcissus mosaic virus is most normally known from Narcissus. [ 71 ] [ 72 ] Wylie et al., 2014 [ 72 ] make the foremost identification of Narcissus mosaic virus infecting this genus, and the first in Australia. [ 71 ] Japanese iris necrotic ring virus normally infects this genus. [ 73 ] It was, however, obscure in Australia until Wylie et al., 2012 [ 73 ] identified it here in I. ensata. [ 71 ]

gallery [edit ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

bibliography [edit ]

taxonomy [edit ]