fabulous freak of the ocean

The kraken ( ) [ 7 ] is a legendary sea monster of enormous size said to appear off the coasts of Norway. Kraken, the subject of sailors ‘ superstitions and mythos, was beginning described in the modern senesce at the bend of the eighteenth hundred, inaugural in a travelogue by Francesco Negri in 1700, followed by writings by bokmal lifelike history. Egede ( 1741 ) [ 1729 ] described the kraken in detail and equated it with the hafgufa of chivalric lore, but the first description of the creature is normally credited to the norwegian bishop Pontoppidan ( 1753 ). Pontoppidan was the first to describe the kraken as an octopus ( polyp ) of fantastic size, [ barn ] and wrote that it had a reputation of pulling down ships, but the french malacologist Denys-Montfort of the nineteenth hundred is better known for these.

The bang-up man-killing octopus entered french fiction when novelist Victor Hugo ( 1866 ) introduced the pieuvre octopus of Guernsey lore, which he identified with the kraken of caption, and this led to Jules Verne ‘s word picture of the kraken, which he did not in truth distinguish between squid or octopus. The legend may have indeed originated from sightings of giant squid, which may grow to 13–15 meters ( 40–50 feet ) in distance. If Linnaeus wrote on the kraken, he only did so indirectly. Linnaeus had published on the Microcosmus genus ( an animal with respective other organisms or growths attached to it, comprising a colony ). And these, including Bartholin ‘s cetus called hafgufa, and Paullini ‘s monstrous marinum. These have been referred to as “ krakens ” by subsequent authors. [ hundred ] The claim that Linnaeus printed the vernacular identify “ kraken ” in the margin of a belated edition of Systema Naturae fails to be confirmed, and another claim that he published on the cephalopod species Sepia microcosmus [ five hundred ] has been shown to be erroneous, though these continue to repeated as fact by contemporary writers .

etymology [edit ]

The English word “ kraken ” ( in the sense of sea freak ) derives from norwegian kraken or krakjen, which are the definite forms of krake. [ 7 ] According to a norwegian dictionary, krake, in the sense of “ malformed or crooked tree ” originates from Old Norse kraki, [ 8 ] meaning “ perch, stake ”. [ 9 ] And krake in the sense of “ sea freak ” or “ octopus “ may plowshare the lapp etymology. [ 8 ] swedish krake for “ sea giant ” is besides traced to krake meaning “ pole ”. [ 10 ] however, Finnur Jónsson remarked that the krake besides signified a grapnel ( dregg ) or anchor, which readily conjured up the double of a cephalopod. He besides explained the synonym of krake, namely horv was an alternate shape of harv ‘ harrow ‘ and conjectured that this name was suggested by the inkfish ‘s action of seeming to plow the sea. Shetlandic krekin for “ giant ”, a forbidden parole, is listed as etymologically related. [ 10 ] [ 12 ] Some of the synonym of krake given by Erik Pontoppidan were, in danish : [ east ] søe-krake, kraxe, horv, [ 13 ] krabbe, søe-horv, anker-trold. [ f ] [ guanine ] The imprint krabbe besides suggests an etymological ancestor blood relation with the german verb krabben ‘to fawn ”. [ 24 ]

first descriptions [edit ]

[25][26] The “bearded” possibly a kraken.[27][h]Carta marina (1539) —Olaus Magnus, ( 1539 ) Two monsters, the ferocious toothed “ swine whale ”, and the horned, flashy-eyed “ bearded whale ” on Olaus ‘s map, given specific names by Gesner.The “ bearded ” possibly a kraken. The foremost description of the krake as “ sciu-crak “ was given by italian writer Negri in Viaggio settentrionale ( Padua, 1700 ), a travelogue about Scandinavia. [ 29 ] [ 30 ] The book describes the sciu-crak as a massive “ fish ” which was many-horned or many-armed. The author besides distinguished this from a sea-serpent. [ 31 ] The kraken was described as a many-headed and clawed animal by Egede ( 1741 ) [ 1729 ], who stated it was equivalent to the Icelanders ‘ hafgufa, [ 32 ] but the latter is normally treated as a fabulous whale. [ 33 ] Erik Pontoppidan ( 1753 ) who popularized the kraken to the earth noted that it was multiple-armed according to lore, and conjectured it to be a giant sea-crab, starfish or a polypus ( octopus ). [ 34 ] still, the bishop is considered to have been implemental in sparking interest for the kraken in the english-speaking world, [ 35 ] deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as becoming regarded as the authority on sea-serpents and krakens. Although it has been stated that the kraken ( norwegian : krake ) was “ described for the inaugural meter by that identify ” in the writings of Erik Pontoppidan, bishop of Bergen, in his Det første Forsøg paa Norges naturlige Historie “ The First Attempt at [ a ] Natural History of Norway ” ( 1752–53 ), [ 37 ] a german source qualified Pontoppidan to be the first reference on kraken available to be read in the german linguistic process. [ 38 ] A description of the kraken had been anticipated by Hans Egede. [ 39 ] Denys-Montfort ( 1801 ) published on two giants, the “ colossal octopus ” with the enduring image of it attacking a transport, and the “ kraken octopod ”, deemed to be the largest organism in fauna. Denys-Montfort matched his “ colossal ” with Pliny ‘s narrative of the giant polypus that attacked ships-wrecked people, while making commensurateness between his kraken and Pliny ‘s freak called the arbor marina. [ i ] Finnur Jónsson ( 1920 ) besides favored identifying the kraken as an inkfish ( squid/octopus ) on etymological grounds .

Egede [edit ]

The krake ( German, English : kracken ) was described by Hans Egede in his Det gamle Grønlands nye perlustration ( 1729 ; Ger. t. 1730 ; tr. Description of Greenland , 1745 ), [ 40 ] drawing from the “ fables ” of his native area, the Nordlandene len [ no ] of Norway, then under Danish dominion. [ 42 ] [ 43 ] According to his norwegian informants, the kraken ‘s soundbox measured many miles in length, and when it surfaced it seemed to cover the hale sea, and “ having many heads and a number of claw ”. With its claws it captured its prey, which included ships, men, pisces, and animals, carrying its victims back into the depths. [ 43 ] Egede conjectured that the krake was equitable to the monster that the Icelanders predict hafgufa, but as he has not obtained anything related to him through an informant, he had difficuty describing the latter. [ 32 ] [ j ] According to the lore of norwegian fishermen, they can mount upon the fish-attracting kraken as if it were a sand-bank ( Fiske-Grund ‘fishing school ‘ ), but if they ever had the misfortune to capture the kraken, getting it entangled on their hooks, the only way to avoid end was to pronounce its diagnose to make it go back to its depths. [ 45 ] Egede besides wrote that the krake fell under the general category of “ sea ghost ” ( danish : søe-trold og [ søe ] – spøgelse ), [ 48 ] adding that “ the Draw ” ( danish : Drauen, definite form ) was another being within that ocean ghost classification. [ kilobyte ]

Hafgufa [edit ]

Egede besides made the aforesaid recognition of krake as being the same as the hafgufa of the Icelanders, [ 15 ] [ 32 ] though he seemed to have obtained the information indirectly from medieval norwegian work, the Speculum Regale ( or King’s Mirror, c. 1250 ). [ fifty ] [ 39 ] [ 15 ] late David Crantz [ de ] in Historie von Grönland ( History of Greenland, 1765 ) besides reported kraken and the hafgufa to be synonymous. [ 53 ] An english translator of the King’s Mirror in 1917 opted to translate hafgufa as kraken. [ 55 ] And the hafgufa [ megabyte ] from the 13th-century Old Norse knead [ 56 ] [ 57 ] [ n ] continues to be identified with the kraken in some scholarly writings, [ 15 ] and if this equivalence were allowed, the kraken-hafgufa ‘s crop would extend, at least legendarily, to waters approaching Helluland ( Baffin Island, Canada ), as described in Örvar-Odds saga. [ 60 ] [ o ]

Contrary opinion

The description of the hafgufa in the King’s Mirror suggests a falsify eyewitness history of what was actually a whale, at least to some opinion. Halldór Hermannsson besides reads the workplace as describing the hafgufa as a type of whale. [ 33 ] Finnur Jónsson ( 1920 ) having arrived at the opinion that the kraken credibly represented an inkfish ( squid/octopus ), as discussed earlier, expressed his incredulity towards the standing impression that the kraken originated from the hafgufa .

Pontoppidan [edit ]

Erik Pontoppidan ‘s Det første Forsøg paa Norges naturlige Historie ( 1752, actually volume 2, 1753 ) [ 62 ] made several claims regarding kraken, including the notion that the creature was sometimes mistaken for a group of small islands with fish swimming in-between, norwegian fishermen frequently took the risk of trying to fish over kraken, since the trip up was sol bountiful ( hence the saying “ You must have fished on Kraken ” [ 65 ] ). however, there was besides the risk to seamen of being engulfed by the whirlpool when it submerged, [ 24 ] and this whirlpool was compared to Norway ‘s celebrated Moskstraumen frequently known as “ the Maelstrom ”. [ 67 ] [ 68 ] Pontoppidan besides described the destructive electric potential of the giant animal : “ it is said that if [ the animal ‘s arms ] were to lay hold of the largest man-of-war, they would pull it down to the penetrate ”. [ 69 ] [ 24 ] [ 70 ] Kraken purportedly entirely fed for respective months, then spent the following few months emptying its body waste, and the thickened cloud water attracted fish. Later Henry Lee commented that the supposed body waste may have been the discharge of ink by a cephalopod .

taxonomic identifications [edit ]

Pontoppidan wrote of a possible specimen of the krake, “ possibly a young and careless one ”, which washed ashore and died at Alstahaug in 1680. [ 70 ] [ 68 ] He observed that it had long “ arms ”, and guessed that it must have been crawling like a snail/slug with the use of these “ arms ”, but got lodged in the landscape during the work. [ 73 ] [ 74 ] twentieth century malacologist Paul Bartsch conjectured this to have been a elephantine squid, [ 75 ] as did literary learner Finnur Jónsson. [ 76 ] however, what Pontoppidan actually stated regarding what creatures he regarded as candidates for the kraken is quite complicated. Pontoppidan did tentatively identify the kraken to be a sort of elephantine crab, stating that the alias krabben best describes its characteristics. [ 77 ] [ 68 ] [ p ] Medusa ‘s principal, or kraken ‘s young according to fishermen ‘s loreGorgonocephalus caputmedusae or Medusa's headGorgonocephalus caputmedusae (old name Astrophyton Linckii[80]), possibly
Linnaeus’s “Medusa’s head”? according to Lyman; native to the North Sea.[82] ( old identify ), possibly Linnaeus ‘s “ Medusa ‘s head ” ? according to Lyman ; native to the North Sea .Gorgonocephalus eucnemis, perhaps Shetland ArgusGorgonocephalus eucnemis.[83] “Shetland Argus”, according to caput medusa[e] also;[84][85] this a more far-ranging species.[85] “ Shetland Argus ”, according to Bell ; possibly Linnaeus’salso ; this a more far-ranging species. however, far down in his writing, compares the creature to some creature ( s ) from Pliny, Book IX, Ch. 4 : the sea-monster called arbor, with tree-branch like multiple arms, [ q ] complicated by the fact that Pontoppidan adds another of Pliny ‘s animal called rota with eight arms, and conflates them into one organism. [ 86 ] Pontoppidan is suggesting this is an ancient example of kraken, as a modern observer analyze. [ 88 ] Pontoppidan then declared the kraken to be a type of polypus ( =octopus ) [ 91 ] or “ starfish ”, particularly the kind Gesner called Stella Arborescens, later identifiable as one of the northerly ophiurids [ 92 ] or possibly more specifically as one of the Gorgonocephalids or even the genus Gorgonocephalus ( though no long regarded as family/genus under decree Ophiurida, but under Phrynophiurida in current taxonomy ). [ 96 ] [ 99 ] This ancient arbor ( admix rota and frankincense made eight-armed ) seems an octopus at first bloom but with extra data, the ophiurid starfish now appears bishop ‘s discriminatory choice. [ 101 ] The ophiurid starfish seems far fortified when he notes that “ starfish ” called “ Medusa ‘s heads ” ( caput medusæ ; pl. capita medusæ ) are considered to be “ the young of the great sea-krake ” by local lore. Pontoppidan ventured the ‘young krakens ‘ may rather be the eggs ( ova ) of the starfish. [ 102 ] Pontopiddan was satisfied that “ Medusa ‘s heads ” was the same as the foregoing starfish ( Stella arborensis of old ), [ 103 ] but “ Medusa ‘s heads ” were something found ashore aplenty across Norway according to von Bergen, who thought it absurd these could be young “ Kracken ” since that would mean the seas would be full moon of ( the adults ). The “ Medusa ‘s heads ” appear to be a Gorgonocephalid, with Gorgonocephalus spp. being tentatively suggested.[106][r] [ 110 ] [ 112 ] In the end though, Pontoppidan again appears ambivalent, stating “ Polype, or Star-fish [ belongs to ] the whole genus of Kors-Trold [ ‘cross troll ‘ ], .. some that are much larger, .. flush the identical largest.. of the ocean ”, and concluding that “ this Krake must be of the Polypus kind ”. [ 113 ] By “ this Krake ” hera, he apparently meant in particular the giant star polypus octopus of Carteia from Pliny, Book IX, Ch. 30 ( though he only used the general dub “ ozaena “ ‘stinkard ‘ for the octopus kind ). [ 114 ] [ s ] In 1802, the french malacologist Pierre Denys-Montfort recognized the being of two “ species ” of elephantine octopuses in Histoire Naturelle Générale et Particulière des Mollusques, an encyclopedic description of mollusks. [ 5 ] The “ colossal giant star ” was purportedly the lapp as Pliny ‘s “ monstrous polyp ”, [ 116 ] which was a man-killer which ripped aside ( latin : distrahit ) shipwrecked people and divers. [ 119 ] [ 120 ] Montfort accompanied his publication with an engraving representing the colossus octopus poised to destroy a three-masted ship. [ 5 ] [ 121 ]

Whereas the “ kraken octopus ”, was the most gigantic animal on the planet in the writer ‘s estimate, dwarfing Pliny ‘s “ colossal octopus ” / ” monstrous polyp ”, and identified here as the aforesaid Pliny ‘s giant, called the arbor marinus. [ 124 ] Montfort besides listed extra fantastic fauna as identifiable with the kraken. [ 125 ] There was Paullini ‘s monstrum marinum glossed as a ocean crab ( german : Seekrabbe ), [ 127 ] which a later biologist has suggested to be one of the Hyas spp. [ 128 ] It was besides described as resembling Gesner ‘s Cancer heracleoticus crab alleged to appear off the finnish coast. [ 127 ] von Bergen ‘s “ bellua marina omnium vastissima “ ( meaning ‘vastest-of-all sea-beast ‘ ), namely the trolwal ( ‘ogre whale ‘, ‘troll whale ‘ ) of Northern Europe, and the Teufelwal ( ‘devil giant ‘ ) of the Germans follow in the tilt .

Angola octopus, pictured in St. Malo [edit ]

It is in his chapter on the “ colossal octopus ” that Montfort provides the contemporaneous eyewitness exemplar of a group of sailors who encounter the giant off the coast of Angola, who subsequently deposited a pictorial commemoration of the event as a votive volunteer at St. Thomas ‘s chapel in Saint-Malo, France. [ 130 ] Based on that painting, Montfort drew a “ colossal octopus ” attacking a ship, and included the engrave in his ledger. [ 6 ] however, an english generator recapitulating Montfort ‘s account of it attaches an exemplification of it, which was captioned : “ The Kraken supposed a sepia or cuttlefish ”, while attributing Montfort. [ 131 ] Hamilton ‘s reserve was not alone in recontextualizing Montfort ‘s ship-assaulting colossal octopus as a kraken, for case, the assemble on the “ kraken ” by american english zoologist Packard. [ 132 ] The Frenchman Montfort used the disused scientific name Sepia octopodia but called it a pouple, which means “ octopus ” to this day ; meanwhile the english-speaking naturalists had developed the convention of calling the octopus “ eight-armed cuttle-fish ”, as did Packard [ 3 ] and Hamilton, [ 4 ] evening though contemporary speakers are probably unfamiliar with that name .

Warship Ville de Paris [edit ]

Having accepting as fact that a colossal octopus was capable of dragging a ship down, Montfort made a more avant-garde hypothesis. He attempted to blame colossal octopii for the loss of ten warships under british operate in 1782, including six appropriate french portuguese man-of-war. The disaster began with the distress sign fired by the capture transport of the production line Ville de Paris which was then swallowed up by parting waves, and the other ships coming to aid shared the same destine. He proposed, by action of elimination, that such an event could lone be accounted for as the work of many octopuses. [ 134 ] [ 136 ] But it has been pointed out the sinkings have merely been explained by the presence of a storm, [ 121 ] and Montfort ‘s involving octopuses as complicit has been characterized as “ foolhardy falsehood ”. [ 136 ] 200 foot octopus allegedly seen in 1813 Niagara sighting. 200 foot creature allegedly seen afloat in 1813, depicted as octopus by a naturalist Thesighting. 200 metrical foot animal allegedly seen afloat in 1813, depicted as octopus by a naturalist It has besides been noted that Montfort once quipped to a friend, DeFrance : “ If my entangle transport is accepted, I will make my ‘colossal poulpe ‘ overthrow a unharmed evanesce ”. [ 137 ] [ 3 ]

Niagara [edit ]

The ship Niagara on naturally from Lisbon to New York in 1813 logged a sight of a marine animal spotted afloat at sea. It was claimed to be 200 feet in length, covered in shells, and had many birds alighted upon it. Samuel Latham Mitchill reported this, and referencing Montfort ‘s kraken, reproduced an illustration of it as an octopus. [ 139 ]

Linnaeus ‘s microcosmus [edit ]

Sea-grapes, or cephalopod eggs The celebrated swedish eighteenth hundred naturalist Carl Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae ( 1735 ) described a fabulous genus Microcosmus a “ body covered with versatile heterogeneous [ other bits ] ” ( Latin : Corpus variis heterogeneis tectum ). [ 128 ] [ 140 ] [ 141 ] [ thymine ] Linnaeus cited four sources under Microcosmus, namely : [ u ] [ 128 ] [ 143 ] Thomas Bartholin ‘s cetus ( ≈whale ) type hafgufa ; [ 145 ] Paullin ‘s monstrum marinum aforementioned ; [ 127 ] and Francesco Redi ‘s giant tunicate ( Ascidia [ 128 ] ) in italian and Latin. [ 146 ] [ 147 ] According to the swedish zoologist Lovén, the coarse name kraken was added to the 6th edition of Systema Naturae ( 1748 ), [ 128 ] which was a latin translation augmented with swedish names [ 148 ] ( in blackletter ), but such swedish textbook is wanting on this especial entrance, e.g. in the imitate held by NCSU. [ 142 ] It is genuine that the 7th edition of 1748, which adds german slang names, [ 148 ] identifies the Microcosmus as “ sea-grape ” ( german : Meertrauben ), referring to a bunch of cephalopod eggs. [ 149 ] [ 150 ] [ volt ] [ west ] besides, the Frenchman Louis Figuier in 1860 misstated that Linnaeus included in his categorization a cephalopod called “ Sepia microcosmus “ [ adam ] in his first edition of Systema Naturae ( 1735 ). [ 154 ] Figuier ‘s mistake has been pointed out, and Linnaeus never represented the kraken as such a cephalopod. [ 155 ] Nevertheless, the error has been perpetuated by evening contemporary writers. [ 157 ]

Linnaeus in English [edit ]

Thomas Pennant, an Englishman, had written of Sepia octopodia as “ eight-armed cuttlefish ” ( we call it octopus nowadays ), and documented reported cases in the indian isles where specimen grow to 2 fathoms ( 3.7 molarity ) wide, “ and each arms 9 fathoms ( 16 thousand ) long ”. [ 3 ] [ 2 ] This was added as a species Sepia octopusa [ sic. ] by William Turton in his english adaptation of Linnaeus ‘s System of Nature, together with the score of the 9-fathom long armed octopuses. [ 3 ] [ 158 ] The chase stemming from Linnaeus, finally leading to such pieces on the kraken written in English by the naturalist James Wilson for the Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine in 1818 sparked an awareness of the kraken among nineteenth hundred English, therefore Tennyson ‘s poem, “ The Kraken ” .

iconography [edit ]

As to the iconography, Denys-Montfort ‘s engraving of the “ colossal octopus ” is much shown, though this differs from the kraken according to the french malacologist, and commentators are found characterizing the ship attack representing the “ kraken octopod ”. [ 3 ] [ 160 ] And after Denys-Monfort ‘s example, respective publishers produced alike illustrations depicting the kraken attacking a ship. [ 4 ] [ 159 ] Whereas the kraken was described by Egede as having “ many Heads and a Number of Claws ”, the creature is besides depicted to have spikes or horns, at least in illustrations of creatures which commentators have conjectured to be krakens. The “ bearded giant ” shown on an early map ( pictured above ) is conjectured to be a kraken possibly ( cf. §Olaus Magnus below ). besides, there was an alleged two-headed and horned giant that beached ashore in Dingle, Co. Kerry, Ireland, thought to be a colossus cephalopod, of which there was a picture/painting made by the finder. [ 161 ] He made a travel show of his oeuvre on canvas, as introduced in a book on the kraken .

Olaus Magnus [edit ]

Polypi depicted as lobster-likeGiant crustacean-looking sea-monster with a man in its pincers

Carta marina (1539), detail.

Monster “ M ”Giant lobster snatches man aboard ship, after Olaus Magnus.

—Lee, Henry (1884), p. 58, after Olaus Magnus (1555), Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus

giant lobster attacking embark .[163] “ Kraken is represented as a spiny lobster or Lobster ”St. Brendan's giant fish next to island, and the giant pisces encountered by St. Brendan. “ Insula Fortunata ” marked near it. While swedish writer Olaus Magnus did not use the term kraken, diverse sea-monsters were illustrated on his celebrated map, the Carta marina ( 1539 ). advanced writers have since tried to interpret respective sea creatures illustrated as a depiction of the kraken. Olaus gives description of a giant with two elongated teeth ( “ like a boar ‘s or elephant ‘s ivory ” ) to protect its huge eyes, which “ sprouts horns ”, and although these are a hard as horn, they can be made limber besides. [ 164 ] [ 28 ] But the horn class was named “ swine-whale ” ( german : Schweinwal ), and the horned class “ bearded whale ” ( german : Bart-wal ) by swiss naturalist Gesner, who observed it possessed a “ starry byssus ” around the upper berth and lower chew the fat. [ 165 ] [ 26 ] At least one writer has suggested this might represent the kraken of norwegian lore. [ 27 ] Another work commented less discerningly that Olaus ‘s function is “ satiate with imagination of krakens and other monsters ”. [ 15 ] Ashton ‘s Curious Creatures ( 1890 ) drew significantly from Olaus ‘s work [ 166 ] and even quoted the Swede ‘s description of the horned giant. But he identified the kraken as a cephalopod and devoted much space on Pliny ‘s and Olaus ‘s descriptions of the giant “ polyp ”, noting that Olaus had represented the kraken-polypus a crayfish or lobster in his illustrations, and reproducing the images from both Olaus ‘s bible [ 164 ] [ 28 ] and his map. [ 172 ] In Olaus script, the giant lobster example is uncaptioned, but appears right above the words “ De Polypis ( on the octopus ) ”, which is the chapter head. [ 164 ] Hery Lee was besides of the public opinion that the multi-legged lobster was a falsification of a reported cephalopod attack on a ship. [ 173 ] The legend in Olaus ‘s map fails to clarify on the lobster-like giant “ M ”, [ y ] depicted off the island of Iona. [ z ] [ 175 ] however, the associated write called the Auslegung adds that this section of the map extends from Ireland to the “ Insula Fortunata ”. [ 176 ] [ alcoholics anonymous ]

Giant squid [edit ]

The man of squid recovered by the french ship Alecton in 1861, discussed by Henry Lee in his chapter on the “ Kraken ”, would former be identified as a giant squid, Architeuthis by A. E. Verrill. After a specimen of the giant squid, Architeuthis, was discovered by Rev. Moses Harvey and published in skill by Professor A. E. Verrill, commentators have remarked on this cephalopod as possibly explaining the legendary kraken. [ 182 ] [ 183 ] An ancient, giant star cephalopod resembling the fabled kraken has been proposed as responsible for the deaths of ichthyosaurs during the Triassic Period. [ 184 ]

literary influences [edit ]

The french novelist Victor Hugo ‘s Les Travailleurs de la mer ( 1866, “ Toilers of the Sea “ ) discusses the man-eating octopus, the kraken of caption, called pieuvre by the locals of the Channel Islands ( in the Guernsey dialect, etc. ). [ 185 ] [ 186 ] [ ab ] Hugo ‘s octopus late influenced Jules Verne ‘s delineation of the kraken in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, [ 188 ] though Verne besides drew on the real-life run into the french ship Alecton had with what was probably a elephantine squid. It has been noted that Verne randomly interchanged kraken with calmar ( squid ) and poulpe ( octopus ). [ 190 ] In the english-speaking world, examples in all right literature are Alfred Tennyson ‘s 1830 irregular sonnet The Kraken, [ 191 ] references in Herman Melville ‘s 1851 novel Moby-Dick ( Chapter 59 “ Squid ” ), [ 192 ]

In popular culture [edit ]

Although fictional and the subject of myth, the legend of the Kraken continues to the present day, with numerous references in film, literature, television, and other democratic culture topics. [ 193 ] The fresh The Kraken Wakes ( 1953 ), the Kraken of Marvel Comics, the 1981 movie Clash of the Titans and its 2010 remake of the same name, and the Seattle Kraken master frosting field hockey team. Krakens besides appear in television games such as Sea of Thieves, God of War II and Return of the Obra Dinn. The kraken was besides featured in two of the Pirates of the Caribbean movies, chiefly in the 2006 film, Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man’s Chest, as the pet of the awful Davy Jones, the independent antagonist of the film. The kraken besides makes an appearance in the film ‘s sequel, At World’s End .

See besides [edit ]

explanatory notes [edit ]

References [edit ]

Citations [edit ]

bibliography [edit ]

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